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География морского транспорта России

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OEIAINIAAss AEAAeAIEss I?E I?AAEOAEUeNOAA

?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

Eaoaae?a: “Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey e ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea”

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

Oaia: “Aaia?aoey ii?neiai o?ainii?oa ?innee”

Nooaeaio a?oiiu O1-3
Neae?yeia E.E.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
aeioe.Ieenaoeeee A.E.

Iineaa – 1998

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 2

Aeaaa 1. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey ii?neiai o?ainii?oa . . . . . . 3

Aeaaa 2. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ii?neiai o?ainii?oa

e yoaiu ?aaeecaoeee ?yaea i?ia?aii aic?iae-

aeaiey ii?neiai oeioa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 11

Aeaaa 3. ?ieue Naaa?iiai ii?neiai iooe e ii?oia ia ii-

aa?aaeuea Naaa?iiai Eaaeiaeoiai Ieaaia . . . . . . 11+

Aeaaa 4. Ii?oiaia oicyenoai. Ii?o e ai?iae. Acaeiiia

aeeyiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 23

Caeeth/aiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 26-27

Nienie eciieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Aaaaeaiea

Ii?neie o?ainii?o eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo
ia?aaicie ianniauo a?ocia, iniaaiii ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey, a oaeaea
aeey ianeoaeeaaiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Ana yeiiiie/aneea nayce ?innee n
aeaeueiei ca?oaaaeueai inouanoaeyaony ii?ai, iio?aaiinoue ?innee a
ia?aaiceao a?ocia ii?ai ioeaieaaaony i?eia?ii a 210 iei.o a?ocia a aiae.
Aaaeioth ?ieue ii ea?aao e a auiieiaiee eaaioaaeiuo ia?aaicie
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo a?ocia, aeeth/ay ia?aaicee a o?oaeiiaeinooiiua
?aeiiu E?aeiaai Naaa?a e Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, aaea ae?oaea aeaeu
o?ainii?oa i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaotho eee iayooaeoeaiu.

Ii?neie o?ainii?o iaeaaeaao ?yaeii i?aeiouanoa ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie
aeaeaie o?ainii?oa. Ia?aaicea eaaeaeie oiiiu a?oca ii?ai o?aaoao
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa yia?aee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaiueoaai ?anoiaea
oiieeaa, /ai ia ae?oaeo aeaeao o?ainii?oa. E?oiiua ii?neea noaea
niiniaiu iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aaiceoue aeanyoee ouny/ oiii a?oca. Ana yoi
ii?aaeaeyao a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aeiaieueii ieceoth naaanoieiinoue
a?ocia.

Iniaaiiinoe aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey ?innee, caia?caaiinoue iiiaeo
ii?oia (oieueei a Iiai?inneene, Ooaina, Io?iaine e Eaeeieia?aae
yaeythony iacaia?cathueie ii?oaie), no?oeoo?a a?ociiioieia,
ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue aaica e auaica a?ocia, ae?oaea iniaaiiinoe
auaeaeaatho ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey e iaoeeiiaeueiie ii?neie
o?ainii?oiie nenoaia. Iiyoiio ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee ?innee
ionoonoaea iaoeeiiaeueiiai ii?neiai o?ainii?oa nicaeaaaei i?aiyonoaey a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeey ?acaeoey aiaoiae oi?aiaee no?aiu e inaiaiey
naaa?iuo oa??eoi?ee.

Aeaaa 1. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey ii?neiai o?ainii?oa

Aaeia e Aa?aioeaai ii?y inaaeaaeenue ?onneeie n aeaaieo a?aiai. Aua a
eiioea XVII aaea a A?oaiaaeuenea nouanoaiaaee e?oiiua ii oiio a?aiaie
aa?oe. A XVIII aaea iie auiieiyee aeaaea caeacu aiaeeeneeo
noaeiaeaaeaeueoeaa. N auoiaeii ?innee e Aaeoeeneiio iiaa?aaeueth aeaaiui
ii?oii noae Iaoa?ao?a. Caeanue auei iieiaeaii ia/aei nicaeaieth ?onneeo
ii?neeo ia?ioiaeia. Iicaeiaa, a 1897 aiaeo, noaeino?iaiea auei iniiaaii
ia Oe?aeia, a Ieeieaaaa.

Iaoa?ao?a aue naiui e?oiiui ii a?ociiai?ioo e iaeaieaa aeaaiono?iaiiui
ii?oii ?innee. Aai a?ociiai?io a 1913 aiaeo ninoaaeye 7,2 iei. o, a oii
/enea ii auaico – 2,6 iei. o, ii aaico – 4,1 iei. e ii eaaioaaeo2 –
0,5 iei. o. 70 % eiii?oa, iinooiaaoaai a Iaoa?ao?aneee ii?o,
i?eoiaeeeinue ia aiaeeeneee oaieue. Aoi?ui ii a?ociiai?ioo ii?oii ?innee
auea Iaeanna. Ec ae?oaeo ii ?acia?ai a?ociiai?ioa auaeaeyeenue Ieeieaaa,
?inoia, Ia?eoiieue (AEaeaiia),Iiai?inneene, ?eaa, A?oaiaaeuene e
Aeaaeeainoie.

Iauee a?ociiai?io ii?neeo ii?oia ?innee a 1913 aiaeo a aei?aaieth-

oeeiiiuo a?aieoeao ninoaaeye 41 iei. o, a oii /enea iaeue eaaioaae –
11,8 iei. o, aieueoie eaaioaae – 0,6 iei., yenii?o – 19,3 iei., eiii?o-
9,3 iei.o1.

A ii?neii yenii?oa i?aiaeaaeaee a?ocu : oeaaiua – 52,8%; eaniua –
21,1; ?oaea – 10,5; iaooue – 5,6%. A eiii?oa 65,5% ninoaaeye eaiaiiue
oaieue. Aiaoiaoi?aiaua a?ocu ia?aaiceeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
eiino?aiiuo noaeao . N?aaeiyy aeaeueiinoue ia?aaicee 1 o a?oca
ninoaaeyea 726 ieeue (1335 ei).

Ieceee oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue iai?oaeiaaiey ?onneeo ii?oia aue i?e/eiie
iaeie eo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Ieiei 70% oi?aiaiai oeioa a 1913 aiaeo
ninoaaeyee ia?oniua noaea . A 1916 aiaeo aiaoiaoi?aiaue ii?neie
a?ociiai?io ?innee caieiae iyoia ianoi a ie?a.

N ia?auo aea eao Niaaoneie aeanoe ?acaeoeth ii?neiai o?ainii?oa auei
oaeaeaii aieueoia aieiaiea. Ii?neie oeio neeueii iino?aaeae a aiaeu
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e eioa?aaioeee. Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai caeoiaei
noaea ca a?aieoeae e no?ieei iiaua ia naieo aa?oyo. A?ociiiaeuaiiinoue
ii?neiai oi?aiaiai oeioa e ia/aeo 1937 aiaea ninoaaeea 1 250 oun. ?aa. o
(1913 a. – 893 oun. ?aa. o).

Aua a ieaia AIYE?I auei ia?auaii aieiaiea ia ?aeiino?oeoeeth a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue “oaea?iuo” ii?oia e iaeio ec aeaaiaeoeo caaea/ – nicaeaiea
“iiuiuo auoiaeia e ianeieueeei neeueii iai?oaeiaaiiui aeoaieiaiaeiui
ii?neei ii?oai ec ?aeiiia, iiaoueo aeaoue a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy
oeaiiua ianniaua a?ocu aeey auaica ii?ai ca a?aieoeo”. Ec naaa?iuo
ii?oia e oaeiaui auee ioianaiu Eaieia?aae e Io?iaine, ec thaeiuo –
Ia?eoiieue, ?in-

oia-ia-Aeiio, Iiai?inneene e Iaoa/eaea.

Ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo nii?oaeaiee, iniauaiea i?e/aeia e
neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee. A aeiaiaiiia a?aiy auee iino?iaiu iaoaiece?iaaiiay
Eaniay aaaaiue a Eaieia?aaeneii ii?oo, iiuiua yeaaaoi?u n
aeoaieiaiaeiuie i?e/aeaie a Ieeieaaaa, Oa?niia, Ia?eoiiea,
ia?aiai?oaeiaaiu yeaaaoi?u a ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ii?oao. A ?yaea e?oiiuo
ii?oia (Eaieia?aae,Iaeanna, Iiai?inneene, Ooaina, Aeaaeeainoie, Noooie e
ae?oaea) nii?oaeaiu aeaeaciaaoiiiua eiino?oeoeee aeoaieiaiaeiuo ie?nia.
E ni?ieiaui aiaeai auee ?aeiino?oe?iaaiu ii/oe ana ii?neea ii?ou no?aiu
e iino?iaii ianeieueei iiauo.

A 1940 aiaeo yenii?o ninoaaeye 9,9%, eiii?o – 1,6% a?ociiai?ioa ii?neeo
ii?oia. Oiaiueoaiea oaeaeueiiai aana caa?aie/iuo ia?aaicie auei aucaaii
ia?aie/aieyie a oi?aiaea n NNN? ni noi?iiu eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai,
nie?auaieai yenii?oa oeaaa e eana aneaaenoaea ?inoa iio?aaiinoe a ieo
aioo?e no?aiu, a oaeaea oai, /oi ioiaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaica ?yaea
oiaa?ia, oaeeo, eae oaieue e oeiiie. Ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu
ii?neiio o?ainii?oo aue iaianai aieueoie oua?a. A ii?oao auei
oie/oiaeaii 43% i?e/aeueiiai o?iioa, 54% neeaaeia e 47% ia?aa?oci/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey. NNN? iioa?ye 380 noaeia iauae a?ociiiaeuaiiinoueth 700
oun. ?aa. o. Iinea ieii/aiey Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, ianiio?y ia
oyaeaeaeoaa iieiaeaiea a oneiaeyo ?ac?ooaiiiai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa,
no?aia iaiaaeeaiii i?enooieea e ainnoaiiaeaieth ii?oia, e ca ei?ioeee
i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie auee caaeaenoaiaaiu e?oiiua ii?neea ii?ou ia
Aaeoeeneii, Acianeii e *a?iii ii?yo.

A iineaaiaiiia a?aiy oi?aiaue oeio ?acaeaaeny auno?uie oaiiaie (a iei.
?aa.o):

Noaea no?ieeenue eae ia iaoeo aa?oyo, oae e ca ?oaaaeii – a Iieueoa,
THaineaaee, Oeieyiaeee, Eoaeee, ssiiiee e ae?oaeo no?aiao. Niaaoneee
nithc ii oiiiaaeo oi?aiaiai oeioa caieiaao oanoia ianoi a ie?a. A nayce
n ?anoe?aieai aiaoiae oi?aiaee, iniaaiii n nioeeaeenoe/aneeie no?aiaie,
e ?inoii ii?neiai oi?aiaiai oeioa, oaaee/eeinue aeiey caa?aie/iuo
ia?aaicie..

Auno?uie oaiiaie ?anoao e oaiea?iue oeio. No?ieoaeuenoai
e?oiiioiiiaaeiuo noaeia iaoiaeeony aeaoaaea, iie yooaeoeaiaa a
yenieoaoaoeee ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey. Iaeiaei e?oiiua oaiea?u, eiathuea
aieueooth inaaeeo, iiaoo ieaaaoue ia aacaea. Oaeaea Niaaoneee nithc
iaeaaeaao naiui iiuiui a ie?a eaaeieieueiui oeioii. O ian aia?aua a ie?a
aeey noaeia oi?aiaiai oeioa auea eniieueciaaia yaea?iay yia?aey.

A iannaaee?neeo niiauaieyo oe?iei i?eiaiythony auno?ioiaeiua noaea oeia
“Eiiaoa” ia iiaeaiaeiuo e?ueueyo.

A?ociiai?io ii?neiai o?ainii?oa ii n?aaiaieth n 1940 aiaeii oaaee/eeny e
1976 aiaeo a 31 ?ac, a ia?aaicee a 6,5 ?aca. ?aceee ?ino a?ociiai?ioa
iaoneiaeai aeaaiui ia?acii oe?ieei ?acaeoeai aiaoiaoi?aiauo naycae n
ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie iaoae no?aiu. Ii?ai ia?aaiceony aieueoa iieiaeiu
aiaoiaoi?aiauo a?ocia. I?e yoii a 5 ?ac oaaee/eeanue aeaeueiinoue
ia?aaicie, a iniiaiii ca n/ao caa?aie/iiai ieaaaiey, aaea n?aaeiyy
aeaeueiinoue ia?aaicie aieaa 6 oun. ei.

Iaiiiai aieueoa iieiaeiu ii?neeo o?ainii?oiuo ia?aaicie inouanoaeytho
nooia?ocu, a inoaeueioth /anoue – a iniiaiii iaeeaiua noaea. Ean a
ieioao ninoaaeyao i/aiue iaaieueooth aeieth ( ieiei 0,2% ). Nooia?ocu
o?ainii?oe?otho ?oaeo, ieia?aeueiua no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, ean,
eaiaiiue oaieue, ca?ii e oeie/aneea a?ocu.

Ieiei iieiaeiu yenii?oa i?eoiaeeony ia iaooyiua a?ocu, caoai
auaeaeythony eaniua, ?oaeiua, iaoaeeu, oeaaiua a?ocu e eaiaiiue oaieue.

Ia ii?neii o?ainii?oa, eae e ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii, aieueooth aeieth
ninoaaeytho i?eai?iaeiua ia?aaicee, eioi?ua inouanoaeythony noaeaie,
i?eienaiiuie e ii?oo. Iie niaa?oatho ?aaoey?iua a?ociaua e iannaaee?neea
, a oaeaea i?iaoei/iua ?aenu. N?aaeiyy aeaeueiinoue iiacaeee iaeiiai
iannaaee?a 64 ei, a aeaeueiai ieaaaiee – 2060, a ianoiii – 270 e a
i?eai?iaeiii – 31 ei.

A 70-80-o aiaeao ii?neie o?ainii?o eae ninoaaiay /anoue aaeeiie
o?ainii?oiie naoe no?aiu ia?aaicee ia?yaeo n eaaioaaeiuie nauoa iieiaeiu
anao aiaoiaoi?aiauo a?ocia. I?eaueue io aai aeayoaeueiinoe, ii aeaiiui
Aineiinoaoa NNN?, ninoaaeea a 1987 aiaeo 3060 iei.?oa.

Ia?eiae oae iacuaaaiiai canoiy (1970-1986 aa.) aeey ii?neiai
o?ainii?oa aue, iaiai?io, ia?eiaeii naiiai ao?iiai ca anth aai enoi?eth
eiiieaeniiai (ni anae eio?ano?oeoo?ie) ?acaeoey n eniieueciaaieai eo/oeo
aeinoeaeaiee ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie iaoee e oaoieee – yoi aeaeii ec
neaaeothueo iieacaoaeae:1 1969a.
1986a.

Ca?aaioaii aaethou ia ia?aaiceao,iei.?oa. 451,6 1950

*eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia, oun./ae. 328
411

I?eaueue,iei.?oa. 1037
3035

*eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia,oun./ae. 328
411

A eaioi ?aniaaea NNN? ii?neie o?ainii?o i?aaenoaaeye niaie iiuiue,
oi?ioi ooieoeeiie?othuee eiiieaen, eiathuee a naiai ninoaaa anth aaiio
o?ainii?oiuo a?ociauo e iannaaee?neeo noaeia, e?oiiaeoee a ie?a
eaaeieieueiue, eaaeieieueii-o?ainii?oiue e neoaeaaii-aniiiiaaoaeueiue
oeio.

A ninoaaa ii?neiai o?ainii?oa auei aieaa 70 ii?oia, iniauaiiuo
ia?aa?oci/iui iai?oaeiaaieai aunoae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Oaoie/aneia
ninoiyiea oeioa iaania/eaaee 30 noaei?aiiioiuo caaiaeia e 17 aac
oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey, iniauaiiuo nia?aiaiiui iai?oaeiaaieai,
iicaieyaoei auiieiyoue ana aeaeu noaei?aiiioiuo ?aaio.

Ii?neie o?ainii?o eiae nianoaaiioth oi?ioi ?acaeooth eio?ano?oeoo?o.

A 80-o aiaeao a ?acoeueoaoa cia/eoaeueiiai ?inoa aiaoiaoi?aiaiai
a?ociiai?ioa ia?aciaaeanue aeeni?iii?oeey iaaeaeo i?iaiciie
niiniaiinoueth oeioa e i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth ii?oia. Ec-ca
iaaeinoaoea ii?oiauo iiuiinoae a ia?eiae ianniaiai iinooieaiey a?ocia,
iniaaiii i?e ia?aaicea eiii?oiiai ca?ia e ae?oaeo i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo
oiaa?ia, ia ?aeaeao ii?oia a iaeeaeaiee aua?ocee i?inoaeaaei aei 400
aae. o?ainii?oiuo noaeia, /oi i?eaiaeeei e iia?oaaieth iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae, iioa?e aaethou, caaea?aeee aeinoaaee a?ocia iio?aaeoaeyi,
oo?aoa eo oiaa?iie eiiaeeoeee.

Neiaeeaoaany iieiaeaiea i?eaaei e cia/eoaeueiui cao?aoai aaethou aeey
auieaou eiino?aiiui eiiiaieyi ca i?inoie eo noaeia a iaoeo ii?oao.

Iieiaeaiea a eaeie-oi ia?a auei oeo/oaii. Ii?neie o?ainii?o, oioy e n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie oeiainiauie cao?oaeiaieyie, eioi?ua auee anaaaea,
i?iaeieaeae ?acaeaaoueny.

E eiioeo 1990 aiaeia ii?neea ii?ou eiaee i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue 360
iei.o a?ocia a aiae e iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?yee iio?aaiinoe no?aiu a
ia?aa?ocea aiaoiaoi?aiauo e ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo a?ocia, a ii oiiiaaeo
o?ainii?oiue oeio caieiae iaeii ec aaaeoueo iano a ie?a.

?aniaae NNN? i?eaae e ?aceiio niaaeo iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, ?anno?ienoao
neiaeeaoeony yeiiiie/aneeo naycae e a?ociiioieia, cia/eoaeueiiio
oooaeoaieth iaania/aiey o?ainii?oiuie oneoaaie aioo?aiieo iio?aaiinoae e
aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?innee, e iioa?e eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia.

Ninoiyiea e ?acaeoea ii?neiai o?ainii?oa ?innee a iineaaeiea iyoue eao
ii?aaeaeythony o?aiy iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie: ?acaeaeii io?anee iaaeaeo
auaoeie nithciuie ?anioaeeeaie; eciaiaieai ii?yaeea oeiaine?iaaiey
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu io?anee, a /anoiinoe, ?aceei nie?auaieai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee; i?iaaaeaieai ?aaeeeaeueiie ?aoi?iu
a iaeanoe oi?aaeaiey e yeiiiieee.

Iinea ?acaeaea io?anee ?inney iuouaao ino?oth iaoaaoeo i?iaiciie
niiniaiinoe oeioa e i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe ii?oia. Ia aa aeieth
i?eoeanue i?eia?ii iieiaeia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae ii?neiai
o?ainii?oa NNN?, /oi cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa iio?aaiinoae ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa. I?e yoii iieiaeaiee onoaoaeyaony aua e oai, /oi inoaaoeany
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe ninoaaeytho oaea ia aaeeioth o?ainii?oioth
nenoaio, a aa ioaeaeueiua o?aaiaiou, aeiee, ca/anooth neaai naycaiiua
iaaeaeo niaie e ia aiieia niioaaonoaothuea no?oeoo?a ?inneeneeo
a?ociiioieia.

A Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii e THaeiii aannaeiao ?inney eeoeeanue ?ao?eaea?aoi?iuo
noaeia, oaiea?ia eaaeiaiai eeanna, ii?neeo ia?iiia, eeooa?iaicia.
aieueoie /anoe iannaaee?neeo noaeia. Ia Aaeoeea ionoonoaoao iaeeaiie
oeio, ia *a?iii ii?a – nooia?ociue.

Oaeaea ?aniaae i?eaae e iioa?a ?inneae e?oiiaeoeo ii?neeo ii?oia ia
Aaeoeeneii, *a?iii, Acianeii e Eanieeneii ii?yo e, eae neaaenoaea,
iooaniaieth no?aiu io aaaeiaeoeo ii?neeo eiiioieeaoeee, io naieo
iniiaiuo oi?aiauo eiio?aaaiia, io ?yaea aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey aeecie e
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aeiiia.

Na?ueacii ineiaeieeanue e aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneia iieiaeaiea ?innee a
Ie?iaii ieaaia a ?acoeueoaoa ineaaeaiey Aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa, iioa?e ei
aaaeiuo ioieoia aace?iaaiey.

Iaeiiaoe a nayce n iiyaeaieai iiauo iacaaeneiuo ainoaea?noa ia caiaaeiie
e thaeiie a?aieoeao ?innee aicieeea i?iaeaia aeaeeieoaoeee1 ii?neie
a?aieoeu. Aiciee ?yae aaaeiaeoeo iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiauo aii?inia,
eanathueony ii?neeo eioa?ania ?innee e aicieeathueo a ?acoeueoaoa
i?ae?auaiey aeaenoaey NNN?.

Ca n/ao auiieiaiey aieueoiai iauaia i?iaeoiuo i?i?aaioie e i?iaaaeaiiuo
ia?aaiai?ia n ioa/anoaaiiuie e eiino?aiiuie aaieaie, aeoeeiia?iuie
iauanoaaie e ae?oaeie caeioa?aniaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e a aeaeueiaeoai
caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoia ia no?ieoaeuenoai, iaaeeaiiuie, ii oaa?aiiuie
oaiiaie ii?oiaia no?ieoaeuenoai iaae?aao iai?iou.

Aeaaa 2. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ii?neiai o?ainii?oa e ?acoeueoaou
auiieiaiey ?yaea i?ia?aii aic?iaeaeaiey oeioa

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue acaeiinaycaiiiai ?aoaiey oeacaiiuo auoa i?iaeai a
oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiiinoe oeiainiauo ?ano?nia iio?aaiaaea ?ac?aaioee
i?iaeoa oaaea?aeueiie oeaeaaie i?ia?aiiu (OOeI) “Ie?iaie ieaai”.

Neoaeaa ii?neiai oeioa i?eiyea aeoeaiia o/anoea a ?ac?aaioea OOeI
“Ie?iaie ieaai” e i?aaenoaaeea niaeaniaaiiua n Ieienoa?noaii iaoee ?O
i?aaeeiaeaiey a Ieienoa?noai yeiiiieee ?O ii ?acaeaeo 8 “O?ainii?oiua
eiiioieeaoeee ?innee a Ie?iaii ieaaia”. Iniiaiie caaea/ae yoeo
ia?ii?eyoee yaeyaony i?eaea/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo a?ociiioieia.

Niaoeeoeea ii?neiai o?ainii?oa caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iniiaiay ianna
ia?aaicie inouanoaeyaony ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo. Iaeiaei a
iineaaeiea aiaeu iauaiu ia?aaicie nieceeenue a ?acoeueoaoa nieaeaiey
ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii i?e/eia
oiaiueoaiey oiiiaaea ii?neeo noaeia ec-ca noa?aiey oeioa e e?aeia
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai iiiieiaiey iiauie noaeaie.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy n?aaeiee aic?ano ii?neeo noaeia ?inneeneiai oeioa
ninoaaeyao 19 eao, a oi a?aiy eae a ie?iaii ii?neii oeioa eaeao
iinoiyiiia iaiiaeaiea aeaaiaea?y no?ieoaeuenoao iiauo noaeia.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O iniciaao neiaeiinoue iieiaeaiey ia oaeii aaaeiii aeey
no?aiu aeaea o?ainii?oa. A niioaaonoaee n Ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiie
aic?iaeaeaiea oi?aiaiai oeioa ?innee i?iaeaeaia ii?aaeaeaiiay ?aaioa ii
no?ieoaeuenoao o?ainii?oiuo noaeia, oaaee/aieth i?iioneiuo niiniaiinoae
ii?neeo e ?a/iuo ii?oia, iiaeaea?aeaieth iauaeoia. iaania/eaathueo
aaciianiinoue ii?aieaaaiey, ?aiiio e ianeoaeeaaiea noaeia n yaea?iuie
yia?aaoe/aneeie onoaiiaeaie. Oeio ?inneeneeo noaeioiaeiuo eiiiaiee
iiiieieeny 70 ii?neeie noaeaie iauei aeaaeaaeoii 1 1251 oun.o.

Aianoa n oai n oai ?aaeecaoeey I?ia?aiiu eaeao n ionoaaaieai. O/anoea
ca?oaaaeiuo noaeioiaeiuo eiiiaiee a ia?aaiceao ?inneeneeo aiaoiaoi?aiauo
a?ocia ninoaaeei a 1996 aiaeo 85% iauaai iauaia ia?aaicie, 30%
aiaoiaoi?aiauo a?ocia ia?aa?oaeaaony a ii?oao nii?aaeaeueiuo
ainoaea?noa.

Oaia?ue iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue auiieiaea auoaoeacaiiuo i?ia?aii ii
aannaeiai:

Aaeoeeneee aannaei

Ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea ?innee Aaeoeea enoi?e/anee caieiaao aaaeiaeoaa
ianoi, e a Aa?iia neiaeeeenue onoie/eaua ?uiee aeey iaoaai
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai yenii?oa (iaooue, iaooai?iaeoeou, aac, oaieue,
ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey, ean, iaoaeeu e ae?oaea a?ocu). Iaiaoiaeeiinoue
?acaeoey ii?oia ?innee ia Aaeoeea iaoneiaeaii eae iauaiaie
aiaoiaoi?aiauo ia?aaicie e eo no?oeoo?ie, oae e yeiiiie/aneie e
iieeoe/aneie neooaoeeae, neiaeeaoaeny a aeaiiii ?aaeiia.

A ii?oo Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a no?iyony eiioaeia?iue oa?ieiae iiuiinoueth 1,5
iei.o a aiae, ?ao?eaea?aoi?iue eiiieaen e ae?oaea iauaeou
eio?ano?oeoo?u. Aaaeaony oaeaea no?ieoaeuenoai iaooaiaeeaiiai oa?ieiaea:
ia?aciaaia oa??eoi?ey , onoaiiaeaii ianeieueei ?aca?aoa?iuo aieinoae,
?aeiino?oe?iaai i?e/ae, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oaea nae/an
ia?aa?oaeaoue aei 11,5 iei.o iaooai?iaeoeoia. N caaa?oaieai ?aaio
oa?ieiae aoaeao ia?aa?oaeaoue aei 5,5 iei.o iaooai?iaeoeoia a aiae.

Auiieiaiu oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea i?i?aaioee ?acaeoey ii?oa Aunioee,
aeeth/ay no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo i?e/aeia, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo e
aaoiiiaeeueiuo iiaeoiaeia ia ia?niaeoeaiue a?ociiai?io aei 5,3 iei.o.

Aaaeoony i?i?aaioee no?ieoaeuenoaa a?ociaiai ?aeiia a Eiiiiiniaa aeey
ia?aa?ocee eiioaeia?ia, aaia?aeueiuo e ae?oaeo a?ocia.

Iaeiaei naiuie e?oiiuie iauaeoaie ia Aaeoeeneii aannaeia yaeythony 3
iiauo ii?oa ia iiaa?aaeuea Oeineiai caeeaa – yoi ii?o a aoooa Aaoa?aeiie
aeey ia?aa?ocee iaooai?iaeoeoia (15 iei.o), iaooaiaeeaiie ii?o a ?aeiia
I?eii?nea (45 iei.o) e nooia?ociue ii?o a ?aeiia Onoue-Eoae (35 iei.o).

Iiaue ii?o a aoooa Aaoa?aeiie ?aniieiaeai ia eaaii aa?aao Oeineiai
caeeaa a 60 ei io Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa. ?ac?aaioaii e ooaa?aeaeaii
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea ia?aie i/a?aaee no?ieoaeuenoaa ia
?an/aoiue a?ociiai?io 7,5 iei.o. Ia/aou iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou.
I?e/aeueiue o?iio i?aaenoaaeyao iaooaie?n n aeaoiy i?e/aeaie aeey i?eaia
noaeia a?ociiiaeuaiiinoueth 16,5 – 40 oun.o. ?aca?aoa?iue ia?e ?ann/eoai
ia 400 oun.i3.

?ac?aaioaii e ooaa?aeaeaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea
no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaiai ii?neiai ii?oa a ?aeiia Onoue-Eoae,
?aniieiaeaiiiai a thai-ainoi/iie /anoe Oeineiai caeeaa, a 100 ei io
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa.

A niioaaonoaee n ?anii?yaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ia?aii/a?aaeii
i?aaeoniio?aii no?ieoaeuenoai oaieueiiai oa?ieiaea i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoueth 8 iei.o a aiae. N?ie naea/e iauaeoa a yenieoaoaoeeth –
1999 aiae.

Oa?ieiae i?aaeiacia/ai aeey aua?ocee oaey ec aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aaaiiia,
e?aoeia?aiaiiiai o?aiaiey a?oca e iia?ocee ia noaea. A ninoaa eiiieaena
aoiaeyo i?e/ae aeeeiie 268 iia.i, iiaeoiaeiie eaiae,
aaaiiiii?ieeaaeuaaoaee, neeaaeneea ieiuaaee, ia?aa?oci/iua iaoaieciu e
ae?.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaaeoony ?aaiou ii ia?aciaaieth oa??eoi?ee,
aeiioaeoaeaieth, caaeaea oioioiaie noaiee. Iaeiia?aiaiii
i?i?aaaouaathony i?iaeou iineaaeothuaai no?ieoaeuenoaa eiiieaena ii
ia?aa?ocea /a?iuo e oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee. Aaaeoony
ia?aaiai?u n caeioa?aniaaiiuie eiaanoi?aie.

Iiaue ii?o a ?aeiia I?eii?nea ?aniieiaeai a 130 ei io Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa e
a 60 ei io Auai?aa. ?ac?aaioaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea ia?aie
i/a?aaee no?ieoaeuenoaa: iaia/aaony iino?ieoue eiiieaen ii ia?aa?ocea
iaooai?iaeoeoia iiuiinoueth 4,5 iei.o ca n/ao n?aaenoa ?inneeneeo e
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia. Aaiae iauaeoa i?aaeoniio?ai a 1999 aiaeo.

Aeey ia?aa?ocee nu?ie iaooe /a?ac yoio ii?o iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i i?iaeoe?iaaiee, no?ieoaeuenoaa e
yenieoaoaoeee aaeeiie Aaeoeeneie o?oaii?iaiaeiie nenoaiu io iinaeea
Oa?ueyaa (?anioaeeea Eiie) aei iiaa?aaeuey Oeineiai caeeaa a ninoaaa
nouanoaothueo iaaeno?aeueiuo iaooai?iaiaeia a iai?aaeaiee
Ona-Oooa-ss?ineaaeue-Ee?eoe, aiiaue no?iyueony o/anoeia yoie nenoaiu e
iaooaiaeeaiiai oa?ieiaea ii?oiaiai eiiieaena. Oi anoue i?eiyo thaeiue
aa?eaio o?ainii?oe?iaee iaooe n Oeiaii-Ia/i?neeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee.

Naaa?iue aa?eaio o?ainii?oe?iaee iaooe e no?ieoaeuenoaa ii?oa a
a?eoe/aneii ?aaeiia n o?ainii?oe?iaeie ii?neeie noaeaie iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ec ?aeiiia yoeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaoiaeeony a noaaeee enneaaeiaaiey.

?ac?aaioaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea oeaeaniia?aciinoe
no?ieoaeuenoaa aeaeaciiaei?iaeii-aaoiiiaeeueiie ia?iiiie ia?ai?aau a
iai?aaeaiee Onoue-Eoaa – Eaeeieia?aae – ii?ou Aa?iiu.Iaeiaei ec-ca
ionoonoaey n?aaenoa ia i?iaeoiua ?aaiou aeaeueiaeoea ?ac?aaioee
i?einoaiiaeaiu.

Aciai-*a?iiii?neee aannaei

I?e ionoonoaee ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey ca n/ao
n?aaenoa ii?neeo aaeieieno?aoeee ii?oia, aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e
i?eaea/aiiuo n?aaenoa aaaeoony neaaeothuea ?aaiou.

A ii?oo Iiai?inneene no?ieony iiaue eiioaeia?ii-ca?iiaie eiiieaen
iiuiinoueth ia 3 iei.o ca?ia, 120 oun. eiioaeia?ia, 1 iei.o aaoiia?iiiuo
e 0,5 iei.o aaia?aeueiuo a?ocia. Ia?aciaaia oa??eoi?ey ieiuaaeueth 12
aa, aaaaeai a yenieoaoaoeeth ii a?aiaiiie noaia aaoiia?iiiue eiiieaen
iiuiinoueth 0,6 iei.o.

?ac?aaioaii e ooaa?aeaeaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea ia
no?ieoaeuenoai aeoaieiaiaeiiai iaooai?e/aea iiuiinoueth 15 iei.o nu?ie
iaooe. ?aaiou i?aaeiieaaaaony ia/aoue a ia?aii iieoaiaeee 1998 aiaea.

I?i?aaaouaathony aii?inu no?ieoaeuenoaa a iaooaaaaaie Oanoa?en aacu aeey
aoiea?iaee noaeia e ioa?ocee ia yenii?o iaooai?iaeoeoia.

No?ieony eiiieaen aeey ia?aa?ocee e a?aiaiiiai o?aiaiey nei?iii?oyueony
a?ocia.

Aaaeoony ?aeiino?oeoeey e oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea aeaoo ca?iiauo
i?e/aeia n i?ieeaaeeie aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iooae, iicaieythueo
ia?aa?oaeaoue ca?ii ii i?yiiio aa?eaioo noaeii – aaaii.

Eiiiaieae “Aiaoo?aeaeeiaano” caaeaenoaiaai eiiieaen ii ioa?ocee ia
yenii?o aeeaeeeo oaeia?aiee.

A ii?oo Aaeaiaeaeee ?ac?aaioaii e ooaa?aeaeaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia
iainiiaaiea ?aeiino?oeoeee e no?ieoaeuenoaa ii?oa aeey ia?aa?ocee
aaia?aeueiuo a?ocia a iauaia 0,8 iei.o e ia?aaicee 127 oun. iannaaee?ia
a aiae. ?aeiino?oeoeeth e ?acaeoea ii?oa iaia/aaony inouanoaeoue ca n/ao
aiaathaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa. ?anii?yaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O a 1997 aiaeo
ioe?uo i?iione a?ociauo eiino?aiiuo e ?inneeneeo noaeia caa?aiieaaaiey.

Ii?o Oai?the.A ii?oo aaaeoony ?aaiou ii no?ieoaeuenoao ia?aa?oci/iuo
eiiieaenia, ainnoaiiaeaieth ia?aaeeoaeueiiai iiea e aeiioaeoaeaieth
iiaeoiaeiiai eaiaea.

?ac?aaioaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea ?acaeoey Oai?theneiai
aiaeiio?ainii?oiiai ocea,i?aaeiieaaathuaa aeiaanoe iiuiinoue ii?oa (1
i/a?aaeue) aei 4,5 iei.o, a a ia?niaeoeaa aei 8 iei.o.

Iniiaiui naea?aeeaathuei oaeoi?ii iaania/aiey ii?iaeueiie caa?ocee ii?oa
yaeyaony ionoonoaea iiaeuacaeiuo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iooae. Iieo/aia
i?eioeeieaeueiay iiaeaea?aeea a ?aoaiee yoiai aii?ina ni noi?iiu IIN
?innee e Naaa?i-Eaaeacneiai ioaeaeaiey aeaeaciie aei?iae. Aioiaeony
iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ii i?eaeaieth ii?oo iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
noaoona.

A ii?oo Ni/e ia iniiaaiee Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?O “I ia?ao ii iiaeaea?aeea
?acaeoey ai?iaea-eo?i?oa Ni/e” e iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O “I
oaaea?aeueiie oeaeaaie i?ia?aiia ?acaeoey ai?iaea-eo?i?oa Ni/e ia
ia?eiae aei 2010 aiaea” ?ac?aaaouaaaony no?aoaae/aneee ieai ?acaeoey
Ni/eineiai ii?oa: ?aeiino?oeoeey iannaaee?neeo i?e/aeia e ainnoaiiaeaiea
ii?neiai aiecaea.

Oaaai?ianeee ii?o. Aaaeaony no?ieoaeuenoai iiaiai a?ociaiai ?aeiia ii?oa
a Ieonneii eeiaia n oeaeueth auiina iueyueo a?ocia ec Oaaai?ianeiai
ii?oa e oeo/oaiea yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee ai?iaea. Iaeiaei a nayce n
iaaeinoaoeii nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e ionoonoaeai oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee
ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa ?aaiou i?einoaiiaeaiu.

Ia/aoi no?ieoaeuenoai iiaiai ii?oa ia iuna AEaeaciue ?ia, ii a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iii i?einoaiiaeaii ec-ca ionoonoaey oeiainiauo n?aaenoa o
caeac/eea AI “Iaooaaac”.

Iieo/aiu i?aaeeiaeaiey AI “Oieueyooeacio” i ia?aeeth/aiee /anoe
o?ainii?oe?iaee naeeaeaiiiai aiieaea n oe?aeineiai ii?oa THaeiue ia
?inneeneia *a?iiii?neia iiaa?aaeuea. Yoio aii?in iaoiaeeony a noaaeee
i?i?aaioee.

A niioaaonoaee n ?anii?yaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i
no?ieoaeuenoaa ii?oiaiai oa?ieiaea a ?aeiia Iiai?inneene n auianaiiuie
i?e/aeueiuie ono?ienoaaie aeey ia?aa?ocee nu?ie iaooe a iauaia 15 iei.o
a aiae ia ia?aii yoaia e a ia?niaeoeaa aei 64 iei.o a aiae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia Aciai-*a?iiii?neii aannaeia ooieoeeiie?oao ia?iiiua
ia?ai?aau iaaeaeo ii?oaie Iiai?inneene- Nainoi (Oo?oeey); Iiai?inneene –
Ao?aan (Aieaa?ey) – Iioe (A?ocey); Iiai?inneene – Aa?ia.

A nayce n iieiui ionoonoaeai athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa Neoaeaa ii?neiai
oeioa ia eiaao aiciiaeiinoe iino?ieoue e iinoaaeoue ia ia?iiiua eeiee
?inneeneea ia?iiu. Aaeaaiaeiua aaethoiua iioa?e ?innee ii yenia?oiie
ioeaiea ninoaaeytho 25 – 30 iei.$.

?ac?aaioee i?iaeoia i?aaiecaoeee eiiieaeniuo ia?iiiuo ia?niaeoeaiuo
ia?aaicie ia Oo?oeeth e Aieaa?eth i?einoaiiaeaiu, oae eae ia yoe oeaee a
oa/aiea aeaoo eao o Ieio?aina ?O ia iaoeinue iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa.

Aeaeueiaainoi/iue aannaei

A Ainoi/iii ii?oo naeaia a yenieoaoaoeeth aoi?ay i/a?aaeue oaieueiiai
oa?ieiaea iiuiinoueth 6,5 iei.o a aiae, iino?iai i?e/ae aeey ia?aa?ocee
ieia?aeueiuo a?ocia. I?iaeieaeaaony no?ieoaeuenoai eiiieaena iiuiinoueth
2 iei.o aeey ioa?ocee ia yenii?o eaeeeiie niee, iaooaaoiea?iai/iie aacu
ia 4,5 iei.o e i?e/aea aeey ia?aa?ocee ieia?aeueiuo a?ocia.

A Iaoiaeeeineii ii?oo i?iaaaeaia ?aeiino?oeoeey aeaoo i?e/aeia n
ia?aciaaieai aeiiieieoaeueiuo neeaaeneeo ieiuaaeae. Iaeiaei ec-ca
ionoonoaey oeiainiauo n?aaenoa ?aaiou ii ?aeiino?oeoeee inoaeueiuo
i?e/aeia i?ae?auaiu.

Ia iuna Anoaoueaaa aaaeaony no?ieoaeuenoai iiaiai eaniiai oa?ieiaea,
ninoiyuaai ec /aou?ao i?e/aeia iauae i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth aei 2
iei.o eaniuo a?ocia a aiae. Aaaaeai a yenieoaoaoeeth i?e/ae a aeeeiie
170 iia.i.

A ii?oo Aeaaeeainoie ieaie?oaony no?ieoaeuenoai eiioaeia?iiai oa?ieiaea,
a oaeaea nicaeaiea iiaiai a?ociaiai ?aeiia ia iieoino?iaa Oeioa
i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth 5 iei.o e no?ieoaeuenoaa aoi?iai
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai aoiaea a ii?o.

Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy ia ?aoaaony aii?in i ia/aea no?ieoaeuenoaa
o?aiceoiiai ii?neiai ii?oa a aoooa O?ieoeu Oanaineiai ?aeiia I?eii?neiai
e?ay a ?aieao i?iaeoa “Ooiaiaai”. Aiaoiaoi?aiaua o?aiceoiua a?ocu iiaoo
“oeoe” ia ii?ou Naaa?iie Ei?ae eioi?ay i?eaeaao i/aiue na?ueaciia
cia/aiea ?acaeoeth naieo ii?oia. Iaaeeeoaeueiinoue a ?aoaiee yoiai
aii?ina iiaeao i?eaanoe e iaaaoeaiui iineaaenoaeyi aeey aeayoaeueiinoe
iaoeo aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ii?oia.

A Aaieineii ii?oo iino?iaii iaooaaoiea?iai/iay aaca iiuiinoueth 1 – 1,5
iei.o, aaca iaoaiiea, aaaeoony ?aaiou ii ?aeiino?oeoeee nouanoaothueo
i?e/aeueiuo nii?oaeaiee.

A inoaeueiuo ii?oao ?aaeiia ec-ca ionoonoaey iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa
nouanoaaiiua ia?ii?eyoey ii ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoeth i?aeoe/anee ia
i?iaiaeyony.

Naaa?iue aannaei

A Io?iaineii ii?oo aaaeoony no?ieoaeuenoai e iiaea?iecaoeey i?e/aeia
aeey ia?aa?ocee aeeiicaia, ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee e aiaoeoia.

A A?oaiaaeueneii ii?oo ec-ca ionoonoaey ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
ieeaeiai ?acaeoey ia i?iaiaeeony. Iaeaao noaeioiaeiue eaiae, oae eae iao
iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa ia caiea/a?iaiea.

Eanieeneee aannaei

?ac?aaioaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea ia ?aeiino?oeoeeth e
?acaeoea Iaoa/eaeeineiai ii?oa. I?iecaaaeaia ?aeiino?oeoeey aeaoo
i?e/aeia, aaea ia?aaaouaathony nooia?ociua noaea.

?ac?aaioaii e ooaa?aeaeaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea
no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaiai ii?neiai ii?oa a ?aeiia iinaeea Iey Ano?aoaineie
iaeanoe. Iino?iai Ieiia?iue i?e/ae aeey ia?aaioee ?ieea?ia.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae ca 1993 – 1997 aa., iieo/aaony, /oi a niioaaonoaee n
I?ia?aiiie ca iyoue eao iaiaoiaeeii auei aaanoe a yenieoaoaoeeth 885
iei.o ia?aa?oci/iuo iiuiinoae, ii aaaaeaii anaai eeoue 20%.

Aannaei/ii?o Aaaaeaii a yenieoaoaoeeth ca

1993-1997 aa. iei.o Iaoiaeeony a noaaeee no?ieoaeuenoaa, iei.o

Naaa?ii-Caiaaeiue

Io?iaine -___ 4,2

Iiaue ii?o a ?aeiia Onoue-Eoaa –
8,0

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a 1,5 2,3

Iiaue ii?o a Aoooa Aaoa?aeiie – 7,5

Aciai-*a?iiii?neee

Iiai?inneene 2,1 6,0

Oai?the 0,5 4,5

Oaaai?ia – 3,0

Eanieeneee

Iaoa/eaea 0,8 –

Iiaue ii?o a ?aeiia iinaeea Iey 0,6 –

Aeaeueiaainoi/iue

Iaoiaeea 7,0 7,0

Ainoi/iue 1,5 1,3

Niaaaaaiue 1,5 –

Aaieii 1,5 0,8

Eoiai 17,0 44,6

* AEo?iae “Ii?neie oeio” 1998/?3-4 no?.10 ” I?ia?aiia aic?iaeaeaiey
oeioa ?innee . . . . ”

Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea iiaea au aeaoue cia/eoaeueiue oie/ie a
oi?ne?iaaiee ia?aueaaiey ii?oiauo iiuiinoae. Iaeiaei iiea oaeia
ia?ii?eyoea io/aoeeai ia i?iniao?eaaaony, a eeoue ia?aie/eaaaony
iinoiyiiuie ?anniio?aieyie oiaea auiieiaiey I?ia?aiiu, /oi ia aeaao
i?aeoe/anee ieeaeeo iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Iiaeaaaey iaeioi?ua eoiae ?acee/iuo i?ia?aii, ia?auaiiuo ia
aic?iaeaeaiea ii?neiai o?ainii?oa, e eiioeo 1997 aiaea iiae eiio?ieai
?inneeneeo noaeioiaeiuo eiiiaiee iaoiaeeony i?eaeeceoaeueii 1100
o?ainii?oiuo noaeia noiia?iui aeaaeaaeoii 14 iei.o, i?iaiciay
niiniaiinoue eioi?uo ninoaaeyao 130 iei.o a?ocia a aiae. Oaeie oeio iia
au oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoe ?innee a ia?aaiceao a?ocia ii?ai,
iaeiaei oneeeyie ?inneeneeo caeiiiaeaoaeae, eioi?ua ia o/eouaatho a
caeiiao niaoeeoeeo ii?neiai oeioa, yoi ia i?ienoiaeeo. Iiyoiio
?inneeneea noaeiaeaaeaeueoeu auioaeaeaiu ?aaeno?e?iaaoue noaea iiae
eiino?aiiuie “oaeiaiuie” oeaaaie. Ec 14 iei.o aeaaeaaeoa iiae ?inneeneei
oeaaii ca?aaeno?e?iaaii iaiaa 8 iei.o (57%). Oeio ii?neeo ia?ioiaenoa a
?innee i?aeoe/anee ia iaiiaeyaony. Ec aaaaeaiiuo a yenieoaoaoeeth a
oaeouai aiaeo 16 noaeia iauei aeaaeaaeoii 171,5 oun.o oieueei 4 noaeia
(49,4 oun.o aeaaeaaeoa) aioee a ninoaa ?inneeneiai oeioa (2
eiioaeia?iaica e 1 eaniaic – a AI”Aeaeueiaainoi/iia ii?neia
ia?ioiaenoai” – e iaeei oaiea? eaaeiaiai eeanna – a ninoaa “Eoeiee
A?eoee oaiea?”). Oeio i?iaeieaeaao eaoano?ioe/anee nie?auaoueny.
Oieueei a 1997 aiaeo ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui aeaiiui ii nie?aoeeny ia 78
aaeeieoe aeaaeaaeoii 894,3 oun.o.

?inneeneee oeio auoaniyaony n ia?aaicie ioa/anoaaiiuo a?ocia a iaeanoue
e?inno?aeaea. Anee a 1996 aiaeo auei ia?aaacaii 15,5 iei.o ?inneeneeo
aiaoiaoi?aiauo a?ocia ec ieo 3,5 iei.o ia oneiaeyo aeinoaaee ?inneeneie
noi?iiie, oi a 1997 aiaeo – 13,9 iei.o ec eioi?uo oieueei 2,1 iei.o – ia
?inneeneeo noaeao.

A eaaioaaea iaania/aia ia?aaicea anao i?aaeuyaeaiiuo a?ocia a ?aeiiu n
e?oaeiaiaee/iie iaaeaaoeeae e a ioieou n ia?aie/aiiui ia?eiaeii
iaaeaaoeee. Aianoa n oai aeaenoaothuay nenoaia, eiaaea naaa?iua ?aaeiiu
iieo/atho n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee caaica a?ocia a eiioea
iaaeaaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea, i?eaiaeeo e caoyaeea caaica aei e?eoe/aneeo
n?ieia iaaeaaoeee e o?aaoao iiuiiai eaaeieieueiiai iaania/aiey. Aeey
naiaa?aiaiiuo ia?aaicie a ?aeiiu E?aeiaai Naaa?a a 1997 aiaeo auee
caeeth/aiu i?yiua aeiaiai?u n aaeieieno?aoeeyie ?aaeiiia ia ia?aaiceo
156 oun.o iaooai?iaeoeoia, /oi ia 30% aieueoa, /ai a 1996 aiaeo. Iaeiaei
aeiaiai? n ia?ioiaenoaaie ia ia?aaiceo a?ocia a eaaioaaea caeeth/aaony
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii.

Ia?eoie/iinoue ?aaiou ia?iiiie ia?ai?aau Aaieii-Oieine aucaaia
caaeieaeaiiinoueth Naoaeeineie aeaeaciie aei?iae Naoaeeineiio ii?neiio
ia?ioiaenoao, noaea eioi?iai ianeoaeeaatho ia?ai?aao. Ec-ca caaea?aeae n
iieaoie aicieeatho i?iaeaiu n i?eia?aoaieai aoiea?iiai oiieeaa aeey
ia?iiiuo noaeia.

Iauai ia?aaicie a caa?aiieaaaiee nieceeny ec-ca nie?auaiey oeioa.

Nie?auathony ia?aaicee iannaaee?ia ec-ca ionoonoaey iannaaee?neiai
oeioa. Iieiinoueth i?ae?aoeeenue ia?aaicee ia Naaa?iii e Aaeoeeneii
aannaeiao, a ia Aeaeueiaainoi/iii aannaeia e eiioeo iannaaee?neea
ia?aaicee inouanoaeythony oaeoe/anee oieueei ia?iiaie.

A?ociiai?io ii?oia e i?e/aeia eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo? a 1997 aiaeo
ninoaaee 140iei.o (oaaee/eeny ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeui aiaeii ia 5%).
?ino naycai n oaaee/aieai yenii?oa a?ocia ec ?innee ii?ai /a?ac
?inneeneea ii?ou, eioi?ue ninoaaee 120 iei.o.

A 1997 aiaeo aaaaeaiu ia?aa?oci/iua iiuiinoe ia 4,1 iei.o a?ocia a aiae
e i?e/aeu i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 1053 i. Iauai ia?aa?oci/iuo ?aaio a ii?neeo
ii?oao a 1997 aiaeo aic?in ia 101% ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeui aiaeii.
Oaaee/eeny iauai ia?aa?ocee a ii?oao: Io?iaine – ia 14%, Iiai?inneene –
11,8%, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a – 8,3%, Eaeeieia?aae – 15,3%, Oaaai?ia – 32,8%,
Aunioee – 64%. Aia?aua i?anooieee e ia?aa?ocea aiaoiaoi?aiauo a?ocia
ii?ou Oai?the (E?aniiaea?neee e?ae) e Iey (Ano?aoaineay iaeanoue). Ec-ca
aunieeo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo oa?eoia nieceeny ia 15-20% iauai ia?aa?ocee
aiaoiaoi?aiauo a?ocia a ii?oao Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea.

Aeey ?aoaiey aii?inia caa?ocee ?inneeneeo ii?oia e aeaeaciuo aei?ia,
iniaaiii O?ainneae?neie iaaeno?aee, nicaeai Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
eii?aeeiaoeeiiiue niaao ii o?ainneae?neei ia?aaiceai.

Yeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou

Ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ioeaiea a 1997 aiaeo oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee ii?neiai o?ainii?oa ninoaaee
409,7iei.?oa. i?eauee.

Oaaee/eeanue i?eaueue ioiineoaeueii i?ioeiai aiaea CAI “I?eii?neia
ii?neia ia?ioiaenoai”, a ii?oao Io?iaine, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, Eaeeieia?aae,
Aunioee. Iaeiaei 40% i?aaei?eyoee caeii/eee aiae n oauoeaie.

Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea oooaeoeeinue ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii a
Naaa?iii, Iiai?inneeneii, Aeaeueiaainoi/iii ii?neeo ia?ioiaenoaao, a
ii?oao Auai?a, Aeaaeeainoie, Iaoiaeea.

Aeaaa 4. Ii?oiaia oicyenoai. Ii?o e ai?iae.

Acaeiiia aeeyiea.

Aeaaiay caaea/a ii?neiai ii?oa caeeth/aaony a iia?ocea e aua?ocea
ii?neeo noaeia e a ia?aaea/a a?ocia ia ae?oaea aeaeu o?ainii?oa:
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue, aaoiiiaeeueiue, ?a/iie, aaeaoeeiiiue,
o?oaii?iaiaeiue. Aianoa n oai ii?o aeieaeai iaania/eoue eiiieaeniia
ianeoaeeaaiea noaeia, oi anoue niaaaeeoue eo ai a?aiy noiyiee a ii?oo
oiieeaii, aiaeie, i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, caianiuie /anoyie e iai?oaeiaaieai,
i?iecaanoe iaioeiaeiue ?aiiio, niaio yeeiaaea e o.ae. Ii neaaeoao
iiynieoue, /oi ii?neeie iacuaathony ana ii?ou, niiniaiua i?eieiaoue
ii?neea noaea, ii ?aniieaaathony iie aiana ia iaycaoaeueii ia aa?aao
ii?y. E i?eia?o ii?neie ii?o A?oaiaaeuene eiaao iiaeoiaeiie eaiae ii
?aea Naaa?iie Aeaeia i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 76 ei.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?neie ii?o yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei o?ainii?oiui oceii, aaea
noueothony ?acee/iua aeaeu o?ainii?oa, aaea i?iecaiaeeony iaeia ec naiuo
neiaeiuo, ioaaonoaaiiuo e aei?iainoiyueo iia?aoeee ii ia?aaaeea a?ocia.
Iiyoiio ii?neea ii?ou noaee aeaaiui i?aaei?eyoeai, ninoaaeythuei iniiao
oaeeo o?ainii?oiuo oceia, eae Eaieia?aaeneee, Aeaaeeainoieneee,
Iaoiaeeeineee e ae?oaea. Iie yaeythony aaaeiuie oeaio?aie anae
o?ainii?oiie nenoaiu iaoae no?aiu.

Ii?neea ii?ou iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii iacia/aieth (oi?aiaua,
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua, i?iiuoeaiiua, i?iiuneiaua), ii aeaeai
ia?a?aaaouaaaiuo a?ocia (eaniua, oaieueiua, ?oaeiua, niaoeeaeueiua), ii
ianoo ?aniieiaeaiey e ii ?yaeo ae?oaeo i?eciaeia. Aicieeiiaaiea ii?neiai
ii?oa anaaaea aucuaaei iiyaeaiea iiaiai ai?iaea. Yoi iineoaeeei
iniiaaieai aeey iiyaeaiey oaeiai oa?ieia, eae “ii?oiaue ai?iae” eee
“ai?iae-ii?o”. Iai?eia? Iaoa?ao?a, ?iaeaeaiiue eiaiii eae ii?o, iioii
aeaaiaea?y ii?oo, aai auaiaeiiio ?aniieiaeaieth e ia?iiiiio cia/aieth
aeey aiaoieo oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo naycae ai?iae au?in a
e?oiiaeoee eiaeono?eaeueiue e eoeueoo?iue oeaio? ainoaea?noaa – aai
noieeoeo ia aeaa noieaoey.

Eae aiaiiue iino e aaca Oeoiieaaineie yneaae?u aue caeiaeai
Aeaaeeainoie. Aeey oi?aiaee ni n?aaeecaiiuie no?aiaie ia ianoa
iaeaiueeie aea?aaooee aeaanoe eao iacaae ia/aee no?ieoue aieueoie ii?o,
oaia?ue yoi ecaanoiue ai anai ie?a ii?o e ai?iae Iaeanna. Iiaeii
i?eaanoe aua iiiaeanoai i?eia?ia aeeyiey ii?neiai ii?oa ia ?acaeoea
eio?ano?oeoo?u.

A inaiaiee Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea ii?neea ii?ou nua?aee iniaoth ?ieue. Anee
ia?aiia/aeueii ainoi/iua ?aeiiu ?innee inaaeaaeenue nooiiooiui iooai io
O?aea e Oeoiio ieaaio, oi n auoiaeii e iiaa?aaeueth aue naeaeai
no?aieoaeueiue “a?inie” oaea ii?neei iooai ia Eai/aoeo, ia Eo?eeueneea
ino?iaa e Eiiaei?neea ino?iaa.

Ii?o aue anaaaea i?e/eiie aieaa aunieiai ?inoa ianaeaiey a ii?oiaii
ai?iaea. A ia?eiae iaaeaeo ia?aienyie ianaeaiey 1959 e 1970 aa.
/eneaiiinoue aeeoaeae Iaaaaeaia oaaee/eeanue ia 48%, Aeaaeeainoiea – ia
52, Iaoiaeee – ia 68, Iao?iiaaeiane-Eai/aoneiai – ia 80%, ianiio?y ia oi
/oi eeeiao oai aeaeaei ia n?aaeecaiiiii?neee.

Oaia?ue ia?aeaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii e aiaoiiee ii?oa .

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, iniiaiia “?aai/aa ianoi” a ii?neii ii?oo – yoi aai
i?e/aeu, aai ia?aa?oci/iua eiiieaenu. Iie ii oa?aeoa?o ?aaiou, ii aeaeai
ia?a?aaaouaaaiuo a?ocia eee ii iai?aaeaieyi a?ociiioieia naiaeyony a
a?ociaua ?aeiiu – iniiaiia oicyenoaaiiia iiae?acaeaeaiea ii?oa,
auiieiythuaa aai aeaaioth caaea/o, oi anoue iia?oceo – aua?oceo noaeia,
aaaiiia, aaoiiiaeeae, o?aiaiea a?ocia, ioi?ieaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo
eiiia?/aneeo aeieoiaioia e iiiaia ae?oaia. A?ociaua ?aeiiu iaania/eaatho
iieo/aiea ii?oii iniiaiie /anoe aeioiaeia, eo ?aaioa ii?aaeaeyao aeaaiua
eiee/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee ii?oa: auiieiaiea ieaia ii a?ociiai?ioo, ii
naiaa?aiaiiie e ea/anoaaiiie ia?aaioee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii?neie oeio a iaoae no?aia e a ae?oaeo aaaeoueo
ii?neeo ainoaea?noaao iiiieiyaony a iniiaiii niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie
noaeaie, i?aaeiacia/aiiuie aeey ia?aaicee no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?ocia.

E /eneo oaeeo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo eiiieaenia iiaeii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
ioianoe eiioaeia?iua oa?ieiaeu. Eo niaoeeaeecaoeey caeeth/aaony i?aaeaea
anaai a iniauaiee iniauie ia?aa?oci/iuie iaoaieciaie. Ca n/ao yoiai
eioaineaiinoue a?ociauo ?aaio oiaiueoeeanue a 3-4 ?aca.

Oaeia iai?aaeaiea – oe?oiiaiea a?ociaiai ianoa – i?ineaaeeaaaony e ia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ia?iiiuo ia?aa?oci/iuo eiiieaenia, eioi?ua naaiaeiy
caaiaaaee i?i/iua iiceoeee a iaoeo ii?neeo ii?oao, e a ?yaea ca?oaaaeiuo
ii?oia.

E?iia a?ociauo a ii?oao eiathony iannaaee?neea i?e/aeu. Aeey
ianeoaeeaaiey aeaeueieo ?aenia i?aaeiacia/aiu ii?neea aiecaeu, eioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eiiaeiaou ?acee/iuo oneoa aeey iannaaee?ia.

Neeaaeu yaeythony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia ii?oa, iie ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeytho aai i?iecaiaenoaaiiua aiciiaeiinoe. Aeey iaaaei/iuo a?ocia,
eiioaeia?ia, e?oaeiai eana i?eiaiythony ioe?uoua neeaaeu.

Aieinoue ioe?uouo neeaaeia aaeeea. Oae, oaieueiua e ?oaeiua eiiieaenu,
?ann/eoaiiua ia ia?aaioeo ii?neeo aeaaioia a?ociiiaeuaiiinoueth 100-150
oun.o, iiaoo o?aieoue iaeiia?aiaiii 500-700 oun.o a?oca ianeieueeeo
aeaeia, a neeaaeu aeey eiioaeia?ia aeaeathony aianoeiinoueth 5-7 oun.aae
e aieaa.

E?uoua neeaaeu ii naiaio iacia/aieth iiae?acaeaeythony ia neeaaeu aeey
ooo/iuo a?ocia, aeey ca?ia (yeaaaoi?a, iaoaiece?iaaiiua aiaa?u), aeey
iaaaei/iuo a?ocia e?uoiai o?aiaiey, iai?eia? oeaiaio, naoa?-nu?aoe,
oaeia?aiey, aeey ?ao?eaea?aoi?iuo a?ocia e o?oeoia, aeey aeeaeeeo a?ocia
iaeeaii, aeey iaoaeeii?ieaoa.

E?uoua neeaaeu – yoi neiaeiua eiaeaia?iua nii?oaeaiey, ?ann/eoaiiua ia
i?iecaiaenoai a?ociauo ?aaio n aunieie eioaineaiinoueth, iai?oaeiaaiiua
nenoaiaie iiaea?ioooaiey, neaiaeecaoeee e aeiee?iaee, ono?ienoaaie aeey
oaeiaiie ia?aaea/e a?ocia a ciio aeaenoaey i?e/aeueiuo ia?aa?oci/iuo
iaoei e aeey iia?ocee – aua?ocee aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aaaiiia e
aaoio?ainii?oa.

Aoiea?iai/iua iaooaaacu niaaaeatho noaeioiieeaii e ia?a?aaaouaatho ca
aiae aei 1-2 iei.o ?acee/iuo aeaeia oiieeaa e niaci/iuo ianae.

A oueiaie /anoe ii?oa iau/ii ?aniieaaathony ?aiiioiua ianoa?neea e
ae?oaea caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e auoiaiai iacia/aiey.

Acaeiiia aeeyiea ii?oa e ai?iaea

Ii?neea ii?ou ?aniieaaathony ii/oe ai anao neo/ayo a i?aaeaeao
ai?iaeneie /a?ou eee a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe. Iie naycaiu i?i/iuie
e naiuie ?acee/iuie naycyie nioeeaeueiiai, oicyenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai e
oaoiieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Acaeiiioiioaiea iaaeaeo ii?oii e ai?iaeii neiaeiua e ii?ie
i?ioeai?a/eaua. ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaiaaeiaie enoi?ee iie eciaiyeenue.
Ia?aiia/aeueii oneiaey aeecie i?inoiai ?aai/aai ethaea ieeiai ia
eioa?aniaaee, eo/oea o/anoee ii?neiai aa?aaa ioaiaeeeenue iiae ii?oiaua
nii?oaeaiey eee iniaiyee oienoinoiia. I?eeaaathuea e ii?oo oa??eoi?ee
auno?i cano?aeaaeenue aeeeuie eee ae?oaeie ai?iaeneeie caeaieyie,
eioi?ua, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ia?aie/eaaee ?acaeoea ii?oa, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ii?iaeueiiio i?iaeeaaieth a yoeo eaa?oaeao iaoae ii?o n aai
e?oaeinooi/iui ooiii e noaoie.

Oieueei a iaoe aeie noaee aeoaiei eco/aoueny aii?inu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae
N?aaeu, caei?iauey ethaeae, ?aaioathueo e i?iaeeaathueo a aeece
i?iiuoeaiii-o?ainii?oiuo eiiieaenia, aaeece ii?neeo ii?oia e
niioonoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee. Iiyoiio ieioiinoue i?iiuoeaiiie cano?ieee
iiauo oa??eoi?ee ii?oiaie ciiu a iaoe aeie cia/eoaeueii nieceeinue.

Caeeth/aiea

Naaiaeiy o?ainii?o ?O ia?aaeeaaao ia eo/oea a?aiaia. Ana oi, /oi
iaeiieeinue a aeiia?ano?ia/iua aiaeu a iaeanoe i?aaiecaoeee ia?aaicie,
aace?iaaaoaeny ia aeieaieaoieo i?aeoe/aneeo aeinoeaeaieyo, ?aaioao
io?aneaauo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooia, ieacaeinue ai iiiaii
a?iniaui. Caiaia nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey o?ainii?oii nenoaiie ?aaoee?iaaiey
i?eaaea e iieiiio ?ac?uao iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie oiaa?ia e
iio?aaiinoyie ia?aaic/eeia.

Iaaeaiea, ii nouanoao, anao aeaeia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
io?aceeinue ia nieaeaiee eioaineaiinoe ?aaiou o?ainii?oiie nenoaiu.
Aianoa n oai niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi i?ioeann icaei?iaeaiey yeiiiieee
n ?innee aeeciaiii iaecaaaeai ai anao io?aneyo. Oaea nae/an iiyaeeenue
?inoee ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
iaono?ienoaa aeeciaauoa.

A nayce n yoei noaiao iaecaaaeiie ei?aiiay ?aeiino?oeoeey anae
o?ainii?oiie nenoaiu no?aiu. Iaeiaei anee naaiaeiy ia caiyoueny
iiaeaioiaeie oaeie ?aeiino?oeoeee, oi n eaaeaeui aeiai yoi aoaeao
noaiiaeony ana cao?oaeieoaeueiae, oai aieaa /oi iaoa no?aia ionoaea io
ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai eae ii i?iecaiaenoao o?ainii?oiie oaoieee, oae e ii
i?aaiecaoeee ia?aaicie.

Iniai yoi caiaoii ia ii?neii o?ainii?oa, e ioaeii, ia ioeeaaeauaay ie ia
ieiooo, ia?aeoe e iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiio ?aoaieth yoeo i?iaeai, oae eae
iie ieacuaatho aieueoia aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea no?aiu.

Nienie eciieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

AEo?iae “Ii?neie oeio”. Iineaa 1997-98aa. ?1-9

Noaouee:

“?aeiino?oeoeey o?ainii?oiie nenoaiu no?aiu iaecaaaeia” A.
Iaa?e/aiei ? 2,1998a.

“I?ia?aiia aic?iaeaeaiey oeioa ?innee ia auiieiyaony a caaeoiaiiii
iauaia” A. Ieeieae/ee ? 3-4,1998a.

“Niaeaenoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth ?inneeneiai oi?aiaiai ii?aoiaenoaa” A. Oo?aaa
? 9-10, 1998 a.

“Onoie/eaia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ii?neiai o?ainii?oa – aaeaiea a?aiaie”

A. Iaa?e/aiei ? 6,1998a.

Atheeaoaiue o?ainii?oiie eioi?iaoeee I.,1998a. ?3-7

Noaouee :

“Ii?neie o?ainii?o a oaaea?aeueiie oeaeaaie i?ia?aiia “Ie?iaie ieaai” “
A.E. Ea?ia? ? 5, 1998 a.

“Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey ii?neiai o?ainii?oa
?innee” A.E.Ea?ia? ? 7, 1997 a.

Ieeieueneee A.A.”Aaia?aoey o?ainii?oa NNN?” . I.,1977a.

Ieenaoeeee A.E.”Eiiia?/aneay aaia?aoey ?innee”. I.,1996a.

Yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay aaia?aoey ?innee. iiae. ?aae. i?io.
A.O. O?ouaaa. I.,1997a.

?aciauaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. iiae. ?aae. A.A, Eenoaiiaa, I.A.
Eiiueiaa. I., 1994a.

Aoean “Aaia?aoey ?innee” (ianaeaiea e oicyenoai) 9 eeann. I., Ae?ioa
1997a.

Oa/aoo?ia O.N. ?aciauaiea o?ainii?oa a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao e a
NNN?. I., 1939.

1 Oa/aoo?ia O.N. ?aciauaiea o?ainii?oa a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiaoe
aNNN?. I., 1939, n. 489.

2 Eaaioaae – ieaaaiea iaaeaeo ii?oaie iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa

1 Iaoa?eeu ii noaoenoeea iooae niiauaiey, aui. 107. I., 1930a.

2 N?aaee eaaioaaeiuo ia?aaicie aeaaioth ?ieue ea?aao iaeue eaaioaae, eee
ieaaaiea aaeieue naieo aa?aaia a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai eee aeaoo niaaeiuo
ii?neeo aannaeiia. Aieueoie eaaioaae – ieaaaiea noaeia iaaeaeo ii?oaie
?innee, eaaeaueie a ?aciuo ii?neeo aannaeiao, ?acaeaeaiiuo aa?aaiauie
oa??eoi?eyie ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa – eiaao iaiueoia cia/aiea

2 Ieai yeaeo?eoeeaoeee ?NON?

1 AEo?iae “Ii?neie oeio”. Noaouey I. Aocaaiei “… A aeayoaeueiinoe
ii?neiai o?ainii?oa ieeaeiai canoiy ia auei”no?.3. I., 1997/?3

1 Ii?aaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu n iienaieai aa i?ioiaeaeaiey e
iaianaieai ia ea?oo a niioaaonoaee n caeeth/aiiui aeiaiai?ii.

1 Iauay a?ociiiaeuaiiinoue noaeia.

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