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География, экономика и государственное устройство Китая

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?aoa?ao

Aaia?aoey, yeiiiieea e ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai Eeoay

Iauea naaaeaiey

Eeoae – Eeoaeneay Ia?iaeiay ?anioaeeea – EI? (Zhonghua Renmin
Gongheguo). Iaoiaeeony a Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Acee. Ieiuaaeue – 9
572 900 ea. ei. Ianaeaiea – 1 205 181 000. Noieeoea – Iaeei (Beijing) –
aieaa 12,5 iei./ae. Ae?oaea e?oiiua ai?iaea – Oaioae (7 860 000),
Oyiueoeceiue (5 900 000). Aaeieieno?aoeaiia aeaeaiea: 23 i?iaeioeee
(aeeth/ay Oaeaaiue.), 5 aaoiiiiiuo ?aeiiia e 3 ai?iaea oeaio?aeueiiai
iiae/eiaiey (Iaeei, Oaioae, Oyiueoecei). I?iaeioeee e aaoiiiiiua ?aeiiu
aeaeyony ia ie?oaa, oacaeu e aieinoe. Aunoay oi/ea – ai?a Yaa?ano (8 848
i). Ainoaea?noaaiiue ycue – iaiaea?eineia ia?a/ea eeoaeneiai ycuea.
Iniiaiua ?aeeaee – eiioooeeainoai, aeaineci, aoaeaeeci, o?enoeainoai,
eneai. Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea – thaiue. Iniiaiua noaouee yenii?oa – nu?ay
iaooue, oaenoeeue, ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u, eaiaiiue oaieue, eiina?au, /ae,
?uaiua i?iaeoeou, oaee-nu?aoe. Oi?ia i?aaeaiey – iaeiiia?oeeiay
ia?iaeiay ?anioaeeea.

Eeoae caieiaao ieiei iaeiie iyoie ieiuaaee Acee. Yoi naiay
iiiaiianaeaiiay no?aia a ie?a. Aaeaaeiaaii a Eeoaa ?iaeaeaaony ieiei 50
000 aeaoae. *oiau i?iei?ieoue oaeia ia?iiiia ianaeaiea, i?eoiaeeony
aicaeaeuaaoue eaaeaeue eei/ie iaoioiie caiee. ?a/iua aeieeiu Ainoi/iiai
Eeoay ?aniaoeaaeenue ouny/aeaoeyie, e a yoeo ?aeiiao au?inee e?oiiua
eiaeono?eaeueiua ai?iaea. Iaiaa ianaeaiu naaa?iua e caiaaeiua ?aeiiu
no?aiu, caiyoua aanieiaeiuie ionouiyie e aunieeie ai?aie. Ia oa??eoi?ee
Eeoay nouanoaiaaea iaeia ec naiuo ae?aaieo e naiuo aaeeeeo
oeeaeeecaoeee, ienueiaiiua iaiyoieee eioi?ie iiyaeeenue a 4 ouny/aeaoee
aei i.y. N?aaee iiiai/eneaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee yoie oeeaeeecaoeee –
ecia?aoaiea aoiaae, oaeea e ii?ioa. A iaoai noieaoee a Eeoaa i?iecioee
aieueoea ia?aiaiu. A 1911 aiaeo Eeoaeneay eiia?ey, i?inouanoaiaaaoay
aieaa 2 ouny/ eao, auea i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeeie. Iinea ainnoaiey 1949
aiaea Eeoae noae eiiioienoe/aneei ainoaea?noaii. A 90-o aiaeao
i?aia?aceeenue e aeaaiua eeoaeneea ai?iaea. Oceea oei/ee e iaeiiyoaaeiua
aeiia onooieee ianoi oe?ieei aaoiiaaeno?aeyi e iiiaiyoaaeiui aeiiai.
Iaeiaei a aea?aaiyo aeeciaiiue oeeaae iaei eciaieeny ca iineaaeiea iiiai
aaeia. Aea?aaaineea aeeoaee caieiathony aeaaiui ia?acii caieaaeaeeai,
eniieuecoy o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoiaeu o?oaea, e au?aueaatho ?en ia
oa??ane?iaaiiuo iieyo.

Aaia?aoey Eeoay

Eeoae – o?aouea ii aaee/eia ainoaea?noai a ie?a iinea ?innee e Eaiaaeu.
A no?aia i?aaenoaaeaii aieueoia ?aciiia?acea eaiaeoaooia e eeeiaoa. Aeey
naaa?i-caiaaeiuo ie?aei Eeoay oa?aeoa?iu aeeeiiay oieiaeiay ceia e
ei?ioeia, i/aiue aea?eia eaoi. Yoe eanenoua ?aeiiu aiaaou iieaciuie
eneiiaaiuie, a oii /enea eaiaiiui oaeai. ?aceea ia?aiaaeu oaiia?aoo?u
oa?aeoa?iu oaeaea aeey naaa?iuo iaeanoae Eeoay, aaea o?aayienoua ?aaieiu
a?aie/ao n ionouiae Aiae. Eaoii oaiia?aoo?a a ionouia iiaeao
iiaeieiaoueny aei +38 a?aaeonia ii Oeaeueneth, a ceiie iioneaoueny aei
-34. Oeaio?aeueiua naaa?iua i?iaeioeee Eeoay ia?anaeaao oe?ieay
ecaeeenoay ?aea Ooaioa (AEaeoay ?aea), iianiay no?aoiuie iaaiaeiaieyie.
Iaeiaei oaeia?aiiua ?a/iui eeii aeieeiu yoie ?aee /?acau/aeii
ieiaei?iaeiu. Ae?oaay aaeeeay ?aea, ssioecu, i?ioaeaao /a?ac
oeaio?aeueiua i?iaeioeee no?aiu. Yoi aaaeiaeoay o?ainii?oiay a?oa?ey
Eeoay e o?aouey ii aaee/eia ?aea a ie?a, aeeeia eioi?ie ninoaaeyao a 300
eeeiiao?ia. Enoiee ssioecu iaoiaeyony a caiaaeiuo ai?ao Eeoay, ?aea
aiaaeaao a AEaeoia ii?a.

Caiaae no?aiu caieiaao iaoe?iia aunieia ieineiai?uea Oeaao, eioi?ua
/anoi iacuaatho “E?uoae ie?a”. Ia thaa Eeoae ia?aie/eaaaony ai?iui
o?aaoii Aeiaeaaa, aaea iaoiaeeony naiay aunieay a ie?a aa?oeia, ai?a
Yaa?ano. A i?aaeai?ueyo Aeiaeaaa ia thai-caiaaea no?aiu eeeiao oaieue.
Aeey thaeiuo iaeanoae Eeoay e aeeceaaeauaai ino?iaa Oaeaaiue oa?aeoa?ai
aea?eee e aeaaeiue eeeiao n aeiaeaeeeaui naciiii, eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaaony
n iay ii ieoya?ue.

Yeiiiieea Eeoay

Eeoae a ia/aea XXI aaea yaeyaony einie/aneie e yaea?iie aea?aeaaie.
Iino?iaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee inouanoaeyaony a Eeoaa iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee ia iniiaa iyoeeaoieo ieaiia. Yeiiiieea nio?aiyao
naith iiiaioeeaaeiinoue. I?e aunieeo oaiiao yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa (14,2 %
a 1992 a., 7,8 % a 1998 a.) ii eiaao yenoaineaiue oa?aeoa?. A 1995,
iianaynue ia?aa?aaa yeiiiieee, ?oeiaiaenoai i?eiyei ?aoaiea i
naea?aeeaaiee ?inoa a i?aaeaeao 8-9 %. AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey a 1999 a.
aeinoea 780 aeieea?ia. I?e aunieie aeiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ii/oe
80 % anao eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia a yeiiiieeo EI? — yoi yoie/aneea
eeoaeoeu (ooaoeyi), i?iaeeaathuea ca ?oaaaeii. A 2010 a. Eeoae aeieaeai
ii ieaiai EIE aeiaiaoue NOA ii niaieoiiiio aeioiaeo AAI (a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ii iaeioi?ui ioeaieai yeiiiieea EI? ninoaaeyao 45 % yeiiiieee NOA,
ai?i/ai, ?yae yenia?oia n/eoaao yoo oeeo?o caauoaiiie).

«*oiaaiue», iaeei ec e?oiiuo nia?aiaiiuo ioenii-oi?aiauo oeaio?ia.
Caeanue ?aciauaaony Ooayeneay ecaeaoaeueneay a?oiia (ai?iae Ooaiue).Ia
ia?aii yoaia ?aoi?i aunieee ?ino iaania/eaaeny naeueneei oicyenoaii,
inaiaiaeaeaiiui io iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?aie/aiee yiioe Iai. Ia?oey iiiu?yea
?acaeoea oe?ieiianooaaiiai iaeeioiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eonoa?iie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Yoiio niinianoaiaaea aieueoay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey. A
no?aia aicieeea ia?iiiay ianna iaeeeo oaoie/anee ionoaeuo i?aaei?eyoee,
ia eioi?uo o?oaeeeenue ?aianeaiieee, ii?oiua, iaoaueee e o. i.
Aneaaenoaea ?acaeoey eonoa?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iecioei cia/eoaeueiia
?aniueaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia no?aiu, aucaaa
ia?aoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o i?iecaiaenoaa, neaaia eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, o?iie/aneee aeaoeoeeo nu?ueaauo,
yia?aaoe/aneeo e aiaeiuo ?ano?nia. Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey iaaeaeo
oai inoaaaeenue a iniiaiii oauoi/iuie. *oiau niinianoaiaaoue no?oeoo?iui
eciaiaieyi, Eeoae ?acaeaaao nianoaaiioth nenoaio ia?aciaaiey, iao/aiea
nooaeaioia ca ?oaaaeii (iniaaiii a NOA e ssiiiee), iiiu?yao eiii?o
oaoiieiaee, iicaieythueo ?acaeaaoue oaeea i?ia?anneaiua naeoi?u
yeiiiieee eae i?iecaiaenoai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, iiauo iaoa?eaeia,
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiioth eiaeono?eth, aeioaoiieiaee. cae?aaiio?aiaiea. A
EI? nauoa 384 iei iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa, no?aia oaeaea eeaee?oao a
ie?a ii /eneo iieueciaaoaeae iiaeeueiie oaeaoiiiie nayce (487,3 iei
iieueciaaoaeae ia ai?aeue 2007 aiaea). A ?aeiia Oaeaeeai naaa?iaa Iaeeia
nicaeaia eeoaeneay «Neeeeiiiaay aeieeia». Eioaineoeeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa
i?eiineo e iiai/iua ?acoeueoaou: o?iaaiue ne?uoie aac?aaioeoeu a
naeueneie ianoiinoe i?eia?ii aaeaia i?aauoaao ioeoeeaeueiua iieacaoaee
(4,6 %). Eeoae iaaeanii iiiu?yao yiea?aoeeth.

Eeoae eeaee?oao a ie?a ii aeiau/a oaey, aeaeaciuo, ia?aaioeaauo,
naeioeiai-oeeieiauo, no?ueiyiuo e aieueo?aiiauo ?oae, a oaeaea
ae?aaaneiu; yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei a ie?a i?iecaiaeeoaeai eiena, /oaoia,
noaee e noaeueiuo o?oa, aethieiey, oeeiea, ieiaa, ieeaey, oaeaaeci?ia,
?aaeeii?eaiieeia e iiaeeueiuo oaeaoiiia, noe?aeueiuo e oaaeiuo iaoei,
aaeineiaaeia e iioioeeeeia, /ania e oioiaiia?aoia, oaeia?aiee,
oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo e oaeeiauo oeaiae, oeaiaioa, iaoae, iyna, ioaieoeu,
?ena, ni?ai, ea?oioaey, oeiiea, yaeie, oaaaea, iaiuae, oaeeiae/iuo
eieiiia; eiaao e?oiiaeoea a ie?a iiaieiauey ioeoeu, naeiae, iaaoe, eic,
eioaaeae e yeia, a oaeaea eeaee?oao ii aueiao ?uau. E?iia oiai, EI?
aoiaeeo a o?ieeo e?oiiaeoeo ie?iauo aaoii?iecaiaeeoaeae (7,2 iei a 2006)
iinea ssiiiee e NOA. Ia oa??eoi?ee EI? aaaeaony aeiau/a iaooe, aaca,
?aaeeicaiaeueiuo iaoaeeia (iieeaaeai, aaiaaeee, no?ueia), o?aia.

Noieue aieueoay e iiiaiianaeaiiay no?aia iiaea au auoue iaeiie ec naiuo
iiaouanoaaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo aea?aeaa ie?a. Iia ?aniieaaaao aiaaouie
i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, a oii /enea ianoi?iaeaeaieyie eaiaiiiai oaey,
iaooe, aeaeaca e aieueo?aia, a oaeaea no?iaaui eanii e enoi/ieeaie
yeaeo?iyia?aee. Iaoioiua caiee Eeoay iiaoo i?iei?ieoue ii/oe ana
ianaeaiea. Ecaeaaia yoa no?aia neaaeeanue naieie oi?aiaoeaie,
?aianeaiieeaie e ecia?aoaoaeyie. Eiaiii eeoaeneea o/aiua iiaea?eee ie?o
eiiian, oa?oi?, eieaiia/aoiue noaiie e aeaaea aoiaaeiua aeaiueae.

Ianiio?y ia ana yoi, ?acaeoea Eeoay anaaaea oi?iiceee ?aciiai ?iaea
yeiiiie/aneea o?oaeiinoe. Iiiaea ianoi?iaeaeaiey iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo
iaoiaeyony a ioaeaeaiiuo o?oaeiiaeinooiiuo ianoao. A canooeeauo e
aea?eeo ?aeiiao iaaiciiaeii au?aueaaoue o?iaeae i?e ionoonoaee
i?ineoaeueiuo nenoai. E?iia oiai, ieiuaaee iaoioiuo caiaeue nie?auathony
aneaaenoaea no?aieoaeueiiai ?inoa ai?iaeia e i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia.
Ianaeaiea Eeoay n ecauoeii iaania/eaaao no?aio ?aai/ae neeie, iaeiaei ii
ia?a aai oaaee/aiey o?aaothony ana aieueoea cao?aou ia ?acaeoea noa?
ianeoaeeaaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey e ia?aciaaiey. Iiiaea aaea eeoaeneea
e?anoueyia e ?aai/ea aeeee a aaaeiinoe e oa?iaee iani?aaaaeeeainoue
i?aayueo eeannia. A 1949 aiaeo e aeanoe a no?aia i?eoee eiiioienou e
iiiuoaeenue oeo/oeoue aeeciue i?inoiai ia?iaea. I?iiuoeaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey ia?aoee a nianoaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaa, e a 50-60-o aiaeao a
Eeoaa eioaineaii ?acaeaaeanue oyaeaeay eiaeono?ey. E?anoueyia auee
iauaaeeiaiu a niiauanoaa, eioi?ua iacuaaeenue eiiioiaie, e aicaeaeuaaee
iauea caiaeueiua oaiaeuey. N ia/aea 80-o aiaeia a no?aia auee ?ac?aoaiu
naiaiaeiua ?uii/iua oeaiu, /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue e eiino?aiiua
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey. A eeoaeneie yeiiiieea ia/aeny ?aceee iiaeuai,
eeoaeneea oiaa?u iaaiaeieee ie?iaie ?uiie. A iaoe aeie a Eeoaa
i?iaeieaeaaony eioaineaiia ?acaeoea naiuo ?aciuo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ianaeaiea Eeoay

Ni a?aiaie i?eoiaea e aeanoe eiiioienoia a 1949 aiaeo a aeecie
eeoaeneiai ia?iaea i?iecioee cia/eoaeueiua ia?aiaiu. AEeciaiiue o?iaaiue
aieueoeinoaa eeoaeoeaa, iniaaiii ai?iaeneeo aeeoaeae, aic?in. Naiaeiue
oeeaae oiaea neeueii eciaieeny. I?aaeaea ianeieueei iieieaiee aeeee
aianoa iaeiie aieueoie naiueae, a iaoe aea aeie naiuee noaee ai?acaei
iaiueoa. Eciaieeinue oaeaea e ioiioaiea ainoaea?noaa e ?aeeaee. A
oa/aiea iiiaeo aaeia ?aeeaey ea?aea aeaaioth ?ieue a aeecie eeoaeoeaa, e
iiiaea aa?ieniiaaaeaiey nouanoaiaaee aie i aie. Iaeiaei i?e
eiiioienoe/aneii i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?aeeaey iiaeaa?aaeanue aiiaieyi –
iniaaiii a 60-o aiaeao, a ia?eiae “eoeueoo?iie ?aaiethoeee”. A iaoe aeie
i?aaeoaeuenoai noaei aieaa oa?ieiui, e ia?iae niiaa iieo/ee naiaiaeo
ioi?aaeaiey ?aeeaeiciuo eoeueoia. Eae e i?aaeaea, aieaa o?ao /aoaa?oae
ianaeaiey no?aiu aeeaao a aea?aaiyo e aicaeaeuaaao caieth. A naaa?iuo
i?iaeioeeyo Eeoay au?aueaatho aeaaiui ia?acii ioaieoeo, ?en e iaen, a a
thaeiuo – ?en e /ae. Eeoaeneea e?anoueyia niae?atho aeinoaoi/ii aieueoea
o?iaeae, /oiau i?iei?ieoue ana ianaeaiea no?aiu. Iaeiaei eeoaeneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai, iaaniieiaiiia auno?ui ?inoii ianaeaiey, i?eiyei caeiiu,
i?ecaaiiua nieceoue o?iaaiue ?iaeaeaaiinoe. Iieiaeui ethaeyi cai?auaaony
anooiaoue a a?ae aei aeinoeaeaiey 20 eao, e noi?oaeaneei ia?ai
?ac?aoaaony eiaoue ia aieueoa iaeiiai-aeaoo aeaoae. 90 i?ioeaioia
ianaeaiey ninoaaeytho iioiiee ia?iaea oaiue, iaeiaaea ianaeyaoaai
naaa?iua iaeanoe Eeoay. E?iia oiai, a no?aia i?iaeeaatho i?aaenoaaeoaee
i?eia?ii 50 ae?oaeo yoie/aneeo a?oii, a oii /enea iiiaieu, oeaaooeu,
eacaoe e ei?aeoeu.

Enoi?ey Eeoay

Ieiei 9 ouny/aeaoee iacaae, a eaiaiiii aaea, ?a/iua aeieeiu Eeoay
ianaeyee ieaiaia ioioieeia e ?uaieiaia. A 5 ouny/aeaoee aei i.y. ia yoeo
caieyo oaea au?aueaaee ?en. Ia/eiay ni 2 ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. caeanue
neeaaeuaaeenue aaeeeea ainoaea?noaa. A III aaea aei i.y. ia i?anoie
acioae Oe-Ooaiaee – ia?aue eiia?aoi? Eeoay e iniiaaoaeue aeeianoee
Oeeiue.

Caueuaiiue io naaa?iuo ia?iaeia Aaeeeie Eeoaeneie noaiie, Eeoae nei?i
i?aa?aoeeny a ia?iiioth eiia?eth n oi?aiauie naycyie, eioi?ua oyioeenue
aei naiiai Ae?aaiaai ?eia. A n?aaeiea aaea, ianiio?y ia iiiai/eneaiiua
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua aieiu, Eeoae ia?aaeee cieioie aae eneonnoaa e iaoee.
A XIII aaea i.y. a no?aio aoi?aeenue iiiaieu. Iiiaieueneee i?aaeoaeue
Eoaea-Oai iniiaae iiaoth noieeoeo ainoaea?noaa Oaiaaeee (nia?aiaiiue
Iaeei). Iinea i?aaeaiey iiiaieueneie aeeianoee THaiue e aeanoe i?eoea
thaeiieeoaeneay aeeianoey Iei, a caoai iaiue/aeo?neay aeeianoey Oeei. A
XIX aaea aa?iiaeneea no?aiu, a oii /enea Aaeeeia?eoaiey, ia/aee
i?aa?auaoue Eeoae a naith eieiieth. Yoi i?eaaei e a?aaeaeaineie aieia e
ia?iaeiui ainnoaieyi. A 1841 aiaeo ii Iaieeineiio aeiaiai?o
Aaeeeia?eoaiey iieo/eea a naia aeaaeaiea ino?ia Aiieiia (eioi?ue
aa?ioeny a nianoaaiiinoue Eeoay a 1997 aiaeo). A ia/aea XX aaea Oeeineay
aeeianoey auea naa?aiooa. Ca yoei iineaaeiaaee aiaeu ia?iaeiuo aieiaiee,
iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau iaaeaeo eiiioienoaie e iaoeeiiaeenoaie e yiiineie
eioa?aaioeee. A 1948 aiaeo e aeanoe a no?aia i?eoee eiiioienou ai aeaaa
n Iai-Oecy-aeoiii. Iinea nia?oe Iai a 1976 aiaeo eeoaeneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia/aei i?iaiaeeoue yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu e ?anoe?youe
oi?aiaua nayce n eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie. Iaoeeiiaeueiue i?acaeiee:
1 ieo. – Aeaiue i?iaicaeaoaiey ?anioaeeee (1949 a.). Aeeiioiioaiey n
NNN? onoaiiaeaiu 2 ieo. 1949 a. A aeae. 1991 a. ?O i?eciaia
i?aaii?aaiieoeae NNN?.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai

EI? ia?aciaaeanue a ?acoeueoaoa iiaaaeu ia?iaeiie ?aaiethoeee 1 ieo.
1949 a. A no?aia aeaenoaoao Eiinoeoooeey EI? io 4 aeae. 1982 a.

Iinea 1965 a. a oiaea oae iacuaaaiie «eoeueoo?iie ?aaiethoeee» (1966-76
aa.) a Eeoaa auea ?ac?ooaia iieeoe/aneay iaaeno?ieea, nicaeaiiay a
niioaaonoaee n eiinoeoooeeae 1954 a. Anaeeoaeneia nia?aiea ia?iaeiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae (ANII) ia ooieoeeiie?iaaei. Aianoi auai?iuo i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe auee o/?aaeaeaiu i?aaiu aiaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneie
aeeeoaoo?u. Ooieoeee ianoiuo auai?iuo i?aaiia inouanoaeyeenue
«?aaiethoeeiiiuie eiieoaoaie», ia?aciaaiiuie a i?eeaciii ii?yaeea a
ia?eiae «eoeueoo?iie ?aaiethoeee».

Niaeanii eiinoeoooeee io 4 aeae. 1982 a. aunoei i?aaiii ainaeanoe
yaeyaony ANII. Iii ecae?aao i?aaenaaeaoaey EI? e aai caianoeoaey. N?ie
iieiiii/ee i?aaenaaeaoaey EI? e aai caianoeoaey – 5 eao, iie iiaoo
ecae?aoueny ia neaaeothuee n?ie, ii ia aieaa /ai ia aeaa n?iea.
I?aaenaaeaoaeue EI? i?aaenoaaeyao ainoaea?noai ai aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo
aeaeao. Ii i?aaenoaaeaieth i?aaenaaeaoaey EI? ANII ooaa?aeaeaao
eaiaeeaeaoo?o i?aiuea?a Ainniaaoa (i?aaeoaeuenoai). A ia?a?uaao iaaeaeo
nanneyie ANII aai iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuei i?aaiii yaeyaony Iinoiyiiue
eiieoao, eioi?ue ninoieo ec i?aaenaaeaoaey, aai caiia, ia/aeueieea
nae?aoa?eaoa e /eaiia. N?ie iieiiii/ee Iinoiyiiiai eiieoaoa – 5 eao.
Iinoiyiiue eiieoao Anaeeoaeneiai nia?aiey ia?iaeiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
eca?ai 16 ia?oa 1998 a. ia ia?aie nannee ANII aeaayoiai nicuaa.

Aeaaa ainoaea?noaa – I?aaenaaeaoaeue EI? (n ia?oa 1993 a. – Oecyi
Oecyieiue), caianoeoaeue I?aaenaaeaoaey EI? – Oo Oeceiueoai.

Nannee ANII i?ioiaeyo 1 ?ac a aiae ii 14-15 aeiae, iaaeaeo nanneyie
aeaenoaoao Iinoiyiiue eiieoao ANII (i?aaenaaeaoaeue – Ee Iyi). IE ANII
iaeaaeaao i?aaii i?eiyoey caeiiia. Nia?aiey ia?iaeiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
(NII) nicaeathony aei o?iaiy aieinoe.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeanoue inouanoaeyao ANII. Iii ninoieo ec aeaiooaoia,
eca?aiiuo io i?iaeioeee, aaoiiiiiuo ?aeiiia, ai?iaeia oeaio?aeueiiai
iiae/eiaiey e aii?oaeaiiuo nee. Auai?u aeaiooaoia i?iaiaeyony iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii Iinoiyiiiai eiieoaoa ANII, ii?ia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e
ii?yaeie auai?a aeaiooaoia onoaiaaeeaathony caeiiii i auai?ao. N?ie
iieiiii/ee ANII eaaeaeiai nicuaa – 5 eao.

Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo Ainniaaoo, eioi?ue ioaaonoaaiai
ia?aae ANII e aai Iinoiyiiui eiieoaoii e ei iiaeio/aoai. Ec i?aiuea?a,
caianoeoaeae i?aiuea?a, /eaiia Ainniaaoa e ia/aeueieea nae?aoa?eaoa
ia?acoaony Iinoiyiiue eiieoao Ainniaaoa ni n?ieii iieiiii/ee – 5 eao.
I?aiuea?, caianoeoaee i?aiuea?a, i?aaenaaeaoaee eiieoaoia ia iiaoo
iacia/aoueny ia yoe aeieaeiinoe aieaa /ai ia aeaa n?iea iiae?yae.
I?aiuea? – *aeo AEoioece.

Ii eiinoeoooeee 1982 a. ainnoaiiaeaiu aieinoiua i?aaiu aeanoe.
Nio?aiythony naeueneea ia?iaeiua eiiioiu, ii iie ia yaeythony aieueoa
i?aaiecaoeeyie, a eioi?uo neeou aiaaeeii iecoay ainaeanoue e
oicyenoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea. N?ie iieiiii/ee NIIi?iaeioeee, ai?iaeia
oeaio?aeueiiai iiae/eiaiey, ai?iaeia, eiathueo ?aeiiiia aeaeaiea, – 5
eao. Aeaiooaou oacaeiuo nia?aiee ia?iaeiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae e ieaea
ecae?athony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ecae?aoaeyie iooai i?yiuo auai?ia. N?ie
iieiiii/ee NII oacaeia, ai?iaeia, ia eiathueo ?aeiiiiai aeaeaiey,
ai?iaeneeo ?aeiiia, aieinoae, iaoeeiiaeueiuo aieinoae e iinaeeia – 3
aiaea.

Ia anao aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo o?iaiyo nicaeathony ia?iaeiua
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ainniaao e ia?iaeiua i?aaeoaeuenoaa ooaa?aeaeathony NII
niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy. Ia ia?eiae ?aoi?i Ainniaaoo EI? i?aaeinoaaeaii
i?aai i?eiyoey ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, eiathueo neeo caeiia.

Aunoee aiaiiue i?aai EI? – Oeaio?aeueiue Aiaiiue Niaao (OeAN), aai
i?aaenaaeaoaeue – Oecyi Oecyieiue.

I?aayuae a EI? ia?oeae yaeyaony Eiiia?oey Eeoay (60 iei. /eaiia). Aainae
OeE – Oecyi Oecyieiue.

Iiieii EIE a Eeoaa nouanoaotho aua 8 iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, i?eciathueo
?oeiaiaenoai EIE. Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee Eeoay
oi?ie?otho Anaeeoaeneee e ianoiua eiieoaou Ia?iaeiiai iieeoe/aneiai
eiinoeueoaoeaiiai niaaoa Eeoay (IIENE) – i?aaiu, eiathuea niaauaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?. Anaeeoaeneee eiieoao IIENE aicaeaaeyao /eai Iinoiyiiiai
eiieoaoa Iieeoath?i OeE EIE Ee AEoeooaiue. Nicaeaiea iiiiceoeeiiiuo
iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee a EI? ia aeiioneaaony.

50 eao EI?. 1 ieo. 1949 a. a ?acoeueoaoa iiaaaeu aii?oaeaiiuo nee
Eiiia?oee Eeoay iaae aieneaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa ao?aeoaciie ia?oee
Aiieiueaeai e onoaiiaeaiey eiio?iey EIE iaae iiaeaaeythuae /anoueth
oa??eoi?ee no?aiu auea i?iaicaeaoaia Eeoaeneay Ia?iaeiay ?anioaeeea.
Aiieiueaeai nio?aiyao aeanoue eeoue ia ino?iaa Oaeaaiue, oaeoe/anee
nicaeaa iainiaeaiiia e ia i?eciaaaaiia aieueoeinoaii no?ai ie?a
ainoaea?noaaiiia ia?aciaaiea.

Ca iineaaeiea iieaaea iiiaie?aoii oaaee/eeny yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae
no?aiu, aeinoeaioou aia/aoeythuea oniaoe a nioeeaeueiie iaeanoe,
aic?inee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaoi?eoao e aeeyiea EI?. Ianoaiiaea a no?aia
noaaeeueia, oaiiu ?acaeoey yeiiiieee inoathony aunieeie. Eeoae no?aieony
no?ieoue ioiioaiey aeia?ininaaenoaa ni anaie no?aiaie ie?a a oeaeyo
iaania/aiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e i?iaaaeaiey e?oiiuo ?aoi?i.

50-eaoea EI? aoaeao iciaiaiiaaii aica?auaieai a aeae. 1999 a. iiae
eeoaeneee noaa?aieoao Aiiyiy (Iaeai), ii?ooaaeueneiai eieiieaeueiiai
aeaaeaiey. Aianoa n aica?auaieai a 1997 a. Aiieiiaa caaa?oaaony
iiiaieaoiee yoai eieiieaeueiie enoi?ee Eeoay. 2 ieo. 1999 a. auei
ioia/aii 50-eaoea onoaiiaeaiey iaoeo aeeiioiioaiee n EI?.

Yeiiiie/aneia /oaei Eeoay

Aani?aoeaaeaioiua nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oniaoe Eeoaeneie Ia?iaeiie
?anioaeeee (EI?) noaee iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo niauoee ie?iaie
yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee XX a. Aanue ie? aoeaaeueii
caaeiiioece?iaai aunieeie oaiiaie ?inoa AAI a Eeoaa. Ca aeaa
aeanyoeeaoey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i EI? i?aa?aoeeanue a
aeeiaie/ioth ?acaeaathuothny aea?aeaao.

Oniaoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey Eeoay au?aaeathony a ?inoa iauaiia
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iec-aiaenoaa e caiyoee aaaeoueo iiceoeee a ie?a ii
i?iecaiaenoao iiiaeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. Eeoae yaeyao-ny ie?iaui
eeaea?ii a i?iecaiaenoaa oaey, noaee, oeaiaioa, ca?ia, iyna, oeiiea,
iaoiaeeony ia aaaeoueo ie?iauo iiceoeeyo ii aeiau/a iaooe, i?iecaiaenoao
yeaeo?iyia?aee. A na?aaeeia 90-o aa. EI? – o?aouey a ie?a aea?aeaaa ii
iauaio aiaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa AII (enoiaey ec ia?eoaoa iieoiaoaeueiie
niinia-iinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho). Ii i?iaiicai, oaea e 2005 a. Eeoae
ii yoiio iieacaoaeth n?aaiyaony n NOA.

Aaaeouea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ei?ii?aoeee ?anniao?eaatho Eeoae eae iaeaieaa
ia?niaeoeaiue ie?iaie ?uiie. Ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia, aieinoue
eeoaeneiai ?uiea ninoaaeyao 300 ie?ae aeiee. Ee-oae aeoeaii i?eaeaeaao
eiino?aiiue eaieoae. Ii caieiaao aoi?ia ianoi iinea NOA ii eiee/anoao
i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie. A na?aaeeia 90-o aa. ia eo
aeieth i?eoiaeeeinue 7,5% i?i-iuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e ii/oe 19%
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee (a iaeciaiiuo oeaiao). A 1996 a. ia oaeeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aaioaei 17 iei /aeiaae, iie i?iecaaee 14,5% AAI. E eiioeo
90-o aa. yenii?o eeoaeneiai eaieoaea ?anoe?yaony (aeinoeaaao 18 ie?ae
aeiee.). Ii yoiio iieacaoaeth Eeoae caieiaao ainueiia ianoi a ie?a.
Ooa/ea eaieoaea ec no?aiu ii iaioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui aeinoeaaao 50 ie?ae
aeiee.

Ia?anoathuea iauaiu aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa i?e aaeaaiaeiii ?inoa
yenii?oa a 16-17% a 90-o aa. i?i/ii iinoaaeee Eeoae a /enei e?oiiaeoeo
yenii?oa?ia ie?a (a ia/aea aoi?ie aeanyoee).

Aeiaeaoenue nouanoaaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ii oaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa,
aeeiaieea e iauaiai i?iiuoeaiiiai e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, Eeoae ii-i?aaeiaio ionoaao io aaaeoueo i?iiuoeaiiuo no?ai
e no?ai ni n?aaeia?acaeoie yeiiiieeie ii o?iaith i?iecaiaenoaa e
aeioiaeia ia aeooo ianaeaiey e o?iaith aeecie. Caiaoii ionoaao Eeoae e
ii o?iaith iauanoaaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeue-iinoe o?oaea.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy, iiaeii neuoaoue “cayaeaiey” i oii, /oi
“yeiiiie/aneia /oaei Eeoay” – yoi ieo – iueueiue iocu?ue, ?acaeooue
“aeeaaieyie ec aia”. Eiaaea iaeei ec iieo nieo?nieeia ociae, /oi y aoaeo
ienaoue ?aoa?ao ii Eeoath, ii iiiaicia/eoaeueii i?iecian: “Yeiiiie/aneia
/oaei… Aea ieeaeiai /oaea iao! Aanue AAI Eeoay ninoieo ec eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee… Aio anee au iai “aeaaaee” noieueei aeaiaa… E iioii,
aeooaaua iieacaoaee oai i?inoi ieeaeea…”

*oi ae, io/anoe ii i?aa. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iaynii, neieueei
aeaenoaeoaeueii eeoaeoeaa i?i-aeeaaao a EI?. Niaeanii ioeoeeaeueiie
eioi?iaoeee – i?eia?ii iaeei ieeeea?ae aeaanoe ieeeeiiia /aeiaae.
Aeaeueiaeoee ?ino ioeaieaaaony oae: a 2000 aiaeo – ieiei 1,3 ie?ae.
/aeiaae, a 2010 aiaeo – i?eia?ii 1,4 ie?ae. Iee aoaeao aeinoeaioo e 2030
aiaeo – 1,6 ie?ae. /aeiaae. Iaeiaei aieueoeinoai caiaaeiuo aiaeeoe/aneeo
oeaio?ia oaea nae/an ioeaieaaao eiee/anoai eeoaeneiai ianaeaiey auoa –
aieioue aei 2,2 ie?ae. /aeiaae. *aua anaai oeao?e?oao oeeo?a i?eia?ii
1,6 ie?ae. Caiaaeiua aiaeeoeee iieaaatho, /oi eeoaeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai
ia aeaeaao ioaaoue ie? ?aaeueiui eiee/anoaii naieo iiaeaeaiiuo e
aoeoe?i-aaoue naie iaoaea/e a iieeoeea naea?aeeaaiey anoanoaaiiiai
i?e?inoa. Aeaaea niaeanii ioeoeeaeueiui oeeo?ai eeoaeoeaa a EI? aieueoa,
/ai iaa?ia ai anai ie?a; aieueoa, /ai aa?iiaeoeaa a Aa?iia, ?innee e NOA
aianoa acyouo. Eo i?eia?ii noieueei aea, neieueei ionoeueiai ai ana
ie?a.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey EI? ia yaeyaony aioo?aiiei aeaeii iaeiiai eeoue
Eeoay. Eeoaeoeaa neeoeii iiiai, /oiau ie? iia iicaieeoue naaa
ioiineoueny e yoie no?aia, eae e ethaie ae?oaie.

Auno?ue ?ino ianaeaiey ino?i iiaeieiaao aii?in i i?iei?ia yoie no?aiu e
ia iaania/aiee aa i?iecaiaenoaaiiui nu?ueai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, /ai
aieueoa eeoaeoeaa aeeaao a Eeoaa, oai iaiueoa ie? iiaeao auoue
caeioa?aniaai ai aioo?aiieo eiioeeeoao a yoie no?aia e oai aieueoa – a
eiioeeeoao yoie no?aiu n ninaaeyie. Eieeain Eeoay, iiaeiaiue eieeaino
Niaaoneiai Nithca, iiaeao i?eaanoe e ianniaie iaeiio?iee?oaiie iea?aoeee
nioai ieeeeiiia eeoaeoeaa e e ?ani?ino?aiaieth ianoaaeeue-iinoe ia
iiiaeanoai ninaaeieo ainoaea?noa.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey naaiaeiy – yoi e i?oaeea aeaaeaiey Iaeeia ia
?acaeoua no?aiu n oeaeueth iieo/aiey ana aieueoeo eiaanoeoeee ?aaee
i?aaeioa?auaiey ?inoa aioo?eiieeoe/aneie iai?yaeaiii-noe. Yoio aea
a?aoiaio – e n?aaenoai caueou Iaeeia io aiciiaeiuo iiae?uaiuo aeaenoaee
Caiaaea: /ai aieueoa eeoaeoeaa, oai iaiueoa aeaeathueo “aci?aaoue”
Eeoae. Oae /oi ioeaiea ?aaeueiiai eiee/anoaa ianaeaiey yaeyaony aeey
?acaeouo no?ai ie?a caaea/ae no?aoaae/aneiai cia/aiey. Neooaoeey a EI?
noieue niaoeeoe/ia, /oi ia iniiaaiee iaeieo eeoue aeaiia?aoe/aneeo
oaiaeaioeee iiaeii i?iaiice?iaaoue iiaaaeaiea yoie no?aiu a
n?aaeian?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa.

Yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia a Eeoaa: aeinoeaeaiey e caaea/e

Ia/aei yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu ioiineony e eiioeo 1978 a., eiaaea 3-e
ieaioi OeE EIE 11-ai nicuaa iauyaee i i?iaaaeaiee a aeeciue iieeoeee
“?aoi?iu e ioe?uoinoe”. Nooue i?aia?aciaaiee – ei?aiiia eciaiaiea noa?ie
yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, noaaoae i?aiyonoaeai aeey ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaee-oaeueiuo nee, e iinoaiaiiay caiaia aa iiaie, niiniaiie
i?eaeaoue yoiio ?acaeoeth aeeiaie/iue oa?ae-oa?. ?aoi?ia, oaeei ia?acii,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiaia?acioth ?aaiethoeeth, aa aeaaiay caaea/a –
in-aiaiaeaeaiea e yooaeoeaiia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.

I?aaeiyy aunieioeaio?aeeciaaiiay ieaiiaay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia aeaea
Eeoath iaiaei en-oi?e/anee oeaiiiai e iieaciiai, ii iiiaia a iae auei
ii?i/iui.

Aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie ei?aieeny a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e
i?aaei?eyoeai. I?e aea-noeie ieaiiaie nenoaia i?aaei?eyoea auei oieueei
aaeieieno?aoeaiui i?eaeaoeii ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e ia eiaei i?aaa
ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. E?iia oiai, eaoaai?e/anee io?eoeaeanue ?ieue
?u-ii/iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Yeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue oeaeeeii
ii?aaeaeyeanue aee?aeoeaiuie ieaiaie.

Ii?iee noa?iai iaoaiecia iaeaieaa io/aoeeai i?iyaeeenue a oneiaeyo
eciaiaiey iauae ne-ooaoeee a no?aia. Ei?aiiay ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee
noaea iauaeoeaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

Nooue ?aoi?iu. *oiau iiiyoue nooue eeoaeneie ?aoi?iu, iaaei onaieoue,
/oi nioeeaeenoe/aneee no?ie e nioeea-eenoe/aneay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia –
?aciua aaue. ?aoi?ia o?aaoao ei?aiiiai eciaiaiey ia nioeea-eenoe/aneiai
no?iy, a noa?ie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu. Yoi cia/eo, /oi, ai-ia?auo,
iaeuecy noaaeoue oeaeueth i?aia?aciaaiee eeeaeaeaoeeth
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai no?iy, ai-aoi?uo, iauaeoii ?aoi?iu aeieaeia noaoue
aunieioeaio?aeeciaaiiay ieaiiaay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia. I?e yoii iaeuecy
ia?aie/eaaoueny aa /enoi aiaoieie eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie,
iaiaoiaeeii ?aaeeeaeueii i?aia?aciaaoue naio iiaeaeue yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaiu e aaceniue iaoaieci oicyenoaiaaiey, o.a. inouanoaeoue
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?a-oiae io ieaiiaie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iie.

Aeieaia a?aiy a Eeoaa aeaeaee a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ioee/eoaeueioth /a?oo
eaieoaeecia, a a ieaiiaie – aeaaioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo nioeeaeecia.
I?aeoeea, iaeiaei, iieacaea, /oi ieai e ?uiie – eeoue n?aaenoaa aeey
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, /oi ?uii/iay yeiiiieea iiaeoiaeeo e
nioeeaeecio.

I?e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?uii/iie nenoaia ?uiie i?ecaai ea?aoue aeaaioth
?ieue a ?ani?aaeaea-iee ?ano?nia, oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia
iaycaoaeueii o/eouaaoue caeii noieiinoe e eciaia-iey niioiioaiey ni?ina
e i?aaeeiaeaiey. ?uii/iua ?u/aae aoaeoo ia?aea/eaaoue ?ano?nu a aieaa
yo-oaeoeaiua i?aaei?eyoey e oai naiui ieaaeoo aeaaeaiea ia eaaeaeia
i?aaei?eyoea, iiaoaeaeay ?aaioaoue eo/oa. A ?acoeueoaoa oaea?aeaoueny ia
ieaao oaeanony eeoue iaeaieaa aeecianiiniaiui.

?uii/iia ?aaoee?iaaiea iineo aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa?: n iaeiie noi?iiu,
?uiie ?aaae?oao ia yeiiiie/aneea neaiaeu auno?aa, /ai ieai, /oi iieacii
aeey naiaa?aiaiiie i?eaioaoeee i?iecaiaeno-aa, n ae?oaie – ?uii/iia
?aaoee?iaaiea ioee/aaony noeoeeiinoueth e iiaeao i?eianoe iaaaoeaiue
yo-oaeo. Iiyoiio iaeuecy ineaaeyoue iae?iyeiiiie/aneee eiio?ieue
ainoaea?noaa, iaiaoiaeeii aai ana-ia?ii niaa?oainoaiaaoue. Ainoaea?noao
neaaeoao nicaeaaaoue ana oneiaey aeey oe?aieaiey aaeeiiai ?uiea aioo?e
no?aiu e aai caei?iaiai ?acaeoey.

Nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?uii/iay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia iaioaeaeeia io
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai no?iy. A no?oeoo?a nianoaaiiinoe iauanoaaiiay aa
oi?ia, aeeth/athuay iauaia?iaeioth e eieeaeoeaioth, aeieaeia caieiaoue
ainiiaenoaothuaa ianoi, /anoiay aea, a oii /enea n eiino?aiiui o/anoeai,
aeieaeia eiaoue aeiiieieoaeueiue noaoon. Ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi
i?aaenoieo aueoe ia ?uiie /a?ac ?aaiii?aaioth eiieo?aioeeth e caueuaoue
naia aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea a yeiiiieea.

I?eioeei ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii o?oaeo inoaiaony aeaaiie oi?iie
?ani?aaeaeaiey. A oi aea a?aiy aeiioneathony e ae?oaea oi?iu,
aeiiieiythuea aai. A ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao
?oeiai-aenoaiaaoueny i?eioeeiaie yooaeoeaiinoe e ni?aaaaeeeainoe.
Aeioiaeu aeieaeiu auoue aeeooa?aioee?iaa-iu n oeaeueth iiiu?aiey
iaeaieaa aeoeaiuo ?aaioieeia e noeioee?iaaiey ?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe.
Aianoa n oai iaiaoiaeeii naea?aeeaaoue oaiaeaioeeth e nioeeaeueiiio
?anneiaieth iauanoaa e no?aieoueny e anaiauaio aeaaininoiyieth.

I?e iae?iyeiiiie/aneii eiio?iea neaaeoao naiaa?aiaiii o/eouaaoue
eioa?anu oaeouea e ia?niaeoeaiua, eieaeueiua e iauaia?iaeiua. Ioaeii
iaeiia?aiaiii eniieueciaaoue ?acee/iua yeiii-ie/aneea e
aaeieieno?aoeaiua iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey. I?iaiaeeoue ?aoi?io iaiaoiaeeii
iinoaiaiii, iiyoaiii, ieaiiia?ii e eiiieaenii. Iaeuecy iaaeayoueny ia
auno?ue ?acoeueoao e iia?aaeaoue enoi?e/a-neee oiae ?acaeoey. I?aaeaea
/ai aiieioeoue eaeoth-oi eaeath a aeeciue, ioaeii ?ac?aaioaoue
eiiieaeniue ieai, aiaae?eoue aai ia iaaieueoie oa??eoi?ee e i?iaa?eoue
ia i?aeoeea. Oieueei i?e iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoao aiciiaeii aai
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

Yoaiu ?aoi?iu. Ia/aaoenue a eiioea 1978 a., ?aoi?ia iieo/eea
ananoi?iiiaa ?acaeoea iinea XII nuacaea EIE (1982 a.) e oe?aieea naie
iiceoeee a ?acoeueoaoa ?aoaiee XIV nuacaea (1992 a.).

Aaaeiuie aaoaie ia aa iooe noaee XIII nuacae EIE (1987 a.), aeaaoee
iiae?iaiia oieeiaaiea oai?ee ia/aeueiiai yoaia nioeeaeecia, e XIV nuacae
EIE, iinoaiiaeaoee, /oi oeaeueth ?aoi?iu yaeyao-ny nicaeaiea
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?uii/iie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu n eeoaeneie
niaoeeoeeie.

?aoi?ia ia/aeanue n naeueneiai oicyenoaa, /oi ioaa/aei o?aaiaaieyi oiai
a?aiaie. Aa?a?iua i?aia?aciaaiey auee naycaiu n ioiaiie ia?iaeiie
eiiioiu e caiaiie aa naiaeiui iiae?yaeii e aaeeiie eieeaeoeaiie
nianoaaiiinoueth. I?aeoe/anee ana 800 iei e?anoueyi iieo/eee i?aai ia
naiaiaeiia naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. A iniiaiii ioiaiaia
nenoaia aincaaioiaie, inaiaiaeaea-iu oeaiu ia aieueoeinoai aeaeia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

?aoi?ia auaaea aa?a?iue naeoi? ec canoiy, iiiiaea aio anooieoue ia iooue
niaoeeaeecaoeee e iiauoaiey oiaa?iinoe. A aea?aaia iiyaeeenue
i?aaei?eyoey, nicaeaiiua ii eieoeeaoeaa e?anoueyi, –
ai-einoii-iinaeeiaua. Iie nicaeaee iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa, niinianoaiaaa
oai naiui ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu eceeoiae ?aai/ae neeu a naeueneii oicyenoaa,
iiauoaieth aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy e?anoueyi, iiaea?ieca-oeee naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, a oaeaea ?acaeoeth ?aoi?iu a oeaeii.

3-e ieaioi OeE EIE aeaaiaaeoeaoiai nicuaa (1984 a.) aia?aua auaeaeioe
eiioeaioeeth ieaiiaie oiaa?iie yeiiiieee, ioa?inea o?aaeeoeeiiiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ianiaianoeiinoe ieaiiaiai e oiaa?-iiai oicyenoaa. A
ai?iaeao a niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii ioaeaeaiey i?aaa oicyenoaiaaiey io
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ioia?ai ?yae i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ui i?aaeinoaaeee
aieueooth naiaiaeo aeaenoaee. Iinoa-iaiii iie aeieaeiu noaoue
naiinoiyoaeueiuie naiioeiaine?othueieny yeiiiie/aneeie noauaeoaie e
auoiaeeoue ia ?uiie iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ea/anoaa oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae.
Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo aaaaeai ia-eia ia i?eaueue aianoi noa?ie nenoaiu naea/e
/anoe i?eauee, onoaiiaeaia nenoaia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acoeueoao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia iniiaa iiae?yaea, i?aia?aciaaia nenoaia
ieaie?iaaiey e oeaii-ia?aciaaiey a oeaeyo oneeaiey ?uii/iuo ?u/aaia.

*aou?a ai?iaea – Oyiue/aeyiue, *aeooae, Nyiuiue, Oaiueoio – auee
iauyaeaiu niaoeeaeueiuie yeiiiie/aneeie ciiaie. Aneaae ca ieie 14
i?eii?neeo ai?iaeia, /aou?a ?aaeiia a onoueyo ?ae ssioecu e *aeooecyi,
thai-ainoi/iay /anoue i?iaeioeee Oooecyiue, ?aaeii a ?aeiia Aaoaeneiai
caeeaa noaee io-e?uouie yeiiiie/aneeie ciiaie. Ia ino?iaa Oaeiaiue
nicaeaia iaeiieiaiiay iiaay i?iaeioeey, a nai ii noae niaoeeaeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie ciiie. Ana yoe ai?iaea e ?aeiiu iieo/eee ?acee/iua
eiaanoe-oeeiiiua e iaeiaiaua eueaiou aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea e oaoiieiaee, caeinoaiaaiey yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey o
eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia. Auno?ia ?acaeoea eo yeiiiieee nii-nianoaiaaei
yooaeoeaiiio ?inoo a ianooaaa no?aiu.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou. Ca aiaeu ?aoi?iu yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia Eeoay
i?aoa?iaea aeoaieea eciaiaiey. Ia?aciaa-eanue iiiaioeeaaeiay yeiiiieea.
Aini?aaei?eyoey aeatho naaiaeiy 48,3% i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
eieeaeoeaiua – 38,2, /anoiua, a oii /enea n eiino?aiiui o/anoeai, –
13,5%. Ia aeieth ainoaea?noaai-iie oi?aiaee i?eoiaeeony 41,3% iauaai
?icie/iiai iai?ioa, eieeaeoeaiie – 27,9, /anoiie – 30,8%.

Iiiaioeeaaeiinoue ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieth ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
ia ia/aeueiii yoaia nioeeaeecia, iaeiaei iu n/eoaai, /oi iauanoaaiiay
nianoaaiiinoue aeieaeia inoaaaoueny ainiiaenoaothuae.

A ai?iaeao ?aoi?ia aini?aaei?eyoee iiea ia aeaea oaeeo aea
iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia, eae a aea?aaia, oioy ii?aaeaeaiiua naeaeae
eiathony. Aaiaeeony nenoaia “nia?aiaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee”, o?a-aothuay
/aoeiai ?aca?aie/aiey i?aa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e
oeaio?aeueiie aaeieie-no?aoeeae.

Ia/aeinue ia?aciaaiea a?oiiiauo i?aaei?eyoee, noaaoeo iniiaiuie
o/anoieeaie ?uiea A niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii “*aeoa Aea Oai Nyi”
(“aea?aeaoue a ?oeao aieueoea i?aaei?eyoey, ioionoeoue iaeaiueeea”)
iiiaea iaeeea aini?aaei?eyoey iieo/eee i?aai eciaieoue ia oieueei
iaoaieci oicyeno-aiaaiey, ii e oi?io nianoaaiiinoe. Yoi iicaieeei
ainoaea?noao nin?aaeioi/eoue neeu ia oeo/oaiee iieiaeaiey e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee.

A aea?aaia noi?ie?iaaeanue aeaooneieiay oicyenoaaiiay nenoaia ia iniiaa
ni/aoaiey eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoe e naiaeiiai iiae?yaea.

Aieaa /ai ca 10 eao eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey iauai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iniiaiuo oiiaeia eie-eaeoeaiiai naeoi?a ia naea aic?in n 94,9 ie?ae aei
179,7 ie?ae thaiae i?e n?aaeiaaiaeiaii i?e?inoa a 13%. Oneoae
(aanieaoiua eee aeaoaaua), i?aaeinoaaeyaiua eieeaeoeaiui naeoi?ii
e?anoueyineei aeai?ai, oaeiaeaoai?ytho aaeaaiaeii 60,5% iauae
iio?aaiinoe a iaoeiiie ?aniaoea caiaeue, 63 – a e?-?eaaoeeiiiuo ?aaioao,
66,1 – a caueoa iinaaia io a?aaeeoaeae e aieaciae, 42 – a naiaiao, 48 –
a oeie-/aneeo oaeia?aieyo, 35% – a ai?ueaa n aieaciyie aeiiaoieo
aeeaioiuo e ioeoe. Yoi niinianoaoao on-iaoiiio ?acaeoeth naiaeiiai
iiae?yaea.

E?iia oiai, a eieeaeoeaiii naeoi?a iiyaeeinue aieueoia eiee/anoai
aieinoii-iinaeeiauo i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeathueo ?aai/ea ianoa aeey 120 iei
e?anoueyi.

Auno?i ?acaeaaaony e naiaeiue iiae?yae eae aaca naeueneie yeiiiieee,
eioi?ue iinoaiaiii ia?aoiaeeo e ianooaaiiio oicyenoaiaaieth.

Aeoaieea eciaiaiey i?iecioee a nenoaia oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Oeaiu ia
aieueoeinoai aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee noaee naiaiaeiuie. Oae, ii
iio?aaeoaeueneei oiaa?ai aeiey ?uii/iuo oeai aeinoeaea 90%, n?aaenoaai
i?iecaiaenoaa – 80, naeueneioicyenoaaiiui i?iaeoeoai – 85%.

I?aia?aciaaiu iaeiaiaay, aaieianeay, aaethoiay e eiaanoeoeeiiiay
nenoaiu. Aaaaeaiu iaeiae ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, aaeeiue
iiaeioiaeiue iaeia aeey i?aaei?eyoee, nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia-eiaia
iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii e ianoiuie aaeieieno?aoeeyie. Ia
aeieth oeaio?a i?e yoii i?eoiaeeony aieueoay /anoue iaeiaiauo
iinooieaiee.

Nicaeaia aeaoonooiai/aoay aaieianeay nenoaia /a?ac ?acaeaeaiea ooieoeee
oeaio?aeueiiai e ie-ciauo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaieia. Iaeiia?aiaiii
auaeaeaiu aaiee, i?iaiaeyuea a aeeciue yeiiiie/a-neoth iieeoeeo
oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Inoaeueiua e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua einoeooou
ia?aoiaeyo ia eiiia?/aneoth iniiao.

Ioiaiaiu ioeoeeaeueiua e ?uii/iua eo?nu eiino?aiiuo aaetho e aaaaeaiu
aaeeiua ieaaath-uea eo?nu, ?aaoee?oaiua ?uieii.

Iinoaiaiii nicaeaaony nenoaia “ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?ene” ia iniiaa
ni/aoaiey eiaanoeoeee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e e?aaeeoia aaieia. Eaiaeu
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeyoueny oa?aeoa?ii iauaeoia, o.a.
caaenaoue io oiai, ioiineony ee iauaeo e aaciaui io?aneyi (aeiau/a oaey,
iaooe), io?an-eyi, i?iecaiaeyuei i?iaeoeoeeth eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey
(eiina?au, iaeaaeaea), eee eiathuei iauano-aaiiia cia/aiea (o?ainii?o,
ioieoeeiaeueiia no?ieoaeuenoai).

?aoi?ia a yoeo noa?ao i?ecaaia nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoioth n?aaeo aeey
iacaaeneiiai oicyenoai-aaiey i?aaei?eyoee e ?aaiii?aaiie eiieo?aioeee
iaaeaeo ieie.

Oi?ie?oaony ?uii/iue iaoaieci, eioi?ue ea?aao ana aieueooth ?ieue a
yeiiiie/aneie aeec-ie no?aiu. Aeiey aeaeia i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo ?aaoee?oaony ainoaea?no-aaiiuie aee?aeoeaiuie
ieaiaie, nieceeanue n 95% a 1978 a. aei 5% a ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Oaeaeueiue
aan oiaa?ia, oeaiaie eioi?uo iaiin?aaenoaaiii oi?aaeyao ainoaea?noai, a
?icie/iii oiaa?iiai?ioa oiae n 95 aei 6%. Iiieii ?uiea oiaa?ia ia/aee
nicaeaaaoueny ?uiee eaieoaeia, iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, ?a-ai/ae neeu,
ae?oaeo iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa yeaiaioia. Oaeei ia?acii, ?uiie
aoaeao ea?aoue iniiaioth ?ieue a ?ani?aaeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia.

Iieo/ea aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue ?aciiia?aciua ?u/aae aeey
?aaoee?iaaiey iae?iyeiii-ieee, ainoaea?noai nie?aoeei i?yiia
?aaoee?iaaiea iin?aaenoaii aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aee?aeoea, oaa-ee/ea
einaaiiia n eniieueciaaieai yeiiiie/aneeo eino?oiaioia (iaeiae,
i?ioeaioiua noaaee, aa-ethoiua eo?nu, aeaiaaeiay ianna), a oaeaea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Ia?acoaony no?oeoo?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey, niaaeeieaoay i?eioeei
?ani?aaeaeaiey ii o?oaeo n ae?o-aeie aai aeaeaie. Ia/aeinue nicaeaiea
nenoaiu nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey ianaeaiey.

Aeey ioeaiee ?aoi?iu iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua e?eoa?ee. Ii
neiaai Aeai Nyiieia, i?aia?aciaaiey iiaeii n/eoaoue oaeaaoeieny, anee
iie niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, oneeaieth iiue
no?aiu, iiauoaieth o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey. Enoiaey ec yoeo e?eoa?eaa
eeoae-neoth ?aoi?io iiaeii ioeaieoue eae oniaoioth.

Iinea ia/aea i?aia?aciaaiee oaiiu ?inoa caiaoii onei?eeenue. A 1978-1995
aa. n?aaeiaaiaei-aie i?e?ino AAI ninoaaeye 9%, i?e yoii a 1991-1995 aa.
– 11%. Yoe iieacaoaee cia/eoaeueii iia?a-aeatho n?aaeiee ie?iaie
o?iaaiue. Eeoae i?iaeieaeaao caieiaoue 1-a ianoi a ie?a ii auioneo
oeaiaioa, oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo oeaiae, oaey. No?aia auoea ia 1-a ianoi ii
i?iecaiaenoao ca?ia, oeiiea, ?aini-auo naiyi, iyna, yeoe, 2-a –
oeie/aneeo oaeia?aiee, 3-a – naoa?a, 4-a – yeaeo?iyia?aee, 5-a – nu?ie
iaooe. Ii iauaio AAI Eeoae iaoiaeeony ia iaeiii ec ia?auo iano a ie?a.
Ia aai aeieth i?eoiaeeony 3,2% ie?iaiai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa.

N eaaeaeui aiaeii iiauoaaony ea/anoai aeecie ianaeaiey. Aeioiae
e?anoueyieia oaaee/eeny n 134 thaiae a 1978 a. aei 1 578 thaiae a 1995
a., ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aai/aai aic?inea n 615 aei 3 893 thaiae. ?aaeueiua
(n o/aoii iiauoaiey oeai) n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu ?inoa aeioiaeia
e?anoueyi a yoio ia?eiae ni-noaaeee 7%, ?aai/eo – 5%. Inoaoi/iay noiia
aeeaaeia ia n/aoao ianaeaiey iiauneeanue n 21 ie?ae tha-iae a 1978 a.
aei 3000 ie?ae thaiae a 1995 a., o.a. a 142 ?aca.

Oaeei ia?acii, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou ?aoi?iu
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia oniaoiinoe aa i?iaaaeaiey.

Iooe oi?ie?iaaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?uii/iiai
yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia.

Nicaeaiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?uii/iiai
yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia – caaea/a ?aoi?iu ia oaeouee ia?eiae e
ia?niaeoeao. Iia aeeth/aao iyoue iniiaiuo caaiueaa.

?aoi?ia aini?aaei?eyoee. Oioy iie ninoaaeytho eeoue 19% iauaai
eiee/anoaa i?iiuoeai-iuo i?aaei?eyoee no?aiu, ia eo aeieth i?eoiaeeony
ieiei 50% auionea i?iaeoeoeee, 66% iaeiaia e i?eauee, ia?aaeaiiuo
ainoaea?noao, 75% inoaoi/iie noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia. E?iia oiai,
ain-i?aaei?eyoey i?eiaaeeaaeao a iniiaiii e eeth/aaui io?aneyi
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa (yia?aaoeea, o?ainii?o, i?iecaiaenoai aaaeiaeoeo
aeaeia nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e iai?oaeiaaiey). Iiyoiio io oniaoa eo ?aoi?iu
ai iiiaii caaeneo noaeueaa i?aia?aciaaiee a oeaeii.

?aoi?ia aini?aaei?eyoee noaaeo naiae oeaeueth ia aiioee?iaaoue
ainoaea?noaaiioth nianoaai-iinoue e inouanoaeoue i?eaaoecaoeeth, a
eciaieoue iaoaieci oicyenoaiaaiey. Iu n/eoaai, /oi ainoaea?-noaaiiay
nianoaaiiinoue niaianoeia n ?uieii ii neaaeothuei i?e/eiai:

– ai-ia?auo, aeey nicaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ioaeii eeoue, /oiau
o/anoieee ?uiea eia-ee i?aai ia oicyenoaiaaiea e naiinoiyoaeueiua
yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu;

– ai-aoi?uo, yoi oneiaea iiaeii auiieieoue iooai ioaeaeaiey i?aaa ia
oicyenoaiaaiea io i?aaa ia nianoaaiiinoue ii i?eioeeio “ainoaea?noaaiiay
nianoaaiiinoue, naiinoiyoaeueiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai,
naiiieoiaaiinoue”.

ssae?ii ?aoi?iu aini?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony nicaeaiea “nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu
i?aaei?eyoee”. Ooieoeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeieaeiu auoue /aoei
?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaii e i?aaei?eyoe-ai. I?aaeoaeuenoai
eae nianoaaiiee e iae?iyeiiiie/aneee ?aaoeyoi? eiaao i?aai
eiio?iee?iaaoue aai aeayoaeueiinoue.

I?aaei?eyoea, iieo/ea noaoon th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, aeieaeii ianoe
ia?aie/aiioth iaoa?eaeue-ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acoeueoao
oicyenoaiaaiey ca n/ao e a ?aieao naiaai eiouanoaa. Iiiu?yaony
niaaeeiaiea i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaiea eiini?oeeoiia e a?oii. Aeey
i?aia?aciaaiey iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee ?ac?aoaaony eniieueciaaoue iiae?yae,
a?aiaeo e aeoeeiie?iaaiea.

Nicaeaiea eiiieaeniie nenoaiu ?uieia. Aeey aa oi?ie?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeii
?acaeaaoue (iiie-ii ?uiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia) ?uiee n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aai/ae neeu, iaaeaeaeeiinoe, oao-iieiaee e eioi?iaoeee,
a oaeaea oiiaeiaue ?uiie. Iaaei ai?ioueny ni no?aieaieai ioaeaeueiuo
?aeiiia e naiiecieyoeee e i?ioaeoeeiiecio a eioa?anao nianoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Aaaeii ionoiyoue aaeeiue ?uiie aioo?e no?aiu,
eioaa?e?iaaoue aai a ie?iaie, iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeioth
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aaco.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ?aaiii?aaiie eiieo?aioeee i?aaei?eyoee e
iioeiecaoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia eiaao eciaiaiea
nenoaiu oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Ca ianeieueei eao noi?ie?oaony aai iiaue
iaoaieci. Ainoaea?noai aoaeao onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaiu oieueei ia
i?iaeoeoeeth anoanoaaiiuo ii-iiiieee (iaooue, i?e?iaeiue aac, ?aaeeea
iaoaeeu e ae?.), niaoeeoe/aneea oiaa?u (iaaeeeaiaiou, i?o-aeea), a
oaeaea oneoae o/?aaeaeaiee oaeeo noa?, eae cae?aaiio?aiaiea,
ia?aciaaiea, eoeueoo?a e nii?o. Oeaiu ia inoaeueiua oiaa?u e oneoae
aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeyoueny ?uieii. I?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aoi?iu oeai iaiaoiaeeii
aieiaoaeueii neaaeeoue ca eo o?iaiai aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ?aceie
eioeyoeee.

Oaeoaeaiea ?aoi?iu nenoai ?ani?aaeaeaiey e nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey.
I?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeioiaeia ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa neaaeoao i?eieiaoue ai
aieiaiea eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa, eieeaeoeaa, ee/iinoe, oeaio?aeueiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ianoiuo aaeieieno?aoeee. Ioaeii ono?aiyoue eiathuea
ianoi ia?aeinu a iieo/aiee aeioiaeia a?aaeaeaiaie ia ianoao e ianoiuie
aaeieieno?aoeeyie.

Aieueoia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony i?aia?aciaaieth nenoaiu ca?aaioiie ieaou ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo, a o/?aaeaeaieyo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiao enoiaey ec eo
niaoeeoeee. Ee/iua aeioiaeu aeieaeiu auoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuie e
niioaaonoaiaaoue i?eioeeio “aeaaiia – yooaeoeaiinoue, ii n o/aoii
ni?aaaae-eeainoe”.

*aeiaaeo ioaeii i?aaeinoaaeoue aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue aeioiae io naiaai
eaieoaea e eiouanoaa, ii yoa oi?ia aeioiaea inoaiaony eeoue
aeiiieieoaeueiie.

I?aaeoaeuenoai iaia?aii /a?ac iieeoeeo ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iaeiaiaua ?u/aae
?aaoee?iaaoue ee/iua aeioiaeu aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey nioeeaeueiiai
?anneiaiey iauanoaa.

Iaia/aaony onoaiiaeoue ?aaeei io/aoiinoe i aeioiaeao, iiaeeaaeaueo
iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth, one-eeoue eiio?ieue ca iiaeioiaeiui iaeiaii, aaanoe
iaeiae ia ianeaaenoai e aea?aiey.

Aaaeiie caaea/ae yaeyaony niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey, onei?aiiay ?ac?aaioea caeiiia ii ai?ueaa n aac?aaioeoeae, a
oaeaea i iaineyo e cae?aaiio?aiaiee. Ai?iaeneea ?a-ai/ea e eo eieeaeoeau
niaianoii aeieaeiu ianoe ?anoiaeu ia iaineiiiia e iaaeeoeeineia
no?aoiaaiea.

Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue aaeieieno?aoeaioth ?aaioo o/?aaeaeaiee nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey e i?aae-i?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue oiiaeia
nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey. O/?aaeaeaiey aeieaeiu eiio?iee?i-aaoue
aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu oiiaeia, eioi?ua iiaoo caieiaoueny
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth, aeaaiui ia?acii iieoieie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey e oaaee/aiey iniiaiiai
eaieoaea i?e iaania/aiee ii?iaeueiuo auieao e eeeaeaeiinoe.

Nicaeaiea iaoaiecia einaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iae?iyeiiiieee. Aeaaiay
caaea/a iae?iyei-iiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a oneiaeyo ?uiea –
iaania/eoue aaeain niaieoiiiai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaea-iey, noeioee?iaaoue
iioeiecaoeeth no?oeoo?u ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, iaania/eoue aeeeoaeueiia,
auno?ia e caei?iaia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee. Aeey nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai
iaoaiecia ?aaoee?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe ?aoi?iu ieaiiaie,
aaieianeie e iaeiaiaie nenoai.

Ieaiiaay nenoaia aeieaeia ia?aeoe io i?yiiai e einaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth,
io i?aiaeaaeaiey iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeae e aeiieie?iaaieth noieiinoiuo,
io eiio?iey i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e eiio?ieth
i?aaei?eyoee anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe.

Aaieianeay ?aoi?ia aeeth/aao a naay aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeaeaiea ooieoeee
aaieia ?aciuo eaoaai-?ee e ?acaeoea e?aaeeoii-aaieianeeo einoeoooia,
naycaiiuo n ?aciuie oi?iaie nianoaaiiinoe.

ssae?ii iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu yaeyaony nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeiaia.
Oeaio?aeueiia i?aaeoaeue-noai iieo/aao oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu, /anoue
iaeiaia ia iio?aaeaiea e aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iiae-eaaeauoth
oaiiaeaiiiio iaeiaeaieth, iaeiae ia iio?aaeaiea e aeioiae
aini?aaei?eyoee, iaoiaeyueony a aaaeaiee oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Oeaio?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai e ianoiua aaeieieno?aoeee niaianoii
iieo/atho IAeN, iaeiae ia ae?aeaaua naeaeee e eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia.

A ianoiua aaeieieno?aoeee iinooiatho iaeiae ia aeioiaeu i?aaei?eyoee,
iaoiaeyueony a eo aa-aeaiee, ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeioiaeu a?aaeaeai, ia
iieueciaaiea caieae, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie oaiaeuey-ie e ianoaeuaie, ia
ioieoeeiaeueiia no?ieoaeuenoai, n aeaaeaeueoeaa no?iaiee e o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa. Iaia/aaony nicaeaiea i?aaiia, ianoueo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nai?
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ianoiuo iaeiaia (oeaio?aeueiue i?aai – ca
ainoaea?noaaiiua e iauea iaeiae, ianoiue – ca ianoiua).

Eciaiaiea ooieoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aeey nicaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee
o?aaoaony ?acaeaeeoue ooieoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?aaei?eyoee. Ooieoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aeeth/atho ieaie?iaaiea, ?ac?aaioeo yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee, i?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee, niaeaniaaiea nii?iuo aii?inia,
ieacaiea ?aciiai ?iaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oneoa, eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai.
Ianoiua aaeieieno?aoeee ia aeieaeiu aiaoeaaoueny a ?aaioo i?aaei?eyoee,
?ac?aoaiioth caeiiii e aoiaeyuoth a eo iieiiii/ey. Iaiaoiaee-ii
i?aaeeueii ?ani?aaeaeeoue iieiiii/ey a oi?aaeaiee yeiiiieeie iaaeaeo
oeaio?ii e ianoiuie aae-ieieno?aoeeyie n oeaeueth iiiu?aiey eieoeeaoeau
iaaeo no?oeoo?.

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