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AAIA?AOEss IANAEAIEss — iniaay aaoaue yeii. aaia?aoee, eco/athuay ninoaa
e ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey e ianae?iiuo ioieoia. A. i. ?anniao?eaaao
oi?ie?iaaiea ianaeaiey ia ?acee/iuo o/anoeao oa??eoi?ee, aai nia?.
no?oeoo?o e ieioiinoue, eiie?aoiua naonoee (ai?iaea e nae. iinaeaiey) e
oneiaey, ii?aaeaeeaoea eiaiii aeaiiua oi?iu ?annaeaiey. A. i. enoiaeeo
ec iaueo caeiiia ?acaeoey ia-aa e, a naith i/a?aaeue, enneaaeoao
niaoeeoe/. caeiiiia?iinoe, ii?aaeaeythuea iniaaiiinoe ianaeaiey e aai
oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?aciauaiea. Iniaia ianoi A. i. a yeii. aaia?aoee
ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi ianaeaiea naycaii ni anaie io?aneyie o-aa, e aai
?aciauaiea eiaao iiyoiio aei iae-?ie noaiaie neioaoe/.,
iauayeiiiieei-aaia?. cia/aiea. Ianaeaiea aunooiaao iaeiia?aiaiii e eae
i?iecaiaeeoaeue iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, e eae eo iio?aaeoaeue. Iiyoiio a
e?oa eioa?ania A. i. aoiaeyo oaeaea iiiaea yaeaiey, ia ioiineiua
iaiin?aaenoaaiii e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a, ii nouanoaaiiua n oi/ee
c?aiey aini?iecaiaenoaa naiiai ianaeaiey. Nthaea aea ioiinyony e
iaoa?eaeueiua oi?iu iaeoaiey — oeiu aeeeeu, eiaeaia?iia iai?oaeiaaiea
ianae?iiuo ioieoia e o. i. ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey eae ii no?aia, oae e
aioo?e a? ?-iia a iniiaa naiae ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?ii e aaia?aoeae
i?iec-aa. A /anoiinoe, ethaeiinoue ioae. i. i. iau/ii naycaia n
auiieiyaiuie eie ia?.-oic. ooieoeeyie, ieioiinoue ianaeaiey oeaeuo ?-iia
io?aaeaao noaiaiue eo oic. ?acaeoey. I?e yoii, iaeiaei, neiaeeaoaany
?aciauaiea ianaeaiey, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeao ieacuaaoue ia?aoiia
aeeyiea ia aaia?aoeth i?iec-aa. A i?aeoe/. caaea/e A. i. i?e ieaiiaii
nioeeaeenoe/. o-aa aoiaeyo eiee/anoa, e ea/anoa, ioeaiea o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia no?aiu a oeaeii e a? ?-iia e iouneaiea oaeeo oi?i ?annaeaiey,
e-?ua iaeaieaa ioaa/atho o?aaiaaieyi ?acaeoey i?iec-aa, a oaeaea auoiaui
e eoeueoo?iui iio?aaiinoyi naiiai ianaeaiey. I?e?iaeiay n?aaea aeeyao ia
?annaeaiea /a?ac i?iecaiaenoai; aianoa n oai i?e aiaeeca ?aciauaiey e
iaoa?eaeueiuo oi?i ioae. ianae, ioieoia o/eouaathony oaeaea aeeyiea
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu eae niioaaonoaea ?aeueaoa oao. o?aaiaaieyi no?-aa,
iaee/ea oaeiaiuo «ieiuaaeie» e iaiaoiaeeiuo i?e?iaeii-eiaeaia?iuo
i?aaeiinueie aeey aiaeiniaaaeaiey e ae?. iiiaioia aeaaiono?ienoaa e o.
aa.

Aioo?e A. i. a NNN? i?aeoe/anee oaea neiaeeeenue e oniaoii
?ac?aaaouaathony neaae. ae. iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiey:

1. Aaia?aoe/. oa?aeoa?enoeee ianaeaiey ie?a, ioae. no?ai e ?-iia (a
oeaeii), eaeouea ii o??i ini. eeieyi: a) /eneaiiinoue e ninoaa ianaeaiey
(nioeeaeueii-eeanniaue, i?ioanneiiaeueiue, yoie/aneee e o. i.); a) aai
?aciauaiea (ieioiinoue, niioiioaiea ai?. e nae. ianaeaiey, i?aiaeaaeaiea
a ?aciuo ianoiinoyo oao eee eiuo oi?i ?annaeaiey) e a) aai aeaeaeaiea
(anoanoaaiiia e iaoaie/., o. a. iea?aoeee, iauea aaia?a-oe/. naeaeae e
o. i. eciaiaiey). I?e ?ac?aaioea iiaeiaiuo aii?inia A. i. i?eoiaeeony a
aieueoie ia?a iie?aoueny ia aeaiiua aeaiia?aoee.

2. Aaia?aoey ai?iaeia e ai?. iinaeaiee.

3. Aaia?aoey naeueneeo iinaeaiee. Aaaeiie iao/iie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony
eeanneoeeaoeey e oeiieiaey ianae, ioieoia. Ia?enenoneay A. i. n/eoaao
aaaeoueie aeey oaeie eeanneoeeaoeee i?ieca. i?eciaee — ia?.-oic.
ooieoeee, nin?aaeioi/aiiua a ianae, ioieoao, ii ia io?eoeaao cia/aiey e
ae?. i?eciaeia — ethaeiinoe e iaoa?eaeueiuo oi?i, aaia?. iieiaeaiey,
aaiacena iinaeaiee. Eiie?aoiua enneaaeiaaiey ii aaia?aoee o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia oanii nii?eeanathony n ?aaioaie yeiiiienoia ii eco/aieth
aaeainia o?oaea, ii aaia?. eco/aieth ai?iaeia — n ?aaioaie
a?aaeino?ieoaeae ii ieaie?iaea eee ?aeiiiie ieaie?iaea, aaia?.
enneaaeiaaiey ii eco/aieth nae. ?annaeaiey — n oa??. i?aaiecaoeeae
eieoicia e niaoicia i o. i.

4. Enoi?e/aneay A. i. E A. i. oanii i?eiueatho e ia?aaeei ia?aieaoathony
n iath ?aaiou ii yoiia?aoee. Aniiiiaaoaeueiia, ii aanueia aaaeiia
cia/aiea eiaao ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia ninoaaeaiey ea?o ianaeaiey.

A no?aiao ia?. aeaiie?aoee A. i. ?ac?aaaouaaaony ia oao aea oai?aoe/.
iniiaao, /oi e a NNN?; i?e yoii i?aneaaeothony e noiaeiua i?aeoe/.
caaea/e.

A ao?ae. eeo-?a aii?inu A. i. iau/ii ?ac?aaaouaathony n iiceoeee
aaia?aoe/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia, eeai n iiceoeee yeieiaee, e-?ay i?eiaiyao
e nioeeaeueii-yeii. ioiioaieyi aiaeiaeth n ioiioaieyie, nouanoaothueie a
?ano. e aeeaioiuo niiauanoaao. *anoue ao?ae. A. i. iaoiaeeony iiae
aeeyieai eaeaiao/iuo eiioeaioeee iaeueooceainoaa, ?anecia e o. ae.
Neiaeeeenue ?ace. ao?ae. oeieu A. i.— a ?aieao aio?iiiaaia?a-oee,
o?aioe. oeieu aaia?aoee /aeiaaea e ae?. A eco/aiee iinaeaiee
i?aiaeaaeatho eee enneaaeiaaiey eo iaoa?eaeueiuo oi?i e /anoiuo aii?inia
«ia?aca aeecie» ethaeae (oeiu aeeeeu, o?aaeeoeeiiiua aeaoaee auoa e o.
ae.), eee aea o?aeoiaea ianae, ioieoia eeoue eae «oeaio?aeueiuo iano»
oi?aiaee e ianeoaeeaaiey, a oua?a i?ieca. eo iiieiaieth. Oai ia iaiaa
cia/eo, ?acaeoea A. i. a eaieoaeenoe/. no?aiao i?eaaei e iaeiieaieth
aieueoiai oaeoe/. iaoa?eaea, o?aaothuaai e?eoe/. inaiaiey. A iae-?uo
ao?ae. ?aaioao ii A. i. niaea?aeaony ?aoeeiiaeueiua c??ia, eiaaony, a
/anoiinoe, ecaanoiue iiuo ni/aoaiey ?aaio ii A. i. n ?aaioaie a iaeanoe
ieaie?iaee. Iiyaeythony e ioaeaeueiua ?aaiou, iaienaiiua n i?ia?anneaiuo
iiceoeee. Iaeiaei iineieueeo A. i. eanaaony iaeaieaa ino?uo nioeeaeueiuo
aii?inia yeii. aaia?aoee, a oaiaeaioeeiciii inaauaiee e-?uo i?yii
caeioa?aniaaiu eaeaieiae eaieoaeecia, i?ia?anneaiui o/?iui eaieoaeenoe/.
no?ai a yoie iaeanoe aaia?aoee iniaaiii o?oaeii i?iaiaeeoue naie eaeae.

Aaia?aoey ianaeaiey ie?a

*eneaiiinoue e aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey. Aaia?aoey ianaeaiey eco/aao
/eneaiiinoue, no?oeoo?o e ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey, ?anniao?eaaaiiai a
i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa e acaeiiaeaenoaey n
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeie. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a aaia?aoee
ianaeaiey i?ineaaeeaaaony aeaa iai?aaeaiey. Ia?aia –
aaiaeaiia?aoe/aneia, eioi?ia eco/aao /eneaiiinoue e no?oeoo?o ianaeaiey,
aeaaiua aeaiia?aoe/aneea iieacaoaee (nia?oiinoue, ?iaeaeaaiinoue,
n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie) e aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey,
aeaiia?aoe/aneoth neooaoeeth e aeaiia?aoe/aneoth iieeoeeo a ie?a,
ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao e no?aiao. Aoi?ia – nianoaaiii aaia?aoe/aneia,
eioi?ia eco/aao iauoth aaia?aoe/aneoth ea?oeio ?aciauaiey ianaeaiey a
ie?a, ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao e no?aiao, e a iniaaiiinoe aaia?aoeth
?annaeaiey e ianaeaiiuo iano. Ia yoii iai?aaeaiee iaeaieueoaa ?acaeoea
iieo/eea aaio?aaienoeea.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ?inea
i/aiue iaaeeaiii. Onei?aiea ?inoa /eneaiiinoe ianooieei a ia?eiae iiaie
enoi?ee, iniaaiii a XX a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aiaeiaie i?e?ino ianaeaiey
ninoaaeyao ieiei 90 iei. /aeiaae. Ia eiiaoe 90-o aa. /eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey ie?a ninoaaeyea 6 ie?ae. /aeiaae. Ii a ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiao ie?a
ianaeaiea ?anoao ia?aaiiia?ii. Yoi iauyniyaony ?acee/iui oa?aeoa?ii
aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey.

Iiae aini?iecaiaenoaii ianaeaiey iiieiatho niaieoiiinoue i?ioeannia
?iaeaeaaiinoe, nia?oiinoe e anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa, eioi?ua
iaania/eaatho aani?a?uaiia aiciaiiaeaiea e niaio ethaeneeo iieieaiee. Ia
aini?iecaiaenoai ieacuaatho aeeyiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey
aeecie ethaeae, acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie e ioiioaiey a naiuea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy auaeaeytho aeaa oeia aini?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey ia?aiai
oeia oa?aeoa?iu ioiineoaeueii iaaunieea iieacaoaee ?iaeaeaaiinoe,
nia?oiinoe e anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa. Oa?aeoa?ai yoio oei aeey
yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai, aaea anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino eee i/aiue
ieceee, eee i?aiaeaaeaao anoanoaaiiay oaueue ianaeaiey. Aeaiia?aou
iacuaatho yoi yaeaiea aeaiiioeyoeeae (aeaiia?aoe/aneei e?ecenii). Aoi?ie
oei aini?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieeie iieacaoaeyie ?iaeaeaaiinoe
e anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey. Yoio oei oa?aeoa?ai aeey
?acaeaathueony no?ai, aaea caaiaaaiea iacaaeneiinoe i?eaaei e ?aceiio
nie?auaieth nia?oiinoe, a ?iaeaeaaiinoue inoaeanue ia i?aaeiai o?iaia.

A eiioea XX a. naiue aunieee iieacaoaeue ?iaeaeaaiinoe e anoanoaaiiiai
i?e?inoa iaaethaeaeny a Eaiee, aaea ?iaeaeaaiinoue ninoaaeea 54 /aeiaaea
ia eaaeaeoth ouny/o, a anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino – 44 /aeiaaea. Oaeie oaiiiai
auno?iai ?inoa ianaeaiey a no?aiao aoi?iai oeia aini?iecaiaenoaa
iacuaatho aeaiia?aoe/aneei ac?uaii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia oaeea no?aiu
i?eoiaeeony aieaa 3/4 ianaeaiey ie?a. Aaniethoiue aiaeiaie i?e?ino
ninoaaeyao 85 iei. /aeiaae, o.a. ?acaeaathueany no?aiu oaea ieacuaatho e
aoaeoo ieacuaaoue ?aoathuaa aicaeaenoaea ia /eneaiiinoue e
aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey ie?a. A yoeo oneiaeyo aieueoeinoai no?ai
no?aieony oi?aaeyoue aini?iecaiaenoaii ianaeaiey, i?iaiaey
aeaiia?aoe/aneoth iieeoeeo. Aeaiia?aoe/aneay iieeoeea – yoi nenoaia
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo, i?iiaaaiaeenoneeo e ae?oaeo
ia?ii?eyoee, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ainoaea?noai aicaeaenoaoao ia
anoanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea ianaeaiey a aeaeaoaeueiuo aeey naay
iai?aaeaieyo.

A no?aiao ia?aiai oeia aini?iecaiaenoaa aeaiia?aoe/aneay iieeoeea
iai?aaeaia ia oaaee/aiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe e anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa (no?aiu
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, ?inney e ae?.); a no?aiao aoi?iai oeia
aini?iecaiaenoaa – ia nie?auaiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe e anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa
(Eiaeey, Eeoae e ae?.).

Aaaeiie iao/iie iniiaie i?iaaaeaiey aeaiia?aoe/aneie iieeoeee neoaeeo
oai?ey aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ia?aoiaea, eioi?ay iauyniyao
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue niaiu aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia. Noaia oaeiai
ia?aoiaea aeeth/aao /aou?a niaiythuea ae?oa ae?oaa yoaia. Ia?aue yoai
ioaaoee ii/oe anth enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa. Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?iu aunieea
iieacaoaee ?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe e, niioaaonoaaiii, i/aiue ieceee
anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino. Aoi?ie yoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?aceei nie?auaieai
nia?oiinoe i?e nio?aiaiee o?aaeeoeeiiii aunieie ?iaeaeaaiinoe. Aeey
o?aoueaai yoaia oa?aeoa?ii nio?aiaiea ieceeo iieacaoaeae nia?oiinoe, a
?iaeaeaaiinoue ia/eiaao nieaeaoueny, ii ianeieueei i?aauoaao
nia?oiinoue, iaania/eaay oia?aiiia ?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai e ?ino
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey. I?e ia?aoiaea e /aoaa?oiio yoaio iieacaoaee
?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe niaiaaeatho. Yoi icia/aao ia?aoiae e
noaaeeecaoeee /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a iaoea e i?aeoeea ana aieueoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho
iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ea/anoai ianaeaiey. Yoi eiiieaeniia
iiiyoea, o/eouaathuaa yeiiiie/aneea (caiyoinoue, aeioiae, eaei?eeiinoue
ieoaiey), nioeeaeueiua (o?iaaiue cae?aaiio?aiaiey, aaciianiinoe
a?aaeaeai, ?acaeoea aeaiie?aoe/aneeo einoeoooia), eoeueoo?iua (o?iaaiue
a?aiioiinoe, iaania/aiiinoe eoeueoo?iuie o/?aaeaeaieyie, ia/aoiie
i?iaeoeoeeae), yeieiae/aneea (ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu) e ae?oaea
oneiaey aeecie ethaeae.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiaeoeo iaiauathueo iieacaoaeae ninoiyiey caei?iauey oie
eee eiie iaoeee neoaeeo iieacaoaeue n?aaeiae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
aeecie. A eiioea XX a. yoio iieacaoaeue a n?aaeiai aeey anaai ie?a
ninoaaeye 66 eao (63 aiaea aeey ioae/ei e 68 eao aeey aeaiuei). Aua
iaeei aaaeiue iieacaoaeue ea/anoaa aeecie ianaeaiey – yoi o?iaaiue
a?aiioiinoe.

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey

Ianaeaiea ?acaeaeytho ii ianeieueeei eaoaai?eyi.

1. Ii iieiaiio ninoaao ianaeaiey no?aiu aeaeyo ia o?e a?oiiu. Ia?aay
a?oiia no?ai, aaea /eneaiiinoue ioae/ei e aeaiuei iaeeiaeiaa (no?aiu
Ao?eee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee). Aoi?ay a?oiia no?ai, aaea /eneaiiinoue
aeaiuei i?aauoaao /eneaiiinoue ioaeneiai ianaeaiey (ioiinyony aieaa
iieiaeiu no?ai ie?a, iniaaiii no?aiu Naaa?iie Aia?eee). Yoi iauyniyaony
aeaoiy i?e/eiaie: aieueoae n?aaeiae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth aeecie
aeaiuei e iioa?ae ioaeneiai ianaeaiey a ia?eiaeu ia?aie e aoi?ie ie?iauo
aiei. O?aouey a?oiia – aaea /eneaiiinoue ioae/ei i?aiaeaaeaao iaae
/eneaiiinoueth aeaiuei (no?aiu Acee, Eiaeey, Eeoae).

2. Ii aic?anoiiio ninoaao. Aic?ano yaeyaony aeaaiui e?eoa?eai i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee iniiaiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie /anoe ianaeaiey – o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia. I noaiaie eo aiaea/aiey a i?iecaiaenoai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey. Oeiu aic?anoiiai ninoaaa
niioaaonoaotho oeiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey no?ai ia?aiai oeia
aini?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ia ieceay aeiey ethaeae aeaoneeo aic?anoia e
aunieay aeiey ethaeae iiaeeeuo aic?anoia. A Aa?iia aeaoe aei 14 eao
ninoaaeytho 24%, ethaee a aic?anoa 15-59 eao – ieiei 59%, iiaeeeua –
ieiei 17%. Oaeay no?oeoo?a iacuaaaony noa?aieai iaoeee. Aeey no?ai
aoi?iai oeia aini?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ia aunieay aeiey aeaoneeo
aic?anoia e ieceay aeiey iiaeeeuo. Iai?eia?, a no?aiao Ao?eee aeaoe aei
14 eao ninoaaeytho 44%, iiaeeeua – 5%. Oaeoth no?oeoo?o ianaeaiey
iacuaatho iiieiaeaieai iaoeee.

3. Yoiieeiaaenoe/aneee ninoaa. Anaai a ie?a ian/eouaaaony 3-4 oun.
ia?iaeia, eee yoiinia. Yoiinaie iacuaatho neiaeeaoeany, onoie/eaua
iauiinoe ethaeae. Eeanneoeeaoeeth yoiinia i?iaiaeyo ii eo /eneaiiinoe.
Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ia?iaeia iaei/eneaiii. Ia?iaeia,
ian/eouaathueo aieaa 1 iei. /aeiaae a ie?a, ieiei 310, ii iie
ninoaaeytho 96% ianaeaiey ie?a. Aieaa 100 iei. /aeiaae ian/eouaatho 7
ia?iaeia: eeoaeoeu, oeiaeieiaeonoaioeu, aia?eeaioeu NOA, ?onneea,
a?aceeueoeu, yiiioeu e aaiaaeueoeu. A no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey auaeaeytho
oaeaea ycueiaoth e eeiaaenoe/aneoth eeanneoeeaoeeth. Yoa eeanneoeeaoeey
iicaieyao iauaaeeiyoue ia?iaeu a ycueiaua a?oiiu n ?iaenoaaiiuie
ycueaie. Naiay aieueoay ycueiaay naiuey – eiaeiaa?iiaeneay. Ia ycueao
yoie naiuee aiai?yo aieaa 150 ia?iaeia ie?a, iauae /eneaiiinoueth 2,5
ie?ae. /aeiaae. Nauoa 1 ie?ae. /aeiaae aiai?yo ia ycuea
eeoaenei-oeaaoneie ycueiaie naiuee. A caaeneiinoe io oiai, ianeieueei
iaoeeiiaeueiua a?aieoeu niaiaaeatho n iieeoe/aneeie, aicieeatho
iaeiiiaoeeiiaeueiua ainoaea?noaa (Caiaaeiay Aa?iia, Eaoeineay Aia?eea) e
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiua ainoaea?noaa (Eiaeey, ?inney).

4. Ii ?aeeaeiciiio ninoaao auaeaeytho o?e ie?iaua ?aeeaee: o?enoeainoai
(eniiaaaeotho ieiei 1 ie?ae. /aeiaae), eneai, eee ionoeueiainoai (ieiei
800 iei. /aeiaae), e aoaeaeeci (ieiei 200 iei. /aeiaae). A iineaaeiaa
a?aiy auaeaeytho a ioaeaeueiua ?aeeaee eiaeoeci (Eiaeey) e neioieci
(ssiiiey).

5. Ii o?iaith ia?aciaaiey ianaeaiey auaeaeytho no?aiu n aunieei o?iaiai
ia?aciaaiey e no?aiu n ieceei o?iaiai ia?aciaaiey. Ia ia/aei 90-o aa. XX
a. 27% ianaeaiey ie?a ioiineeinue e iaa?aiioiui. Ec yoiai eiee/anoaa 4%
i?eoiaeeony ia ?acaeoua no?aiu, a 96% – ia ?acaeaathueany. O?iaaiue
ia?aciaaiey ieacuaaao ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ea/anoai aeecie ianaeaiey.

?aciauaiea e iea?aoeey ianaeaiey

Ia caiiii oa?a ianaeaiea ?aciauaaony ia?aaiiia?ii. Ieiei 70% ianaeaiey
i?iaeeaaao ia 7% oa??eoi?ee caiiie nooe. Ieiei iieiaeiu anae iaeoaaiie
nooe eiaao n?aaeithth ieioiinoue ianaeaiey iaiaa 5 /ae. ia ei2; 15%
oa??eoi?ee nooe – yoi iaeanoe niaa?oaiii ia inaiaiiua ethaeueie. Ia
?aciauaiea ianaeaiey ieacuaatho aeeyiea ianeieueei oaeoi?ia: yoi
i?e?iaeiua oneiaey, caiyoinoue a naeueneii oicyenoaa e oyaioaiea e
o?ainii?oiui e oi?aiaui iooyi.

A ie?a iaaethaeaaony iinoiyiiue i?ioeann ia?aiauaiey ianaeaiey, eee
iea?aoeey. Iia iiaeao auoue aioo?aiiae eee aiaoiae. Aiaoiyy iea?aoeey
aicieeea a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe e aei na?aaeeiu 20-o aa. XX a. aeaaiuie
i/aaaie ie?iaie iea?aoeee auee Aa?iia e Acey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i/aaaie
iea?aoeee noaee NOA, Eaoeineay Aia?eea e Aano?aeey. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
XX a. iiyaeeanue iiaay oi?ia ie?iaie iea?aoeee «ooa/ea oiia». Iniaaiii
io?eoeaoaeueii «ooa/ea oiia» neacuaaaony ia ?acaeaathueony no?aiao.

Aioo?aiiyy iea?aoeey – yoi ia?aiauaiea ianaeaiey ec naeueneie ianoiinoe
a ai?iaea, eieiiecaoeey e inaiaiea iiauo caiaeue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony aaia?aoeae
ai?iaeia. I?e ioeaiea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey o/eouaatho o?iaaiue
o?aaiecaoeee e oaiiu o?aaiecaoeee. O?aaiecaoeey – yoi ?ino ai?iaeia e
iiauoaiea oaeaeueiiai aana ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, a oaeaea aicieeiiaaiea
neiaeiuo naoae e nenoai ai?iaeia.

I?ioeann o?aaiecaoeee eco/aao ioaeaeueiay aaoaue aaia?aoee ianaeaiey –
aaio?aaienoeea. Iia ?anniao?eaaao iniiaiua enoi?e/aneea yoaiu ?acaeoey
ai?iaeia, aeaaiua iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiiai i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee,
aaia?aoe/aneea aniaeou o?aaiecaoeee e ?acaeoea e?oiiuo o?aaiece?iaaiiuo
cii ie?a, naoe e nenoaiu ai?iaeia, iniiau i?iaeoe?iaaiey ai?iaeia e
a?aaeinoieoaeuenoaa.

Nia?aiaiiay o?aaiecaoeey oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?aiy /a?oaie:

– auno?uie oaiiaie ?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey;

– eiioeaio?aoeeae ianaeaiey e oicyenoaa a aieueoeo ai?iaeao;

– «?aniiecaieai» ai?iaeia e ?anoe?aieai eo oa??eoi?ee.

Ii o?iaith o?aaiecaoeee no?aiu aeaeyony ia o?e a?oiiu. Ia?aay a?oiia –
aunieio?aaiece?iaaiiua no?aiu, aaea aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey
ninoaaeyao aieaa 50% (?inney, Eaiaaea, NOA e ae?.). Aoi?ay a?oiia –
n?aaeiao?aaiece?iaaiiua no?aiu, aaea aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey
ninoaaeyao 25-50%. O?aouey a?oiia – ieceio?aaiece?iaaiiua no?aiu, aaea
aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey iaiaa 25%.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao auaeaeytho oaeia yaeaiea,
eae «ai?iaeneie ac?ua». Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea auno?i ?anoao, a a yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?aiao
iaiai?io ia/eiaao nieaeaoueny.

O?aaiecaoeey ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. N ?inoii
o?aaiecaoeee naycaii 3/4 iauaai iauaia caa?yciaiee. Iiyoiio
ioeoeeaeueiua i?aaiu e iauanoaaiiinoue nioeeaeueii ?acaeouo no?ai
i?eieiaao ?acee/iua ia?u ii io?aia e oeo/oaieth ai?iaeneie n?aaeu.

Caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciauaiey ianaeaiey

Acaeyioa ia ie?iaoth ea?oo ieioiinoe ianaeaiey ec oeieueiiai aoeana,
aeaaea iaei ciaeiiue n aaia?aoeae /aeiaae iiaeao naeaeaoue iaeiicia/iue
auaiae, /oi ianaeaiea ?aciauaii ia?aaiiia?ii.

Ianiio?y ia eaaeouothny oaioe/iinoue ?aciauaiey ianaeaiey, nouanoaotho
aeanoeea caeiiiia?iinoe, iaoneiaeaiiua eae i?e?iaeiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie,
oae e o?iaiai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey oa??eoi?ee.
Enoi?e/anee ia?aua a?aaeu n aunieie ieioiinoueth ianaeaiey ?aciauaeenue
a ?aeiiao n iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuie aa?ieeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie: oaieui
eeeiaoii, aeeeoaeueiui aaaaoaoeeiiiui ia?eiaeii, ieiaei?iaeiuie ii/aaie,
aeinoaoi/iui ?aaeeiii oaeaaeiaiey eee aiciiaeiinoyie aeey eneonnoaaiiiai
i?ioaiey. A ieiaei?iaeiuo aeieeiao “aaeeeeo enoi?e/aneeo ?ae” ssioecu e
Ooaioy, Iaaeaeo?a/uey Oea?a e Aao?aoa, ieaeiai oa/aiee Ieea (caieaaeaeea
caeanue aaaeaony ieiei 10 oun.eao), a iacenao ionouiue aea?eiai iiyna e
ieiaei?iaeiuo iaaeai?iuo aeieeiao nouanoaiaaee ?acaeoua /aeiaa/aneea
oeeaeeecaoeee. Aei neo ii? – yoi ?aeiiu iaeneiaeueii aunieie ieioiinoe
ianaeaiey. E?iia oiai, aunieay ieioiinoue ianaeaiey ioia/aaony ia
oa??eoi?eyo n aiaaouie aa?ieeeiaoe/aneeie ?ano?naie e i?aeiouanoaaiii
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie niaoeeaeecaoeeae yeiiiieee (Iieaeaaey, i.ssaa,
a?aaioeineay Iaiia, aoeeaie/aneea ieaoi Ainoi/iie Ao?eee e ae?.).

Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea e oa?aeoa? ?aeueaoa iaoneiaeee nin?aaeioi/aiea
ianaeaiey a i?eii?neeo e i?eieaaie/aneeo ?aeiiao (oae, a 200- ei
i?ea?aaeiie iieina nin?aaeioi/aii ieiei 53% anaai ianaeaiey ie?a, a a
50-ei – ieiei 30%) e ia ?aaieiao e aicauoaiiinoyo aei 500 i iaae o?iaiai
ii?y (caeanue i?iaeeaaao 4/5 ianaeaiey ie?a).

Ioiineoaeueii aunieay ieioiinoue ianaeaiey ia ieaaie/aneeo iiaa?aaeueyo
Aia?eee e Ao?eee naycaia oaeaea n iniaaiiinoyie aa?iiaeneie
eieiiecaoeee.

A 17-20 aa. iiyaeaiea a?aaeia n aunieie ieioiinoueth ianaeaiey naycaii n
?acaeoeai i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ethaee eiioeaio?e?iaaeinue a ?aeiiao, aaea
auei iaeaieaa oaea/iia ni/aoaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia – eaiaiiiai oaey e
aeaeaciie ?oaeu, iaania/eaaaoeo nicaeaiea iiauo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
– /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee e iaoeiino?iaiey. Aei neo ii? a oaia?ue oaea oae
iacuaaaiuo “noa?uo” i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiao Aa?iiu (?o?a, Yeuecana e
Eioa?eiaee, Aeiiaanna, O?aea), Aia?eee (Ieoonao?aneie Iaineeueaaiee)
iaaethaeaaony aieaa aunieay, ii n?aaiaieth n ninaaeieie ?aeiiaie,
ieioiinoue ianaeaiey.

Ieceay ieioiinoue ianaeaiey oa?aeoa?ia, eae i?aaeei, aeey ?aeiiia n
yeno?aiaeueiuie i?e?iaeiuie oneiaeyie. Oae, iniiaiui oaeoi?ii,
i?aiyonoaothuei eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey a a?eaeiuo ?aeiiao yaeyaony
iaaeinoaoi/iia oaeaaeiaiea, a oee?eoiiiey?iuo iaeanoyo e aunieiai?ueyo –
ieceea n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiia?aoo?u, a ciia iinoiyiii aeaaeiuo
o?iie/aneeo eania – neiaeiinoe oicyenoaaiiiai inaiaiey ec-ca aieueoie
aeaaeiinoe, ieceiai anoanoaaiiiai ieiaei?iaeey e auno?i
?ani?ino?aiythuaeny y?icee ii/a. Nouanoaothuea a yoeo ?aeiiao
o?aaeeoeeiiiua niiniau aaaeaiey oicyenoaa o?aaotho aieueoeo oa??eoi?ee
(oae, iaeii oicyenoai, i?aeoeeothuaa iiaena/ii-iaiaaia caieaaeaeey
caieiaao ieiuaaeue ieiei 7 aa). Iiaia oicyenoaaiiia inaiaiea,
nii?iaiaeaeathuaany ?inoii ieioiinoe ianaeaiey, aaaeao e ia?ooaieth
o?oieeo yeieiae/aneeo nenoai e eo auno?ie aeaa?aaeaoeee.

Aunieay ieioiinoue ianaeaiey a oaea inaiaiiuo ?aeiiao “auoaeeeaaao”
ianaeaiea a ae?oaea i?e?iaeiua ciiu, /oi ca/anooth aaaeao e iaaaoeaiui
iineaaenoaeyi eae yeieiae/aneiai, oae e iieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.
Ai-ia?auo, aiiaue i?eauaoea iea?aiou ia eiatho iaaueia “naa?aaathuaai”
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia a iiauo ?aeiiao, ai-aoi?uo, oneeeaaaony ai?ueaa
ca ?ano?nu, i?eaiaeyuay e eieaeueiui eiioeeeoai. Oae, iinoiyiii ?anoouay
ieioiinoue ianaeaiey a caieaaeaeue/aneeo ?aeiiao ia iaai?ueyo Ainoi/iie
Ao?eee i?eaiaeeo e aaaaeaieth a naeueneioicyenoaaiiue iai?io
ia?aeiaeueiuo oa??eoi?ee ia ie?aeia iaai?ee, eioi?ua oae aea
eniieuecothony neioiaiaeaie-ei/aaieeaie. Yoa ai?ueaa ca ?ano?nu /anoi
aueeaaaony a e?iaii?ieeoiua eiioeeeou.

Eiieo?aioeey ca ia?aie/aiiua ?ano?nu, iai?eia? ca noie Ieea, ?acai?aaony
oaea ia iaaeainoaea?noaaiiii o?iaia. No?aiu, ?aniieiaeaiiua a aa?oiai
oa/aiee, ieaie?otho ?acaeaaoue i?ioaaiia caieaaeaeea e o?aaotho, /oi au
Aaeiao – ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iniiaiie iio?aaeoaeue ieeueneie aiaeu,
nie?aoee aiaeicaai?.

E?oiiaeoei ?aca?aiui a?aaeii ?annaeaiey /aeiaaea yaeythony ionouiiua
?aeiiu, Naaa? (ciia oaeae, ooiae?u e eaniooiae?u), ai?iua ?aeiiu n
?aciiia?aciuie i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, ?a/iua aannaeiu a ciia iinoiyiii
aeaaeiuo o?iie/aneeo eania.

I?e?iaeiua ea/anoaa oa??eoi?ee ia ia/aeueiuo yoaiao yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey i?aaeii?aaeaeeee ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey e niaoeeaeecaoeeth
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii e nae/an aeeyiea i?e?iaeu ia
/aeiaa/aneoth iiioeyoeeth aaeeei, eae e i?aaeaea. I?e?iaeiua eaoano?iou
– ecaa?aeaiey aoeeaiia, caieao?ynaiey, iaaeeaiiua iiieaeaiey e iiaeiyoey
nooe, eieaaaiey eeeiaoa, eciaiytho eaiaeoaoou Caiee, canoaaeyy /aeiaaea
eciaiyoue naith oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue e i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e
iiaui oneiaeyi.

Oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, ia?yaeo n i?e?iaeiuie
eaoaeeeciaie, oae aea aaaeao e eciaiaieyi ia oieueei ia eieaeueiii, ii e
ia ieaiaoa?iii o?iaiyo. ?aniaoea aeaanoaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia e i?aeoeea
iiaena/ii-iaiaaiai caieaaeaeey, i?eaaaeoea e naaaeaieth eania e
en/aciiaaieth i?e?iaeiuo cii ia oeaeuo eiioeiaioao, aio?iiiaaiiia (o.a.
aucaaiiia aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea) iionouieaaiea, canieaiea caiaeue,
aucaaiiia i?ioaieai, onuoaiea aioo?aiieo ii?ae – aio aeaeaei ia iieiue
ia?a/aiue aeiaaeueiuo yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai, eioi?ua aucaaea
oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea. Io eo ?aoaiey ai iiiaii caaeneo
nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaa/anoaa.

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