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География, экономика и государственное устройство Франции

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?aoa?ao

Aaia?aoey, yeiiiieea e ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai O?aioeee

IAUEA NAAAeAIEss

Ieiuaaeue – 543 970 ei. ea. Ianaeaiea – 57 660 000. Noieeoea – Ia?eae (9
319 000). E?oiiaeoea ai?iaea – Eeii (1 263 000), Ia?naeue (1 231 000),
Eeeeue (960 000). Aunoay oi/ea – ai?a Iiiaeai (4 807 i).
Ainoaea?noaaiiue ycue – o?aioeocneee. Iniiaiua ?aeeaee – o?enoeainoai,
eneai. Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea – o?aioeocneee o?aie. Iniiaiua noaouee
yenii?oa – aeii, naeueneioicyenoaaiiay i?iaeoeoeey, i?iaeoeou
iaoeiino?iaiey, o?ainii?oiia iai?oaeiaaiea, oeieeaou. Oi?ia i?aaeaiey –
eiinoeoooeeiiiay ?anioaeeea. Aaeieieno?aoeaiia aeaeaiea: 95
aeaia?oaiaioia (departement), aeeth/ay iniaoth
oa??eoi?eaeueii-aaeieieno?aoeaioth aaeeieoeo Ei?neeo, 22 iaeanoe
(region), eiiioiu (commune). Nouanoaoao oaeaea aeaeaiea ia 37
enoi?e/aneeo i?iaeioeee.

O?aioeey – o?aouey ii aaee/eia no?aia a Aa?iia e iaeia ec aeaaiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo ie?iauo nee. O?aioeocu eiiaaea iacuaatho
naith no?aio Aaenaaiiii (Oanoeoaieueieeii) ec-ca aa oanoeoaieueiuo
i/a?oaiee. Ii?neea aa?aaa e ai?u ia?acotho i?e?iaeiua a?aieoeu no?aiu ni
anao noi?ii, e?iia naaa?i-ainoi/iie. O?aioeey – e?ae ?aciiia?aciuo e
i?ae?aniuo iaecaaeae, i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, enoi?e/aneeo e
nia?aiaiiuo ai?iaeia. Yoa no?aia ieacaea cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia
?acaeoea enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, ?aaii eae e anaai ie?a.
O?aioeey aeaea ie?o iiiaeo aaeeeeo iuneeoaeae, iieeoeeia, ienaoaeae,
ooaeiaeieeia, iocueaioia, a?oeoaeoi?ia, o/aiuo, eeiaiaoia?aoenoia e
iiaeaeuea?ia iaeaaeaeu. Iia oaeaea neaaeony naieie ecuneaiiuie aeiaie e
eooiae, eioi?ay i?eciaaony eo/oae a ie?a.

A ?acoeueoaoa O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee 1789 aiaea O?aioeey noaea ia?aie
no?aiie a ie?a, naa?aioaoae ei?iey e i?iaicaeaneaoae naay ?anioaeeeie.
Iiia?oey auea ia a?aiy ainnoaiiaeaia a XIX aaea, ii a 1871 aiaeo
O?aioeey aiiaue noaea ?anioaeeeie e n oao ii? inoaaaeanue ath ii/oe ana
a?aiy. Ai aeaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa noieo i?aceaeaio, eioi?ue iacia/aao
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a. O?aioeey, a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeeo oaeaea ino?ia
Ei?neea, aeaeeony ia 22 iaeanoe. N?aaee ieo – A?aoaiue e Ao?aoiaeey. A
i?ioeii aeaaiie iieeoe/aneie neeie ainoaea?noaa auea aai noieeoea
Ia?eae. Iaeiaei o?aioeocneea i?iaeioeee nio?aieee naie iaiiaoi?eiua
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ieacuaatho cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea
ia aioo?aiithth iieeoeeo no?aiu.

AAIA?AOEss

Ai O?aioeee i?aaenoaaeaii aiaaoia ?aciiia?acea eaiaeoaooia: yoi e
neaeenoua aa?aaa Aoeaioeee, e oe?ieea ?a/iua aeieeiu, e aunieea
caniaaeaiiua ai?u, e iaaunieea oieiu, e nieia/iua ian/aiua iiaa?aaeuey
N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y. Eeeiao caeanue iyaeee e ia caiaaeiii iiaa?aaeuea –
aeiaeaeeeaue, ii ia ainoiea no?aiu iau/ii aea?eia eaoi e oieiaeiay ceia.
Aieueooth /anoue Naaa?iie O?aioeee caieiaao oe?ieay ?aaieia,
ia?ana/aiiay oaeeie e?oiiuie ?aeaie, eae Naia e Ia?ia. Yoe ieiaei?iaeiua
caiee ia caiaaea a?aie/ao ni neaeenouie ai?aie Ii?iaiaeneie
aicauoaiiinoe. A ia ainoiea, aaeieue a?aieoeu n Aaeueaeae, oyioony
ii?inoea eanii oieiu, eioi?ua thaeiae ia?aoiaeyo a ai?iue iannea Aiaacu
e o?aaao TH?a, ia?acothuee a?aieoeo no?aiu ni Oaaeoea?eae.

*anoue thaeiuo oa??eoi?ee O?aioeee caieiaao Oeaio?aeueiue O?aioeocneee
iannea. Yoi iaeiianaeaiiay ianoiinoue, e?ae iiooooeo aoeeaiia e neoaeiuo
caiaeue, eioi?ua eniieuecothony a iniiaiii iiae ianoaeua. Ia
thai-ainoiea no?aiu, a Naaaiiao, ai?ao ia thai-ainoi/iie ie?aeia
Oeaio?aeueiiai O?aioeocneiai ianneaa, aa?ao ia/aei naiay aeeeiiay ?aea
O?aioeee Eoa?a. THai-caiaaeiua iaeanoe no?aiu a aannaeia ?aee Aa?iiiu –
yoi aeiia?aaeieee Ai?aei e e?ae ian/aiuo aethi e niniiauo eania,
ecaanoiue iiae iacaaieai Eaiaeu. Iiao/ay a?yaea Ie?aiaaa iaicia/aao
a?aieoeo O?aioeee n Eniaieae.

E ainoieo io Oeaio?aeueiiai O?aioeocneiai ianneaa i?inoe?athony oe?ieea
ieiaei?iaeiua aeieeiu ?ae Naia e ?iia. I?e aiaaeaiee a N?aaeecaiiia ii?a
?iia ia?acoao oe?ieoth aeaeueoo, a eioi?ie iaeoatho oeaieiai. Aaeieue
a?aieoeu O?aioeee n Eoaeeae oyiaony a?yaea Aeuei – naiuo aunieeo ai?
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, a eioi?uo naa?eathuea eaaeieee e ioaaniua neaeu
acaeuiathony iaae caeaiuie aeueieeneeie eoaaie.

YEIIIIEEA

O?aioeey yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeoueo no?ai caiaaeiuo aea?aeaa, caieiay
naaeueiia ianoi n?aaee anao no?ai ie?a — 4,7% niaieoiiiai AAI i?e 1%
ianaeaiey. Ii ?acia?ai oa??eoi?ee (551oun. ea ei) e ianaeaiey (57 iei
/ae.), iia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo iaeaieaa e?oiiuo no?ai Aa?iiu. Ii
o?iaith yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey onooiaao O?A e oeaeiio ?yaeo iaeuo no?ai
(Ii?aaaee, Aeaiee, Oaaeoea?ee, Ethenaiao?ao). Ia aeieth O?aioeee
i?eoiaeeony 17% i?iiuoeaiiiai e 20% naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.

A 80-a aa. yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea O?aioeee oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue
caiaaeeaiiuie oaiiaie ?inoa, ianniaie aac?aaioeoeae, ?aceeie niaiaie
iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. No?oeoo?iue e?ecen
ie?iaiai oicyenoaa, ia?aoiae e iiaiio oeio aini?iecaiaenoaa ieacaee
neeueiia aeeyiea ia i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. Iinea e?ecena 80-o aa.,
o?aioeocneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ainnoaiiaeea naie o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa
oieueei a 1986 a.

Iiceoeee O?aioeee a ie?iaie yeiiiieea ianeieueei ineaaee (1980 a. — 5,7%
AAI ie?a). Aeiey no?aiu a i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa no?ai IYN?
nie?aoeeanue n 6,6 aei 5,7% ca 80-a aa. Oiaiueoeeenue yenii?oiua
aiciiaeiinoe. Ii?ia aac?aaioeoeu i?aauneea 10%. O?aioeocneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ii-i?aaeiaio eiaao iaaeinoaoi/ioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth, n
o?oaeii i?eniinaaeeaaaony e auno?i iaiythuaiony ni?ino ia ?uieao.
N?aaieoaeueii ieceay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa naycaia
n enoi?e/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, eioi?ay a 50-60-a aa.
a iniiaiii i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia aioo?aiiee ?uiie, a ai aiaoieo naycyo
aieueoia ianoi caieiaee ?acaeaathueany no?aiu, aeaaiui ia?acii, a
i?aaeaeao auaoae eieiieaeueiie eiia?ee. Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a yoii
i?ioeanna nua?aei aeiieie?iaaiea a no?oeoo?a oicyenoaa e?aaeeoiiai
naeoi?a, eioi?ue iau/ii i?iyaeyao /?acia?ioth inoi?iaeiinoue i?e
inouanoaeaiee aeieain?i/iuo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?iaeoia.

Ai O?aioeee aeoeaii i?ioaeatho i?ioeannu ia?ano?ieee nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?u oicyenoaa, eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
eaieoaea. Noi e?oiiaeoeo eiiiaiee nin?aaeioa/eaatho nauoa 2/3
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?yaea io?aneae iiiiiieecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaeeaeaaony e iaeneioio. A /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee aeaa
e?oiiaeoea eiiiaiee «THieci?» e «Naneei?» nin?aaeioi/eee 70%
i?iecaiaenoaa noaee, «Eiiiaie aeaia?aeue ae’yeaeo?eneoa» (EAEA),«Oiinii»
— 50% i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iiiiai e yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey,
«?aii» e «Iaaei» — ii/oe ana i?iecaiaenoai aaoiiiaeeae.
«Iaoeia-THaeei-Etheueiai»(ITHE) e

«Eiaoaeue»— ii/oe iieiinoueth nin?aaeioi/eee a naieo ?oeao i?iecaiaenoai
e nauo oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia.

I?ioeannu eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee eaieoaea e ia?ano?ieee
yeiiiieee O?aioeee i?ienoiaeyo iaeiia?aiaiii n i?ioeannii
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e eaieoaea, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e
nicaeaieth ia?iiiuo ii iiue OIE.

Oae, «Eiaoaeue» iauaaeeiyao 62 iauanoaa, aeaenoaothueo a 25 no?aiao. O
aaoiiiaeeano?ieoaeueiie eiiiaiee «?aii» — ii/oe 45% i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae e 25% ?aai/ae neeu nin?aaeioi/aiu ia caa?aie/iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo
e oae aeaeaa.

Oeaio?aeecaoeey eaieoaea ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia
i?eaaea e oe?aieaieth oeaeiai ?yaea o?aioeocneeo eiiiaiee a ie?iaii
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oeie/aneay eiiiaiey «Iaoeia» i?aa?aoeeanue a ie?iaiai eeaea?a
oiaeiai/iie i?iaeoeoeee, iieea?aoe/aneay oe?ia «Aoao»— a aaaeouaai
ecaeaoaey aeo?iaeia a ie?a, oe?ia «Eaaeue aea Eeii» auoea ia ia?aia
ianoi a ie?a a i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?e/aneeo eaaaeae. Yeaeo?ioaoie/aneee
eiioea?i «Oiinii» caiye ia?aia ianoi a ie?a ii auioneo iaaeaaoeeiiiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey naiieaoia, a a Aa?iia — ii i?iecaiaenoao auoiaie
yeaeo?iieee. «Eiaoaeue» caieiaao aaaeouaa iieiaeaiea ii i?iecaiaenoao
naeioea, oeeiea, ieeaey a i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao. A Caiaaeiie
Aa?iia eiiiaiee «Ay?inianeaeue» e «Aeanni-A?aaa» caiyee niioaaonoaaiii
ia?aia e o?aouea ianoi a aaeaeinie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Oi?i/eeenue iiceoeee o?aioeocneeo eiiiaiee n?aaee e?oiiaeoeo ei?ii?aoeee
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ie?a. A nienea noa e?oiiaeoeo eiiiaiee aoiaeyo 8
o?aioeocneeo iauaaeeiaiee (1961 a.— 2). O?aioeey ia oieueei onooiaao
aaaeouei no?aiai — NOA, ssiiiee, O?A e A?eoaiee ii eiee/anoao e?oiiaeoeo
eiiiaiee, ii e ii aaee/eia eo iai?ioia. Iai?io ia?auo aeanyoe
o?aioeocneeo eiiiaiee a ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ninoaaeyao ieiei
28% io iai?ioa ia?auo aeanyoe aia?eeaineeo e 45% aa?iaineeo. 6
o?aioeocneeo aaieia aoiaeyo a /enei 50 e?oiiaeoeo aaieia ie?a. Yoi
«E?aaee aa?eeieue», «Aaie ianeiiaeue aea Ia?e», «E?aaeeEeiiia»,
«Ninueaoa aeaia?aeue», «A?oii aea eann ae’aia?iue», «Eiiiaie oeiainuen?
aea Ia?eaa».

Aaiee aeoeaii o/anoaotho a aeayoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaiee /a?ac
nenoaio o/anoey ai aeaaeaiee aeoeeiia?iui eaieoaeii, eniieuecoy aoii
/enea oieaeeiaiaua eiiiaiee, eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu, ee/ioth oieth.
I?ioeann ia?aieaoaiey eaieoaea i?eaae e oiio, /oi any yeiiiieea ioaa/aia
ianeieueeeie oeiainiauie a?oiiaie, eiathueie oe?ieea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
nayce. Yoi a?oiiu «Ia?eaa», «Nithc», a?oiiu ?iooeeueaeia e
Aiiai-Oiaeaea?ia. Oeiainiaua a?oiiu ieacuaatho na?ueaciia aeeyiea ia
oi?ie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

Eioa?anu e?oiiaeoeo eiiiaiee ionoaeaaao Iaoeeiiaeueiue niaao
o?aioeocneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae (Iao?iiao), a oaeaea ?acee/iua
io?aneaaua, iaaeio?aneaaua e ?aaeiiaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, yaeythueany iiuiuie ?u/aaaie aeaaeaiey ia
i?aaeoaeuenoai.

Aeoeaioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea O?aioeee ea?aao iaeeee aecian. Iaeeea e
n?aaeiea i?aaei?eyoey oe?aieyy naie iiceoeee a ia?eiae 70-80-o aa.
Iaeeee naeoi? i/aiue iiaeaeaeai. 30% ?aaeno?e?oaiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo aaeeieoe oa?iyo e?ao nionoy aeaa aiaea, a eaaeaeia
aoi?ia ia aeioyaeaaao aei iyoe eao. *enei oe?i, oa?iyueo aaie?ionoai,
auniei. I?aiyonoaeai a aeayoaeueiinoe iiauo eiiiaiee aunooiaao
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue iaeiieaiey ia?aiia/aeueiiai e iai?ioiiai eaieoaea.
Iaeeee naeoi? a iniiaiii i?eaioe?iaai ia noa?o oneoa e oi?aiaee.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu i?ienoiaeeo iiae iiuiui
aicaeaenoaeai ainoaea?noaa ia aini?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann. Ii noaiaie
?acaeoey AIE, i?iyaeythuainy a aeoeaiii o/anoee ainoaea?noaa a
?aaoee?iaaiee e i?ia?aiie?iaaiee yeiiiieee, a ?ani?ino?aiaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe

O?aioeey auaeaeyaony n?aaee e?oiiaeoeo i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai.

A 80-a aa. i?iecioei eciaiaiea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee io aee?aaeecia e iaieeaa?aeecio, e oneeaieth ?iee ?uiea.
Aieueoia aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo ieacaee eciaiaiey a
?annoaiiaea iieeoe/aneeo nee ia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii o?iaia, /oi, i?aaeaea
anaai, i?iyaeeinue a ioiioaiee e ainoaea?noaaiiiio naeoi?o. A 1981 a.
i?aaeoaeuenoai nioeeaeenoia i?iaaei iaoeeiiaeecaoeeth 9 e?oiiaeoeo
i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaiee e 36 aaieia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? noae nin?aaeioa/eaaoue 28% i?iecaiaenoaa e 16%
caiyouo.Iaoeeiiaeecaoeey niinianoaiaaea iiaea?iecaoeee e oeiainiaiio
icaei?iaeaieth aeaiiuo eiiiaiee, iicaieeea ecaaaeaoue ia?aoiaea
iaeioi?uo oe?i iiae eiio?ieue eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea. I?eoaaeoee e aeanoe
aeie i?aauo e oeaio?enoneeo ia?oee a 1986 a. i?eiye i?ia?aiio
aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeee 65 e?oiiaeoeo i?iiuoeaiiuo, aaieianeeo e no?aoiauo
eiiiaiee. A /anoiue naeoi? auee ia?aaeaiu e?oiiaeoea aaieianeea a?oiiu
«Ia?eaa» e «Ninueaoa aeaia?aeue», eiaeono?eaeueiua aeaaiou
«Nai-Aiaai»,«Eiiiaie aeaia?aeue ae’yeaeo?eneoa», oeiainiaay eiiiaiey
«Oeaan», aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiay eiiiaiey «Iao?a», oeiainiaay a?oiia
«Nthyc».

Nio?aiythueeny ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? caieaeaao aaciaua,
eio?ano?oeoo?iua e io?anee ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A iai
iaania/eaaaony70% i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee, ii aeeth/aao ieiei 60%
o?ainii?oa e nayce, nauoa 80% aaeaeinie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aeaao 40%
aaoiiiaeeae e oae aeaeaa.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? yaeyaony aaaeiui eino?oiaioii yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee. Iaiiaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea, iaania/aiea oneiaee
aini?iecaiaenoaa ai iiiaeo io?aneyo oicyenoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?aoaaony
ainoaea?noaii.

?aaoee?othuay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa iaoiaeeo naia y?eia au?aaeaiea a
ainoaea?noaaiiii i?ia?aiie?iaaiee e ieaie?iaaiee, eioi?ia iieo/eei
oe?ieia ?acaeoea a ia?aua iineaaiaiiua aiaeu. N yoie oeaeueth auee
nicaeaiu ioeoeeaeueiua i?aaiu, n?aaee eioi?uo auaeaeyaony Eiienna?eao
ieaia. ?ac?aaioaiiua ieaiu i?eaioe?iaaee o?aioeocneoth yeiiiieeo ia
inaiaiea iiauo oaoiieiaee, no?oeoo?ioth ia?ano?ieeo, oneeaiea
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio. Ainoaea?noai aeoeaii o/anoaoao a
?acaeoee IEIE?. Ia aai aeieth i?eoiaeeony nauoa iieiaeiu
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo anneaiiaaiee ia iao/ii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?aaiou.
Ainoaea?noai no?aieony eeeaeaee?iaaoue nouanoaothuee ?ac?ua a
iao/ii-oaoie/aneii iioaioeeaea iaaeaeo’ O?aioeeae e ae?oaeie aaaeoueie
no?aiaie.

Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 80-o aa. a yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
ea/anoaa i?ei?eoaoiuo auaeaeioeenue aii?inu, naycaiiua n nicaeaieai
aaeeiiai ?uiea AN. E iei ioiinyony no?oeoo?iua i?aia?aciaaiey,
i?iaaaeaiea nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey a
niioaaonoaee n o?iaiai Niiauanoaa. No?oeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe oicyenoaa
aeeytho ia iiceoeeth O?aioeee a aii?inao eioaa?aoeee. Iau/ii iia
aunooiaao ca ?aaoee?iaaiea oao io?aneae, aaea aa eiieo?aioiua iiceoeee
ia auniee.

I?aaeoaeuenoai nie?aoeei ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee e
noeioee?iaaei /anoiue naeoi?. N yoie oeaeueth aue ioiaiai aaethoiue
eiio?ieue, eiio?ieue iaae oeaiaie, nieaeaiu iaeiae, oaaee/aiu eueaiou
eiiiaieyi. Iaeiei ec e?aaoaieueiuo eaiiae yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee
yaeyeinue naea?aeeaaiea ?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou, aeaaiaea?y /aio
iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu nio?aiyeenue ia oia?aiiii o?iaia, a ii?ia
i?eauee aeinoeaea o?iaiy ia/aea 70-o aa.

O?aioeocneea eiiiaiee i?eeaaatho aieueoea oneeey aeey ?anoe?aiey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie yeniainee. Aaaeiui n?aaenoaii aa aunooiaao yenii?o
eaieoaea. Ia aeieth O?aioeee i?eoiaeeony 5% iauaai iauaia caa?aie/iuo
i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee. I?e yoii a 80-a aa. i?iecioei nie?auaiea aa aeiee.
Yenii?o eaieoaea caiaoii ia?ai?eaioe?iaaeny ia i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua
no?aiu, aaea iniiaiui iauaeoii i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaea yaeyaony Caiaaeiay
Aa?iia, ii cia/aiea aa oiaiueoeeinue. A 1960 a. ia no?aiu Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu i?eoiaeeeinue 86,4% o?aioeocneeo i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee, a a 1986 a.
eo aeiey nieceeanue aei 57%. Ca yoio aea ia?eiae ?acei aic?in oaeaeueiue
aan NOA — n 5,4% aei 36,5%. A 80-a aa. o?aioeocneea eiiiaiee auoee ia
oanoia ianoi n?aaee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia a NOA. A iniiaiii eo
eiaanoeoeee nin?aaeioi/aiu oai a noa?uo io?aneyo — iaoaeeo?aee,
oaieueiie, oeie/aneie, iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?iecaiaenoaa
aaoiiiaeeueiuo oei. A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iniiaiua iauaiu o?aioeocneiai
eaieoaea eiaanoe?iaaiu a O?A e Aaeeeia?eoaiee.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao nin?aaeioi/aii i?eia?ii 30% iauaai iauaia
i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee, /oi auoa aeiee ae?oaeo no?ai. Ao?eeaineee eiioeiaio
caieiae ?aiaa e i?iaeieaeaao caieiaoue iniaia ianoi. Ia aai aeieth
i?eoiaeeony nauoa 50% o?aioeocneeo eiaanoeoeee a «o?aoueai ie?a». A
iniiaiii iie nin?aaeioi/aiu a no?aiao ciiu o?aiea. Iiieii nu?ueaauo
io?aneae eiaanoe?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony a ia?aaaouaathuea i?iecaiaenoaa
iooai iaeaaeeaaiey nai?i/iuo eee aaoiiiiiuo i?aaei?eyoee n i?eaioaoeeae
ia ianoiue ?uiie.

O?aioeey oaeaea yaeyaony e?oiiui eiii?oa?ii eaieoaea. Aaaeouaa ianoi
n?aaee eiino?aiiuo oe?i caieiatho aia?eeaineea (48%). Eiaanoeoeee
eaaeaeie a ioaeaeueiinoe aa?iiaeneie no?aiu cia/eoaeueii onooiatho ei.

O?aioeey iiaeaea?aeeaaao aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey
n ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeeae. A yenii?oa iniiaiia ianoi caieiatho iaoeiu e
iai?oaeiaaiea, oeie/aneea e naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou. Aaiceo
O?aioeey ec ?O oiieeai e nu?ueaaua oiaa?u. Oi?aiaue e ieaoaaeiue aaeain
O?aioeee o?aaeeoeeiiii naiaeeony n io?eoeaoaeueiui naeueaei. Aeaoeoeeo
ia?acoaony aeaaiui ia?acii ca n/ao ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, /anoe
oeie/aneeo e iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, aeeth/ay auoiaoth yeaeo?iieeo. A
iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea oooaeoeeinue naeueaei oi?aiaee i?iiuoeaiiuie
oiaa?aie. E?oiiua ?ac?uau ia?acothony a oi?aiaea n O?A e ssiiieae.
O?aioeey aunooiaao eae /enoue eiii?oa? oaoiieiae/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee.
Aeaoeoeeo naeaeie ii iaoaioai e eeoeaiceyi a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu i?aauoaao
iieiaeio io?eoeaoaeueiiai naeueaei aiaoiae oi?aiaee no?aiu. A naith
i/a?aaeue, 73% anaai aeaoeoeeoa oaoie/aneiai iaiaia i?eoiaeeony ia
aeieth oaeeo io?aneae, eae yeaeo?iieea, oeiey, eioi?iaoeea, 60%
o?aioeocneeo ?anoiaeia ia iieoieo iaoaioia e eeoeaicee eaeao a NOA.

A iaeanoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee i?ei?eoao ioaeaaony ?acaeoeth
yenii?oa eiii?oicaiauathueo i?iecaiaenoa. Ia?yaeo n eaeaae«iiaiai
caaiaaaiey aioo?aiiaai ?uiea» auaeaeiooa eaeay «iiaiai caaiaaaiey
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai ?uiea».

IANAEAIEA

O?aioeey noaea ?iaeeiie aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae naiuo ?aciuo ia?iaeia. Ii
aieueoae /anoe nia?aiaiiua o?aioeocu yaeythony iioiieaie eneiiiuo
iaeoaoaeae yoeo caiaeue e iiiai/eneaiiuo /oaeacaiiuo caoaao/eeia. Aaeeu,
?eieyia, neaiaeeiaaneea aeeeiae – ana aoi?aaeenue ia oa??eoi?eth
nia?aiaiiie O?aioeee. A /enea i?i/eo caeanue aeeee aa?iaineea ieaiaia,
eae oi – o?aiee, aanoaiou e ao?aoiaeoeu.

N?aaee aeeoaeae ainoi/iuo iaeanoae O?aioeee iiiai ethaeae eoaeueyineiai
e aa?iaineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. A cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey no?aiu ninoaaeytho iioiiee auoiaeoeaa ec Ao?eee, eioi?ua
ia?aa?aeenue nthaea ec o?aioeocneeo eieiiee – Ae aee?a, Ooiena, Ia?ieei
e ae?oaeo no?ai Caiaaeiie Ao?eee. Eae e a ethaie eiaeono?eaeueiie
no?aia, aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey O?aioeee aeeaao a ai?iaeao e ?aaioaao
a i?iiuoeaiiinoe eee a noa?a ianeoaeeaaiey. O?iaaiue aeecie ai O?aioeee
aunieee. AEeoaee naeueneie ianoiinoe a iniiaiii caieiathony caieaaeaeeai
e neioiaiaenoaii ia iiiai/eneaiiuo /anoiuo oa?iao.

O?aaeeoeee e iaoeeiiaeueiay eooiy ?aciuo i?iaeioeee O?aioeee i/aiue
neeueii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa. A iaeioi?uo ianoiinoyo, iai?eia?, a
naaa?i-caiaaeiie i?iaeioeee A?aoaie, ia ino?iaa Ei?neea e ia oa??eoi?ee
aaneia a Ie?aiayo – aiai?yo ia naiai, ianoiii ycuea. Iaeiaei ia
o?aioeocneii aiai?yo ii/oe ana aeeoaee no?aiu. Oioy ai O?aioeee iao
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee e a ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeieao ia i?aiiaeatho
Caeii Aiaeee, caeanue neeueiu o?aaeeoeee ?eineie eaoiee/aneie oea?eae.
N?aaee ianaeaiey oaeaea iiiai i?ioanoaioia, eoaeaaa e ionoeueiai.

ENOI?Ess

Oa??eoi?ey nia?aiaiiie O?aioeee auea canaeaia aua a aeienoi?e/aneea
a?aiaia, e ia naaa?i-caiaaea no?aiu aei neo ii? iiaeii oaeaeaoue
iiioiaioaeueiua iino?ieee, aicaaaeaiiua a eaiaiiii aaea. Ia/eiay n XV
aaea aei i.y. aieueoay /anoue O?aioeee iaoiaeeeanue iiae aeanoueth
eaeueoneeo ieaiai (aaeeia). Iie iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea a aieia n
?eieyiaie, eioi?ua aeaaeaee yoeie caieyie n I aaea aei i.y. ii V aae
i.y.

A yiioo iaaeaiey ?eineie eiia?ee yoe oa??eoi?ee caoaaoeee aa?iaineea
ieaiaia. Naiuie neeueiuie n?aaee ieo auee o?aiee, eioi?ua io?aceee
iaiaaeaiea naaa?iao?eeaineeo iaa?ia e, a eiioea eiioeia, iniiaaee
caeanue iiaouanoaaiioth eiia?eth iiae aeanoueth aeeianoee Ea?ieeiaia
(751-987). A n?aaeiea aaea O?aioeey i?ioeaaoaea, ianiio?y ia ?yae
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo aiei n Aiaeeae. Caoai, a eiioea XVI aaea, a Aa?iia
?ani?ino?aieeinue ?aeeaeiciia aeaeaeaiea, ecaanoiia iiae iacaaieai
?aoi?iaoeee. Ai O?aioeee ?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo i?ioanoaioaie e ?eineeie
eaoieeeaie i?eaaee e aieaa /ai o?eaeoeaoeeaoiae a?aaeaeaineie aieia.

O?aioeocneay iiia?oey aeinoeaea iaeaieueoaai iiaouanoaa a aiaeu
i?aaeaiey Ethaeiaeea XIV (1638-1715). Iaeiaei a ia?iaea oaea ?inei
iaaeiaieuenoai aeanoueth e aiaaonoaii ei?iey e a?enoie?aoee. A 1789
aiaeo niaa?oeeanue O?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey, e ei?ieue aue naa?aioo n
i?anoiea. A ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiethoeeiiiuo ia?eiaoee i?aaeoaeai O?aioeee
noae Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o. Iiae aai eiiaiaeiaaieai o?aioeocneay a?iey
ia/aea iiaaaeiiiniia oanoaea ii Aa?iia, iiea ia iioa?iaea ii?aaeaiea a
aieia n ?inneae a 1812 aiaeo e a n?aaeaiee n a?eoaineeie e i?onneeie
aieneaie i?e Aaoa?eii a 1815 aiaeo. A oa/aiea XIX aaea O?aioeey
caoaaoeea aieueoea eieiiee a Ao?eea e Acee, ii a eiioea XIX e ia/aea XX
aaea ?ac?ooeoaeueiua aieiu n Aa?iaieae ineaaeee aa iiaouanoai. A 50-o
aiaeao iaoaai noieaoey iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aaia?aea Oa?ey aea Aieey
no?aia ainnoaiaaeeaaea oicyenoai, ?ac?ooaiiia ai a?aiy Aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu. O?aioeey e Aa?iaiey niinianoaiaaee onoaiiaeaieth ie?a a Aa?iia,
iniiaaa Aa?iiaeneia Yeiiiie/aneia Niiauanoai, a iaoa a?aiy – Aa?iiaeneee
Nithc.

Aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n NNN? onoaiiaeaiu 28 ieoya?y 1924 a. A
aeaeaa?a 1991 a. ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey i?eciaia i?aaii?aaiieoeae NNN?.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai e iae?iyeiiiieea O?aioeee

O?aioeey – ?anioaeeea. Aeaenoaoao eiinoeoooeey Iyoie ?anioaeeee –
“Eiinoeoooeey ?anioaeeee e Niiauanoaa” io 28 naioya?y 1958 a. n
eciaiaieyie, aianaiiuie a 1962 a., 1963 a., 1974 a., 1976 a., 1985 a.,
1986 a., 1992 a., 1993 a. e 1995 a. Aeaaa ainoaea?noaa – i?aceaeaio,
ecae?aaiue anaiauei i?yiui aieiniaaieai n?ieii ia 7 eao. I?aceaeaio
ecae?aaony aaniethoiui aieueoeinoaii aieinia. Anee yoi aieueoeinoai ia
aeinoeaiooi a ia?aii oo?a aieiniaaiey, i?iaiaeeony aoi?ie oo?.
I?aceaeaio iacia/aao i?aiuea?-ieieno?a e ieieno?ia aac ooaa?aeaeaiey eo
ia?eaiaioii, eiaao i?aai ?anioneaoue Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea iinea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo eiinoeueoaoeee n i?aaenaaeaoaeai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai
nia?aiey e iacia/aoue iiaua auai?u, iiaeao i?eieiaoue ethaua
/?acau/aeiua ia?u, eioi?ua “aeeeoothony ianoiyoaeuenoaaie”. Aicaeaaeyao
Aunoee niaao iaaeno?aoo?u.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue inouanoaeyaony ia?eaiaioii, ninoiyuei ec aeaoo
iaeao: Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey e Naiaoa. Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea
ecae?aaony ii iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia a 2 oo?a n?ieii ia 5 eao. Ninoieo ec
557 /eaiia: 555 /eaiia ecae?athony a 555 ecae?aoaeueiuo ie?oaao a
iao?iiieee e 22 /eaia – a caii?neeo aeaia?oaiaioao. Naiao ecae?aaony
iooai einaaiiiai aieiniaaiey ii iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia n?ieii ia 9 eao.
Eaaeaeua 3 aiaea ninoaa Naiaoa iaiiaeyaony ia iaeio o?aoue. Naiaoi?u
ecae?athony ia anaiauei aieiniaaieai, a eeoue aieinaie
auai?ueeia-aeaiooaoia, /eaiia iaeanoiuo e aaia?aeueiuo niaaoia
aeaia?oaiaioia, a oaeaea ioieoeeiaeueiuo niaaoia. Niaeanii eiinoeoooeee
i?aaenaaeaoaeth Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai
ia?auaoueny a Eiinoeoooeeiiiue noae.

Ii eiinoeoooeee 1958 a. nicaeai Eiinoeoooeeiiiue niaao – aunoee i?aai,
inouanoaeythuee eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai eiinoeoooeee. A niaao aoiaeyo
9 /eaiia, iacia/aaiuo ia 9 eao (eo iaiaeao ia aiciaiiaeyaony), e ana
auaoea i?aceaeaiou ?anioaeeee iiaeeciaiii. Eiinoeoooeeiiiue niaao
iaiiaeyaony ia iaeio o?aoue eaaeaeua 3 aiaea. O?e /eaia niaaoa
iacia/athony i?aceaeaioii, o?ia – i?aaenaaeaoaeai Naiaoa e o?ia –
i?aaenaaeaoaeai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey. I?aaenaaeaoaeue
Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai niaaoa iacia/aaony i?aceaeaioii ec /enea /eaiia niaaoa
e oi?iaeueii yaeyaony ainueiui eeoeii a ainoaea?noaaiiie ea?a?oee.
Eiinoeoooeeiiiue niaao inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue ca auai?aie i?aceaeaioa,
aeaiooaoia e naiaoi?ia, neaaeeo ca i?aaeeueiinoueth i?iaaaeaiey
?aoa?aiaeoiia e iauyaeyao eo ?acoeueoaou. ?aoaiey Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
niaaoa ieeaeiio iaaeaeiaaieth ia iiaeeaaeao. Iie iaycaoaeueiu aeey anao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae, aaeieieno?aoeaiuo e noaeaaiuo i?aaiia. Cai?inu
a yoio i?aai iiaoo iai?aaeyoue i?aceaeaio, i?aiuea?-ieieno?,
i?aaenaaeaoaee iaaeo iaeao ia?eaiaioa, a oaeaea a?oiia aeaiooaoia,
ian/eouaathuay ia iaiaa 60 /aeiaae.

Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue inouanoaeyaony i?aceaeaioii e Niaaoii Ieieno?ia
(i?aaeoaeuenoai). I?aceaeaio iacia/aao i?aiuea?-ieieno?a e ii aai
i?aaenoaaeaieth – ieieno?ia. *eai ia?eaiaioa ia iiaeao auoue
iaeiia?aiaiii /eaiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa. I?aaeoaeuenoao ia ioaeai aiooi
aeiaa?ey, iaeiaei iii iiaeao auoue ioi?aaeaii a ionoaaeo iin?aaenoaii
aiooia iaaeiaa?ey, iauyaeaiiiai aieueoeinoaii a Iaoeeiiaeueiie
annaiaeaa.

A ia?oa 1982 a. i?eiyo caeii i aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee, niaeanii eioi?iio
O?aioeey aeaeeony ia 95 aeaia?oaiaioia, 22 iaeanoe e iniaoth
aaeieieno?aoeaioth aaeeieoeo Ei?neeo. Caeii iaaeaeyao eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoueth i?aaenaaeaoaeae aaia?aeueiuo niaaoia a aeaia?oaiaioao e
?aaeiiaeueiuo niaaoia a iaeanoyo. Caeii i noaoona Ei?neee, i?eiyoue a
iiya?a 1990 a., i?aaeoniao?eaaao nicaeaiea a Ei?neea caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai
e eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaiia, eioi?ui ia?aaeaiu ooieoeee, eniieiyaoeany
?aiaa oeaio?aeueiuie aaeieieno?aoeaiuie i?aaiaie.

Iae?iyeiiiieea. O?aioeocneay yeiiiieea i?iaeieaeaao ea?aoue iaeio ec
aaaeoueo ?ieae a ie?iaii oicyenoaa. Ii ?acia?o AAI O?aioeey noaaeeueii
caieiaao 4 ianoi a ie?a (iyoia i?e iiaen/aoa AAI n o/aoii ia?eoaoa
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe).

Ii eoiaai 1997 a. iaaethaeaaony iiceoeaiia eciaiaiea i?aeoe/anee anao
iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae. Oae AAI a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee, ii
ioeaieai Ieiyeiiiieee, oaaee/eeny ?aaeueii a 1997 a. ia 2,2% (n o/aoii
aeaoeyoi?a) e i?aaunee 8,1 o?ei. o?. a oaeoueo oeaiao (7,8 o?ei. o?. a
1996 a.).

?ac?anoathueeny e?ecen ia aceaoneeo ?uieao ia ieacae caiaoiiai
naea?aeeaathuaai aicaeaenoaey ia aeaaii?eyoioth yeiiiie/aneoth
eiiuthieoo?o ai O?aioeee, oioy e i?eaae e nieaeaieth ia 0,3-0,5%
i?e?inoa AAI a aiaeiaii en/eneaiee. E n/anoueth aeey o?aioeocneie
yeiiiieee, aeiey Acee yaeyaony iacia/eoaeueiie ai aiaoiaoi?aiauo iaiaiao
O?aioeee (ieiei 8% a yenii?oa e iaiiiaei aieaa 9% a eiii?oa).

Eiaiii no?aieoaeueiue ?ino o?aioeocneiai yenii?oa (ii/oe 12% ii eoiaai
1997 a.) n/eoaaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?e/ei i?iaeieaeathuaainy
yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia. O?aioeocneie yenii?oiie yeniainee
niaeaenoaiaaee aeaaii?eyoiay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiiuthieoo?a (aei ia/aea
e?ecena ia aceaoneeo ?uieao) e auaiaeiue eo?n iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou.

Ii?aaeaeaiiua iaaeaaeaeu naycaiu n aeaeueiaeoei oaaee/aieai ee/iiai
iio?aaeaiey ai O?aioeee (ca 1997 a. ia 1%). Yoa aeeiaieea aucaaia, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, nicaeaieai aeey ianaeaiey aieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee
aeey ?acaeoey iio?aaeoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa, a n ae?oaie – oaeanoi/aieai
iaeiaiaiai ?aaeeia a ioiioaiee naa?aaeaiee ianaeaiey, /oi aaaeao e
noaaiaoeee ii?iu naa?aaeaiey (ia o?iaia ieiei 14%). E?iia oiai, ia
oaaee/aiea ?aaeueiie iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ianaeaiey (?ino ia 2% a
1997 a.) iiaeeyei nieaeaiea noaaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa (i?e
i?aaeoaeuenoaa A. AEthiia) e caiaaeeaiea oaiiia eioeyoeee (1,1% ca 1997
a.), a oaeaea aiaeiaia iiauoaiea ii/oe ia 2,8% iauae iannu ca?aaioiie
ieaou (i?e aeoeaiii o/anoee i?aaeoaeuenoaa E. AEiniaia).

O?aioeocneay yeiiiieea ii-i?aaeiaio ino?i ioaeaeaaony a ?aceii
noeioee?iaaiee eiaanoeoeee, i?aaeaea anaai, a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee, /oi iicaieeo caiaoii oaaee/eoue iio?aaeaiea ia aioo?aiiai
?uiea, a oaeaea iiauneoue ii?io i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee.

A 1997 a. aeiaeaiey ianaeaiey a ?acee/iua aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa i?aauneee
15,6 o?ei. o?. eee ii/oe aeaa aiaeiauo iauaia AAI. Eeeaeaeiua
naa?aaeaiey (?acee/iua ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa, ca?oaaaeiua n/aoa,
aaieianeea aeeaaeu aei aino?aaiaaiey, aeiaeaiey a oeaiiua e?aoein?i/iua
aoiaae) inoaeenue oaeoe/anee iaeciaiiuie e ninoaaeyee ii/oe 3,7 o?ei.
o?. eee ieiei 24% anao aeiaeaiee. Ia oae iacuaaaiua aeiee?iaaiiua
naa?aaeaiey (aaieianeea n?i/iua aeeaaeu, oeaeaaua aeeaaeu ii
no?aoiaaieth aeecie, no?aoiaua i?aiee io ?acee/iuo ?eneia, aeiee?iaaiiua
aaieianeea n/aoa) i?eoiaeeeinue aieaa 34% anao aeiaeaiee ianaeaiey, /oi
ninoaaeyei 5,4 o?ei. o?. (aiaeiaie i?e?ino ia 645 ie?ae. o?aieia). Aeiey
?acee/iuo iaeeaaoeee, aeoeee, iaaa eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia aeinoeaaea
42% e ninoaaeyea a oeeo?iaii au?aaeaiee 6,5 o?ei. o?. (aiaeiaia
nieaeaiea ia 105 ie?ae. o?aieia). Yoe oeeo?u iiaeoaa?aeaeatho aaniiue
eiaanoeoeeiiiue iioaioeeae ee/iuo naa?aaeaiee ai O?aioeee e eo ia?iiiia
cia/aiea aeey yeiiiieee no?aiu. Aeaaiaea?y oaeei ee/iui naa?aaeaieyi
ianaeaiey, aeeoioee?iaaiiui a ?acee/iuo oi?iao aeiaeaiee, O?aioeey
inoaaony /enoui yenii?oa?ii eaieoaea.

A 1997 a. iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oaeouaai ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina
i?aauneei 220 ie?ae. o?. e aoaeao ?aei?aeiui ca iineaaeiea 5 eao.

N oai, /oiau nio?aieoue a neea iaiaoeaoothny oaiaeaioeeth e
aeaeueiaeoaio nie?auaieth aeaoeoeeoa ainathaeaeaoa i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?aaeiieaaaao ii eiiio ?annoaaeoue aeoeaiou a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee.
Oneeeaaaony iaeiaiaia a?aiy i?aaei?eyoee. A n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiuo
iaeiaia iie aianee a athaeaeao a 1998 a. nauoa 30 ie?ae. o?. Oaeea
aeiiieieoaeueiua ecaea?aeee i?aaei?eyoee iaaeaaii?eyoii aicaeaenoaotho
ia iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth neooaoeeth, oioy o?iaaiue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey /enoie
i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee (ii?yaeea 15%) inoaaony aiieia i?eaieaiui.

?aceia nie?auaiea ii eieoeeaoeaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo iaeiaiauo
eueaio oaea?eei ii eioa?anai n?aaeiaai eeanna, eioi?iio i?eaeaony
aiineoue iniiaioth nioeeaeueioth ieaoo ca niioaaonoaea o?aioeocneeo
iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae e?eoa?eyi /eainoaa a AN.

Aianoi iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa iniiaiui i?yiui iaeiaii 1998 a. noaiiayony
oae iacuaaaiua io/eneaiey anaiauaai oa?aeoa?a ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu
(aaaaeaiu a 1991 a.). Yoe io/eneaiey ioiuia i?iecaiaeyony a iieueco
ainoaea?noaa n ethauo aeaeia aeioiaea, aeeth/ay naa?aaaoaeueiua n/aoa e
i?ioeaiou ii iei, iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea, aeioiaeu ii aeiaiai?ai
no?aoiaaiey aeecie e o. ae.

O?iaaiue iaycaoaeueiuo io/eneaiee ii ioiioaieth e AAI inoaaony ai
O?aioeee aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiui (46% a 1997 a.) e nio?aiyao
oaiaeaioeeth e iiauoaieth, /aio niinianoaoao iuiaoiee eo?n
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a iaeiaiaie noa?a.

Ainoaea?noai i?iaeieaeaao aeoeaii ia?aueaaoue naie aioo?aiiee aeiea. A
1997 a. ii ninoaaee 58,3% io AAI ii n?aaiaieth n 55,7% a 1996 a. A 1998
a. noiia aeeoioee?iaaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa aeinoeaea ii/oe 80
oun. o?. ia aeooo ianaeaiey.

N oeaeueth ?acei nie?aoeoue iuiaoiee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu
i?aaeoaeuenoai aeiaeeinue a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea nieaeaiey n 1
yiaa?y 2000 a. aei 35 /ania ioeoeeaeueiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aai/ae
iaaeaee a /anoiii naeoi?a i?e nio?aiaiee aeaenoaothuae noaaee ca?ieaou.

Ia?aoiae e 35 /aniaie ?aai/ae iaaeaea aeieaeai ii caiuneo i?aaeoaeuenoaa
iineoue aeaeee oa?aeoa? e ia iiae?uaaoue yeiiiieeo. Iiaeiaiay
ia?niaeoeaa ia ano?a/aao iiaeaea?aeee iao?iiaoa, iiaue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
eioi?iai Y. A. Naea? ?acei aunooiaao i?ioea yeiiiie/anee
aacioaaonoaaiiiai, n aai oi/ee c?aiey, oaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iauaeoeaii
aiai?y, ia yoio n/ao eiathony aeinoaoi/iua iniiaaiey. O?aioeocneay
yeiiiieea oaeoe/anee ?aci?oaeaaony oaeei ia?acii ia?aae eeoeii iniiaiuo
eiieo?aioia a i?aaeaeaa?ee ia?aoiaea e aa?i.

Na?ueaciia aieiaiea i?aaeoaeuenoai E. AEiniaia oaeaeyei iiauoaieth
aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey. Iaeiei ec ia?auo oaaia yaeeinue iiauoaiea
ia 4% (aei 6663 o?. a ianyoe) ieieiaeueiie aa?aioe?iaaiiie ca?ieaou,
eioi?oth nae/an iieo/aao eaaeaeue aeanyoue ?aaioathuee ai O?aioeee.

Oai ia iaiaa ai O?aioeee i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny ino?ie neooaoeey n
iaacaeieaiiie /anoueth iauanoaa. Ii/oe 10% ianaeaiey, a iniiaiii
eiiea?aiou, aeeaoo ca /a?oie aaaeiinoe. Ai?ueaa n e?aeiae aaaeiinoueth
yaeyaony iaeiei ec eeth/aauo i?ia?aiiiuo iieiaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
nioeeaeueiie noa?a. Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei aaaeiinoe ia?yaeo n
aac?aaioeoeae e nioeeaeueiie ia?aeiaeecaoeeae yaeyaony oaaee/aiea aei 3
iei. /enea ?aaioathueo n ieceeie aeioiaeaie (iaiaa 5 oun. o?aieia
«/enouie» a ianyoe).

Aieiaiie aieueth i?aaeoaeuenoaa inoaaony e?oiiue aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa
nenoaiu nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey (ii/oe 38 ie?ae. o?aieia a 1997 a.). A
yoie nayce i?aaeoaeuenoaii auee ?ac?aaioaiu ia?u ii nie?auaieth
aeaoeoeeoa a 1998 a. aei 12 ie?ae. o?aieia e aeinoeaeaiey
naaeaine?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e 1999 a.

Iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa a aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie noa?a a 1997 a.
ii?aaeaeyeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nio?aiaiey neeueiie iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaethou a ea/anoaa aeaaiiai oneiaey oniaoiiai ia?aoiaea e neeueiie
aaeeiie aaethoa a ?aieao AAYN. Yoi iiae?acoiaaaei aeanoeee eiio?ieue ni
noi?iiu Aaiea O?aioeee ca noaaeeueiinoueth o?aiea ia aiaoieo ?uieao, a
oaeaea eiio?ieue aa?aaaoia aeaiaaeiieiannu. Aaie O?aioeee i?e yoii
enoiaeee ec oiai, /oiau iauee aiaeiaie i?e?ino niaieoiiie aeaiaaeiie
iannu ia i?aauoae 5% (n o/aoii iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiie aiaeiaie
eioeyoeee a 2% e iaeeaeaaiiai ?aaeueiiai i?e?inoa iauaia AAI ia 3%).

A oeaeii yoe ia?aiao?u auee auaea?aeaiu. I?e?ino niaieoiiie aeaiaaeiie
iannu ia i?aaunee a 1997 a. 1,5% (i?e eioeyoeee a 1,1% e ?aaeueiii ?inoa
AAI ia 2,2%). Aaie O?aioeee i?iaiaeee eeieth ia oe?aieaiea o?aiea ii
ioiioaieth e iaiaoeeie ia?ea. N yoie oeaeueth auei inouanoaeaii
iiauoaiea noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey n 3,1% aei 3,3% aiaeiauo. Oaeei
ia?acii, yoa i?ioeaioiay noaaea Aaiea O?aioeee n?aaiyeanue n iniiaiie
i?ioeaioiie noaaeie Aoiaeanaaiea. N oi/ee c?aiey aoaeouae neeueiie
aaeeiie aaethou yoio oaa O?aioeee i?aaenoaaeyaony ii?aaaeaiiui. Ii yoa
ia?a niaa?oaiii ia aienuaaaony a o?aaiaaiey iae?iyeiiiie/aneie
eiiuthieoo?u ai O?aioeee, eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao iaiai?io oaeaoaaeaiea
e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia.

A ?acoeueoaoa oeacaiiuo aeaenoaee Aaiea O?aioeee i?iecioei iiauoaiea
e?aaeeoiuo noaaie eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Oae, aaciaay aaieianeay
i?ioeaioiay noaaea aic?inea n 6,3 aei 6,55% aiaeiauo. Yoa noaaea neoaeeo
i?eaioe?ii i?e auaea/a i?eia?ii 15% iauae noiiu e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoia
i?aaei?eyoee. *oi eanaaony /anoiuo eeoe, oi ii oaeie noaaea ei
i?aaenoaaeyaony ieiei 4% noiiu e?aaeeoia ia i?eia?aoaiea iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Eaieoae. A eiioea 1997 a. ?aaeueiay noaaea e?aaeeoiaaiey (n o/aoii
aeaoeyoi?a) a yeiiiieea O?aioeee i?a-auneea 4,4%. Noaaea i?aaeeiaeaiey
e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoia (ia n?ie aei 3 ianyoeaa) ia ?uiea iaaeaaieianeeo
e?aaeeoia a Ia?eaea (“Eeai?» ) aic?inea aei 3,67% aiaeiauo.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n iiauoaieai aaieianeeo e?aaeeoiuo noaaie i?iecioei
nieaeaiea aeioiaeiinoe oeaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aoiaa. Ii 10-eaoiei
ainiaeeaaoeeyi aeioiaeiinoue nie?aoeeanue aei 5,37% aiaeiauo (4,1% a
?aaeueiii en/eneaiee), a ii o?aoiany/iui ainiaeeaaoeeyi iia oiaea aei
3,64% aiaeiauo (2% a ?aaeueiii au?aaeaiee). N oi/ee c?aiey eacia/aenoaa
yoa oaiaeaioeey yaeyaony aeiaieueii aeaaii?eyoiie. Eiaiii iiyoiio
Ieioeiii auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i auionea n 1998 a. ainiaeeaaoeee,
aeioiaeiinoue eioi?uo aoaeao eiaeaene?iaaia n o/aoii eioeyoeee.

A 1998 aiaeo i?iaeieaeeeny noaaeeueiue ?ino iauaia AAI (ia 2,6-2,8% a
iinoiyiiuo oeaiao). Iiieiaeueiue AAI iiaeao i?aauneoue a 1998 a. 8,5
o?ei. o?. I?e/ai ia yoio ?ac o?e /aoaa?oe i?e?inoa aeieaeiu auoue
iaania/aiu ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aioo?aiiaai ni?ina.

Oaeei ia?acii, ai O?aioeee, eae e ae?oaeo no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu,
inoaaony noaaeeueiie aeaaii?eyoiay yeiiiie/aneay eiiuthieoo?a a ioee/ea
io ae?oaeo aaaeoueo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaeiiia (a oii /enea NOA, aaea
nouanoaotho na?ueaciua i?aaeiinueee ia?aa?aaa yeiiiieee).

Aeaaiui oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia noaiiaeony, eae oaea
ioia/aeinue auoa, aioo?aiiee ni?in. A 1998 a. ii aic?anoao ii/oe ia 3%
(ii n?aaiaieth n i?e?inoii a 1% a i?ioeii aiaeo), a oii /enea ia
i?iiuoeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth – ii/oe ia 4%.

A 1998 aiaeo ?aaeueiay iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ianaeaiey aic?anoao
ia 2,6-2,8% e, oaeei ia?acii, «iiaeieoaao» ?anoouee aioo?aiiee ni?in e a
1999 aiaeo.

Oaeoe/anee ia o?iaia 14% nio?aiyaony ii?ia naa?aaeaiey ianaeaiey
(ioiioaiea aai naa?aaeaiee e ?aaeueii ?aniieaaaaiiio aeaiaaeiiio
aeioiaeo). I?e yoii aeiaeaiey ianaeaiey a oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou, ia
eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony iieiaeia anao naa?aaeaiee, eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e
nie?auaieth. (A 1998 a. iie iiaoo nie?aoeoueny ia 50 ie?ae. o?.)

Aeey O?aioeee oa?aeoa?iie noaiiaeony ?anoouay ?ieue ia?aceaeaioia ia
?uiea ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa. Ia aeieth ia?aceaeaioia i?eoiaeyony
ii/oe 44% anao aeoeee o?aioeocneeo i?aaei?eyoee, eioe?oaiuo ia ae?aeaaii
?uiea. Eiaiii ia?aceaeaiou ieacuaatho na?ueaciia aicaeaenoaea ia ?uiie
aeoeee, i?eioaeaeay i?aaei?eyoey aeiaeaaoueny a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
oaaee/aiey ?aioaaaeueiinoe aeoeaia, iiauoaiey aeeaeaeaiaeia ia?aaeei a
oua?a eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe. Aeaiiue oaeoi? oaeo iioaioeeaeueioth
iianiinoue aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
eiaanoeoeee o?aioeocneeo aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee.

Oai ia iaiaa, ?aceaeaiou iiea a ninoiyiee ieacuaaoue aeaaii?eyoiia
aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiie/aneoth eiiuthieoo?o, a oii /enea e /a?ac ?uiie
ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa. Iniiaiuie ea?ieaie n?aaee ?aceaeaioia ia
yoii ?uiea yaeythony /anoiua eeoea (17,4% anao eioe?oaiuo aeoeee),
iaaaua eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu (16%), naie aeoeeiia?iua eiiiaiee (ieiei
11%) e iaineiiiua oiiaeu aianoa ni no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie (9%).

Aaaeiui iiceoeaiui oaeoi?ii iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a noaiiaeony
ieceee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee. A 1997 a. iia ninoaaeea 1,1% e yaeeanue naiie
ieceie ca iineaaeiea 40 eao. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi oeaiu ia
i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u aic?inee eeoue ia 0,1%; oneoae iiaei?iaeaee ia 1,4%.
Naiui aunieei (2,5%) aue ?ino oeai ia i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u.
Aceaoneee e?ecen aaaeao e nieaeaieth eioeyoeee ai O?aioeee ia 0,5% a
aiaeiaii en/eneaiee. Aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi a 1998 aiaeo iiae aeeyieai
yoiai oaeoi?a o?iaaiue eioeyoeee aoaeao ii?yaeea 0,8-0,9%.

Ieceee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee ianao iianiinoue noaaiaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a
yeiiiieea, ii O?aioeee yoa ia?niaeoeaa iiea ia oa?iaeaao. A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ae i?aiyonoaoao ia/aaoeeny eiaanoeoeeiiiue iiaeuai. Ii naycai
eae n i?aaeaeueii aunieie caa?oceie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae (87%),
oaaee/aieai aioo?aiiaai iio?aaeaiey, i?iaeieaeathueiny yeiiiie/aneei
?inoii a no?aiao AN (eoaea iai?aaeythony aeaa o?aoe o?aioeocneiai
yenii?oa), oae e n ieceei o?iaiai (iaiueoa 5% aiaeiauo) i?ioeaioiuo
noaaie ii aeieain?i/iui caeinoaiaaieyi. Iineaaeiaa ianoiyoaeuenoai
niinianoaiaaei oiio, /oi iauee iauai aaieianeeo e?aaeeoia ?aaeueiiio
naeoi?o au?in a 1997 a. ia 5,3%. I?e yoii aiaeiaie iauai yiennee aeoeee
e iaeeaaoeee i?aaei?eyoee nie?aoeeny oiaea ia 5%.

Aeey O?aioeee oa?aeoa?iie inoaaony oaiaeaioeey e yenii?oo eaieoaea,
aeeth/ay i?yiua eiaanoeoeee. Ca 1997 a. o?aioeocneea ii?ooaeueiua
eiaanoeoeee ca ?oaaaeii i?aauneee 413,5 ie?ae. o?., a oii /enea 257,4
ie?ae. o?. ia iieoieo iaeeaaoeee. O?aioeocneea ?aceaeaiou i?eia?aee ia
158 ie?ae. o?. eiino?aiiuo aeoeee e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa, aeathueo
i?aai ia o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee. *oi eanaaony i?yiuo ca?oaaaeiuo
eiaanoeoeee o?aioeocneeo ?aceaeaioia, oi iie i?aauneee a 1997 a. 181
ie?ae. o?. Oaeoe/anee O?aioeey ia?yaeo n ssiiieae caieiaao nae/an
eeaee?othuaa ianoi a ie?a ii ?acia?o i?yiuo ca?oaaaeiuo eiaanoeoeee.

I?e yoii O?aioeey nio?aiyao eiaanoeoeeiiioth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue aeey
eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia. Ii iauaio i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a 1997
a. (122,5 ie?ae. o?.) O?aioeey iaoiaeeony ia 4 ianoa a ie?a iinea NOA,
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, EI?. Ia?aceaeaiou aeiaeeee a 1997 aiaeo 257 ie?ae. o?.
ai o?aioeocneea oeaiiua aoiaae, a oii /enea 149 ie?ae. o?. – a aeoeee e
ae?oaea anneieee?iaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae. I?e/ai iaeaieaa aeoeaii
ia?aceaeaiou aeeaaeuaaee n?aaenoaa a yoe aoiaae iinea ia/aea e?ecena ia
oiiaeiauo ?uieao a Acee.

Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ai, ai O?aioeee aoaeao iaania/ai
eiaanoeoeeiiiue iiaeuai, i eioi?ii aiai?eeinue auoa. Oae, iai?eia?,
oieueei a 1997 aiaeo iie nicaeaee ai O?aioeee aieaa 24 oun. ?aai/eo iano
a ?aieao 360 e?oiiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

Ii aeaiiui Aaiea O?aioeee ia 1 yiaa?y 1997 a. i?yiua iaeiieaiiua
eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee ninoaaeyee 753,8 ie?ae. o?. Iniiaiua eiaanoeoeee
(64%) iinooieee ec no?ai AN. NOA caieiaee ia?aia ianoi n?aaee eiaanoi?ia
(152,3 ie?ae. o?aieia eee 20,2%). Ia aeieth ?innee, eioi?ay caieiaao 16
ianoi, i?eoiaeeeenue 3,1 ie?ae. o?. i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee eee 0,4% (anaai
ec no?ai n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie iinooieee a aeaea i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee
3,8 ie?ae. o?.).

Iniiaiuie noa?aie i?eeiaeaiey i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ai O?aioeee
yaeythony ?acee/iua oieaeeiae (20,5%), e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey (17,5%),
a /anoiinoe aaieianeea (9,2%), oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue (12%).

Aeeiaie/iue yenii?o, ?ino iauaia iieoiie ia?aceaeaioaie o?aioeocneeo
oeaiiuo aoiaa, cia/eoaeueiua iinooieaiey io eiino?aiiiai oo?ecia
iicaieeee oaaee/eoue a aeaa ?aca iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oaeouaai
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina. Iii ninoaaeei ii/oe 232 ie?ae. o?.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi a 1998 aiaeo aeaiiue iieacaoaeue nie?aoeony aei
200 ie?ae. o?. iiae aeeyieai aceaoneiai e?ecena.

Aeaaii?eyoiay yeiiiie/aneay eiiuthieoo?a 1997 aiaea iicaieeea nicaeaoue
aeiiieieoaeueii 160 ouny/ ?aai/eo iano. E?iia oiai, ainoaea?noai
auaeaeeei n?aaenoaa aeey nicaeaiey 40 ouny/ ?aai/eo iano niaoeeaeueii
aeey iieiaeaaee. A I eaa?oaea 1998 a. auee aeiiieieoaeueii nicaeaiu 75
oun. ?aai/eo iano. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi a 1998 a. iiyayony 300 ouny/
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo iano, a oii /enea 100 ouny/ – niaoeeaeueii aeey
iieiaeaaee. Oaeei ia?acii, nouanoaiaaee ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
nie?aoeoue e eiioeo 1998 aiaea o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu n 12,5% aei 11,8%
io /enea yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey.

Iaeiei ec y?eeo i?eia?ia oniaoiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a 1997 a.
yaeyaony ?ino ii/oe ia 4,5% iauaia i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoio
?acoeueoao yaeyaony eo/oei ca iineaaeiea 20 eao. Ii yaeyaony neaaenoaeai
iiceoeaiuo eciaiaiee a yeiiiieea iiae aeeyieai i?iaiaeeiie i?aaui
aieueoeinoaii yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee a 1995-97 aa.

A iaoeiino?iaiee i?e?ino i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaunee 8%, a oii /enea a
aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – 18,3%.

Oaiaeaioeey e aeoeaiiio ?inoo i?iecaiaenoaa nio?aiyeanue e a 1998 aiaeo.
Oae, i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai oaaee/eony a aiaeiaii en/eneaiee ia
7,5%, a oii /enea i?iecaiaenoai iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey – ia 9%. A
aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaeeaeaaony i?e?ino i?iecaiaenoaa ia 16%,
a aaeano?iaiee – ia 9%, yeaeo?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – ia 8%, eioi?iaoeea
– ia 4%.

Nouanoaotho, iaeiaei, io?anee, eioi?ua ia?aaeeaatho no?oeoo?iue e?ecen.
A /anoiinoe, iaeeaeaaony aeaeueiaeoaa nieaeaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa a
eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (ia 2%), noaeino?iaiee (ia 2%), a?aaeaeaineii
no?ieoaeuenoaa (ia 1,6%), i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?ieiaoa?eaeia e ?yaea ae?oaeo
naeoi?ia.

Aeaaiaea?y caiaoiui oniaoai a yeiiiieea, i?aaeoaeuenoao oaeaeinue a 1997
aiaeo nie?aoeoue ia 80 ie?ae. o?. (aei 244,5 ie?ae. o?.) aeaoeoeeo
ain?anoiaeia e aueoe ia o?iaaiue a 3% io AAI, /oi niioaaonoaoao
e?eoa?eyi /eainoaa a Aa?iiaeneii aaethoiii e yeiiiie/aneii nithca.

Athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo aue nie?auai a iaiaeie noaiaie ca n/ao
aeiiieieoaeueiiai iaeiaa ia i?eaueue n i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ue i?eian a
eacio 21 ie?ae. o?. (iaeeaeaeinue iinooieaiea 17 ie?ae. o?. a 1998
aiaeo).

Iaycaoaeueiua io/eneaiey a iieueco ainoaea?noaa i?aauneee 46,1% io AAI
(45,7% a 1996 a.). I?e yoii naie ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu nie?aoeeenue
aei 54,7% io AAI (a 1996 a. – 55,2%). Aioo?aiiee ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea
i?iaeieaeae oaaee/eaaoueny (?ino a 1997 a. ia 3,8%) e aeinoea 4639
ie?ae. o?aieia eee 58% AAI. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi a 1998 aiaeo ainaeiea
aic?anoao aei 58,8% io AAI.

I?aaeoaeuenoai oai ia iaiaa iaia?aii ia?aie/eoue ?ino ain?anoiaeia. A
1998 a. eo iiieiaeueiue ?ino ia aeieaeai aue i?aauneoue 2,2% i?e
iiieiaeueiii ?inoa AAI ia 3,9%.Aeaoeoeeo ain?anoiaeia ia aeieaeai
i?aauneoue 2,8% io AAI i?e ooaa?aeaeaiiuo aeioiaeao ainathaeaeaoa a
?acia?a 1447 ie?ae. o?aieia. I?e yoii i?aaeoaeuenoai enoiaeeo ec
?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe aeiiieieoaeueii iieo/eoue ca n/ao yeiiiie/aneiai
iiaeuaia 50-60 ie?ae. o?. a ea/anoaa athaeaeaoiuo iinooieaiee. Ec yoie
noiiu i?aaeiieaaaaony cao?aoeoue 18 ie?ae. o?. ia aeaeueiaeoaa
nie?auaiea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa; 23 ie?ae. o?. iieaeoo ia iaauaiiia
oaaee/aiea ca?ieaou athaeaeaoieeai; 7 ie?ae. o?. aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu
aeey iieaou i?ioeaioia ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio aioo?aiiaio aeieao. Oaeei
ia?acii, o i?aaeoaeuenoaa oaeoe/anee ia inoaaony naiaiaeiuo n?aaenoa
aeey oeiaine?iaaiey nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii, eae auei iaauaii eaauie ia
aein?i/iuo ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 1997 a.

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