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Географическое положение и история Афганистана

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AAIA?AOE*ANEIA IIEIAEAIEA E ENOI?Ess AOAAIENOAIA

AOAAIENOAI, Eneaineay ?anioaeeea Aoaaienoai (ioooo: Da Afghanistan
Islami Dawlat, aea?e: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan), ainoaea?noai a
thai-caiaaeiie /anoe Oeaio?aeueiie Acee. Iacaaiea “Aoaaienoai”
iiyaeeinue n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii. Aei ia/. 19 a. yoa no?aia auea
ecaanoia eae Oi?anai, /oi a ia?aaiaea ni n?aaeiaia?neaeneiai icia/aao
“ainoiae nieioea”, “ainoie” eee “ainoi/iay caiey”. Ia?nu, iaeiaei,
ecaeaaia iacuaaee iooooineea ieaiaia, ianaeyaoea ai?u Aeiaeoeooa,
aoaaioeaie. Aiaee/aia iacuaaee no?aio “Aoaaieaiae” (n 1801), /oi iicaea
ia?aaaee ia ia?neaeneee eae Aoaaienoai, o.a. “no?aia aoaaioeaa”. E eii.
19 a. yoi iacaaiea no?aiu ooaa?aeeeinue eae ioeoeeaeueiia. Noieeoea –
a.Eaaoe (3,04 iei. /ae. – 2005, ioeaiea). Oa??eoi?ey – 647,5 oun. ea.
ei. Ianaeaiea – 29,93 iei. /ae. (2005, ioeaiea).

Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea e a?aieoeu. Aioo?eeiioeiaioaeueiia
ainoaea?noai (ia eiaao auoiaea e ii?th), ?aniieiaeaiiia iaaeaeo 29°30″ e
38°20″ n.o. e 60°30″ e 74°45″ a.ae. A?aie/eo n Iaeenoaiii ia thaa e
ainoiea, n E?aiii ia caiaaea, n Oo?eiaienoaiii, Ocaaeenoaiii e
Oaaeaeeeenoaiii ia naaa?a, n Eeoaai e Eiaeeae ia e?aeiai naaa?i-ainoiea.
Aeeaeaeoaa ?annoiyiea io aai a?aieoe aei Eiaeeeneiai ieaaia – ie. 500
ei. I?ioyaeaiiinoue n naaa?a ia tha – 1015 ei, n ainoiea ia caiaae –
1240 ei. Ieii/aoaeueii a?aieoeu Aoaaienoaia ii?aaeaeeeenue iinea Aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieiu.

I?e?iaea. ?aeueao iiaa?oiinoe. Aoaaienoai caieiaao naaa?i-ainoi/ioth
/anoue E?aineiai iaai?uey, aeeth/athuaai aunieea o?aaou e iaaeai?iua
aeieeiu. Ainoi/iua ?aeiiu no?aiu n thai-caiaaea ia naaa?i-ainoie
ia?anaeatho aunieea ianneaiua o?aaou Aeiaeoeooa aunioie aieaa 4000–5000
i, a a i?aaeaeao Aaoaineiai o?aaoa – aieaa 6000 i. Caeanue ia a?aieoea n
Iaeenoaiii iaoiaeeony aunoay oi/ea no?aiu, ai?a Iaooae (7485 i iaae
o.i.). A aa?oiai y?ona ai?, iniaaiii ia naaa?i-ainoiea, eiaaony
ieaaeaiaiea n ?aciiia?aciuie oeiaie eaaeieeia.

Caiaaeiaa Aeiaeoeooa ?aniieiaeaii aieueoia ii ieiuaaee, neeueii
?an/eaiaiiia, o?oaeiiaeinooiiia iaai?uea Oaca?aaeaeao aunioie aieaa 3000
i (iaeioi?ua aa?oeiu aeinoeaatho 4000 i). A yoeo ai?ao aeoeaii i?ioaeaao
oece/aneia auaao?eaaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai ai?iua ii?iaeu
?ac?ooathony, a eo iaeiiee neaieeaathony a aeaea inuiae (aeaiaiia)
aaeieue neeiiia e o eo iiaeiiaeee. Io Oaca?aaeaeaoa e caiaaeo e
thai-caiaaeo aaa?iia?acii ?anoiaeyony nenoaiu aieaa ieceeo o?aaoia. Ai?u
Ia?iiaiec i?ioyaeaiiinoueth ie. 600 ei e oe?eiie aei 250 ei ?aniieiaeaiu
ia naaa?i-caiaaea Aoaaienoaia e ninoiyo ec aeaoo aeaaiuo o?aaoia –
Naoaaeeoo (ia naaa?a) e Neaoeoo (ia thaa). O?aaou ?acaeaeaiu aeieeiie
?.Aa?e?oae. Naoaaeeoo eiaao aeeeio ie. 350 ei e aeinoeaaao auniou 3642 i
ia ainoiea e 1433 i ia caiaaea.

Ia naaa?a Aoaaienoaia ?aniieiaeaia iaoe?iay Aaeo?eeneay ?aaieia,
eiathuay oeeii ii iai?aaeaieth e aeieeia ?.Aioaea?uey. Iiaa?oiinoue
?aaieiu a i?aaeai?ueyo Aeiaeoeooa e Ia?iiaieca neiaeaia e?nniauie
ioeiaeaieyie e ?an/eaiaia iiiai/eneaiiuie ?aeaie. Naaa?iaa iia
ia?aoiaeeo a ian/aioth ionouith. Ia e?aeiai naaa?i-caiaaea e aaeieue
a?aieoeu n E?aiii auoyioeinue Aa?aonei-Oa?aoneia ieineiai?uea aunioie io
600 aei 800 i. Ia thai-caiaaea Aoaaienoaia ?aniieiaeaiu aannoi/iua
oieienoua ieaoi aunioie io 500 aei 1000 i, ?annaeaaiua aeieeiie
?.Aeeueiaiae. Iaoe?iua ieiuaaee caieiatho ian/aiua ionouie ?aaenoai,
Aa?ine? e aeeienoi-uaaienoay ionouiy Aeaooe-Ia?ai, caiueaaiua ia e?aeiai
thaa ai?aie *aaae. Ia thai-ainoiea no?aiu, iaaeaeo Aeiaeoeooai e
io?iaaie Noeaeiaiiauo ai?, ?aniieiaeaii neaai?an/eaiaiiia
Aacie-Eaiaeaaa?neia ieineiai?uea aunioie iaiaa 2000 i, e eioi?iio
i?eo?i/aiu ianeieueei iacenia. Naiue e?oiiue ec ieo ?aniieiaeai a
ie?anoiinoyo ai?iaea Eaiaeaaa?.

Iieaciua eneiiaaiua. A iaae?ao Aoaaienoaia nin?aaeioi/aii iaiaei
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, ii eo ?ac?aaioea ia?aie/aia ec-ca neiaeiiai ai?iiai
?aeueaoa e ionoonoaey ?acaeoie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Eiathony caianu iaooe
(Na?e-Ioeue), i?e?iaeiiai aaca (Oeaa?aai), eaiaiiiai oaey (Ea?ea?,
Eoioooa, Aea?aee-Noo, Ea??io). Ia naaa?a no?aiu au?aaeaiu nieaiiniua
no?oeoo?u aaeece a.Oaeoeai. A ?aeiia Aiaeoiy e a ae?oaeo ianoao
aeiauaatho eaiaiioth nieue. Eiathony i?iiuoeaiiua caeaaee iaaeiuo
(thaeiaa Eaaoea e Eaiaeaaa?a), aeaeaciuo (Oaaeaeeaae, naaa?iaa e
caiaaeiaa Eaaoea), ia?aaioeaauo (a ?aeiia Eaaoea), naeioeiai-oeeieiauo
(Aeae-Aaooa?, Ooeae, Oa?eiaeaeaeue) e ieiayiiuo ?oae (Aaaeaooai).
O?iiiaua ?oaeu caeaaatho a aeieeia ?.Eiaa?a, a naaa?iaa Aeaeaeaeaaaaea,
a i?iaeioeee Iaiaa?oa?, aeiauaatho aa?eeeiaua ?oaeu. A oa/aiea iiiaeo
noieaoee Aoaaienoai neaaeony ianoi?iaeaeaieyie aunieiea/anoaaiiiai
eaco?eoa (ia naaa?i-ainoiea no?aiu a aannaeia ?.Eie/e), a oaeaea ae?oaeo
ae?aaioeaiiuo e iieoae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae (?oaei, aeaaia?ei e ecoi?oae).
?innuiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey cieioa iaia?oaeaiu a Aaaeaooaia e Aacie.
Aiciiaeia aeiau/a aunieiea/anoaaiiuo i?aii?a, oaeueea, a?aieoa,
aacaeueoa, aeieiieoa, aeina, ecaanoiyea, eaieeia (aeeia), anaanoa,
nethaeu, aa?eoa, na?u, aiaoenoia e yoiu.

Eeeiao Aoaaienoaia eiioeiaioaeueiue (ni cia/eoaeueiuie aiieeooaeaie
oaiia?aoo?), nooie. N?aaeiea oaiia?aoo?u (ii Oeaeueneth) yiaa?y ia
?aaieiao ninoaaeytho io 0° aei 8° N?(aaniethoiue ieieioi –25° N).
N?aaeiea oaiia?aoo?u ethey ia ?aaieiao – 24–32° N, a ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiay
aaniethoiay iaeneiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a ninoaaeyao +45° N (a Ae?eoea,
i?ia. Aeeueiaiae). A Eaaoea n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a ethey +25° N, y??y – 3°
N. Aeiai iau/ii noieo yniay nieia/iay iiaiaea, a ii/ueth – i?ioeaaeiay
eee oieiaeiay. N?aaeiaa aiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia iaaaeeei: ia
?aaieiao – ie. 200 ii, a ai?ao – aei 800 ii. Nacii aeiaeaeae ia ?aaieiao
Aoaaienoaia i?iaeieaeaaony n ieoya?y ii ai?aeue. Niaoeeoe/aneee ?aaeei
oaeaaeiaiey i?iyaeyaony ia thai-ainoiea no?aiu, eoaea i?iieeatho eaoiea
ionniiu, i?eiinyuea eeaiaaua inaaeee a ethea-aaaonoa. Aeaaiaea?y
ionniiai, aiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia aeinoeaaao 800 ii. Ia
thai-caiaaea, a Nenoaia, ianoaie inaaeee aiiaua ia auiaaeatho. A
ionouiyo e ia canooeeauo ?aaieiao nooea caiaaeiua aao?a /anoi i?eiinyo
ian/aiua ao?e, a oi a?aiy eae ?acieoea oaiia?aoo? aicaeooa ia
ieciaiiinoyo e a ai?ao, a oaeaea ?aceay eo niaia aucuaaao ia?aciaaiea
neeueiuo ianoiuo aao?ia.

Aiaeiua ?ano?nu. Ca eneeth/aieai ?.Eaaoe, eioi?ay aiaaeaao a ?.Eiae e
ioiineony e aannaeio Eiaeeeneiai ieaaia, e eaauo i?eoieia Iyiaeaea
(aa?oiaa oa/aiea ?.Aioaea?uey), ?aee Aoaaienoaia caeai/eaathony a
aannoi/iuo ica?ao eee oa?ythony a ianeao. Aeaaiue enoi/iee ieoaiey
e?oiiuo ?ae – oaeua aiaeu ai?iuo niaaia e eaaeieeia. ?aee thai-ainoi/iuo
neeiiia Aeiaeoeooa (?.Eoia?) ieoathony i?aeiouanoaaiii aoiinoa?iuie
inaaeeaie, a oaeaea a?oioiauie aiaeaie e ?aaeei ia?anuoatho. Iaaiaeee
i?eoiaeyony ia aanio e eaoi. Aneaaenoaea aieueoeo caai?ia aiaeu ia
i?ioaiea e neeueiiai enia?aiey aeaaea e?oiiua ?aee iaeatho ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia eaoa e aiiaue iaiieiythony oieueei aaniie a ia?eiae oayiey
niaaia a ai?ao. Aieueoeinoai ?ae ainoi/iuo neeiiia Aeiaeoeooa e
Noeaeiaiiauo ai? ioiinyony e aannaeio Eiaeeeneiai ieaaia e eiatho
eaaeieeiaia ieoaiea. Naiua e?oiiua ec ieo – ?.Eaaoe (ieiuaaeue aannaeia
93 oun. ea. ei, aeeeia 460 ei) n iiiai/eneaiiuie i?eoieaie (?aee Eiaa?,
Iyiaeaeoe?, Eoia?, Aeeaa?, Aeeoai, Oaaai e No?oaa), e aa aannaeio
i?eo?i/ai naiue ieiaei?iaeiue e aonoiianaeaiiue ?aeii Aoaaienoaia. Ia
thaeiuo neeiiao Aeiaeoeooa, a Eooe-Aaaa, aa?ao ia/aei ?.Aeeueiaiae (1130
ei), eioi?ay ioiineony e aioo?aiiaio aannoi/iiio aannaeio ica?a
Oaioi-e-Aeeueiaiae. Iia ia?anaeaao cia/eoaeueioth /anoue no?aiu a
thai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee, i?eieiay a i?aaeai?ueyo i?eoie Y?aaiaeaa,
eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, ieoaaony ?aeaie Y?aanoai, Oa?iae e ae?., e
oa?yaony a i?aaeaeao ionouiiie aeeienoie ?aaieiu Nenoai ia oa??eoi?ee
E?aia. Ieiuaaeue aiaeinai?iiai aannaeia ?.Aeeueiaiae ninoaaeyao ie. 165
oun. ea. ei. A aa aeieeia eiaaony ?yae iacenia, aeeoaee eioi?uo
eniieuecotho aiaeu ?aee aeey e??eaaoeee. Ec ae?oaeo ?ae oiai aea
aannaeia auaeaeythony ?aee Oa?ao?oae (560 ei), Oa?oo?oae e ?oaeeoi?. Eo
?onea aieueooth /anoue aiaea ia?anuoatho.

?aea Aa?e?oae (Oaaeaeai a ieaeiai oa/aiee ia oa??eoi?ee Oo?eiaiee, iauay
aeeeia 1100 ei, a Aoaaienoaia – 600 ei) aa?ao ia/aei a Aeiaeoeooa e
oa/ao ia caiaae, a caoai ?acei iiai?a/eaaao ia naaa?. Aa aiaeu i?ioatho
ieiaei?iaeiue Aa?aoneee iacen. Iaeia ec e?oiiaeoeo ?ae – Aioaea?uey (a
aa?oiai oa/aiee Aaoaiaea?uey), ia?acothuayny ec neeyiey Iyiaeaea (1125
ei) e Aaooa (524 ei), eioi?ua aa?oo ia/aei a Iaie?a. ?aee Aaeo?eeneie
?aaieiu (Aaeo, Ooeuei e ae?.) ia naaa?a eiatho iaiinoiyiiue noie e eaoii
neeueii ia?anuoatho. Iiiaea ec ieo ia aeioiaeyo aei Aioaea?uee e
oa?ythony a ianeao, ia?acoy iaoe?iua aeaeueou. Ai?iua ?aee iaeaaeatho
cia/eoaeueiui aeae?iyia?aiiioaioeeaeii e, eae i?aaeei, ianoaeioiaeiu.
?aea Eaaoe noaeioiaeia ia i?ioyaeaiee ie. 120 ei. Ia iaeioi?uo ?aeao
aeae?ioaoie/aneea ieioeiu ia?acotho eneonnoaaiiua aiaeio?aieeeua: Na?iae
e Iaaeo ia ?.Eaaoe e ainoieo io noieeoeu, Eaiaeaeaee ia ?aeao Aeeueiaiae
e A?aaiaeaa ieiei a.Kaiaeaaa?.

Ica? a Aoaaienoaia iaei. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua e aeeaiieniua ica?a a ai?ao
Aeiaeoeooa – Na?ueoeue ia Aaoaineii ia?aaaea, Oeaa a Ai?iii Aaaeaooaia e
Aaiaee-Aie?. E thao io Aacie ?aniieiaeaii ic.Enoaaeao-e-Moeo?. Ia
caiaaea e thai-caiaaea no?aiu eiathony ia?anuoathuea eaoii nieaiua ica?a
Naaa?e, Iaiaena? e Aeaae-Ooiaee. Iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo yaeyaony
ic.Oaioi-e-Aeeueiaiae (107 ea. ei), ?aniieiaeaiiia ia a?aieoea
Aoaaienoaia e E?aia, e iaio ioiinyony ?aee thaeiuo neeiiia Aeiaeoeooa.

Ii/au. Aeey i?aaeai?ee e aeieei oa?aeoa?iu eaooaiiaua ii/au, ao?icaiu e
na?icaiu, oi?ie?othueany ia naaa?a ia e?nniauo, a ia thaa – ia
aeeienoi-uaaienouo ioeiaeaieyo. Ia iaeaieaa oaeaaeiaiiuo ai?iuo neeiiao
ano?a/athony /a?iicaiiua e ai?iieoaiaua ii/au. Iaeaieueoay /anoue
i?eaiaeiuo aeey iaoiou caiaeue nin?aaeioi/aia a naaa?iuo ?aeiiao e
iaaeai?iuo eioeiaeiao (ia aeethaeaeueiuo, aieaa ieiaei?iaeiuo ii/aao).
Ia thaa e thai-caiaaea no?aiu ?ani?ino?aiaiu na?icaiiua ionouiiua ii/au
e nieii/aee. Ieiaei?iaeiua ii/au iacenia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a yaeythony
?acoeueoaoii iiiaiaaeiaiai o?oaea e?anoueyi.

?anoeoaeueiinoue. A Aoaaienoaia i?aiaeaaeatho nooinoaiiua e ionouiiua
eaiaeoaoou, nooea noaie ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia i?aaeai?iuo ?aaieiao e a
iaaeai?iuo eioeiaeiao. A ieo aeiieie?otho iu?ae, oei/ae e ae?oaea ceaee.
Iaeaieaa ieceea /anoe eioeiaei caiyou oaeu?aie e nieii/aeaie, a ia
thai-caiaaea no?aiu – ian/aiuie e eaiaienouie ionouiyie n i?aiaeaaeaieai
iieuie, aa?aethaeae eieth/ee, oaia?enea e naenaoea. Ia ieaeieo neeiiao
ai? aeiieie?otho eieth/ea iieoeonoa?ieee (ano?aaaeu, aeaioieeiiiu) a
ni/aoaiee n a?/aauie ?aaeeieanueyie, ?iuaie aeeeie oenoaoee, aeeeiai
ieiaeaey e oeiiaieea.

A Eiaei-Aeiaeaeneie iaeanoe ia ainoiea e thai-ainoiea no?aiu ia aunioao
io 750 aei 1500 i iaae o.i. noaie /a?aaeothony n ae?aaaniuie ianneaaie
ec eiaeeeneie iaeueiu, aeaoeee, eiaee?a, ieiaeaey. Auoa 1500 i
ano?a/athony eenoaaiiua eana ec aa/iicaeaiiai aeoaa aaeoo n iiaeeaneii
ec ieiaeaey, /a?aiooe, aeanieia, e?ooeiu, nioi?u, eeceeueieea. Ia
caiaaeiuo neeiiao a iaeioi?uo ianoao ?anooo eana ec a?aoeeiai i?aoa, ia
thaeiuo – a?aiaoiaua ?iue, ia aunioao 2200–2400 i – ninia AEa?a?aea,
niaiythuayny auoa (aei 3500 i) aeiaeaeneie niniie n i?eianueth
aeiaeaeneiai eaae?a e caiaaeiiaeiaeaeneie ieoou. A aieaa aeaaeiuo
?aeiiao ?ani?ino?aiaiu aeiai-ieooiaua eana, a ieaeiai y?ona eioi?uo
?anoao ynaiue, a a iiaeeanea – aa?aca, ninia, aeeiieinoue, aiy?uoiee e
nii?iaeeia. Ia nooeo, oi?ioi i?ia?aaaaiuo thaeiuo neeiiao ?anooo a?/aaua
eana. Auoa 3500 i ?ani?ino?aiaiu ca?inee iiaeaeaaaeiaiai noeaieea e
?iaeiaeaiae?iia, a auoa 4000 i – aeueieeneea e noaaeueieeneea eoaa. A
aeieeia ?.Aioaea?uey ?ani?ino?aiaiu ooaaeiua (iieiaiiua) eana, a eioi?uo
i?aiaeaaeatho oiiieue-oo?aiaa, aeaeeaeaea, eaa, a?aaaiuee, eaiuo. A
ooaayo ai?iuo ?ae ?anooo iaie?neee, aaeue e eaa?ieenoiue oiiieue, eio
(yoe?ii-ianee/iia ?anoaiea), oaia?ene, iaeaieoa, a ia thaa – ieaaiae?.

AEeaioiue ie?. Ia ioe?uouo i?ino?ainoaao ionouiiuo e noaiiuo ?aaiei e
ieaoi aiaeyony iyoienoua aeaiu, oaeaeu, eoeaiu (aeeeea ineu), aioeeiiu
aeaeae?ai e naeaae, a ai?ao – eaiia?ae-e?aen, ai?iua eiceu, ai?iua
aa?aiu-a?oa?u (iaie?neee a?oa?, a?aaee) e iaaeaaaee. A ooaaeiuo ca?ineyo
ii aeieeiai ?ae ano?a/athony eaaai, eaiuoiaue eio, oo?aineee oea?.
Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu noaiiay eeneoea, eaiaiiay eoieoea e aieee,
iaiinyuea iaiaeue oua?a ioa?ai iaaoe. A ionouiyo e nooeo noaiyo iiiai
i?aniueathueony: aa?aiu, aaeeiiu, /a?aiaoe, aaaiu (noaiiua ieoiiu),
iieicu, yaeiaeoua ciae (ath?ca, eia?a, yoa, ueoiii?aeiee). Ionouie e
noaie eciaeeotho a?ucoiaie (no?ee, noneeee, iieaaee, ian/aiee, caeoeu,
caiea?ieee). Iiiai yaeiaeouo e a?aaeiuo ianaeiiuo: nei?ieiiu, ea?aeo?ou
(n?aaeiaaceaoneee yaeiaeoue iaoe), oaeaiae, na?ai/a e ae?. Aiaaoa
i?ieoioaoia (ian/eouaaaony ie. 380 aeaeia). Ec oeuiuo ioeoe
?ani?ino?aiaiu ei?ooi, yno?aa-noa?ayoiee, ionoaeueaa, aa?eoo,
aeiaeaeneee a?eo, eiaeeeneee nieie-eaaaa?. A ionouiyo oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu eaiaiee, aeaai?iiee, ionouiiua eo?i/ee. A thai-ainoi/iuo
?aeiiao iaeoatho aaiaaeueneay neciai?iiea, aaean, thaeiay ai?eeiea,
aeiaeaeneay nieea, ieuooa, eiaeeeneee neai?aoe-iaeia. A ica?ao e thao e
ainoieo io Aacie aiacaeyony oeaieiai. Iiae oa?icie en/aciiaaiey
iaoiaeyony iaeioi?ua aeaeu ieaeiieoathueo, a o./. eaiia?ae, niaaeiue
eaiia?ae, ai?iue aa?ai o?eae e aaeo?eeneee ieaiue. Aeey eo caueou a ia/.
1990-o nicaeaiu aeaa caeacieea aeeaie i?e?iaeu e iaoeeiiaeueiue ia?e.
?aee eciaeeotho i?iiuneiaie ?uaie (aea?ao, ia?eiea, nacai, nii, ona/,
oi?aeue).

Ianaeaiea. Niaeanii ia?aie anaiauae ia?aiene 1979, ianaeaiea Aoaaienoaia
ninoaaeyei 15,54 iei. /ae. (aeeth/ay 2,5 iei. ei/aaieeia). Ii ioeaiea ia
2005 a no?aia i?iaeeaaee 29,93 iei. /ae.

Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey – 43 /ae. ia 1 ea. ei, iaeiaei aai ?aciauaiea
aanueia ia?aaiiia?ii. Aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey nin?aaeioi/aia a
aeieeiao e?oiiuo ?ae, aaea aaaeaony caieaaeaeea e iaoiaeyony iniiaiua
ai?iaea. Iaeaieaa canaeaiu iacenu Eaiaeaaa?a e Eaaoea (489 /ae. ia 1 ea.
ei – 2003), a oaeaea ?aeiiu Aa?aoa, Iaca?e-Oa?eoa, Eoiaeoca, Aaaeaia e
Aeaeaeaeaaaaea, aaea ieioiinoue ianaeaiey i?aauoaao 100 /ae. ia 1 ea.
ei. Iaeiaiaa iaaeeou aunieiai?iua ?aeiiu nenoaiu Aeiaeoeooa, a oaeaea
thaeiay e thai-caiaaeiay /anoue no?aiu, caiyoay ionouiyie Aeaooe-Ia?ai e
?aaenoai. Caeanue ieioiinoue ianaeaiey ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 0,7–10 /ae.
ia 1 ea. ei.

Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ianaeaiey o?aaeeoeeiiii ioee/aaony aunieei o?iaiai
?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe. Aei na?aae. 1970-o oaiiu i?e?inoa ianaeaiey
ioeaieaaeenue a 3,5% a aiae, a 1979 – a 2,6%, a 1980-a – a 2,2% (i?e
?iaeaeaaiinoe 4,9% e nia?oiinoe 2,7%), a a 2000 – a 3,54% (i?e
?iaeaeaaiinoe 4,2% e nia?oiinoe 1,8%). Eiyooeoeeaio i?e?inoa a 2001
nieceeny aei 3,48% (n o/aoii aica?auaiey aaaeaioeaa ec E?aia), ii a 2005
aiiaue au?in aei 4,77%. ?iaeaeaaiinoue ec ?an/aoa ia 1000 /ae. a 2005
ninoaaeyea 47,02. O?iaaiue nia?oiinoe – 20,75 ia 1000 /ae., i?e yoii
aeaoneay yaeyaony iaeiie ec naiuo aunieeo a ie?a (163,1 ia 1000
?iaeaeaiiuo). N?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie – 42,9 aiaea. I?e
nio?aiaiee iuiaoieo oaiaeaioeee aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ?acaeoey iaeeaeaaiay
/eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey a 2025 aeieaeia aeinoeaiooue 48 iei. /ae.

Ioae/ei a Aoaaienoaia ianeieueei aieueoa aeaiuei, i?e yoii i?aiaeaaeaiea
ioaeneiai ianaeaiey iaae aeaineei iaeaieaa caiaoii a aic?anoiie a?oiia
io 15 aei 64 eao. N?aaeiee aic?ano aoaaioeaa – 17,56 eao. A aic?anoiie
no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey aeiey eeoe iieiaea 15 eao ninoaaeyao 44,7%
ianaeaiey, io 15 aei 64 eao – 52,9% e noa?oa 65 eao – 2,4%.

Yoie/aneee ninoaa. Aoaaienoai – iieeyoie/iia ainoaea?noai, eioi?ia
ianaeytho aieaa 20-oe ia?iaeiinoae. E?oiiaeoeie ec ieo yaeythony iooooiu
(42%), oaaeaeeee (28%), oaca?aeoeu (10%), ocaaee (8%), /a?aeiaee (2,6%),
oo?eiaiu (2%), aaeoaeaee (0,5%), io?enoaioeu (0,4%) e iaoae (0,2%).
AEeaoo oaeaea a?aau, eo?aeu, eucueaaoe, aooa?u, eacaoe, ee?aecu,
iiiaieu, io?enoaioeu e ae?. (2005).

I?aaenoaaeoaee iooooineeo ieaiai (iaooaiu, iooooiu, iaooaiu),
eniiaaaeothuea i?oiaeienaeueiue eneai noiieoneiai iai?aaeaiey,
ian/eouaatho ie. 13 iei. /ae. Iie ?annaeaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii e thao io
Aeiaeoeooa, a thai-ainoi/iuo e thaeiuo iia?aie/iuo n Iaeenoaiii ?aeiiao,
oioy aeeaoo oaeaea e ia naaa?a. Ana iooooiu aiai?yo ia ycuea ioooo,
eioi?ue ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo aeeaeaeoia e aeecie e ia?neaeneiio ycueo
(oa?ne). N?aaee iooooiia nouanoaotho inaaeeua e ei/aaua ieaiaia. E oa, e
ae?oaea ioee/athony aieinoaaiiinoueth, iiiaea nii?u o ieo aei neo ii?
?aoathony ia iniiaa o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eiaeaena /anoe – “iooooiaaee”, a
iniiao eioi?iai iieiaeaiu ainoai?eeinoai, caueoa ee/iiai aeinoieinoaa e
e?iaiay ianoue. Niaeanii yoiio eiaeaeno, iooooiu iiae/eiythony aiaeaeyi
ieaiaie (oaiai) e noa?aeoeiai ?iaeia e eeaiia (iaeeeai), eioi?ua
ia?acotho aeaee?ao – niaao ?iaeiauo eee ieaiaiiuo noa?aeoei. Ieaiaia
aeaeyony ia aaoae, eioi?ua iiae?acaeaeythony ia eeaiu (oaee), a eeaiu –
ia ?iaeu, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eioi?uie /anoi iinyo oa?aeoa?
io/oaeaeaiiinoe eee aeaaea a?aaeaeaaiinoe. Iniiaiua ieaiaiiua
iauaaeeiaiey iooooiia – na?aaie (aeo??aie, thnoocae e ae?.), aaoaie
(aeeuecae, oaooaee e ae?.), ao?aoooe (naoe, eaea?u e ae?.) e ea??aie
(aace?e, aoiaaecae, i?aecae e ae?.). Iauaa /enei ieaiai, ii ?aciui
enoi/ieeai, aeinoeaaao 400.

E /eneo e?oiiaeoeo ieaiaiiuo a?oii, ianaeythueo Aoaaienoai, ioiinyony
aeo??aie (ie. 7 iei. /ae., 2005) e aeeuecae (ie. 5 iei. /ae., 2005),
eioi?ua aei ia/. 20 a. ?anniao?eaaeenue eae aeaa ?acee/iua yoie/aneea
a?oiiu. Aeo??aie ianaeytho a iniiaiii thai-caiaae Aoaaienoaia, ?aeiiu
Eaiaeaaa?a, Oa?aoa e Aa?aoa, a oaeaea aieueoeinoai ai?iaeia no?aiu, e
aeeth/atho aaoae ce?ae (aa?aecae, iiioecae eee ea?cae, naaeicae,
aeueeicae e ae?.) e iaiaeaeiae (io?cae, aeecae, aaeicae, ooaeaie,
enoaecae e ae?.). A ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa iooooiia, aeo??aie aieaa
ia?aciaaiu e o?aaiece?iaaiu, /anoi aeaoycu/iu, ii i?aaeii/eoatho
ecuyniyoueny ia aea?e. Iaeaieueoei aeeyieai a no?aia ecaeaaia
iieuecothony ?iaeu naaeaeicae (eeai iiioecae) e iioaiiaaecae (eeai
aa?aecae). A nicaeaiee Aoaaienoaia eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa
(Aeo??aieeneie aea?aeaau) a 1747 aieueooth ?ieue nua?ae auoiaeaoe ec
eeaia iiioecae ieaiaie aaaeaee (eee aeo??aie) Aoiaae oao Aeo??aie,
iooanieaoee aeeuecaaa io oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii. A yoie nayce caoaao
a.Eaaoe oaeeaaie e eo iaaeieaia i?aauaaiea o aeanoe ?anniao?eaaaony eae
enoi?e/aneee ?aaaio, iineieueeo n?aaee oaeeaia i?aiaeaaeatho aeeuecae.
Eaciaiiue oaeeaaie i?aceaeaio Iaaeaeeaoeea i?eiaaeeaaeae e ae?oaiio
iooooineiio ieaiaie – aoiaaecae. Iuiaoiee i?aceaeaio Aoaaienoaia, Oaieae
Ea?cae, oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo e aeo??aie, eeaio iiioecae.

Aeeuecae aeeaoo ia thai-ainoiea Aoaaienoaia e a caiaaeiii Iaeenoaia, a
?aeiiao Eaeao-e-Aeeuecae e Aacie, ii nio?aiytho ei/aaie ia?ac aeecie e
aeeth/atho aaoae oo?ai (ieaiaia oioe, oaooaee, oa?ioe e ae?.) e ao?oai
(ieaiaia noeaeiaioaeue, aeeoaeue, oa?aeoaeue, eniaeecae, aoiaaecae e
ae?.). Aeeuecae aiai?yo ia aeeuecaeneii aeeaeaeoa ainoi/iiai ioooo.
Ieaiaia aeeuecaaa ea?aee aeaeioth ?ieue a aeecie Oeaio?aeueiie Acee n 11
a. Iie auee i?aaeoaeyie Aeaeeeneiai noeoaiaoa (1450–1526), a a 1709–1738
iniiaaee aeeianoeth Oioaee e aicaeaaeee ainnoaiea i?ioea ia?neaeneiai
aeaaeu/anoaa, eioi?ia a eiia/iii n/aoa i?eaaei e iaaeieaiio
aeiieie?iaaieth aoaaioeaa a Ia?nee (n 1722 aei 1734). Eeaea?u i?eoaaeoae
e aeanoe a 1970-a “Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee Aoaaienoaia” (IAeIA)
Oa?aee, Aiei auee aeeuecayie. Ec aeeuecaaa auoee oaeaea iiiaea
iiaeaeaoaaeu, aeeth/ay Aoeueaaaeaeeia Oaeiaouey?a, a oaeaea oaeeau.

E ieaiaiiiio iauaaeeiaieth ea??aie (ie. 1,5 iei. /ae.) i?eiaaeeaaeao
ieaiaia ao?eaeee, iiiaiaeu, oeiaa?e, i?aecae, aeaeaaeaee, eee aecaaece,
/aeiaie, aeaeaae?aiu e ae?. Iie ianaeytho i?aeiouanoaaiii oa??eoi?eth ia
thai-ainoiea no?aiu, a ?aeiia Aeaeaeaeaaaaea, Oaeaa?neiai i?ioiaea e ii
iaa noi?iiu a?aieoeu n Iaeenoaiii. Ae?oaea e?oiiua ieaiaia: iaiaaeu,
oaie, oo?e e ae?.

Ei/aaieee Aoaaienoaia – eo/e (eee eo/ae), eioi?uo iau/ii ioiinyo e
iooooiai, ia?acotho naiinoiyoaeueioth yoie/aneoth a?oiio e ii
aeaenoaothuae aoaaineie eiinoeoooeee iieuecothony iniaui iieiaeaieai a
ainoaea?noaa. Ii ?aciui ioeaieai, a Aoaaienoaia aeeaao io 2,5 aei 6 iei.
eo/e, ii ?a/ue eaeao ia oieueei i ei/aauo iooooineeo ieaiaiao, eae
aoiaaecae, ii oaeaea i iiiai/eneaiiuo ei/aauo ia?iaeao ?aaeiia (aeiaee,
aaeoaeaee, a?aau e ae?.). A cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ec-ca aiei eo/e
auioaeaeaiu ioeacuaaoueny io naiaai neiaeeaoaainy aaeaie ei/aaiai ia?aca
aeecie e ia?aoiaeeoue e inaaeeinoe.

Ia aoi?ii ianoa ii /eneaiiinoe (aieaa 7 iei., 2005) noiyo oaaeaeeee,
ioiinyueany e /eneo ei?aiiuo aeeoaeae yoiai ?aaeiia. E ia/. 13 a. iie
ianaeyee ana e?oiiua iacenu e naaa?o e thao io Aeiaeoeooa, oaia?ue iie
ianaeytho aeaaiui ia?acii naaa?iua e naaa?i-ainoi/iua ?aeiiu (i?aaeaea
anaai Aa?ao e Aaaeaooai), aeieeiu ?ae Iaiaeaeoa?a e Ai?aaiaea, a oaeaea
a.Eaaoe. Eae ia?iae e?aineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iie iieuecothony ycueii
aea?e (eee oa?ne-eaaoee), noiaeiui n ia?neaeneei. N?aaee oaaeaeeeia
i?aiaeaaeatho ionoeueiaia-noiieou, ii iaiaei e oeeoia-eniaeeeoia.
Iniiaiua caiyoey oaaeaeeeia – caieaaeaeea, ?aianeaiie/anoai e oi?aiaey.
Iiiaea ec ieo, iieo/ea ia?aciaaiea, noaee /eiiaieeaie e
ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeayoaeyie. I?aceaeaio Aoaaienoaia a 1992–1996
Ao?oaioaeaeei ?aaaaie e eiiaiaeothuee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aieneaie
Aoiaae Oao Ianoae (eioi?iai i?icaaee “iaiaeaeoa?neei eueaii”) –
oaaeaeeee. E oaaeaeeeai eiiaaea ioiinyo aooa?ae (ie. 5 oun. /ae.) e
eucueaaoae (10 oun. /ae.), iioiieia ia?neaeneeo aieiia, ia?anaeaiiuo a
Aoaaienoai a 18 a. Iaaee?-oaoii Aooa?ii. Iie ?annaeaiu a Eaaoea e
Eaiaeaaa?a, a oaeaea a Aa?aoa, eucueaaoe aiai?yo oieueei ia aea?e, a
aooa?u – ia iaeiii ec aeeaeaeoia aca?aaeaeaeaineiai ycuea (aca?e).

A noaiyo a aannaeia ?.Aioaea?uey (naaa?i-caiaae Aoaaienoaia) i?iaeeaatho
ianeieueei a?oii, aiai?yueo ia oth?eneeo ycueao – oo?eiaiu, ocaaee e
ae?. Ia?aua ianaeytho naaa?iua ?aeiiu Aoaaienoaia, i?aaeaea anaai
Oa?ueyaa e Aaaeaena, aoi?ua aeinoaoi/ii eiiiaeoii aeeaoo a naaa?iuo
i?aaeai?ueyo Aeiaeoeooa, ia oa??eoi?ee *a?-Aeeaeao (/aou?a iaeanoe),
aaea aei eo caaiaaaiey aoaaioeaie a na?aae. 19 a. nouanoaiaaee ocaaeneea
oainoaa Iaeiaia, Ao/a, Aaeo e Eoiaeoc. Naaiaeiy yoi ?aeiiu Aa?aoa,
Oa?ueyaa, Aeaeiocaeaeaia, Aaeoa, Oioa?a, Eoiaeoca, Aaaeaia e Aaaeaooaia.
E oa, e ae?oaea oiaea ioiinyony e ionoeueiaiai-noiieoai, nio?aiytho
no?iai iao?ea?oaeueioth nioeeaeueioth no?oeoo?o. Eo iniiaiua caiyoey –
caieaaeaeea e neioiaiaenoai, a oo?eiaiu neuaoo oaeaea eneoniuie
eia?iaeaeaie. *anoi ocaaee e oo?eiaiu aeeaoo a iaeieo aea?aaiyo aianoa n
oaaeaeeeaie e aoaaioeaie, ia niaoeaaynue i?e yoii. Iaaieueoeie a?oiiaie
n?aaee ocaaeneiai ianaeaiey ?annaeaiu eacaoe (ie. 2 oun. /ae., 2003,
?aeii Eoiaeoca e Oaiaaaaea) e ea?aeaeiaee (ie. 2 oun. /ae., 2003, ?aeii
Aeaeaeaeaaaaea e Iaca?e-Oa?eoa). Eeaea? aoaaineeo ocaaeia ?aoeae Aeinooi
aei 2005 aicaeaaeye “Iaoeeiiaeueiia eneaineia aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia”,
eioi?ia i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaei oaeeaai.

Oaca?aeoeu – ia?iae iiiaieueneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eniiaaaeothuee eneai
oeeoneiai oieea, oioy ia naaa?a e naaa?i-ainoiea no?aiu eiathony a?oiiu
oaca?aeoeaa-noiieoia e eniaeeeoia. I?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, i?aaeee
oaca?aeoeaa i?eoee a Aoaaienoai a 13–14 aa. ec Eeoay eee Iiiaieee.
Naaiaeiy a no?aia aeeaao ie. 5 iei. oaca?aeoeaa, ia n/eoay aaaeaioeaa a
E?aia (ie. 200 oun. /ae.). Iie neiioeaio?e?iaaiu a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe
Aoaaienoaia, i?aaeaea anaai, a Oaca?aaeaeaoa (iaeanoue iaaeaeo Eaaoeii e
Aa?aoii), ii iinaeaiey oaca?aeoeaa anoue e a ae?oaeo ?aeiiao no?aiu
(Eaaoea, Aaaeaooaia, Iaiaa?oa?a, Eoiaeoca e Eaiaeaaa?a). Oaca?aeoeu
aiai?yo ia a?oae/iii aeeaeaeoa ia?neaeneiai ycuea. N?aaee ieo
i?aiaeaaeatho caieaaeaeueoeu e iaoeaaiaeu, a ai?iaeao iie ia?acotho
aieueooth i?ineieeo iaaiiuo ?aai/eo. Iniiaiua ieaiaia: aanoae,
aeaeaao?e, aeaecaiae, aeaeeoioe, o?ocaaie, oaeoaee, ooeaaee e yeaoeaia.
Eae ?aeeaeiciia iaiueoeinoai, oaca?aeoeu anaaaea iiaeaa?aaeenue
aeene?eieiaoeee e oaiaoaieth ni noi?iiu iooooiia e oaaeaeeeia, ii
iniaaiii aeanoieea aiiaiey ia ieo auee i?e oaeeaao, /oi auioaeeei iiiaeo
oaca?aeoeaa aaaeaoue a E?ai (ii ecaeaaia ieacuaae iieeoe/aneoth e
aiaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo oeeoneei a?oiiai a Aoaaienoaia). Iniiaiie
iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae oaca?aeoeaa yaeyaony IEAA – “Ia?oey
eneaineiai aaeeinoaa Aoaaienoaia” (“Oacaa aaoaeao”).

A ai?ao ia naaa?i-caiaaea e naaa?a Aoaaienoaia, aaeieue aoaaii-e?aineie
a?aieoeu, aeeaoo /a?aeiaee (eee aeiaee) – iieoei/aaua ia?iaeu niaoaiiiai
yoie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, noi?ie?iaaaoeany ianeieueei noieaoee iacaae
a ?acoeueoaoa neeyiey ianoiiai oaaeaeeeneiai ianaeaiey n
oth?ei-iiiaieueneeie ieaiaiaie. Ii ioeaieai, eo /eneaiiinoue a
Aoaaienoaia ninoaaeyao io 600 oun. aei 1,2 iei. /ae. Iau/ii a ninoaa
aeiaeia aeeth/atho aeaeaioeaeia (92 oun. /ae.), oaca?ae-eaeaeeiao
(aeiaee-eaeaeeiao, 162 oun. /ae.), oe?oceooia (125 oun. /ae.), oaeiaie
(416 oun. /ae.), a oaeaea oaeio?ia (104 oun. /ae.), eioi?uo, iaeiaei
iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee ioiinyo e oaaeaeeeai (aeaiiua ca 2003). Ii
naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth /a?aeiaee aeecee e oaca?aeoeai, eiatho
iaeeiaeiaua n ieie iacaaiey ieaiaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee, ii eniiaaaeotho
eneai noiieoneiai oieea e aiai?yo ia aeeaeaeoao, aeeceeo e ycueo aea?e.

Aaeoaeaee (290 oun. /ae., 2003) e a?aaoe (ie. 250 oun. /ae., 2003)
ianaeytho iaeioi?ua ianoiinoe ia thai-caiaaea no?aiu, e thao io
?.Aeeueiaiae, oioy ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu aaeoaeaeae aeeaoo e naaa?iaa. Iaa
ia?iaea eiatho iiiai iauaai: a aieueoeinoaa naiai iie aeaaii ia?aoee ia
inaaeeinoue, caieiathony caieaaeaeeai, neioiaiaenoaii e eia?ioea/anoaii.
Ii aaeoaeaee i?eiaaeeaaeao e eiaeie?aineie a?oiia, a a?aaoe ii iaeioi?ui
i?eciaeai ioiinyony e ae?aaeaeeeneei ia?iaeai. Iniiaiua ieaiaiiua a?oiiu
a?aaoe – cao?e-iaiaae, ?aenaie e na?ia?a. Ieaiaia aeaeyony ia eeaiu
(oaeea?u), a eeaiu – ia ?iaeu (oaeee). AEeay a aeecinoe n aaeoaeaeaie,
a?aaoe ianoieueei ia?aiyee iiiaea eo iau/ae e ycueiaua iniaaiiinoe, /oi
/anoi iacuaatho naay aaeoaeaeaie, n/eoay naay eo iniaie aaoaueth.

A aeiiieiaiea e iniiaiui yoie/aneei a?oiiai ii anaio Aoaaienoaio,
iniaaiii e naaa?o io Aeiaeoeooa, ?annayiu iiiaeanoai iaaieueoeo
ia?iaeiinoae, eioi?ua ian/eouaatho io ianeieueeeo ouny/ aei ianeieueeeo
nio /aeiaae. A caiaaeiuo ?aeiiao no?aiu, a Aeaeoaaeia e aeieeia
Oao?oaea, i?iaeeaatho ia?neaeneea ia?iaeiinoe (ie. 25 oun. /ae., 2003),
eniiaaaeothuea eneai oeeoneiai iai?aaeaiey. Ia a?aieoea n E?aiii, ia
thai-caiaaea no?aiu, ?annaeaiu iaaieueoea iaueiu eo?aeia. E
naaa?o-ainoieo io *a?eea?a e e naaa?o io a.Eaaoe aeeaoo ia?a/e (5–6 oun.
/ae.), a e thao e ainoieo io iaai – i?io?e (2–5 oun. /ae.), oaeaea
i?eiaaeeaaeauea e e?aineie a?oiia. Enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho eo iioiieaie
ae?aaiaeoaai ianaeaiey Aoaaienoaia, aeeaoaai caeanue aei iiyaeaiee
iooooiia. Ae?oaea ia?iaeiinoe (io?enoaioeu, ee?aecu, eacaoe, iaoae e
ae?.) – iaiiiai/eneaiiu. Io?enoaioeu, aeeth/athuea ieaiaia eaoe (na. 15
oun. /ae., 1994), ia?oie (ie. 1 oun. /ae., 2000), aaeaaee (1,5 oun.
/ae., 2000) e aoeoie (ie. 1,2 oun. /ae., 2000), a oaeaea o?aaaie (ie. 1
oun. /ae., 1994), aei ianeeuenoaaiiiai ia?auaiey a eneai aoaaineei
yie?ii a 1895–1896 iacuaaeenue eaoe?aie (“iaaa?iuie”). Iie aeeaoo
aeiaieueii caieiooi a aunieeo ai?ao e naaa?i-ainoieo io aeieeiu ?.Eaaoe,
aiai?yo ia iiiaeanoaa aeeaeaeoia, a eo eoeueoo?a iiiai iauaai n
eoeueoo?ie i?eiaie?neeo oaaeaeeeia. Ia thai-ainoiea Aoaaienoaia a ai?iuo
aeieeiao i?eoieia ?ae Eaaoe e Eoia? (ii ninaaenoao n io?enoaioeaie)
aeeaoo a?oiiu iaaieueoeo ia?iaeia (oe?aoe, aeaeaoe, eioenoaioeu,
aoaeaea?u), aiai?yueo ia aeeaeaeoao, eioi?ua auaeaeythony a iniaoth
aea?aeneoth iiaea?oiio eiaeia?eeneeo ycueia. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua n?aaee ieo
– iaoae eee eaaiaioeu (ie. 124,2 oun. /ae., 2003), ii ia?aco aeecie e
iau/ayi aeeceea e aoaaioeai. Iaie?neea ia?iaeu a Aoaaienoaia
ian/eouaatho ie. 100 oun. /ae. e i?aaenoaaeaiu aea?aace (ie. 10 oun.
/ae., 2003), ooaiaioeaie (ie. 20 oun. /ae., 1994), ioiaeaioeaie (3,7
oun. /ae., 2000) e eoeaoeioeaie (ie. 1 oun. /ae., 1990), a oaeaea
aeeceeie e iei caaaeoeaie e naiaee/oeaie. Ianeieueei ouny/ aaoaioeaa
(ie. 18 oun. /ae., 1990), eioi?ua oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeao e iaie?neei
ia?iaeai, neiioeaio?e?iaaiu a i?aaeaeao oceiai Aaoaineiai ei?eaei?a. Ia
e?aeiai naaa?i-ainoiea no?aiu, ia Iaie?neii iaai?uea e a Aaaeaooaia,
i?iaeieaeatho aeeoue ee?aecu (ie. 0,7 oun. /ae., 2000). A 1978 aieueoay
eo /anoue ia?aei/aaaea a Aeeaeo e Ooico (Iaeenoai), a caoai
ia?anaeeeanue a Oo?oeeth (ie?anoiinoe ic.Aai). Oeao?u aeeaoo a
ianeieueeeo aea?aaiyo Aaaeaooaia e Aae-Aa?eea. A?aau (ii ?aciui
ioeaieai, io 10 aei 35 oun. /ae.) aeeaoo a ianeieueeeo aea?aaiyo ia
naaa?a no?aiu: aaeece Aeaoeaoaaaaea, Aaeoa, Oeae?aaia e thaeiaa
Oaeoeaia. Ianeieueei ouny/ iiiaieia aeeaoo aaeece Aa?aoa.

I?e anai iaoeeiiaeueiii iiiaiia?acee ianaeaiea Aoaaienoaia iiaeii
iauaaeeieoue a /aou?a yoiieeiaaenoe/aneea a?oiiu – e?aineoth,
oth?eneoth, io?enoaineoth e eiaeia?eeneoth. Ia thaa, a oeaio?a no?aiu e
naaa?i-ainoiea i?aiaeaaeatho e?aiiycu/iua ia?iaeu (iooooiu, oaaeaeeee,
oaca?aeoeu, aeiaee e ae?.), oiaaea eae ia naaa?i-caiaaea, ia iaoe?iie
Aaeo?eeneie ?aaieia, ecaeaaia aeeaoo oth?eneea ia?iaeu (ocaaee,
oo?eiaiu, ee?aecu). Ia ainoiea no?aiu, a o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiuo ai?iuo
?aeiiao, ?annaeaiu ia?iaeu eiaeia?eeneie (iaoae, iaiaeaeaaoeu) e
io?enoaineie a?oii.

sscuee. Ii ioeaiea, a Aoaaienoaia ian/eouaaaony aieaa 20 ycueia e 200
?acee/iuo aeeaeaeoia. Niaeanii aeaenoaothuae eiinoeoooeee,
ioeoeeaeueiuie ycueaie a Aoaaienoaia i?eciaiu ioooo (aoaaineee ycue) e
aea?e (oa?ne-eaaoee, aoaaineee aeeaeaeo ia?neaeneiai ycuea). Ia?yaeo n
yoei, noaoon ioeoeeaeueiiai eiatho aua iyoue ycueia (ocaaeneee,
oaaeaeeeneee, aaeo/e, io?enoaie e iaoae), ii oieueei a oao ?aeiiao, aaea
eie iieuecoaony aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey

N iiiaioa iniiaaiey Aoaaienoaia e aei 1936 aaeeinoaaiiui
ainoaea?noaaiiui ycueii aue aea?e, eiathuee aeaaiea eeoa?aoo?iua
o?aaeeoeee aua ni n?aaeiaaaaaeiauey. E 1964 ana ioeoeeaeueiia
aeaeii?iecaiaenoai auei ia?aaaaeaii ia ioooo (iaooi) – ycue iooooiia. Ii
i?eiaaeeaaeeo e eiaeiaa?iiaeneie naiuea ycueia e ian/eouaaao ie. 20
ieaiaiiuo aeeaeaeoia, iauaaeeiaiiuo a aeaa iniiaiua aaoae: ainoi/ioth,
eee iaooi (n aeeuecaeneei, iaoaaa?i-iiiaiaeneei e ao?eaeeeneei
aeeaeaeoaie) e caiaaeioth, eee iaooi (n eaiaeaaa?neei (eee
aeo??aieeneei), aace?neei, oaooaeneei e ae?. aeeaeaeoaie). Iaeaieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea ioooo eiaao a iooooineeo iaeanoyo, aaea ia iai aiai?eo
ie. 13 iei. /ae., e iiiuoee i?aaeoaeuenoaa iiauneoue aai noaoon aei neo
ii? oa?iaee iaoaea/o.

Aea?e (ainoi/iue oa?ne), ioiinyueeny e caiaaeii-e?aineie a?oiia ycueia,
aunooiaao ia oieueei eae ycue ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e yeiiiieee,
ii ii/oe iianaianoii (e?iia i?iaeioeee Eaiaeaaa? e ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia
i?iaeioeee Aacie, aaea aeiieie?otho ioooo) neoaeeo ycueii
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai iauaiey. N/eoaaony, /oi aieueoa iieiaeiu ianaeaiey
Aoaaienoaia i?aaeii/eoatho aiai?eoue ia aea?e. Ia?yaeo n eeoa?aoo?iie
oi?iie aea?e, a Aoaaienoaia eiatho ?ani?ino?aiaiea aai ianoiua aeeaeaeou
e aiai?u (eaaoeueneee, aa?aoneee e ae?.). Aiai?u aea?e Aaaeaooaia,
Iaiaeaeoe?a, Eioenoaia e ?aeiia Eaaoea noiaeiu aiai?ai oaaeaeeeneiai
ycuea a N?aaeiae Acee. Iaa ycuea eiatho ienueiaiiinoue, nicaeaiioth ia
aaca a?aaneie a?aoeee.

Ia iaeiii ec aeeaeaeoia eo?aeneiai ycuea aiai?yo ia a?aieoea n E?aiii a
?aeiia Aa?aoa. Oaca?aeoeu iieuecothony iaeiei ec a?oae/iuo aeeaeaeoia
(oaca?aaeaee) ia?neaeneiai ycuea, n eioi?ui naycaiu oaeaea aaeo/e
(aaeoaeaeneee) e oaaeaeeeneee ycuee. E iaeiiio ec aeeaeaeoia aea?e
eiiaaea ioiinyo ycue /a?aeiaeia (aeiae), eiathuee iiiai caeinoaiaaiee ec
oth?eneeo ycueia. Ocaaee, oo?eiaiu e ee?aecu i?eiaaeeaaeao e
oth?eiycu/iui ia?iaeai. Io?enoaioeu aiai?yo ia ycueao eaoe, aaeaaee,
aoeoi, i?anoi, aaiaee, ia?oie e ae?., i?aaenoaaeythueo iainiaeaiioth
ae?aaithth aaoaue (aea?aeneea ycuee), eioi?ay auaeaeeeanue ec e?aineie e
eiaeeeneie ycueiauo a?oii. A?aaoe aiai?yo ia ycuea, i?eiaaeeaaeauai e
ae?aaeaeeeneie naiuea, ii noiaeai n ycueaie ia?iaeia THaeiie Eiaeee. Ec
naieoneeo ycueia ecaanoai oaaeaeeeneee aeeaeaeo a?aaneiai. A thaeiuo
?aeiiao Aoaaienoaia iiaeii oneuoaoue o?aeo, a a iaeioi?uo ai?iaeao –
caiaaeiue iaiaeaeaae e neiaeoe, eioi?ua ioiinyony e eiaeeeneie a?oiia
ycueia.

Naeueneia e ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea. Ianaeaiea Aoaaienoaia –
i?aeiouanoaaiii naeueneia. Aei ia/aea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee 1980-o ie. 76%
ianaeaiey no?aiu caieiaeenue a iniiaiii inaaeeui caieaaeaeeai, 9% auee
neioiaiaeaie e aaee ei/aaie eee iieoei/aaie ia?ac aeecie. E 2003 a
naeueneie ianoiinoe aeeee ie. 77% ianaeaiey. A no?aia ian/eouaaaony
aieaa 22 oun. naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia (“ea?uey”). Ii ?aciui
ioeaieai, io 2,6 iei. aei 5 iei. aoaaioeaa aaaeoo ei/aaie e iieoei/aaie
ia?ac aeecie.

A na?aae. 1980-o a noieeoea e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oeaio?ao i?iaeioeee auei
nin?aaeioi/aii ie. 20% ianaeaiey no?aiu. Aaaeaioeu ec aea?aaaiue
iiiieieee ianaeaiea ?yaea e?oiiuo ai?iaeia, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue Eaaoea
(ie. 2 iei. /ae., 1989) e Aeaeaeaeaaaaea. Iaeiaei ec-ca aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee 1990-o, aniuoioaoeo a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io iaeioi?uo
e?oiiuo ai?iaeia, i?iecioae iooie ianaeaiey, i?aaeaea anaai ec Eaaoea e
Iaca?e-Oa?eoa. Oieueei ia oeeoeao Eaaoea a 1992–1996 iiaeaee nauoa 50
oun. aeeoaeae. A ?acoeueoaoa oyaeaeuo aiaa 1992–1994 /eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey noieeoeu e aa ie?anoiinoae nie?aoeeanue e, ii ioeaiea 1996,
ninoaaeyea anaai 647,5 oun. /ae. (a ia/. 1990-o – 2 iei. /ae.).
Aieueoeinoai ae?oaeo ai?iaeia, aeeth/ay Aa?ao e Eaiaeaaa?, oaeaea
cia/eoaeueii iino?aaeaee io aiaiiuo aeaenoaee.

E 2003 aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey au?inea aei 23%, i?e yoii
i?eaeeceoaeueii iieiaeia anao ai?iaeai i?iaeeaaei a a.Eaaoe – noieeoea e
naiii e?oiiii ai?iaea no?aiu. A 2005 /enei aai aeeoaeae ninoaaeyei 3,04
iei. /ae., a a ai?iaeneie aaeiia?aoeee – 4,9 iei. /ae. A Eaaoea iiaeii
ano?aoeoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aciuo yoie/aneeo a?oii, ianaeythueo
Aoaaienoai, ii aieueoeinoai aeeoaeae ninoaaeytho oaaeaeeee, oaca?aeoeu
(ie. 25%) e iooooiu (ie. 20%). Eaaoe ianaeytho oaeaea iaaieueoea iaueiu
neeoia, eiaeonia e ocaaeia.

Ia thaa Aoaaienoaia, o iiaeiiaeey io?iaia Caiaaeiiai Aeiaeoeooa
?aniieiaeai a.Eaiaeaaa? – aoi?ie ii aaee/eia ai?iae no?aiu (359,7 oun.
aeeoaeae, 2004) e aaaeiaeoee oeaio? oi?aiaee, naycaiiue o?ainii?oiie
naoueth n Iaeenoaiii. Ecaeaaia Eaiaeaaa? n/eoaeny oeaio?ii iooooineiai
Aoaaienoaia. I?e Aoiaae-oaoa Aeo??aie (1748–1774) ai?iae aue ia?aie
noieeoeae Aoaaienoaia, a 1818–1855 – oeaio?ii Eaiaeaaa?neiai eiyaeanoaa,
a a 1994–2001 – oeaio?ii aeaeaeaiey “Oaeeaai”.

Ia caiaaea Aoaaienoaia a e?oiiii iacena ia ?.Aa?e?oae e ia?ana/aiee
oi?aiauo iooae iaaeaeo E?aiii, Aoaaienoaiii e Oo?eiaienoaiii ?aniieiaeai
a.Aa?ao (254,8 oun. /ae., 2003). Ai?iae aue noieeoeae Aoaaienoaia a
1797, 1818, a caoai noae oeaio?ii Aa?aoneiai eiyaeanoaa, ai?ueao ca
eioi?ue aaee Aoaaienoai e E?ai. A 1990 Aa?ao noae aio/eiie Eniaee Oaia
(iaeei ec iieaauo eiiaiaee?ia iiaeaeaoaaeia). A 1995 ai?iae aue caoaa/ai
oaeeaaie, a a iiya?a 2001 ia?aoae iiae eiio?ieue Naaa?iiai aeueyina.

E /eneo iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuo ai?iaeia ioiinyony oaeaea Aeaeaeaeaaaae
(192 oun. aeeoaeae) e Aacie (136,3 oun. /ae.), eioi?ua ?aniieiaeaiu e
ainoieo e thao io Eaaoea, a oaeaea ai?iaea ia naaa?a no?aiu:
Iaca?e-Oa?eo (291,9 oun. /ae.), Eoiaeoc (161,9 oun. /ae.), Aaieai (119,5
oun. /ae.), Aaaeai (105,1 oun. /ae.), Aaeo (104,3 oun. /ae., ana aeaiiua
ca 2005), *a?eea? (33,9 oun. /ae.) e Oaecaaaae (14,1 oun. /ae., aeaiiua
ca 2003). Ianiio?y ia ?ino ianaeaiey, ainnoaiiaeaiea ai?iaeia eaeao
iaaeeaiii, a eiaanoeoeee a eio?ano?oeoo?o ieieiaeueiu. Aieueoeinoai
ai?iaeia eniuouaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue a nenoaia i/enoeoaeueiuo
nii?oaeaiee, aiaeiianiniuo noaioeee e iauanoaaiiii o?ainii?oa.

Iea?aoeee. Aioo?aiiea iea?aoeee o?aaeeoeeiiii auee iaaaeeee e naycaiu n
ia?aiauaieai ei/aauo ieaiai eee ia?anaeaieai ec naeueneie ianoiinoe a
ai?iaea e iacenu. N eii. 1970-o ?acei aic?inee aiaoiea iea?aoeee. Ii
ioeaieai, e ia/. 1980-o a iia?aie/iuo ?aeiiao Iaeenoaia e E?aia
ieacaeinue aei 4,5 iei. aoaaineeo aaaeaioeaa, a o./. ie. 3 iei. a
Iaeenoaia e 1,5 iei. a E?aia. E?iia oiai, ia iaiaa 150 oun. aaaeaioeaa
ec Aoaaienoaia i?eiyee ae?oaea no?aiu, a o./. Aano?aeey, NOA e Eaiaaea,
no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea. E 1987 a Iaeenoaia e E?aia
iaoiaeeeinue 5,5–7 iei. aaaeaioeaa. Eo eiee/anoai ianeieueei
nie?aoeeinue e eii. 1992, eiaaea a Aoaaienoai ec Iaeenoaia aica?aoeeenue
ie. 1,5 iei. /ae. Iiaua iioiee aaaeaioeaa oeuioee a ninaaeiea no?aiu a
1995–1998 e 2001–2002. Ii ioeaieai III, e na?aae. 1990-o eiee/anoai
aaaeaioeaa ec Aoaaienoaia aic?inei aei 6,5 iei. /ae., ec eioi?uo ie. 2,9
iei. /ae. iaoiaeeeenue a E?aia. Ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee e eii. 1990-o
i?iaeeaaei ia iaiaa 100 oun. aoaaioeaa. A eii. 2001 iinea iaaeaiey
?aaeeia oaeeaia iiiaea ec ieo ia/aee aica?auaoueny a Aoaaienoai. E eii.
2004 a no?aio aa?ioeenue aieaa 1,5 iei. aaaeaioeaa ec Iaeenoaia e nauoa
1,46 iei. ec E?aia. Ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui iiaen/aoai, a 2005 a Iaeenoaia
inoaaaeinue io 2 aei 4 iei. aoaaineeo aaaeaioeaa.

?aeeaey. Ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae Aoaaienoaia yaeyaony eneai. Niaeanii
eiinoeoooeee, i?eaa?aeaioeu ae?oaeo aa?iaaiee (neeoe e eiaeonu)
iaeaaeatho ?aaiuie n ionoeueiaiaie i?aaaie.

Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey Aoaaienoaia (80%) eniiaaaeoao
eneai. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai noiieci oaiaoeoneiai oieea, eioi?iai
i?eaea?aeeaathony ie. 80% anao aoaaioeaa. Noiieoaie yaeythony iooooiu e
ocaaee, oo?eiaiu, aaeoaeaee, a oaeaea /anoue /a?aeiaeia e oaaeaeeeia.
Iaeieie ec iineaaeieo eneai i?eiyee io?enoaioeu, eioi?ua aua a eii. 19
a. i?eaea?aeeaaeenue ianoiuo aa?iaaiee. Ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu aei neo ii?
aeaenoaotho ?yae e?oiiuo nooeeneeo i?aeaiia – *eooeey, Iaeoaaiaeeey e
Eaaeu?eey (Ni. NOOECI). Iaaieueoay a?oiia ianaeaiey ioiineony e naeoa
aoiaaeea. Oeeci eniiaaaeotho ie. 19% aeeoaeae no?aiu, n?aaee ieo
oaca?aeoeu, eucueaaoe e ia?nu, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua ai?iua iooooineea
ieaiaia (aoaaioeu-aecaaece) e /anoue oaeio?ia. Iaueiu oeeoia eiathony a
?aeiia Eaaoea, Aa?aoa, Aacie e Oaca?aaeaeaoa. Ia?iaeu Aaaeaooaia e
/anoue oaaeaeeeia a aieueoeinoaa naiai i?eiaaeeaaeao e eniaeeeoai (ie.
2% ionoeueiai Aoaaienoaia), aeaaiui oeaio?ii eioi?uo yaeyaony ai?iae
Ioee-Ooi?e (i?iaeioeey Aaaeai). Ec ?aeeaeiciuo iaiueoeinoa iaeaieaa
iiiai/eneaiiu iaueiu neeoia e eiaeoenoia (ie. 3,7 oun. /ae., 2005),
i?iaeeaathueo i?aeiouanoaaiii a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao. A Aoaaienoaia
inoathony oaeaea ia?nu (ci?iano?eeoeu), aeaenoaoao eaoiee/aneay ienney.
A 1948 a Aoaaienoaia (a iniiaiii a Aa?aoa, Eaaoea e Aaeoa) aeeee ie. 5
oun. aa?aaa, e 1973 eo inoaeinue anaai ie. 200 /ae. Aieueoeinoai
aa?aeneeo naiae iieeioei no?aio, auaoaa a Ec?aeeue.

AINOAeA?NOAAIIIA ONO?IENOAI E IIEEOEEA

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai. A niioaaonoaee n i?eiyoie a 2004
eiinoeoooeeae Aoaaienoai yaeyaony Eneaineie ?anioaeeeie n i?aceaeaioneie
oi?iie i?aaeaiey. Aunoay eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
i?aceaeaioo, ecae?aaiiio ia anaiaueo, i?yiuo e oaeiuo auai?ao n?ieii ia
5 eao. I?aceaeaio iiaeao auoue eca?ai ia aieaa aeaoo ?ac. N 9 ieoya?y
2004 yoio iino caieiaao i?aceaeaio Oaieae Ea?cae, eca?aiiue ia auai?ao,
ii a oneiaeyo eiino?aiiie ieeoiaoeee. I?aceaeaio oaeaea aicaeaaeyao
eaaeiao ieieno?ia. Ii yaeyaony aa?oiaiui aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei
aii?oaeaiiuie neeaie no?aiu, iacia/aao ieieno?ia e ae?oaeo aunoeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo /eiiaieeia n iaeia?aiey ia?eaiaioa. O iaai anoue aeaa
caianoeoaey (aeoea-i?aceaeaioa), eioi?ua ecae?athony ia?aeeaeueii n iei.

I?aceaeaio ii?aaeaeyao e inouanoaeyao iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa;
iiaeienuaaao caeiiu e aeae?aou; aaaeao iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ia?aaiai?u e
iiaeienuaaao iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u e niaeaoaiey; iaeaaeaao i?aaii
eieoeee?iaaoue ?aoa?aiaeoi ii iaeaieaa aaaeiui iaoeeiiaeueiui,
iieeoe/aneei e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei aii?inai; iacia/aao, i?eieiaao
e niauaao ionoaaeo aeoea-i?aceaeaioia, noaeae anao o?iaiae, ioeoea?ia
aii?oaeaiiuo nee e aaciianiinoe, aeaa aeeieiiaoe/aneeo iennee, a oaeaea
aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo /eiiaieeia; i?eieiaao aa?eoaeueiua a?aiiou aeaa
eiino?aiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa; iaeaaeaao i?aaii iiieeiaaiey eee
niya/aiey iaeacaiey. Ii i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaoao ia canaaeaiee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eiaao i?aai iacia/aoue eee niauaoue ieieno?ia,
aaia?aeueiiai i?ieo?i?a, aee?aeoi?a Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea, noaeae
Aa?oiaiiai noaea n niaeaney Iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae. Iaeioi?ua ec ?aoaiee
i?aceaeaioa a iaeanoe iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa, a o./. iauyaeaiea aieiu e
ia?aie?ey, aaaaeaiea /?acau/aeiiai iieiaeaiey, i?eiyoea ?aoaiey i
iai?aaeaiee eiioeiaaioa iaoeeiiaeueiuo aii?oaeaiiuo nee a ae?oaea
no?aiu, aeieaeiu iieo/eoue iaeia?aiea ia?eaiaioa.

I?aaeoaeuenoai inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue iiae
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii i?aceaeaioa, eioi?ue n iaeia?aiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ia?eaiaioa iacia/aao /eaiia eaaeiaoa. I?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaeeaaaao
caeiiii?iaeou, ecaeaao ii?iaoeau e eino?oeoeee, iiaeaioaaeeaaao i?iaeou
athaeaeaoa e ieaiia ?acaeoey, a neo/aa /?acau/aeiiai iieiaeaiey iiaeao
i?eaaaaoue e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe iooai oeacia, io/eouaaaony
ia?aae ia?eaiaioii a eiioea eaaeaeiai athaeaeaoiiai aiaea e
i?aaenoaaeyao i?iaeou ia iiaue athaeaeaoiue aiae. Ieieno?u ianoo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae iaeaoie i?aaenoaaeoaeae e i?aceaeaioii, eioi?ue
iiaeao nianoeoue ioaeaeueiiai ieieno?a, au?acea aio aiooi iaaeiaa?ey.
Oi?ie?iaaiea iuia aeaenoaothuaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iinea ia?auo i?yiuo
i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ia auei caaa?oaii 23 aeaeaa?y 2004. A aai ninoaa
aioee 27 /aeiaae.

Aunoee i?aai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe – ia?eaiaio (Iaaeaeean-a iaeee),
ninoiyuee ec aa?oiae (Ieo?aio aeaee?aa) e ieaeiae (Aieane aeaee?aa)
iaeao. Aa?oiyy iaeaoa ninoieo ec 249 aeaiooaoia, ecae?aaiuo iooai i?yiuo
anaiaueo e oaeiuo auai?ia ia 4-eaoiee n?ie. Eca?aiea aeaiooaoia ieaeiae
iaeaou i?ienoiaeeo ia o?ao o?iaiyo: o?aoue ec ieo ecae?aaony ec /enea
/eaiia i?iaeioeeaeueiuo niaaoia (ii iaeiiio io eaaeaeiai niaaoa) n?ieii
ia 4 aiaea, ae?oaay o?aoue – ec /eaiia ie?oaeiuo niaaoia i?iaeioeee
n?ieii ia 3 aiaea e inoaeueiay o?aoue iacia/aaony i?aceaeaioii ia 5 eao.
50% aeaiooaoia, iacia/aaiuo i?aceaeaioii, aeieaeiu ninoaaeyoue aeaiueiu.
Ieaeiyy iaeaoa iaeaaeaao i?aaii auiineoue aiooi iaaeiaa?ey
i?aaeoaeuenoao.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou, ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
niaeaoaiey e aeiaiai?u aeieaeiu auoue iaeia?aiu iaaeie iaeaoaie
ia?eaiaioa, oioy i?eiyoea ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey, eanathuaainy i?ia?aii
?acaeoey e athaeaeaoa, a oaeaea ?aoaiea i aiooia iaaeiaa?ey ioaeaeueiui
ieieno?ai eee i?aaeoaeuenoao i?eieiathony oieueei Aieane aeaee?aa. A
neo/aa ?anoiaeaeaiee iaaeaeo iaeaoaie niae?aaony Niaeaneoaeueiay
eiienney, ii, anee e ae ia oaeaaony au?aaioaoue eiii?iienniue aa?eaio,
ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea i?eieiaaony ieaeiae iaeaoie, iinea /aai
iiaeienuaaaony i?aceaeaioii.

A no?oeoo?a aunoeo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey anoue oaeaea
o?aaeeoeeiiiue i?aai i?aaenoaaeoaeueneie aeanoe – Eiey aeaee?aa
(“Aaeeeia nia?aiea”, “Aunoee niaao”), a ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeyo /eaiu
iaaeo iaeao ia?eaiaioa e i?aaenaaeaoaee i?iaeioeeaeueiuo e ie?oaeiuo
niaaoia. A ?aaioa Eiey aeaee?ae o/anoaotho (aac i?aaa aieina) oaeaea
ieieno?u, i?aaenaaeaoaeue e /eaiu Aa?oiaiiai noaea. Canaaeaiey yoiai
i?aaia i?iaiaeyony aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, eanathueony aii?inia
iacaaeneiinoe, iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa, oa??eoi?eaeueiie
oeaeinoiinoe, a oaeaea aeey aianaiey iii?aaie a eiinoeoooeeth, a oaeaea
?anniio?aiea aii?ina i noaeaaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aceaeaioa.

Ianoiia oi?aaeaiea. A aaeieieno?aoeaiii ioiioaiee Aoaaienoai ?acaeaeai
ia 34 i?iaeioeee (aeeayou): Aaaeai, Aaaeaooai, Aaaeaen, Aaeo, Aaieai,
Aa?aeae, Aacie, Aa?ao, Aeeueiaiae, Ai?, Aeaeeiiaee, Aeaeaocaeaeai,
Caaoeue, Eaaoe, Eaiaeaaa?, Eaiena, Eoia?, Eoiaeoc, Eaaiai, Eiaa?,
Iaiaa?oa?, Iei?ic, Io?anoai, Iaeoeea, Iaeoey, Iaiaeaeoe?, Ia?aai,
Naiaiaai, Na?e-Ioeue, Oaoa?, O?ocaai, Oa?ao, Oa?ueya e Oono.

I?iaeioeee iiae?acaeaeythony ia oacaeu (ie?oaa, aoeonaaee) e aieinoe
(?aeiiu, aeaeaaea?e), eioi?ui iiae/eiythony aea?aaie. Ai aeaaa
i?iaeioeee noieo aoaa?iaoi? (aaee), iacia/aaiue i?aceaeaioii. E
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie iaeioi?ua aoaa?iaoi?neea iinou aaeaioiu. Ia ianoiii
o?iaia aeanoue /anoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ?acee/iuo
iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii e iieaaui eiiaiaee?ai, eioi?ua onoaiiaeee eiio?ieue
iaae yoeie ?aeiiaie aua a aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e nio?aiytho aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey aeanoe nianoaaiiua aii?oaeaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey. Ii iiaie
eiinoeoooeee i?aaeiieaaaaony eca?aiea ia i?yiuo e anaiaueo auai?ao
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo e ie?oaeiuo niaaoia, eioi?ua aoaeoo o/anoaiaaoue a
?acaeoee i?iaeioeee e ie?oaia e niinianoaiaaoue oeo/oaieth oi?aaeaiey
eie. Ii caeiio, aeaa ianoa a eaaeaeii ec i?iaeioeeaeueiuo niaaoia
ca?aca?ae?iaaiu aeey aeaiuei-aeaiooaoia. A neeo oiai, /oi iiia?a
ie?oaia, a?aieoeu e /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey aua i?aaenoieo ii?aaeaeeoue,
auai?u a ie?oaeiua niaaou a 2005 auee ioiaiaiu. E?iia oiai,
i?aaeiieaaaaony nicaeaiea naeueneeo e ai?iaeneeo niaaoia, eioi?ua aoaeoo
ecae?aoueny ianaeaieai iooai anaiaueo e i?yiuo auai?ia ia 3-eaoiee n?ie.

Noaeaaiay nenoaia. Ii eiinoeoooeee, ooaa?aeaeaiiie 11 ieoya?y 1931,
a?aaeaeaineia e oaieiaiia i?aai iniiauaaeenue ia oa?eaoa. Iinea i?eiyoey
a 1964 iiaie eiinoeoooeee, iniiaie noaeaaiie aeanoe noaee ii?iu
naaoneiai i?aaa, oioy i?e ?aniio?aiee noaeaaiuo aeae noaeu
?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue ia?yaeo n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii oaeaea
ii?iaie oa?eaoa. Noaeaaiay aeanoue Aoaaienoaia aei na?aae. 1990-o
ooieoeeiie?iaaea ia i?eioeeiao, eceiaeaiiuo a eiinoeoooeee 1987, ii i?e
oaeeaao iiaeaa?aeanue eciaiaieyi. ?anniao?eaaaiua noaeueyie-oaeeaaie
aeaea ?aoaeenue ia iniiaa ianoiie eioa?i?aoaoeee eneaineeo caeiiia n
i?eiaiaieai o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ionoeueiaineeo iaeacaiee (iai?eia?, iona/aiey
iaeueoeaa eee eenoe ?oee o ai?ia, ioaee/iie ii?ee, iiaeoey eaiiyie,
iiaaoaiey e iaacaeaaeeaaiey ca iaeioi?ua aeaeu i?aaiia?ooaiee e o.ae.).
Iinea e?aoa ?aaeeia oaeeaia noaeaaiay nenoaia nicaeaaaeanue caiiai. Ia
ia?aii yoaia, niaeanii Aiiineiio niaeaoaieth io 2001, Aoaaienoai
a?aiaiii aa?ioeny e eiinoeoooeee 1964, eioi?ay ni/aoaea oa?eaoneia i?aai
n yeaiaioaie aa?iiaeneeo i?aaiauo nenoai.

Ii eiinoeoooeee 2004 noaeaaiay nenoaia yaeyaony iacaaeneiie aaoaueth
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. A aeaenoaothuae eiinoeoooeee iao /aoeeo
oeacaiee ioiineoaeueii ?iee oa?eaoa, ii i?e yoii a iae ioia/aii, /oi
aoaaineea caeiiu ia aeieaeiu i?ioeai?a/eoue iniiaiui i?eioeeiai eneaia.
Aunoei i?aaiii noaeaaiie aeanoe yaeyaony Aa?oiaiue noae, eioi?ue ninoieo
ec aeaayoe noaeae. Aa?oiaiue noae iaeaaeaao i?aaii iaaeci?a ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth ae?oaeo noaeaaiuo i?aaiia e, e?iia oiai, ii cai?ino
i?aaeoaeuenoaa eee ae?oaeo noaeia iiaeao eco/aoue niioaaonoaea
eiinoeoooeee caeiiia, aeae?aoia, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia e
niaeaoaiee e eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue eo a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii, ii aai
?aoaiey ia anaaaea eiatho iaycaoaeueioth neeo. Aa?oiaiiio noaeo
iiae/eiythony aunieea noaeu i?iaeioeee, aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu e noaeu
ia?aie einoaioeee. Aeaaiue noaeuey Aoaaienoaia (i?aaenaaeaoaeue
Aa?oiaiiai noaea) e ana aai /eaiu iacia/athony i?aceaeaioii ia 10-eaoiee
n?ie. I?aainoaeea inouanoaeyaony oaeaea aiaeeyoeeiiiuie e niaoeeaeueiuie
noaeaie, noaeaie ?acee/iuo einoaioeee, a oaeaea aiaiiuie o?eaoiaeaie.

Aii?oaeaiiua neeu Aoaaienoaia ia/aee nicaeaaaoueny a eii. 19 a. ia
iniiaa ieaiaiiuo iiie/aiee, ii aieaa nia?aiaiiue aeae a?iey noaea
i?eia?aoaoue oieueei iinea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, ai iiiaii aeaaiaea?y
niaeaenoaeth NNN?, *aoineiaaeee e Eoau. Ei?ieaaneay a?iey oaeoe/anee
no?ieeanue ii niaaoneiio ia?acoeo e aei 1973 ian/eouaaea a naieo ?yaeao
io 40 oun. aei 100 oun. /ae. A Iaoeeiiaeueiuo aii?oaeaiiuo neeao (IAN)
Ae?A a 1978 neoaeeee 110 oun. /ae., ii e yiaa?th 1980 aeaca?oe?noai
i?eiyei oaeea ianooaau, /oi /eneaiiinoue aoaaineie a?iee oiaiueoeeanue
aieaa, /ai a o?e ?aca ii n?aaiaieth n 1978 e ian/eouaaea ie. 30–40 oun.
/ae. A ia/. 1990-o a?iey Aoaaienoaia ian/eouaaea 45 oun. /ae. (a o./.
ie. 5 oun. /ae. a ninoaaa AAN).

Ia noi?iia iiaeaeaoaaeia a oio aea ia?eiae aeaenoaiaaei io 50–60 oun.
aei 200 oun. /ae., ii aieueoay eo /anoue e eii. 1980-o aace?iaaeanue a
Iaeenoaia e E?aia. Iinea iaaeaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aoaaienoaia a 1992 ana
aiaiiua no?oeoo?u i?aaeiaai ?aaeeia auee ?anoi?ie?iaaiu e aeanoue a
no?aia caoaaoeee iiiaeanoai a?aaeaeothueo iaaeaeo niaie iieoaiaiiuo
oi?ie?iaaiee. E na?aae. 1990-o iaeaieueoae neeie ?aniieaaaei aeaeaeaiea
“Oaeeaai”, iieo/aaoaa nouanoaaiioth oeiainiaoth e aiaiioth iiiiuue ec
Iaeenoaia e Naoaeianeie A?aaee, a oaeaea ?acaaaeneoaea NOA. E 1996 aai
a?iey ian/eouaaea ie. 25 oun. /ae., ia aii?oaeaiee eioi?ie ninoiyei na.
100 oaieia e aiaaay aaeaoeey (6 naiieaoia IeA-21, 4 aa?oieaoa IE-17). E
2001 a?iee oaeeaia (ii ?aciui ioeaieai, io 55 aei 110 oun. /ae.), a
aieueoeinoaa naiai ninoiyaoae ec iooooineeo ieaiaiiuo iiie/aiee e
iaeenoaineeo eino?oeoi?ia, i?ioeainoiyee neeu Naaa?iiai aeueyina:
oaaeaeeeneea io?yaeu iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Aoiaae Oaoa Ianoaea
(/eneaiiinoue – io 20 aei 60 oun. /ae., ia aii?oaeaiee eiaeenue oaiee e
aaeaoeey), ocaaeneea io?yaeu iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea ?aoeaea
Aeinooia (io 13 aei 65 oun. /ae., ia aii?oaeaiee auee oaiee e aaeaoeey)
e o?aeoeee ia?oee “Oacaa aaoaeao”, aicaeaaeyaiie Aaaeoeii Ea?eiii Oaeeee
(io 10 aei 50 oun. /ae.).

1 aeaeaa?y 2002 i?aceaeaio Aoaaienoaia O.Ea?cae iiaeienae aeae?ao i
nicaeaiee aoaaineie iaoeeiiaeueiie a?iee. Aeae?ao ia?aaeaaae ana
aoaaineea aii?oaeaiiua neeu, io?yaeu iiaeaeaoaaeia e ae?oaea iieoaiaiiua
a?oiiu iiae eiio?ieue ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu. Aaaeiaeoei oaaii ia iooe
no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo aii?oaeaiiuo nee noaea ?aaeecaoeey i?ia?aiiu
?aci?oaeaiey, aeaiiaeeecaoeee e ?aeioaa?aoeee (?Ae?) auaoeo
iiaeaeaoaaeia, iai?aaeaiiie iaeiia?aiaiii ia oneeaiea oeaio?aeueiie
aeanoe ia ianoao. A oiaea ?aaeecaoeee ia?aiai yoaia yoie i?ia?aiiu e
etheth 2005 auei ?anoi?ie?iaaii nauoa 250 iiae?acaeaeaiee e
aeaiiaeeeciaaii ieiei 63 oun. auaoeo iiaeaeaoaaeia, a oaeaea naeaii ia
neeaaeu nauoa 30 oun. aaeeieoe oyaeaeiai e eaaeiaiai aii?oaeaiey.
Iaeiaei ii aeaiiui aoaaineeo i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia, a no?aia
i?iaeieaeatho aeaenoaiaaoue nauoa ouny/e iacaeiiiuo aii?oaeaiiuo a?oii,
ian/eouaathueo, ii ?aciui ioeaieai, io 60 aei 100 ouny/ aiaaeeia. Aeey
?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu 11 ethiy 2005 aeoea-i?aceaeaio Aoaaienoaia
E.Oaeeee iaia?iaeiaae oeac i ia/aea aoi?iai yoaia i?ia?aiiu
(“?aci?oaeaiea iacaeiiiuo aii?oaeaiiuo a?oii”), eioi?oth
i?aaeiieaaaeinue caaa?oeoue a oa/aiea aiaea.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?aci?oaeaieai iiaeaeaoaaeia e ae?oaeo aii?oaeaiiuo a?oii
i?aaeoaeuenoai no?aiu i?iaeieaeaei nicaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie a?iee (AIA)
e iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee (AII). Niaeanii caeiio, aei 1992 ana
a?aaeaeaia ioaeneiai iiea a aic?anoa io 15 aei 40 eao iiaeeaaeaee
i?ecuao ia aiaiioth neoaeao, ii anaiauay aieineay iaycaiiinoue
oaeoe/anee ia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia iooooineea ieaiaia. ?aoaieai iiaiai
aoaaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa aii?oaeaiiua neeu eiiieaeoothony ia
aeia?iaieueiie iniiaa. E naioya?th 2005 /eneaiiinoue AIA aeinoeaaea 30
oun. aiaiiineoaeaueo. I?aaiecaoeeiiii iia ninoieo ec ?aaeiiaeueiuo
eiiaiaeiaaiee (Eaaoe, Aa?aeac, Eaiaeaaa?, Aa?ao e Iaca?e-Oa?eo) e
ianeieueeeo ei?ionia, aeeth/athueo ioaeaeueiua a?eaaaeu e aaoaeueiiu.
Aoaaineea AAN (ieiei 3,6 oun. /ae., aeeth/ay 450 ieeioia) eiatho ia
aii?oaeaiee 5 naiieaoia IeA-21 e 13 aa?oieaoia (Ie-24, Ie-8 e Ie-17), a
oaeaea ianeieueei o?ainii?oiuo naiieaoia. Iiaeaioiaeo iiaia?aioeaa
aaaeoo eino?oeoi?u ec NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Eaiaaeu e O?aioeee.
Ieii/aoaeueiia oi?ie?iaaiea AIA /eneaiiinoueth 70 oun. /ae. ieaie?oaony
caaa?oeoue e 2009. Aiaiece?iaaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey ninoiyo ec iieeoeee (ie.
58 oun. /ae.), aeeth/athuae iia?aie/iua neeu e o?ainii?oioth iieeoeeth,
a oaeaea ieaiaiiuo iiie/aiee ia thaa e thai-ainoiea Aoaaienoaia.

I?iaeieaeaaony caiaia aii?oaeaiey e aiaaie oaoieee AIA niaaoneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia caiaaeiua ia?acoeu. Iai?eia?, eaoii 2005 eiiaiaeiaaiea
IOeE AN NOA a Aoaaienoaia ia?aaeaei aeey AIA 10 a?iiao?ainii?oa?ia I113.
?anoiaeu ia iai?iio a 2004 ninoaaeee 188,4 iei. aeiee. NOA, eee 2,6% AII
no?aiu.

E eii. 2005 ia oa??eoi?ee Aoaaienoaia ?aciauaeenue ie. 20 ouny/
aiaiiineoaeaueo ec oae iacuaaaiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiaeeoeeiiiuo nee, a
iniiaiii ninoiyueo ec aiththueo i?ioea io?yaeia oaeeaia e ae?oaeo
eneaineeo a?oiie?iaie. Oai oaeaea iaoiaeyony eiio?iee?oaiua IAOI
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua neeu niaeaenoaey aaciianiinoe (INNA), eioi?ua auee
nicaeaiu a niioaaonoaee n Aiiineei niaeaoaieai io 6 aeaeaa?y 2001 e
eiatho iaiaeao Niaaoa Aaciianiinoe III. Niaeanii yoiai iaiaeaoa, iie
iaycaiu niaeaenoaiaaoue onoaiiaeaieth aaciianiinoe e ieacuaaoue iiiiuue
ianoiui aeanoyi, iennee III ii ieacaieth iiiiue Aoaaienoaio (UNAMA) e
ae?oaei aaaionoaai e aoiaieoa?iui i?aaiecaoeeyi. Ii ninoiyiee ia 2005,
aiaiiua eiioeiaaiou a ninoaaa INNA eiaee 36 no?ai (ie. 11 oun. /ae.), a
o./. Aano?ey, Aca?aaeaeaeai, Aeaaiey, Aaeueaey, Aieaa?ey,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aaia?ey, Aa?iaiey, A?aoeey, A?ocey, Aeaiey, E?eaiaeey,
Eneaiaeey, Eniaiey, Eoaeey, Eaiaaea, Eaoaey, Eeoaa, Iaeaaeiiey,
Ieaea?eaiaeu, Iiaay Caeaiaeey, Ii?aaaey, Ii?ooaaeey, ?oiuiey, Oo?oeey,
Oeieyiaeey, O?aioeey, Oi?aaoey, *aoey, Oaaeoea?ey, Oaaoeey e Ynoiiey. N
aaaonoa 2003 ?oeiaiaenoai INNA aicaeaaeyao eiiaiaeiaaiea IAOI.

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea. Iinea ainnoaiiaeaiey iieeoe/aneie iacaaeneiinoe a
1919, eiaaea Aoaaienoai inaiaiaeeeny io a?eoaineiai eiio?iey iaae naiae
aiaoiae iieeoeeie, Eaaoe i?eaea?aeeaaeny eo?na iaeo?aeeoaoa, eioi?ue
noae iniiaie aai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii iaeiaei,
aeieaia a?aiy nio?aiyeinue neeueiia aeeyiea Aaeeeia?eoaiee e Niaaoneiai
Nithca. E eii. 1930-o a Aoaaienoaia oneeeeenue iiceoeee oaoenoneie
Aa?iaiee, ?acaa?ioaoae iiuioth yeiiiie/aneoth e iieeoe/aneoth yeniaineth
a ?aaeiia.

Iinea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu Aoaaienoai ieacaeny a iiaie aaiiieeoe/aneie
neooaoeee: a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeaea Eiaeee aai ninaaeii noae Iaeenoai, n
eioi?ui aicieeee ino?ua i?ioeai?a/ey ii aii?ino i noaeueaa ca?oaaaeiuo
iooooiia. Aoaaienoai aunooiae a iiaeaea?aeeo eo i?aa ia
naiiii?aaeaeaiea. Ioeac Iaeenoaia i?aaeinoaaeoue ei oaeea i?aaa iiaeae
ca niaie ?aceia oooaeoaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeaoiy no?aiaie e i?eaae eo
a 1955 ia a?aiue aii?oaeaiiiai eiioeeeoa. Eiioeeeo iaaeaeo aeaoiy
no?aiaie aiiaue aniuoioe a 1962, ii i?eaae e ?ac?uao aeeieiiaoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee. N iiiiuueth eiino?aiiuo iin?aaeieeia ioiioaiey auee
ainnoaiiaeaiu a 1963.

A iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae ia/aeinue yeiiiie/aneia, a caoai iieeoe/aneia e
eaeaieiae/aneia i?iieeiiaaiea a Aoaaienoai NOA. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia
aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu Caiaaea, Aoaaienoai, i?eaea?aeeaaynue
o?aaeeoeeiiiie iieeoeee iaeo?aeeoaoa, ioeacaeny anooieoue a nicaeaaaaiua
a oio ia?eiae aiaiii-iieeoe/aneea aeiee NAIOI e NAAOI, e a 1955 noae
/eaiii Aeaeaeaiey iai?eniaaeeiaiey. Aeceo niaaoneeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
I.N.O?ouaaa e I.A.Aoeaaieia a Eaaoe (1955) iciaiaiiaae auno?ia ?acaeoea
iiiainoi?iiieo ioiioaiee Aoaaienoaia n Niaaoneei Nithcii, eioi?ue
anooiee a ino?ia niia?ie/anoai n NOA. A 1960–1970-a Aoaaienoai
aaeaine?iaae iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?iauie aea?aeaaaie, i?e yoii NNN?
aeiieie?iaae a iieeoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie noa?ao. Iinea ai?aeueneiai
ia?aai?ioa 1978 Aoaaienoai noae i?iaiaeeoue eo?n ia iaeiinoi?iiithth
i?eaioaoeeth ia Niaaoneee Nithc, iiaeienaa n iei a aeaeaa?a 1978
Aeiaiai? i ae?oaeaa, aeia?ininaaenoaa e nio?oaeie/anoaa. Aaaaeaiea
niaaoneeo aiene a aeaeaa?a 1979 i?eaaei e oaeoe/aneie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
ecieyoeee no?aiu. Aoaaienoaiii noaei ?oeiaiaeeoue i?aaeoaeuenoai
A.Ea?iaey, a iicaea i?aceaeaioa Iaaeaeeaoeeu. Aai aiaoiea nayce
ia?aie/eaaeenue naycyie n nioeeaeenoe/aneeie no?aiaie e ?acaeaathueieny
ainoaea?noaaie.

Iaaeaiea ?aaeeia Iaaeaeeaoeeu e i?eoiae e aeanoe iiaeaeaoaaeia a 1992
niinianoaiaaee iaeioi?iio ?anoe?aieth aiaoieo naycae Aoaaienoaia, a
iniiaiii ca n/ao iiauo ainoaea?noa Oeaio?aeueiie Acee. Ioiioaiey n
?inneae auee naaaeaiu e ieieioio. Caoaaoeaoea a 1996 i?e iiaeaea?aeea
Iaeenoaia aeanoue oaeeau ia iieo/eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?eciaiey e
ieacaeenue a iieiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ecieyoeee. A 1997 eo i?eciaee eeoue
Iaeenoai, Naoaeianeay A?aaey e IAY. Iiae aeeyieai Onaiu aai Eaaeaia,
iiyaeaoaainy a no?aia a 1996 e iiaeaea?aeaiiiai oiaaea NOA, Aoaaienoai
oaeoe/anee i?aa?aoeeny a e?oiiaeoee i/aa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oa??i?ecia.
Yoi aucaaei ?aceoth ?aaeoeeth ie?iaiai niiauanoaa, a 1999 e 2000 auea
aaaaeaia na?ey naieoeee i?ioea oaeeaia. Iinea eeeaeaeaoeee ?aaeeia
oaeeaia a 2001 neeaie Naaa?iiai aeueyina e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
aioeoa??i?enoe/aneie eiaeeoeee ai aeaaa n NOA e IAOI iiaue ?aaeei Ea?cay
i?iaicaeanee iieeoeeo nio?oaeie/anoaa ni anaie ainoaea?noaaie, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue n ionoeueiaineeie no?aiaie ?aaeiia. A oi aea a?aiy no?aia
i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny iiae eiino?aiiui aiaiiui eiio?ieai.
Iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneay caaeneiinoue Aoaaienoaia io NOA e ae?oaeo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiii?ia iaeeaaeuaaao ioia/aoie ia aai aiaoithth
iieeoeeo. Iaeaieaa oaniua nayce Aoaaienoai iiaeaea?aeeaaao n
nii?aaeaeueiuie ainoaea?noaaie, a oaeaea ni no?aiaie Caiaaea a
caaeneiinoe io iauaia eo o/anoey a ainnoaiiaeaiee no?aiu. I?ei?eoaoiuie
a yoii nienea yaeythony NOA, n eioi?uie Aoaaienoai a iaa 2005 iiaeienae
niaeaoaiea i no?aoaae/aneii nio?oaeie/anoaa.

Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e aeaeaeaiey. Ia?aay iieeoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey
nicaeaia a Aoaaienoaia a ia/. 20 a. e aioea a enoi?eth iiae iacaaieai
“Iao?ooa” (“Eiinoeoooeey”), ii a 1909 iia auea ?aca?iieaia, iicaea
nouanoaiaaee ioaeaeueiua e?oaeee eiinoeoooeeiiaeenoia, caieiaaoeony
i?inaaoeoaeueneie ?aaioie. A 1928 yie? Aiaioeea-oai, no?aiynue ioi?ieoue
iieeoe/aneoth aaco aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo ?aoi?i, iauyaee i iaia?aiee
aaanoe a no?aia iaeiiia?oeeioth nenoaio e nicaeaoue ia?oeth “Enoaeeyeue
aa oaaeaeaaeaeiae” (“Iacaaeneiinoue e iaiiaeaiea”), iaeiaei ia oniae
aeiaa?oeoue aei eiioea naia ia/eiaiea.

Oieueei iinea ieii/aiey Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, aeaaiaea?y i?iaaaeaieth
ia?aie/aiiuo iieeoe/aneeo ?aoi?i, a no?aia aicieeee aeaeaeaiey “Aeo
caeueieyi” (“I?iaoaeeaoayny iieiaeaaeue”), “Aaoai” (“Ioa/anoai”) e
“Ieaeaee oaeuee” (“Aiein ia?iaea”), /eaiu eioi?uo o?aaiaaee i?iaaaeaiey
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee e noaaeee ia iiaanoeo aeiy aii?inu
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 1949 yoe
aeaeaeaiey noi?ie?iaaee Iaoeeiiaeueiue o?iio, eioi?ue iieo/ee ianeieueei
aeaiooaoneeo iano. A 1951 ia aaca “Ieaeaee oaeuee” auea nicaeaia
“Ia?iaeiay ia?oey” (“Oacaa oaeuee”), i?iaicaeaneaoay naiae caaea/ae
ai?ueao ca “nicaeaiea ia?iaeiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eca?aiiiai ia?iaeii e
aeaenoaothuaai a eioa?anao ia?iaea”. Iinea iiaeaaeaiey aunooieaiee a
1952 ana ia?oee auee cai?auaiu, a eo eeaea?u a?anoiaaiu.

N i?eiyoeai eiinoeoooeee a 1964 a no?aia niiaa ia/aee neeaaeuaaoueny e
aeaenoaiaaoue ?acee/iua iieeoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, oioy aeaeea?e?iaaiiia
iniiaiui caeiiii i?aai ia nicaeaiea iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee oae e ia auei
caeiiiaeaoaeueii ioi?ieaii. Ia iieeoe/aneie noeaia a yoio ia?eiae
iiyaeeenue oaeea a?oiie?iaee, eae “Aoaai ieeeyo” (“Aoaaineay iaoeey”) e
“Ieeeyo” (“Iaoeey”), noiyaoea ia iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie ieaooi?ia, e?aeia
eaaua “Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia” e “Iiaay
aeaiie?aoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey Aoaaienoaia” (aieueoa ecaanoiay eae
“Oiaea-e aeaeaaeae”), a oaeaea ?acee/iua eneaienoneea e?oaeee, ec
eioi?uo iniaaiii auaeaeyeanue “Ionoeueiaineay iieiaeaaeue”. I?aayuea
e?oae a 1960-a iuoaeenue nicaeaoue i?ii?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth “Ia?oeth
i?ia?anneaiuo aeaiie?aoia” (IIAe), eioi?oth aicaeaaeye i?aiuea?-ieieno?
Mooaiiaae Oaoei Iaeaaiaeaaeue. Aa oeaeueth auea “ai?ueaa ai eiy
i?eioeeiia eneaia, eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee, iaoeeiiaeecia e
nioeeaeecia”. Iaeiaei iinea ionoaaee Iaeaaiaeaaey a 1967 IIAe oaea ia
ea?aea caiaoiie ?iee. I?e I.Aeaoaea e eii. 1976 auea ia?aciaaia “Ia?oey
iaoeeiiaeueiie ?aaiethoeee” (II?), eioi?ay, niaeanii eiinoeoooeee,
aeieaeia auea noaoue aaeeinoaaiiie ia?oeae, eiathuae i?aai ia
iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

N ai?aey 1978 ii ai?aeue 1992 a no?aia o aeanoe iaoiaeeeanue
“Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia” (IAeIA), eioi?ay
no?aieeanue i?eaeaoue no?aia aieaa aeaiie?aoe/aneee iaeee. N yoie
oeaeueth a 1987 aue i?eiyo caeii i iieeoe/aneeo ia?oeyo, eioi?ue
?ac?aoae oi?ie?iaaiea iieeoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee i?e oneiaee, /oi eo
aeayoaeueiinoue ia aoaeao i?ioeai?a/eoue eiinoeoooeee e iieeoeea
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?eie?aiey. Iaeieie ec ia?auo auee eaaaeeciaaiu
“?aaiethoeeiiiay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaeyueony Aoaaienoaia” (?IOA) e
“I?aaiecaoeey o?oaeyueony Aoaaienoaia” (IOA), a oii aea aiaeo
ia?aciaaaoea aianoa n IAeIA aeie eaaiaeaiie?aoe/aneeo ia?oee. Iicaea
aicieeee e ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee io e?aeia eaauo (“I?aaiecaoeey
aaaiaa?aea o?oaeyueony Aoaaienoaia”, “Ia?oey aaaiaa?aea iieiaeuo ?aai/eo
Aoaaienoaia”, “Ia?oey iieiaeuo ?aai/eo Aoaaienoaia” e ae?.) aei
o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoia (“Iaoeeiiaeueiue e?anoueyineee nithc Aoaaienoaia”,
“Nithc nieeaea?iinoe ia?iaea Aoaaienoaia” (oaaeaeiia)) e eneaienoia
(“Ia?iaeiay eneaineay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia”, “Ia?oey Aeeaoa”, “Nithc
iineaaeiaaoaeae Aeeaoa”). E ethith 1990 a no?aia ioe?uoi aeaenoaiaaei
oaea nauoa aeanyoe iaeeeo ia?oee, eioi?ua, iaeiaei, ia ea?aee caiaoiie
?iee. A ?yaeao Iaoeeiiaeueiiai o?iioa, nicaeaiiiai eae oe?ieia ianniaia
iauaaeeiaiea, a 1987 /eneeeinue ie. 800 oun. /ae.

E /eneo iaeaieaa caiaoiuo ia?oee, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo i?aaeoaeuenoai
O.Ea?cay e noiyueo ia oia?aiii eeaa?aeueiie e
iaoeeiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ieaooi?ia, ioiinyony, i?aaeaea anaai
“Aoaai Ieeeyo”, “Iaoeeiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneee o?iio Aoaaienoaia”,
“Iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia”, “Iaoeeiiaeueiia eneaineia
aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” e “Iaoeeiiaeueiue eiia?ann Aoaaienoaia”.

“Aoaaineay nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey” (ANAeI, oaeaea ecaanoiay eae
“Aoaai Meeeyo”, eee “Aoaaineay iaoeey”) – ia?oey iooooineeo
iaoeeiiaeenoia, nicaeaia a ia?oa 1966, iicaea ?aneieieanue ia ?yae
o?aeoeee. Ia?aiia/aeueii aunooiaea n iiceoeee iaiaoaaineiai
iaoeeiiaeecia, i?iiaaaiaee?oy eaeae “iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey” e
“Aaeeeiai Aoaaienoaia”. Iinea oiai, eae ANAeI a 1995 aicaeaaee Aiaa?
oeue-Oae Aoaaee, ia?oey aeenoaioee?iaaeanue io i?aaeiae aeieo?eiu, oioy
e naaiaeiy ana aua ia?aaeei auneacuaaaony a iiaeaea?aeeo ?anoe?aiey i?aa
iooooiia, iniaaiii a aii?ina i noaoona iooooineiai ycuea. Iauaaeeiyao
iooooineoth eioaeeeaaioeeth, nooaeai/anoai e aeaeiaua e?oae ia ainoiea e
naaa?a no?aiu; eaeaieiae/anee inoaaony i/aiue ?acii?iaeiie. Ia
i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ao a 2004 “Aoaai Ieeeyo” iiaeaea?aeeaaea Ea?cay.
Iieo/eea 7 iano a ia?eaiaioa, a aa eeaea? Aoaaee caieiaao a eaaeiaoa
Ea?cay iino ieieno?a oeiainia.

“Iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” (IAeA) – i?aeiouanoaaiii
oaaeaeeeneay iieeoe/aneay ia?oey, iniiaaiiay a 2002 THionii Eaioie,
Iooaiiaaeii Eanaiii Oaoeiii e Aoiaae Aaee Ianoaeii a ?acoeueoaoa ?aneiea
“Eneaineiai iauanoaa Aoaaienoaia”. Noieo ia iiceoeeyo naaoneiai
iaoeeiiaeecia e iiaeaea?aeeaaao i?aaeoaeuenoai Ea?cay, eioi?ue iacia/ee
a 2004 a?aoa Aaee, Ceth Ianoaea, naiei ia?aui aeoea-i?aceaeaioii. Ia
ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 2005 IAeA niaianoii n o?aeoeeyie “Eneaineiai
iauanoaa Aoaaienoaia” (Eniaee-oai, Aooa Iooaiiaae) caaiaaaei 12 iano.

“Iaoeeiiaeueiia eneaineia aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” (“Aeaeoiaeo”, IEAeA)
auei nicaeaii 1 ethiy 1992 auaoei ni?aoieeii Iaaeaeeaoeeu
aaia?ae-iieeiaieeii Aaaeoe ?aoeaeii Aeinooiii ia aaca “Naaa?iiai
aeaeaeaiey”, i?aaenoaaeyaoaai niaie iano?oth aiaiii-iieeoe/aneoth
eiaeeoeeth, a eioi?oth aioee eae ianoiay ocaaeneay ieeeoeey e
oi?ie?iaaiey iaeioi?uo iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo eaauo a?oii, oae e
a?oiie?iaee iiaeaeaoaaeia. Aeaeaeaiea au?aaeaei naia?aoenoneea
iano?iaiey ?acee/iuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii ia naaa?a no?aiu e i?ecuaaei e
ia?aciaaieth oaaea?aoeaiiai ainoaea?noaa, iniiaaiiiai ia ii?iao eneaia.
Iii o?aaiaaei i?aaa aeey eaaeaeiai noauaeoa oaaea?aoeee eiaoue
nianoaaiiua aii?oaeaiiua neeu e naiinoiyoaeueii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua nayce, ia eneeth/ay i?e yoii ioaeaeaiey e nicaeaiey
iacaaeneiiai ainoaea?noaa.

E eii. 1992 ia eiio?iee?oaiie IEAeA oa??eoi?ee (i?iaeioeee Naiaiaai,
Aaeo, Aeaeaocaeaeai, Oa?ueya e Aaaeai) auee nicaeaiu i?aaiu aeanoe, ia
iiae/eiyaoeany Eaaoeo. Oieueei iinea oiai, eae a 1997 oaeeaai oaeaeinue
caoaaoeoue Iaca?e-Oa?eo, IEAeA i?eniaaeeieeinue e Naaa?iiio aeueyino e
aioei a i?aaeoaeuenoai A.?aaaaie. I?e iiaeaea?aeea iaoianeeo aiene a
2001 iii aiiaue onoaiiaeei eiio?ieue iaae ioaeaeueiuie i?iaeioeeyie
Naaa?iiai Aoaaienoaia. Iinea naa?aeaiey ?aaeeia oaeeaia IEAeA
ioeacaeinue io iaeioi?uo o?aaiaaiee naia?aoenoneiai oa?aeoa?a e oaia?ue
aunooiaao ca ainnoaiiaeaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe e
iacaaeneiinoe no?aiu, onoaiiaeaiea eneaineiai ainoaea?noaa, ?aaiua i?aaa
aeey anao iaoeeiiaeueiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo iauei, i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiie
iiiiue e eiaanoeoeee, i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeaiueiai i?aaa o/anoaiaaoue a
iieeoe/aneie e iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Ii ioeaieai, ia?oey ian/eouaaao io
65 oun. aei 150 oun. /eaiia e noi?iiieeia. Ia auai?ao a ia?eaiaio a 2005
eaiaeeaeaou io IEAeA caaiaaaee 20 iano. Eeaea? IEAeA – Naeaae Io?oeea,
auaoee ieieno? a i?aaeoaeuenoaa Iaaeaeeaoeeu, niaieaoee ia yoii iinoo a
ai?aea 2005 Aeinooia.

“Ia?oey iaoeeiiaeueiiai niei/aiey Aoaaienoaia” (IINA) – eniaeeeoneay,
aicieeea a 1996 ia aaca o?aeoeee IEAeA. Aa aicaeaaeytho auaoee iieaaie
eiiaiaee? e ie? (aeooiaiue eeaea?) eniaeeeoia Naeaae Iaino? Iaaea?e e
aai nui Aeaeaoa? Iaaea?e. E eii. 1980-o Iaaea?e eiae nianoaaiioth
a?ieth, ian/eouaaaooth aei 12 oun. /ae. e eiio?iee?iaae ?aeii e naaa?o
io ooiiaey Naeaia. A 1992 aai aii?oaeaiiua io?yaeu i?eniaaeeieeenue e
IEAeA. Ieii/aoaeueii IINA ioi?ieeanue oieueei iinea 2001. A ia?eaiaioa
eiaao 2 ianoa.

“Ia?oey iaoeeiiaeueiie nieeaea?iinoe iieiaeaaee Aoaaienoaia” (IINIA).
Nicaeaia a eii. 1990-o a Iaeenoaia. Ia?oey no?aieony ?acaeaaoue
iieiaeaaeioth iieeoeeo, ?aoaoue i?iaeaiu ia?aciaaiey e caiyoinoe.
Ian/eouaaao ie. 20 oun. /eaiia. Iiaeaea?aeeaaea Ea?cay ia i?aceaeaioneeo
auai?ao a 2004. Ia?aiia/aeueii aoiaeeea a IAeOA
(“Iaoeeiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneee o?iio Aoaaienoaia”), ii auoea ec iaai,
ia aeaeay nio?oaeie/aoue n ia?oeyie, eiathueie ia?enenoneia i?ioeia. Ia
ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 2005 ia?oey iieo/eea 1 ianoi a Aieane aeaee?aa.
Eeaea? – Iioaiiaae Aeaeaieeue Ea?cae, ieaiyiiee i?aceaeaioa Ea?cay.

Eneaienoneea ia?oee i?aaenoaaeaiu o?aiy iniiaiuie oa/aieyie –
noiieoneia, ?aniaaeathuaany ia ooiaeaiaioaeenoneia (“Eneaineia iauanoai
Aoaaienoaia”, “Eneaineay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia”, “I?aaiecaoeey eneaineie
iennee Aoaaienoaia”, Ia?oey “Iiaue Aoaaienoai” e ae?.) e
o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoneia (“Iaoeeiiaeueiue eneaineee o?iio Aoaaienoaia”,
“O?iio iaoeeiiaeueiiai inaiaiaeaeaiey Aoaaienoaia” e ae?.), e oeeoneia
(“Ia?oey eneaineiai aaeeinoaa Aoaaienoaia”, “Eneaineia aeaeaeaiea
Aoaaienoaia”, “Eneaineia ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” e ae?.).
Aeeaea e ooiaeaiaioaeenoai noieo “O?iio iaoeeiiaeueiiai
acaeiiiiieiaiey”. Iaeiaei iii yaeyaony iieeyoie/iui e iaiaeii?iaeiui ii
naiaio ?aeeaeiciiio ninoaao. A oeaeii ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao,
ninoiyaoeony a 2005, i?aaenoaaeoaee eneaienoneeo ia?oee iieo/eee aianoa
113 ec 249 iano.

“Aeaeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie nieeaea?iinoe Aoaaienoaia” (AeINA) –
iiia?oe/aneay, oia?aiiay eiina?aaoeaiay ia?oey, ia?aciaaiiay Naeaaeii
Aoaeii Aeeaie (aioe ie?a Naeaaea Aoiaaea Aeeaie). Aeaenoaoao
i?aeiouanoaaiii a ainoi/iie ciia ?annaeaiey iooooineeo ieaiai,
iieuecoynue iiaeaea?aeeie /anoe ai?iaeneeo neiaa ianaeaiey e
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aoaaineiai aeciana a Iaeenoaia. Ii cayaeaieyi aa
eeaea?ia, ia?oey aunooiaao a iiaeaea?aeeo auaoaai ei?iey Caoe? Oaoa e
i?aceaeaioa Ea?cay. Aianoa n oai, iia iuoaaony aeenoaioee?iaaoueny io
aeaenoaothuaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ia eioi?ia, ii eo iiaieth, neeoeii
aieueoia aeeyiea ieacuaatho i?icaiaaeiua oaoiie?aou e aia?eeaineea
niaaoieee. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 2005 ia?oey iieo/eea 3 ianoa.

“Iaoeeiiaeueiue eneaineee o?iio Aoaaienoaia” (IEOA) –
o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoneay, iiia?oe/aneay ia?oey, iniiaaia a Iaeenoaia a
aeaeaa?a 1978 Naeaaeii Aoiaaeii Aeeaie, (ie? nooeeneiai i?aeaia
Eaaee?eey), aoiaeeea a ninoaa Eneaineiai nithca iiaeaeaoaaeia
Aoaaienoaia (ENIA). Iaeaieueoei aeeyieai IEOA iieuecoaony a ?aeiia
Eaaoea e Eaiaeaaa?a e n?aaee iooooiia a Ainoi/iii Aoaaienoaia (iniaaiii
a Aacie e Aa?aeaea), a n?aaea aaeieieno?aoeaiie e eioaeeaeooaeueiie
yeeou iiia?oe/aneiai ?aaeeia, a oaeaea n?aaee aoaaineeo aaaeaioeaa ia
oa??eoi?ee Iaeenoaia. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ia?oey ia eiaao oe?ieiai
nioeeaeueiiai aacena, iia n/eoaaony iaeiei ec aaaeiuo eiiiiiaioia
iiaeaea?aeee iuiaoiaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ea?cay. Aei/ue Aeeaie aicaeaaeyao
aoaaineia iauanoai E?aniiai Iieoianyoea, a aai cyoue, Aiaa? Aeue-Oae
Aoaaee, yaeyaony ieieno?ii oeiainia a eaaeiaoa Ea?cay. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo
auai?ao a 2005 IEOA caaiaaaea 10 iano. I?aaenaaeaoaeue IEOA – Naeaae
Oaieae Aeeaie, iniiaaoaeue ia?oee.

“Iaoeeiiaeueiue o?iio inaiaiaeaeaiey Aoaaienoaia” (IOIA) –
oia?aiii-eneaienoneay, iiia?oe/aneay ia?oey, ia?aciaaiiay a ia/. 1979
Naaaaooeeie Iiaeaeaaeaeeaee (oaieia e iineaaeiaaoaeue aeeyoaeueiiai
nooeeneiai i?aeaia Iaeoaaiaeey-Iiaeaeaaeaeeaeey) eae “Iaoeeiiaeueiue
o?iio nianaiey Aoaaienoaia”. Aei 1992 aoiaeee a ninoaa “Eneaineiai
nithca iiaeaeaoaaeia Aoaaienoaia”, ii caiaoiiai o/anoey a a?aaeaeaineie
aieia ia i?eieiae. A 1989 Iiaeaeaaeaeeaee aue eca?ai aeaaie Eneaineiai
ia?aoiaeiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a a ai?aea 1992 noae i?aceaeaioii
Aoaaienoaia. Ii cayaeaieth aai eeaea?ia, IOIA no?aieony e
“?aeneaiecaoeee” no?aiu e onoaiiaeaieth oa?eaoa, ainnoaiiaeaieth eneaia
eae nioeeaeueiie e eoeueoo?iie iniiau aoaaineiai iauanoaa, ii i?e yoii
oaeaea noaaeo naiae caaea/ae ?acaeoea aoaaineie aeaiie?aoee. Iaeaieueoei
aeeyieai IOIA iieuecoaony a i?ea?aie/iie n Iaeenoaiii ciia ?annaeaiey
iooooineeo ieaiai, iniaaiii a Eaaoea, Iaiaa?oa?a, Iaeoee, Eiaa?a e
Eoia?a. Ia i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ao a 2004 o?iio iiaeaea?aeeaae Ea?cay.
Eiaao 3 ianoa a ia?eaiaioa. Aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?ue IOIA – Caaeooeea
Iiaeaeaaeaeeaee (nui Naaaaooeeu Iiaeaeaaeaeeaee).

“Eneaineay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia” (“Oacae eneaie”, EIA) – eiina?aaoeaiay
ooiaeaiaioaeenoneay ia?oey, nicaeaiiay Aoeueaaaeaeeiii Oaeiaouey?ii a
1975 a ?acoeueoaoa ?aneiea i?aaiecaoeee “Ionoeueiaineay iieiaeaaeue”.
I?iiecaiiay aeooii aieinoaothuaai eneaia, “Oacae eneaie” i?iaicaeaoaea
naiae iniiaiie oeaeueth “onoaiiaeaiea nianeoaeueiiai eneaineiai no?iy” e
niaeaenoaea “?ani?ino?aiaieth ai anai ie?a o/aiey eneaia”. I?ecuaay aeey
yoiai e “nayuaiiie aieia” ai eiy caueou eneaineeo oeaiiinoae, a na?aae.
1970-o ia?aoea e aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueaa. E ia/. 1980-o, ai iiiaii
aeaaiaea?y iiiiue Iaeenoaia e Naoaeianeie A?aaee, i?aa?aoeeanue a
iaeaieaa iiuioth i?aaiecaoeeth aoaaineie iiiiceoeee. Iinea iaaeaiey
?aaeeia Iaaeaeeaoeeu EIA i?eniaaeeieeanue e i?aaeoaeuenoao ?aaaaie,
iaeiaei ec-ca ?aciiaeanee a i?aayuae eiaeeoeee “Oacae eneaie” anei?a
ooea a iiiiceoeeth e iiiuoaeanue neeie naa?aiooue aeaenoaothuoth
aeanoue. Ia aeinoeaioa oeaee, Oaeiaouey? aa?ioeny a i?aaeoaeuenoai e
aicaeaaeye aai a 1993 e a 1996. Ii?aaeaiea io oaeeaia a 1995–1996
auioaeeei EIA ia?aaace?iaaoueny a E?ai. A yoio ia?eiae Oaeiaouey?
cayaeye, /oi aunooiaao ca i?aceaeaioneoth oi?io i?aaeaiey ii e?aineiio
ia?acoeo. A 2002 Oaeiaouey? iauyaee i naiae iiaeaea?aeea aaeieieno?aoeee
Ea?cay, ii a oii aea aiaeo aue iaaeiai a naycyo n oaeeaaie e
i?aaiecaoeee aeeaa?nee i?ioea eiaeeoeeiiiuo nee a Aoaaienoaia. A
naioya?a 2002 ii iauyaee aeaeeoaae i?ioea Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia e
iiiuoaeny neieioeoue eiaeeoeeth n iieaauie eiiaiaee?aie, aeaenoaothueie
ia ainoiea no?aiu. Ii ioeaieai, e eii. 2002 aai ia?oey aiiaue
ian/eouaaea aei 50 oun. /eaiia e noi?iiieeia. Aianoa n oai aieueoeinoai
auaoeo iieaauo eiiaiaee?ia EIA ia naaa?a e thaa cayaeee i iiaeaea?aeea
Ea?cay ai a?aiy i?aceaeaioneie eaiiaiee 2004, a iiiaea ec ieo caiyee
eeth/aaua iiceoeee a eaaoeueneie e i?iaeioeeaeueiie aaeieieno?aoeeyo.

Iaeaieueoei aeeyieai EIA iieuecoaony a iooooineeo ?aeiiao ia
thai-ainoiea e naaa?a no?aiu, iniaaiii a i?iaeioeeyo Eoiaeoc, Aaaeai,
Iaeoey, Eoia? e Iaiaa?oa?. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy EIA ?aneieioa ia ianeieueei
o?aeoeee, iaeie ec eioi?uo (Oaeiaouey?) i?iaeieaeatho aii?oaeaiioth
ai?ueao i?ioea i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ea?cay, ae?oaea (Oaeeae Oa?oee, Naaaoi)
iauyaeee i auoiaea ec iiaeiieuey. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 2005
o?aeoeee EIA (Oaeeae Oa?oee, Naaaoi) aianoa caaiaaaee 12 iano.

“Eneaineay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia” (EIA, THiona Oaeana) iniiaaia a 1979
a?oiiie ai aeaaa n THionii Oaeanii, ioeieiaoaeny io EIA, ii nio?aieaoae
i?e yoii i?aaeiaa iacaaiea. Iie?aaony ia aeooiaainoai e aiaeaeae ?yaea
iooooineeo ieaiai e eeaiia (ooaeaie, aecaae?ai e aeaeaaa?oaeue) ia
ainoiea no?aiu, iniaaiii a i?iaeioeeyo Iaiaa?oa? e Iaeoey. Iacuaaaiay
“ia?oeae ioee e oeaiia”, a?oiia Oaeana n/eoaeanue iaeiie ec iaeaieaa
oaiaoe/iuo a?oiie?iaie iiaeaeaoaaeia, i?ecuaaaoeo e aeaeeoaaeo e
i?iiiaaaeiaaaoeo eaeae eneaineie ?aaiethoeee. A oio ia?eiae Oaean aue,
iiaeaeoe, aaeeinoaaiiui ec eeaea?ia iiiiceoeee, eioi?ue aieueooth /anoue
a?aiaie iaoiaeeeny ni naieie io?yaeaie a Aoaaienoaia. Iinea caoaaoa
aeanoe eneaienoaie a 1992 aai ia?oey aioea ai A?aiaiiia eneaineia
i?aaeoaeuenoai, ii ec-ca ?aciiaeanee n ?aaaaie oaea e inaie 1992 ia?aoea
a iiiiceoeeth e oaeoe/anee onoaiiaeea eiio?ieue iaae Iaiaa?oa?ii e aai
oeaio?ii Aeaeaeaeaaaaeii. Ia i?eciaaay aeanoue ?aaaaie, a ethia 1994
Oaean iauyaee naay “ia?aoiaeiui i?aceaeaioii” Aoaaienoaia, iaeiaei oaea
e 1996 auioaeaeai aue iaioeoeeaeueii iiaeaea?aeaoue oaeeaia. Oieueei e
eii. 2001 ia?oey Oaeana aiiaue ia?aea neeo e caiyea Aeaeaeaeaaaae. EIA
ian/eouaaao io 30 oun. aei 40 oun. /eaiia (2004). Iia ia i?eciaao
auai?iua aeaiie?aoe/aneea einoeooou, eioi?ua iacuaaao
aioeionoeueiaineeie, e aunooiaao ca iino?iaiey eneaineiai ainoaea?noaa,
iniiaaiiiai ia iieiaeaieyo Ei?aia e caeiiao oa?eaoa. Aianoa n oai
?acee/iua noi?iiieee Oaeana nio?oaeie/atho n i?aaeoaeuenoaii Ea?cay,
iniaaiii ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia. I?aaenaaeaoaeue – iioeaae Iooaiiaae
THion Oaean.

Ia?oey “Eneaineia iauanoai Aoaaienoaia” (“Aeaeaieao-e eneaie”, EIA)
aicieeea a 1975 ia iniiaa iaeiie ec o?aeoeee “Ionoeueiaineie
iieiaeaaee”. Ii?aaeaeaiiui aeeyieai iieuecoaony n?aaee yoie/aneeo
oaaeaeeeia ia naaa?a Aoaaienoaia, iniaaiii a Aaaeaooaia, Aa?aoa, Aaeoa,
a oaeaea Iaiaeaeoe?a. Aei 1992 “Aeaeaieao-e eneaie” eiaea ?aceaeaioeeth
a iaeenoaineii ai?iaea Iaoaaa?a e, ianiio?y ia naith ?aeeaeicioth
?eoi?eeo, ?anniao?eaaeanue eae iaeaieaa oia?aiiay e i?aaiaoe/iay n?aaee
eneaienoneeo ia?oee. N 1989 ii 1992 “Aeaeaieao-e eneaie” aoiaeeea a
ninoaa o.i. “Eneaineiai ia?aoiaeiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa”, a a 1992
aicaeaaeei i?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth eiaeeoeeth, eioi?ay auea i?eciaia a
ea/anoaa caeiiiie aeanoe a Aoaaienoaia. Eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae ia ia?aue
ieai a ?oeiaiaenoaa EIA auaeaeioeny Aoiaae Oao Ianoae, aicaeaaeaoee
Iaaethaeaoaeueiue niaao Naaa?a, iieoaaoiiiiiia aiaiiia e?uei aeaeaeaiey,
e Naaa?iue aeueyin. Iinea aai oaeenoaa a 2001 ?oeiaiaenoai aii?oaeaiiuie
io?yaeaie ia?oee e niaaoii oaeoe/anee ia?aoei e Iooaiiaaeo Eanaio
Oaoeio, THiono Eaioie e ae-?o Aaaeoeea Aaaeoeea, eioi?ua caiyee
eeth/aaua iinou a iiaii aoaaineii i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ia ianoao
ooaa?aeeeanue aeanoue ecaanoiuo iieaauo eiiaiaee?ia, i?eiueaaoeo e
“Aeaeaieao-e eneaie”: aaia?aea Iooaiiaaea Aooa a Maca?e-Oa?eoa, “yie?a
thai-caiaaea Aoaaienoaia” Eniaee Oaia a Aa?aoa e ae?.

Iaeiaei oneeaiea iiceoeee iaoeeiiaeenoia, iiaeaea?aeeaaaoeo
i?aia?aciaaiey, ia/aoua Ea?caai, oaea a 2002 i?eaaee e ?aneieo ia?oee ia
“Iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” e “Aeaeaieao-e eneaie” ai aeaaa
n ?aaaaie. Ii aunooiee n i?aaeiae i?ia?aiiie i?aa?auaiey Aoaaienoaia a
eneaineia ainoaea?noai, i?ioea naeoey?ecia, ca nei?aeoee auaiae
eiino?aiiuo aiene e nicaeaiea iauanoaa, iniiaaiiiai ia i?eioeeiao
“eneaineie ni?aaaaeeeainoe”. Ii ioeaieai, a 2004 “Aeaeaieao-e eneaie”
ian/eouaaea 50 oun. /eaiia. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 2005 noi?iiieee
EIA (?aaaaie) iieo/eee 10 iano. Eeaea? – Aa?oaioaeaeei ?aaaaie –
ecaanoiue oaieia e auaoee i?ioanni? Eaaoeueneiai oieaa?neoaoa, a
1992–1996 aue i?aceaeaioii Aoaaienoaia.

“I?aaiecaoeey eneaineiai i?ecuaa Aoaaienoaia” (IEIA) – e?aeia
eiina?aaoeaiay, naeaoenoneay iieeoe/aneay ia?oey, iniiaaiiay a ia?oa
1982 eae “Eneaineee nithc ca inaiaiaeaeaiey Aoaaienoaia” (ENIA). Aei
1992 aoiaeeea a ninoaa Eneaineiai nithca iiaeaeaoaaeia Aoaaienoaia e,
iieo/ay nouanoaaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo ec Naoaeianeie A?aaee e no?ai
Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, iaeaieaa aeoeaii ianaaeaeaea a Aoaaienoaia eaeae
“aaooaaecia”. Iinea naa?aeaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa Iaaeaeeaoeeu i?aaiecaoeey
aoiaeeea a i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aaaaie e, ?aniieaaay nianoaaiiuie
aii?oaeaiiuie oi?ie?iaaieyie, o/anoaiaaea a a?aaeaeaineie aieia, iieo/ea
ecaanoiinoue i?aneaaeiaaieyie oeeoneiai ianaeaiey. A ethia 1997 aioea a
Naaa?iue aeueyin, a n 2002 aiiaue onoaiiaeea eiio?ieue iaae i?iaeioeeae
Iaaiai e /anoueth Oinoa. N oi/ee c?aiey IEIA, aeey Aoaaienoaia, aaea
aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey ninoaaeytho ionoeueiaia, iiaeoiaeeo oieueei
no?ie, iniiaaiiue ia i?eioeeiao eneaia. Iia aunooiaao ca neeueiia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, eneaiecaoeeth anao noi?ii aeecie
iauanoaa, ?acaeoea ?aeeaeiciuo oeie e i?ioea i?iaeieaeaiey aia?eeaineiai
aiaiiiai i?enoonoaey a no?aia. Iaeaieueoei aeeyieai ia?oey iieuecoaony a
i?iaeioeeyo Iaaiai e Eoia?, iie?aynue, i?aaeaea anaai, ia iooooineea
ieaiaia aecaaece, iaiaae e aecaae?ai. Ii ioeaieai, ian/eouaaao ie. 18
oun. /ae. Ia auai?ao a 2005 iieo/eea 7 iaiaeaoia a ia?eaiaioa.
I?aaenaaeaoaeue – Aaaeo??anoe Naeyo – iooooi, auaoee i?ioanni?
Eaaoeueneiai oieaa?neoaoa, n 1989 ii 1992 aue i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii a
yiea?aioneii i?aaeoaeuenoaa iiaeaeaoaaeia.

Ia?oey “Iiaue Aoaaienoai” (IIA) – eiina?aaoeaiay eneaienoneay ia?oey,
aicieeoay a ?acoeueoaoa ?aciiaeanee a Iaoeeiiaeueiii aeaeaeaiee
Aoaaienoaia e Iaaethaeaoaeueiii niaaoa Naaa?a (o?aeoeee oaeoiai a 2001
Aoiaae Oaoa Ianoaea). IIA aunooiaao n iiceoeee o.i. “iiaiai Aoaaienoaia”
– aeieo?eiu, eioi?ay iiae/a?eeaaao eneaineee oa?aeoa? no?aiu e aa
iieeoe/aneoth iacaaeneiinoue, a oaeaea i?aaeeaaaao ainnoaiiaeaiea aa
aioo?aiiae noaaeeueiinoe e aaciianiinoe. A iaeanoe aiaoiae iieeoeee IIA
aunooiaao ca auaiae eiino?aiiuo aiene n oa??eoi?ee no?aiu e “iieeoeeo
iai?eniaaeeiaiey e iieeoe/aneei eee aiaiiui aeieai”. Ia i?aceaeaioneeo
auai?ao a 2004 eaiaeeaeao IIA Iioaiiaae THion Eaioie iieo/ee 16,3%
aieinia ecae?aoaeae. Ia?oey caaiaaaea 25 iano a ia?eaiaioa. Eeaea? IIA –
Eaioie (oaaeaeee, a ia?aciaaiiii iinea naa?aeaiey ?aaeeia “Oaeeaai”
a?aiaiiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa caieiae iino ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae, a a
ia?aoiaeiii – iino ieieno?a ia?aciaaiey e i?inaauaiey).

Iaeaieueoei aeeyieai a eneaienoneii eaaa?a iieuecoaony aeie ia?oee iiae
iauei iacaaieai “O?iio iaoeeiiaeueiiai acaeiiiiieiaiey” (OIA),
noi?ie?iaaiiue a ai?aea 2005 Eaioie e ?yaeii a?oiie?iaie auaoeo
iiaeaeaoaaeia. Aeie aunooiaao ca eciaiaiea eiinoeoooeee, ia?aoiae e
ia?eaiaioneie oi?ia i?aaeaiey, o/?aaeaeaiea iinoa i?aiuea?-ieieno?a,
i?yiua auai?u iy?ia e aoaa?iaoi?ia i?iaeioeee, a oaeaea nicaeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueii iacaaeneiie noaeaaiie aeanoe. Iiiaea ec ia?oee,
aoiaeyueo a OIA, ?acaeaeytho iianaiea, /oi Aoaaienoai i?e Ka?caa niiaa
noaiao ainoaea?noaii, a eioi?ii o aeanoe iaoiaeyony eneeth/eoaeueii
iooooiu. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 2005 ia?oee, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa OIA,
iieo/eee ie. 50 iano.

Oeeoneea ia?oee. Iaeiei ec ia?auo aeaeaeaiee, aunooiaaoeo ca nicaeaiea
eneaineiai ainoaea?noaa ii e?aineiio ia?acoeo, auei “Eneaineia
aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” (EAeA). Iii auei ia?aciaaii a 1979 ayoieeie
Iooaiiaaeii Anaoii Iionaie, nua?aei caiaoioth ?ieue ai a?aiy ainnoaiey a
Eaaoea a oaa?aea 1980. Iinea i?eoiaea e aeanoe a 1992 eneaienoia EAeA
aoiaeeei a i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aaaaie, n?aaeaynue ia aai noi?iia i?ioea
“Oacaa aaoaeao” e oaeeaia. Iinea iaaeaiey ?aaeeia oaeeaia EAeA
i?eniaaeeieeinue e i?aaeoaeuenoao O.Ea?cay, ii ec-ca ai?ueau ca
eeaea?noai anei?a ?aneieieinue ia ianeieueei o?aeoeee: “Eneaineia
ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” (Naeeae Oonaei Aiaa?e), “Eneaineia
aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” (Iioaiiaae Aee Aeaeaaeae) e “Eneaineia
aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” (Iooaiiaae Anao Iionaie). Iaeaieaa
i?ii?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie ec anao yoeo a?oii n/eoaaony “Eneaineia ia?iaeiia
aeaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” (EIAeA), iie?athuaany ia iiaeaea?aeeo oeeoneie
iaueiu Eaaoea. Aai eeaea? Naeeae Oonaei Aiaa?e aei 2005 caieiae iino
ieieno?a naeueneiai oicyenoaa, iinea iiaaaeu Ea?cay ia i?aceaeaioneeo
auai?ao aue iacia/ai aoaa?iaoi?ii Eaaoeueneie i?iaeioeee, a a ethia 2005
noae aoaa?iaoi?ii i?iaeioeee Aa?ao. Ia auai?ao a ia?eaiaio EIAeA aianoa
n “Ia?oeae eneaineiai aaeeinoaa Aoaaienoaia” iieo/eea 5 iaiaeaoia.

“Ia?oey eneaineiai aaeeinoaa Aoaaienoaia” (“Oacaa aaoaeao”, IEAA) –
oia?aiiay oeeoneay ia?oey oaca?aeneeo iaoeeiiaeenoia. I?aaiieoea
iaeiieiaiiie ia?oee, eioi?ay auea nicaeaia a 1988 i?e iiaeaea?aeea E?aia
iooai neeyiey ainueie oeeoneeo iieeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie, aace?iaaaoeony
a 1970–1980-a a E?aia e o/anoaiaaaoeo a aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueaa i?ioea
eaaoeueneiai ?aaeeia. Iinea naa?aeaiey Iaaeaeeaoeeu a 1992 ia?oey auea
aeeth/aia a i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aaaaie, ii anei?a ia?aoea a iiiiceoeeth. A
1993 iia ?aneieieanue ia o?aeoeee, iaeia ec eioi?uo ai aeaaa n I.Aeaa?e
aace?iaaeanue a Eaaoea e iiaeaea?aeeaaea ?aaaaie, a ae?oaay, eioi?oth
aicaeaaeye Aee Iaca?e, ia?aciaaea aeueyin n Aeinooiii e Oaeiaouey?ii.
Aee Iaca?e o?aaiaae ia?aoiaea e oaaea?aoeaiiio ainoaea?noaaiiiio
ono?ienoao e nicaeaiey eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a eioi?ii oeeou
iieo/eee au ia iaiaa 25% iano, ii iaeiia?aiaiii iuoaeny aanoe ia?aaiai?u
e n oaeeaaie. Iinea oiai, eae a ia?oa 1995 Aee Maca?e aue noaa/ai e oaeo
oaeeaaie, iniiaioth oeeoneoth a?oiie?iaeo aicaeaaeee Aaaeoe Ea?ei Oaeeee
(a Aaieaia) e O.M.Iioaeae (a Iaca?e-Oa?eoa). Oieueei a yiaa?a 1996
Oaaa?aio oaeaeinue aiiaue iauaaeeieoue “Oacaa aaoaeao”, aeiaeaoenue io
aai ?oeiaiaenoaa niaeaoaiey n ?aaaaie e aoiaeaeaiey a aai
i?aaeoaeuenoai. Iinea naa?aeaiey ?aaeeia oaeeaia eeaea?u “Oacaa aaoaeao”
auee aeeth/aiu a ninoaa A?aiaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee Aoaaienoaia.

Ianiio?y ia ?aneieu, “Oacaa aaoaeao” ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony aeinoaoi/ii
aeeyoaeueiie ia?oeae oaca?aeneie iaueiu, ana aieueoa i?eia?aoathuae aeae
iaoeeiiaeueiiai, a ia ?aeeaeiciiai aeaeaeaiey. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao
a 2005 “Ia?oey eneaineiai aaeeinoaa” e “Eneaineia ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea
Aoaaienoaia” aianoa iieo/eee 5 iano a Ia?iaeiii niaaoa. Aaia?aeueiue
nae?aoa?ue – Iioaiiaae Ea?ei Oaeeee (oaca?aaoe, ieieno? yeiiiieee
Aoaaienoaia a 1993–1995; aeoea-i?aceaeaio A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
2001 e aoi?ie aeoea-i?aceaeaio a iuiaoiai eaaeiaoa, noi?ie?iaaiiii a
aeaeaa?a 2004).

“Ia?oey eneaineiai aaeeinoaa ia?iaea Aoaaienoaia” (IEAIA) – oia?aiiay
o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoneay ia?oey, nicaeaiiay a ?acoeueoaoa ?aneiea ia?oee
“Oacae aaoaeao”. Aeaeaao noaaeo ia e?eoeeo ?aaeeia Ea?cay, a /anoiinoe,
iaaeiyy aai a iiaeaaeaiee iiiiceoeee e onoaiiaeaiee a no?aia
aaoi?eoa?iiai ?aaeeia. Iieuecoaony iiaeaea?aeeie oaca?aeneie iaueiu, ia
i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ao a 2004 eeaea? ia?oee Oaaeaee Iioaiiaae Iioaeae
iieo/e 11,7% aieinia ecae?aoaeae. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 2005 a.
IEAIA, aoiaeyuay a aeie Eaioie, iieo/eea 18 iano. Eeaea? – Iioaeae
(aeoea-i?aceaeaio Aoaaienoaia a aeaeaa?a 2001 – ethia 2002, ieieno?
ieaie?iaaiey ai A?aiaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee aei ia?oa 2004).

“Ia?oey iaoeeiiaeueiiai e eneaineiai aaeeinoaa Aoaaienoaia” (IIEAA) –
i?aeiouanoaaiii oeeoneay iieeoe/aneay ia?oey, aicieeoay a 1998 ia aaca
o?aeoeee “Oacaa aaoaeao”. Eieoeeaoi?ii aa nicaeaiey noae
Oiaeaeao-oeue-Eneai Naeaae Iioaiiaae Aeaa?e, eucueauo, iieo/eaoee
?aeeaeiciia ia?aciaaiea a E?aia. I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?anu iaoaca?aeneeo
iauei oeeoia. Aei 1996 a?oiia Aeaa?e auea oanii naycaia n ?aaeeiii
?aaaaie, ii a iiya?a 1998 ia?aoea aianoa ni naiei eeaea?ii ia noi?iio
“Oaeeaai”. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy IIEAA iaoiaeeony a iiiiceoeee e aoiaeeo a
ninoaa “O?iioa iaoeeiiaeueiiai acaeiiiiieiaiey”.

A ia?eaiaioa oaeaea i?aaenoaaeaiu oeeoneay “Ia?oey iaoeeiiaeueiie
aeanoe” (eeaea? Naeaae Ionoaoa Eacaie, auaoee /eai Naaa?iiai aeueyina,
ieieno? oi?aiaee a i?aaeoaeuenoaa n 2002), eioi?ay ioeieieanue io
“Ia?oee eneaineiai aaeeinoaa”.

A iaeioi?uo iaeanoyo no?aiu inoaaony aeoeaiui eneaineia
ooiaeaiaioaeenoneia aeaeaeaiea “Oaeeaai”.

O?aaiaioaoeey cao?iioea ia oieueei eneaienoia, ii e eaaa?ue eaauo. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iie i?aaenoaaeaiu inoaoeaie IAeIA, ?IOA e ianeieueeeo
iaienoneeo a?oii, eioi?ua oae eee eia/a iaoiaeyony a iiiiceoeee e
aeaenoaothuae aeanoe, oioy iayaii ieacuaatho ae iiaeaea?aeeo, iianaynue
aica?auaiey ooiaeaiaioaeenoia.

“Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia” (IAeIA) auea nicaeaia a
yiaa?a 1965 e i?eaea?aeeaaeanue ia?enenonei-eaieineie eaeaieiaee, ii a
1967 ?acaeaeeeanue ia niia?ie/aaoea o?aeoeee “Oaeuee” (“Ia?iae”) e
“Ia?/ai” (“Ciaiy”). Iicaea io ieo ioeieieenue e ae?oaea o?aeoeee:
“?aaiethoeeiiiay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaeyueony Aoaaienoaia” (?IOA, 1968),
“O?oaeiaie ia?iae” (1969), “?aaiethoeeiiiia iauanoai o?oaeyueony
Aoaaienoaia” (?iaOA, 1971) e “A?oiia o?oaea” (1972). A ia?oa 1977
“Oaeuee” e “Ia?/ai” aiiaue oi?iaeueii iauaaeeieeenue, iaeiaei iaio?ac
ioeacaeenue aanoe ia?aaiai?u n ae?oaeie a?oiiaie e oaeoe/anee ?aneie ia
?aaeeeaeueii iano?iaiiuo oaeueeenoia e ioiineoaeueii oia?aiiuo
ia?/aienoia oae e ia aue i?aiaeieai. Neacaeenue yoie/aneay e
nioeeaeueiay iaiaeii?iaeiinoue: “Oaeuee” eiaea i?i/iua iiceoeee a
iooooycu/iuo ai?iuo ?aeiiao ainoi/iiai Aoaaienoaia, a “Ia?/ai” – n?aaee
oa?neycu/iie ai?iaeneie eioaeeeaaioeee.

Iinea oiai eae a 1978 a. IAeIA i?eoea e aeanoe, oaeueeenou Oa?aee e Aiei
ia/aee /enoeo ia?oeeiie iiiiceoeee. Iinea aaiaea niaaoneeo aiene a
Aoaaienoai e oaeenoaa Aieia a aeaeaa?a 1979 iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue, e e
aeanoe i?eoee A.Ea?iaeue e I.Iaaeaeeaoeea, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea e
ia?/aienoai. A 1980 a IAeIA aa?ioeanue “A?oiia o?oaea”, a n ia/aeii
iieeoeee iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?eie?aiey e ia?oee i?eniaaeeieeenue
“?aaiethoeeiiiia iauanoai o?oaeyueony Aoaaienoaia” (?IaOA),
“I?aaiecaoeey aaaiaa?aea o?oaeyueony Aoaaienoaia” (IAOA) e “Aaaiaa?aeiay
i?aaiecaoeey ?aai/eo Aoaaienoaia” (AI?A). A 1988 a. IAeIA ian/eouaaea
205 oun. /eaiia e iie?aeanue ia aieaa ianniaoth i?aaiecaoeeth
“Iaoeeiiaeueiue o?iio” (IO), eioi?ay auea nicaeaia a ethia 1981 e a
aeaeaa?a 1990 ia?aeiaiiaaia ai “O?iio ie?a Aoaaienoaia”. Aoiaeeaoea a
iaai iaoeeiiaeueiua e ieaiaiiua iauaaeeiaiey iiaeaea?aeeaaee
i?aaeoaeuenoai, a aeiieie?othuae neeie auea IAeIA. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo
auai?ao a ai?aea 1988 IAeIA iieo/eea 184 ec 234 iano a iaeaoa
i?aaenoaaeoaeae. A ethia 1990 a onoaa e i?ia?aiio IAeIA auee aianaiu
iiaua eciaiaiey, a naia ia?oey ia?aeiaiiaaia a “Ia?oeth Ioa/anoaa”
(“Aaoai”). N i?eoiaeii e aeanoe eneaienoia “Aaoai” auea cai?auaia, a aa
eiouanoai eiioeneiaaii. A yoio ia?eiae iiiaea auaoea ia?/aienou,
iniaaiii ec /enea noi?iiieeia Ea?iaey, i?eniaaeeieeenue e “Aeaeoiaeo”
Aeinooia eee “Aeaeaieao-e eneaie” Aoiaae Oaoa Ianoaea, a oaeueeenou e
ia?/aienou, iiaeaea?aeeaaaoea Iaaeaeeaoeeo, iioee ia nithc n iooooineeie
a?oiie?iaeaie, a o./. n o?aeoeeyie “Eneaineie ia?oee Aoaaienoaia”.

?aiueoa anao, e na?aae. 1990-o, ?ai?aaieciaaee naie ?yaeu ia?/aienou,
ia?aciaaa “Aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ia?oeth ioa/anoaa Aoaaienoaia” (AeIIA).
ssaeyynue ioeoeeaeueiie i?aaiieoeae IAeIA, ia?oey ioaa?aaao
ia?eneci-eaieieci, i?eciaao ?ieue eneaia a aeecie aoaaineiai iauanoaa,
ii a oi aea a?aiy aunooiaao ca nicaeaiea naaoneiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
ainoaea?noaa e i?iaeieaeaao i?ecuaaoue e iaoeeiiaeueiiio i?eie?aieth. Ia
aieaa eaauo iiceoeeyo noieo “Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey
Aoaaienoaia”, auaeaeeaoayny ec AeIIA. Ia?oeth aicaeaaeyao Noeaeiai Eaae,
auaoee ieieno? eoeueoo?u, n?aaee aa noi?iiieeia iiiai e ae?oaeo aeaeiuo
aeayoaeae i?aaeiaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eae, iai?eia?, Noeoai Aee Eeooiaiae
– i?aiuea?-ieieno? a 1981–1988 e 1989–1990. Iicaea anao aicieeea
“Aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia” (AeIA) ai aeaaa n Aaaeoe
?aiaeaeaa?ii Eaae?ii, auaoei i?aceaeaioii Aeaaeaiee iaoe Aoaaienoaia e
niaaoieeii i?aceaeaioa Iaaeaeeaoeeu.

Ia iniiaa o?aeoeee “Oaeuee” a 2003 auea nicaeaia “Iauaaeeiaiiay
iaoeeiiaeueiay ia?oey” (III), eioi?ay oyaioaao e eaeayi caiaaeiie
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoee. III aicaeaaeyao Io?oe Oae Oeoie, auaoee aaia?ae e
aoaa?iaoi? Eaiaeaaa?a. Iiieii yoiai aeaenoaotho e ae?oaea a?oiiu, a
eioi?uo aeiieie?otho auaoea oaeueeenou: “Aeaeaeaiea ca ie? a
Aoaaienoaia” (AeIA), nicaeaiiia a na?aae. 1994 aaia?aeii Oao Iaaac
Oaiaeai, auaoei ia/aeueieeii aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa a 1986–1988 e ieieno?ii
iai?iiu a 1988–1990; “Iaoeeiiaeueiay ia?oey” (II) iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
Aaaeoe ?aoeaea A?ueyia, ieieno?a thnoeoeee a 1978–1979 e caoai /eaia
?aaiethoeeiiiiai niaaoa i?e Aieia; “Ia?oey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaeeinoaa
Aoaaienoaia” (IIAA) ai aeaaa n Aaaeoe ?aoeaeii Aeaeaeeee, auaoei
ieieno?ii ia?aciaaiey e aeaeaiii oaeoeueoaoa naeueneiai oicyenoaa
Eaaoeueneiai oieaa?neoaoa i?e Aieia. Iineaaeiaaoaeyie “A?oiiu o?oaea”
(“Ai?oo–a ea?”), auaeaeeaoaeny ec o?aeoeee “Oaeuee” e iinea ?aniaaea
IAeIA ?aaioaaoae aioo?e IEAeA, a 2002 auei nicaeaii “Aeaeaeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiie nieeaea?iinoe”. Ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao a 2005
i?aaenoaaeoaee AeIA, AeIA, III e II aianoa caaiaaaee 6 iano e oaeei
ia?acii ninoaaeee ia?eaiaioneoth eaaoth iiiiceoeeth.

Ec i?aaeieo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo eaauo i?aaiecaoeee auaeaeyaony
“?aaiethoeeiiiay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaeyueony Aoaaienoaia” (?IOA). Iia auea
nicaeaia a 1968 auaoeie /eaiaie “Oaeuee”, ii i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieeanue
oieueei e 1977. Aa /eaiaie auee a iniiaiii oaaeaeeee, ocaaee e
oaca?aeoeu. ?IOA iaoiaeeeanue iiae aeeyieai iaiecia e ia?aiia/aeueii
iacuaaea naay ia?enenonei-eaieineie ia?oeae. A aa iieeoe/aneie ieaooi?ia
i?ei?eoaoiui anaaaea inoaaaeinue ?aoaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aii?ina a
eioa?anao iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa, iiyoiio i?aaiecaoeey auea oe?iei
ecaanoia iiae iacaaieai “Naoai-a iaeee” (“Iaoeeiiaeueiue aiao”). Eae e
iiiaea ae?oaea aoaaineea eaaua, ?IOA ia i?eiyea Ai?aeueneoth
?aaiethoeeth e iaaaoeaii ioianeanue e aaiaeo niaaoneeo aiene. Iia
nicaeaea ia naaa?a no?aiu aii?oaeaiiua io?yaeu (aei 2,5 oun. /ae.),
ai?iaoeany n eneaienoaie. Iicaea ?IOA auea eaaaeeciaaia, aoiaeeea a
i?aaeoaeuenoai a 1987 e a 1988–1989. Ia auai?ao a ia?eaiaio, eioi?ua
ninoiyeenue a ai?aea 1988, iia iieo/eea 7 iano e ia?aciaaea
ia?eaiaioneoth o?aeoeeth.

Iinea iaaeaiey ?aaeeia Iaaeaeeaoeeu aii?oaeaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey ?IOA
onoaiiaeee eiio?ieue iaae iaeioi?uie ?aeiiaie no?aiu, a eo
i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaaea auee i?aaenoaaeaiu a ?oeiaiaenoaa Iaoeeiiaeueiiai
eneaineiai aeaeaeaiey Aoaaienoaia. A ninoaaa Naaa?iiai aeueyina iie
o/anoaiaaee a ai?ueaa i?ioea oaeeaia, ii ?aciiaeaney n eneaienoaie auee
ianoieueei i/aaeaeiuie, /oi ?ac?ua ieacaeny iaecaaaeiui. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy eaeao ?ai?aaiecaoeey ia?oee. A 2002 iia ia?aciaaea aeie iiae
iacaaieai “Eaaoeueneia niaeaoaiea”, a eioi?ia aioee oaeaea “Aoeone
Ieeeyo” (“Ia?iaeiay iaoeey”, ioeie io “Aoaai ieeeyo”) e “Niaao ca
aeaiie?aoeth”. Eeaea? – Iaoaoaoeea Eooaie.

Iaeaieaa iai?eie?eiui e?ueii ?aaeeeaeueiie eaaie iiiiceoeee inoathony
iaienou. Iinea ?aneiea a eii. 1960-o – ia/. 1970-o ec iaienoneie “Oiaeae
aeaeaaeae”, a eioi?ie aeiieie?iaaee oaaeaeeee e oaca?aeoeu,
ia?aciaaeenue iiaua a?oiiu. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuie n?aaee ieo auee
“?aaiethoeeiiiay a?oiia ia?iaeia Aoaaienoaia” (ini. a 1973),
“I?aaiecaoeey ia?iaeiiai inaiaiaeaeaiey Aoaaienoaia” (NA?OA, 1975),
“I?aaiecaoeey ca inaiaiaeaeaiea ?aai/aai eeanna” (“Aoay?”, 1976),
“I?aaiecaoeey ca inaiaiaeaeaiea ia?iaea Aoaaienoaia” (NAIA, 1978) e
“?aaiethoeeiiiay i?aaiecaoeey enoeiiuo iao?eioia Aoaaienoaia” (NAAA).
Aei na?aae. 1980-o iie iaiaeiie?aoii iuoaeenue nicaeaoue aaeeioth
i?aaiecaoeeth, ii a eoiaa ieacaeenue ia a ninoiyiee iaeiia?aiaiii
i?ioeainoiyoue eneaienoneie iiiiceoeee e eaaoeueneiio i?aaeoaeuenoao.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue auaeaeythony o?e iniiaiua a?oiiu iaienoia,
aeaenoaothueo iaeaaaeueii: “I?aaiecaoeey ca inaiaiaeaeaiea ia?iaea
Aoaaienoaia” (NAMA), nicaeaiiay a 1978 Iaaeaeeaeii Eaeaeaie a
?acoeueoaoa neeyiey ?yaea eaauo a?oiie?iaie, a o./. ioeieiaoeony io
“?aaiethoeeiiiie a?oiiu ia?iaeia Aoaaienoaia”; “I?aaiecaoeey
inaiaiaeaeaiey Aoaaienoaia” (IIA), ia?aciaaiiay a 1973 Oaecii Aoiaaeii
eae “?aaiethoeeiiiay a?oiia ia?iaeia Aoaaienoaia”; “Eiiioienoe/aneay
(iaienoneay) ia?oey Aoaaienoaia”, nicaeaiiay a 2004 a ?acoeueoaoa
neeyiey “Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee Aoaaienoaia”, “I?aaiecaoeee ai?ueau ca
inaiaiaeaeaiea Aoaaienoaia” (“Iaeea?”) e “?aaiethoeeiiiiai aaeeinoaa
?aai/eo Aoaaienoaia”. Ia iuiaoiai yoaia iie aunooiatho ca iiaoth
aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth eae i?ieia e nioeeaeenoe/aneie,
i?ecuaatho e ia/aeo iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie eee ?aaiethoeeiiiie
iaoeeiiaeueiie aieiu nii?ioeaeaiey i?ioea aia?eeaineiai eiia?eaeecia e
aai nithcieeia.

YEIIIIEEA

A ?acoeueoaoa iai?ae?auathueony ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa 20 eao aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee yeiiiieea Aoaaienoaia i?eoea a iieiue oiaaeie. I?eia?ii
/aoaa?oue ianaeaiey iieeioea no?aio, aei neo ii? ia oa??eoi?ee Iaeenoaia
inoathony ie. 1,4 iei., a ia oa??eoi?ee E?aia – 1,2 iei. aoaaineeo
aaaeaioeaa. ?ac?ooaiu iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey, ia?ooaiu eae aiaoiea oi?aiaua
nayce, oae e niiauaiea iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie /anoyie no?aiu.

Iinea 20 eao aieiu oaeoe/anee ana io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe auee ?ac?ooaiu:
ec 366 i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e 1999 ?aaioaee oieueei 6 i?aaei?eyoee.
A 1998 any yeiiiieea no?aiu, e?iia naeueneiai oicyenoaa, caaenaea io
o?aiceoiie oi?aiaee. No?ieoaeuenoai aacii?iaiaea ec Oo?eiaiee /a?ac
oa??eoi?eth caiaaeiiai Aoaaienoaia a Iaeenoai a eiioea 1998 auei
caii?iaeaii ec-ca iaonoie/eaie iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee. A 2003 ec 165
e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ?aaioaee eeoue 6. E ia/. 2000-o any
yeiiiieea no?aiu, e?iia naeueneiai oicyenoaa, caaenaea io o?aiceoiie, a
iniiaiii eiio?aaaiaeiie oi?aiaee. Ii aeaiiui ia 2005, a no?aia iinoiyiii
?aaioatho 70 oun. a?aaeaeai ninaaeiaai Iaeenoaia, a oaeaea ?aai/ea ec
Oo?oeee, E?aia e Eeoay. Eiino?aiiua ?aai/ea a iniiaiii caiyou a noa?a
no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Naeueneia oicyenoai. Iniiao yeiiiieee Aoaaienoaia o?aaeeoeeiiii
ninoaaeyao naeueneia oicyenoai. Aeiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a AAI ninoaaeyao 38% (2005). Ieiuaaeue iaoioiuo ieiuaaeae
ninoaaeyao 12,3% anao i?eaiaeiuo aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey caiaeue. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiae iinaaaie ca?iiauo
iaoiaeyony 2,7 iei. aa caiee, ec ieo 1,2 iei. aa eneonnoaaiii i?ioaaony.
Aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony nenoaia a?ueia, ieoathueony io ?ae e iiaecaiiuo
enoi/ieeia. E?iia oiai, eiathony iiaecaiiua aiaeinai?iua aaea?ae n
eieiaeoeaie (ey?ecu). Aiaiiua aeaenoaey iaianee aieueoie oua?a
e??eaaoeeiiiui nii?oaeaieyi, a aicaeaeuaaiea iieae noaei iianiui
caiyoeai ec-ca iei, ?annayiiuo a naeueneie ianoiinoe. Aoeueoay /anoue
ia?aaaouaaaiuo caiaeue i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeeei e?anoueyineei oicyenoaai.
Ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey i?eiaiythony ?aaeei.

A caaeneiinoe io iniaaiiinoae ?aeueaoa, eeeiaoa, ii/a e auniou ianoiinoe
aaaeaony iiaeai? canaaaaiuo eoeueoo?. Ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u au?aueaathony
ia oa??eoi?eyo aei 2700 i iaae o.i. N oaaee/aieai auniou ianoiinoe
aaaeouay ?ieue ia?aoiaeeo io ?ena e eoeo?oca, caoai e ioaieoea e aua
auoa e y/iaith. Iaeaieaa i?iaeoeoeaiua caiee iaoiaeyony ia ?aaieiao
naaa?iaa Aeiaeoeooa, aaea i?eoiee Aioaea?uee ia?acotho oe?ieea e
ieiaei?iaeiua aeieeiu, a aeieeiao ?ae Eaaoe, Eiaa?, Na?iae e Eaaiai, a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe no?aiu – ia iaai?uea Oaca?aaeaeao, a oaeaea a
aeieeiao ?ae Aa?e?oae e Aeeueiaiae. Aieaa 87% iaoioiuo caiaeue a
Aoaaienoaia ioaiaeyo i?aeiouanoaaiii iiae ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u – ioaieoeo
(60%), eoeo?oco, y/iaiue e ?en. A 2003 a Aoaaienoaia auei i?iecaaaeaii
3,6 iei. o ca?iiauo ia ieiuaaee 2,2 iei. aa, a o. /. ioaieoeu – 2,7 iei.
o, y/iaiy – 350 oun. o, eoeo?ocu – 300 oun. o, ?ena – 260 oun. o. N?aaee
ae?oaeo aicaeaeuaaaiuo eoeueoo? – naoa?iay naaeea, oeii/aoiee, ianee/iua
e naoa?iue o?inoiee. A naaeao au?aueaatho anaaiciiaeiua ieiaeiaua –
aa?eeinu, ia?neee, yaeiee, a?ooe, neeau, aeoith, a?aiaou e oeeo?oniaua,
ia iai?iaeao – ea?oioaeue, iaiue. Eoeueoeae?othony oaeaea ianeieueei
ni?oia aeiia?aaea e aeuie, ieiaeaeue e a?aoeeee i?ao. O?aaeeoeeiiii
yenii?oe?othony naaaeea e nooea o?oeou, ecthi e i?aoe.

Aiaiiua aeanoaey iaianee ia?iiiue oua?a caieaaeaeeth Aoaaienoaia. Ii
aeaiiui III, a 1991 ieiuaaee, caiyoua iiae naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie
eoeueoo?aie, oiaiueoeeenue ia 16%. Iauee nai? o?iaeay ioeaieaaeny a 45%
io i?aaeiaai, aeiaiaiiiai o?iaiy 1978, i?e/ai ii iaeioi?ui eoeueoo?ai ii
ia i?aauoae 30% io iaai. A oeaeii aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey naeueneiai
oicyenoaa nie?aoeeanue ia 27%. A 1980–2000-a aaaeouae oiaa?iie
eoeueoo?ie noae iieeiue iae, e Aoaaienoai i?aa?aoeeny a aeaaiiai
ie?iaiai iinoaaueea iieoia (ii i?eia?iui ioeaieai, a 2004 aai
i?iecaaaeaii 4,2 oun. o, /oi ninoaaeei 87% aai ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa).
Aeioiaeu io ia?eiaeciana ninoaaeytho 2,8 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA – ie. 60%
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Aeaaiua oeaio?u i?iecaiaenoaa iieeiiai iaea –
i?iaeioeee Eaiaeaaa?, Aeeueiaiae, Iaiaa?oa?, Aaaeaooai. Ia?eioeee ec
Aoaaienoaia iaeaaaeueii ioi?aaeythony a Caiaaeioth Aa?iio e ?inneth.

AEeaioiiaiaenoai. Iaeaieaa ?acaeoi i?eaioe?oaiia ia i?iecaiaenoai iyna,
oa?noe e iieiea iaoeaaiaenoai. Ea?aeoeueneay ii?iaea iaaoe, eioi?ie
neaaeony naaa?iue Aoaaienoai, aeaao ciaiaieoua ea?aeoeaaua niooee.
Ianaeaiea aeaaeaao iaaueaie auaeaeuaaiey iaa/ueeo oeo?. O?aaeeoeeiiii
?acaiaeyo oaeaea eic, eioaaeae, e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio (ei?ia, aoeaieia e
yeia), aa?aethaeia e ineia. A ?acoeueoaoa aieiu iiaieiauea e?oiiiai
?iaaoiai neioa nie?aoeeinue ia 23%, iaaoe – ia 27%, aieia
(eniieuecothony aeey iaoiou) – ia 30%. A 1998 a no?aia ian/eouaaeinue 40
iei. aieia neioa (o.a. 1,6 ia 1 /ae.): iaaoe – 25 iei., eic – 9 iei.,
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa – 4,5 iei., ineia – 1 iei. e aa?aethaeia – 0,5
iei. Ia iniiaa i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ianaeaiea caieiaaony
oa?noii?yaeaieai e ?o/iui eia?ioea/anoaii.

Eaniia oicyenoai. Eana nin?aaeioi/aiu, i?aaeaea anaai, a ainoi/iuo
i?iaeioeeyo Aoaaienoaia (Io?enoai e Iaeoey). Oai ?anooo ninia,
aeiaeaeneee eaae?, aeoa, ianeeia e i?aoiieiaeiua aea?aauey. Ae?aaaneia
eniieuecoaony aeey ioiieaiey, a no?ieoaeuenoaa, aeey ecaioiaeaiey
iaaaee. Aoaaienoai eniuouaaao o?iie/aneoth iaoaaoeo ae?aaaneiu, ii oai
ia iaiaa, iia ia?aaeei eaeao ia yenii?o, iineieueeo aa i?iua nieaaeyoue
ii ?aeai a Iaeenoai, /ai aeinoaaeyoue a ae?oaea ?aeiiu no?aiu.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue. Aa aeiey a AAI ninoaaeyao 24% (2005). ?acaeaaaony
ai?iiaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. N iiiiuueth NNN? n 1967
?ac?aaaouaaeny e?oiiue aaciiiniue aannaei ia naaa?a no?aiu, a 1980-a
i?e?iaeiue aac a iauaia 1,8-2 ie?ae. eoa. i yenii?oe?iaaeny a Niaaoneee
Nithc. A 2001 auei aeiauoi 220 iei. eoa. i aaca. ?ann/eoaiiua caianu
aaca ia 2002 ninoaaeyee 49,98 ie?ae. eoa. i. A ie?iua aiaeu aaeanue
yenieoaoaoeey oaieueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo – aeaeaciie ?oaeu, aa?eoa, na?u, oaeueea, eaiaiiiai oaey,
niee, eaco?eoa, aeina, ecaanoiyea, ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae e na?aa?a.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiay io?aneue ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe – eaaeay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue (i?aaei?eyoey ii ia?ae/iie ia?aaioea e ia?a?aaioea
oeiiea, oa?noe e aaiceiiai eneonnoaaiiiai aieieia). Ia?aua
oeiieii/enoeoaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey auee iino?iaiu aua aei Aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu a Eoiaeoca, Iaca?e-Oa?eoa e Eaaoea. Oiaaea aea auee iino?iaiu o?e
oaenoeeueiua oaa?eee – a Aeaeaaaeue on-Na?aaeaea, Ioee-Ooi?e e
Aoeueaaoa?a. Oa?noyiua ecaeaeey auioneaeenue a Eaiaeaaa?a, iiae Eaaoeii
e a Aa?aoa. A 1960-o auee iino?iaiu o?eeioaaeiua e iaoaiua i?aaei?eyoey
a Eaaoea. Aoi?ay ii cia/eiinoe – ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, i?aaenoaaeaia
ianeiaieiuie oaa?eeaie, a oaeaea i?aaei?eyoeyie ii i/enoea, nooea e
oiaeiaea o?oeoia, caaiaeii ii i?iecaiaenoao nieia e o?oeoiauo eiina?aia,
caaiaeaie ii ecaioiaeaieth ieuaaiai eueaea, naoa?iui caaiaeii. A no?aia
anoue oaeaea ianeieueei aiai, yeaaaoi?ia, iaeueieoe e oeaaieiiaeiao.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue no?ieiaoa?eaeia i?aaenoaaeaia aeaoiy oeaiaioiuie
caaiaeaie, aeiiino?ieoaeueiui eiiaeiaoii e anoaeueoiaaoiiiui caaiaeii a
Eaaoea. I?aeoe/anee aie?oa anao ai?iaeia aeaenoaotho eonoa?iua ee?ie/iua
caaiaeu. Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaia aeiaieueii e?oiiui
caaiaeii oeie/aneeo (acioiuo) oaeia?aiee a Iaca?e-Oa?eoa iiuiinoueth
120–130 oun. o ea?aaieaea a aiae. A e?oiiuo ai?iaeao ?aaioatho
iaaieueoea /anoiua i?aaei?eyoey ii i?iecaiaenoao e?anie, ieanoeeiauo
ecaeaeee, ii?ieiia, eaea?noa e yaeioeieeaoia.

?acaeoi eonoa?iia i?iecaiaenoai, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao caiyoinoue
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ianaeaiey. Iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea eonoa?iiai i?iiunea
– eia?ioea/anoai (a Eaaoea e ia naaa?a no?aiu), naycaiiia n aiaoiei
?uieii. E?iia yoiai, eonoa?iua i?iiuneu iaania/eaatho i?iecaiaenoai
iaoaeeiecaeaeee, iioea iaeaaeaeu, oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo e oa?noyiuo oeaiae,
i?iecaiaenoai aii/a?iuo ecaeaeee, ?aiiio aaoiiiaeeae e aaeineiaaeia,
auoiaie oaoieee. ?acaeou oaeaea eocia/iia e thaaee?iia ?aianea, auaeaeea
eiae, iioea iaoeia, ieaoaiea ei?cei, auia/ea oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee.

Yia?aaoeea. A 2003 a no?aia auei i?iecaaaeaii 905 iei. eAo//. Ie. 58%
i?iecaiaeeiie a no?aia yeaeo?iyia?aee au?aaaouaaaony ia AYN, ie. 37% –
ia oaieiyeaeo?inoaioeeyo e iaiiiaei aieaa 4% – ia aeecaeueiuo
onoaiiaeao. Anaai a Aoaaienoaia ian/eouaaaony nauoa 100 yeaeo?inoaioeee.
E?oiiaeoea ec ieo: AYN Iaaeo – 100 oun. eAo, AYN Iaoeia? – 66 oun. eAo,
AYN Eaaeaeaee – 33 oun. eAo, AYN Na?iae – 22 oun. eAo, OYN a
Iaca?e-Oa?eoa – 48 oun. eAo, OYN a Eaaoea – 120 oun. eAo.

A Aoaaienoaia i?ieiaeaiu aeaa aacii?iaiaea: ec Oo?eiaiee a Oeiaeaiae e
ec Ocaaeenoaia a Aaa?ai. Eo i?ioyaeaiiinoue ninoaaeyao 387 ei, ii a
iineaaeiea aiaeu iie i?aeoe/anee ia eniieueciaaeenue. I?iaeo
no?ieoaeuenoaa aacii?iaiaea ec Oo?eiaiee /a?ac oa??eoi?eth caiaaeiiai
Aoaaienoaia a Iaeenoai (e aeaeaa a Eiaeeth), eioi?ia ieaie?iaaeinue
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui eiini?oeeoiii (NOA, Naoaeianeay A?aaey, Oo?eiaiey,
Aoaaienoai, THaeiay Ei?ay, ?inney), a eii. 1998 aue caii?iaeai ec-ca
iaonoie/eaie iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iaeo
?aaieie?iaai, ia aai ?ac?aaioeo /anoue n?aaenoa auaeaeee Aceaoneee aaie
?acaeoey. Iauay noieiinoue i?iaeoa – 3,5 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA. I?iioneiay
iiuiinoue aacii?iaiaea – 90 iei. eoa. i aaca a aiae. N?ie no?ieoaeuenoaa
– 4 aiaea. I?aaeiieaaaaiia ia/aei no?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio – aeaeaa?ue 2005.
Aoaaienoai ieaie?oao iieo/aoue io o?aiceoa aaca 300 iei. aeiee. NOA a
aiae.

?oeiaiaenoai Aoaaienoaia iaia?aii oaeaea ainnoaiiaeoue
yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneoth nenoaio no?aiu. Iaia/aii no?ieoaeuenoai oeaeiai
?yaea yeaeo?inoaioeee ia ?aeao Eoia? e Eie/a, a oaeaea aicaaaeaiea
aacioo?aeiiie noaioeee a Oeae?aaia. Ia?iiiia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony
i?iaeoai yeaeo?eoeeaoeee naeueneeo ?aeiiia, aaea ieaie?oaony iino?ieoue
naoue iaaieueoeo aeecaeueiuo e aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee. Aiciaiiaeeenue
iinoaaee yeaeo?iyia?aee a naaa?iua ?aeiiu Aoaaienoaia ec Ocaaeenoaia,
Oaaeaeeeenoaia e Oo?eiaiee. Inoaeueiua ?aeiiu iaania/eaathony
yeaeo?iyia?aeae ca n/ao caeoiie yeaeo?e/anoaa o E?aia e Iaeenoaia.

O?ainii?o e naycue. Aei iaaeaaiaai i?ioeiai ea?aaaiu auee aaeeinoaaiiui
o?ainii?oii e niiniaii aeinoaaee a?ocia. Iaeioi?ua ieaiaia iieiinoueth
niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue ia aoaeaauo ia?aaiceao. Iaeaieaa eioaineaiia
aei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai aaeinue a 1950–1960-a i?e niaeaenoaee
Niaaoneiai Nithca e NOA, a 1964 niaaoneeie niaoeeaeenoaie aue iino?iai
ooiiaeue iiae ia?aaaeii Naeaia, naycuaathuee Naaa?iue e THaeiue
Aoaaienoai. Aneaaenoaea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee ninoiyiea yoeo aei?ia neeueii
oooaeoeeinue, a aei?iaeii-?aiiioiua ?aaiou ii/oe ia i?iaiaeeeenue. Ceiie
e aaniie iaeioi?ua aei?iae noaiiayony iai?iacaeeie. Ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao
aieueoeinoai aoaaioeaa ia?aaeaeaathony e ia?aaicyo a?ocu a iniiaiii ia
aa?aethaeao e ineao.

Iuia aaaeouoth ?ieue a ia?aaiceao ia aeaeueiea ?annoiyiey e a
ianeoaeeaaiee aiaoiae oi?aiaee ea?aao aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o. Iauay
i?ioyaeaiiinoue aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia – 34,79 oun. ei, ec ieo 8,2 oun.
ei eiatho oaa?aeia iie?uoea (2003). Aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aea
eieueoeaaay aaoiiaaeno?aeue, eioi?ay ia/eiaaony a Eaaoea, eaeao ia naaa?
/a?ac ooiiaeue ia ia?aaaea Naeaia aei Ooeueia, caoai iiai?a/eaaao ia
caiaae e Iaca?e-Oa?eoo, aeaeaa neaaeoao ia Iaeiaio e Aa?ao, iinea /aai
iai?aaeyaony e thai-ainoieo aei Eaiaeaaa?a e, iaeiiaoe, e naaa?i-ainoieo
ia Eaaoe. A 2004 caaa?oaia ?aeiino?oeoeey aaoiaei?iae Eaaoe-Eaiaeaaa?,
eioi?oth inouanoaeee NOA, ssiiiey e Ei?ay. A 2005 ia/aeanue i?ieeaaeea
aei?iae Eaaoe–Aaieai, eioi?ay nayaeao noieeoeo n o?oaeiiaeinooiiui
ai?iui ?aeiiii a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Aoaaienoaia. ?aeiino?oe?oaony
aaoio?anna Eaiaeaaa?–Nieiaieaeae ia aoaaii-iaeenoaineie a?aieoea.
Aeaaiua aei?iae no?aiu niaaeeiythony n o?ainii?oiie naoueth Iaeenoaia
/a?ac Oaeaa?neee i?ioiae e /a?ac ia?aaae Oiaeaeae. Ec Aa?aoa oinna
aaaeao a E?ai. Oiaa?u ec ?innee, oeaio?aeueiiaceaoneeo e aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai neaaeotho ii aeaeaciie aei?iaa aei ocaaenei-aoaaineie a?aieoeu a
Oa?iaca, e aeaeaa e iaeiiio ec /aou?ao ii?oia ia ?.Aioaea?uey. Ia?ai?aao
/a?ac ?aeo inouanoaeytho ii aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiio e aaoiiiaeeueiiio iinoo
a Oae?aoaia, a oaeaea ia ia?iiao e aa?aeao. A 2005 ia/aeinue
no?ieoaeuenoai aaoiiiaeeueiiai iinoa /a?ac ?.Iyiaeae.

A ia/. 2000-o ?ac?aaioai i?iaeo iiaeeeth/aiey Aoaaienoaia e
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio o?ainii?oiiio ei?eaei?o (IOE), eioi?ue aoaeao
niaeaenoaiaaoue i?aa?auaieth no?aiu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiue o?aiceoiue ocae
ia iooe iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiiioieeaoeee ec Aa?iiu a thaeioth e
thai-ainoi/ioth Aceth. A ?aieao yoiai i?iaeoa ieaie?oaony inouanoaeoue
no?ieoaeuenoai aaoiaei?ia Oaoeaio–Aa?ao–Aaiaea?–Aaaan (e?aineee ii?o a
Ia?neaeneii caeeaa) e Aeooaiaa–Eaaoe–Ea?a/e.

AEaeaciua aei?iae ia iieo/eee oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey, oioy i?iaeou eo
no?ieoaeuenoaa aicieeaee a Aoaaienoaia iinoiyiii. Iaeia ec ia?auo
aeaeaciuo aei?ia auea iino?iaia a 1920-a io Eaaoea aei Aea?oeue-Aiaia
(ie. 8 ei). Iicaea iia auea ?acia?aia. Ia naaiaeiy a no?aia i?ieiaeaii
eeoue 25 ei aeaeaciuo aei?ia (iaaeaeo Eooeie a Oo?eiaiee e Oi?aoiaee –
9,6 ei e Oa?iacii a Ocaaeenoaia e Oae?aoaiii – 15 ei). Iai?io aeaeaciie
aei?iae Oa?iac–Oae?aoii aeinoeaae 2,1 iei. o a aiae. A 2003
?oeiaiaeeoaee E?aia, Aoaaienoaia e Ocaaeenoaia iiaeienaee niaeaoaiea i
no?ieoaeuenoaa aeaeaciie aei?iae ec E?aia /a?ac Aoaaienoai aei
Ocaaeenoaia, eioi?ay i?ieaeao /a?ac Aa?ao e ae?oaea i?iaeioeee. Iaeiaei
?aaeecaoeey oaeeo i?iaeoia cao?oaeiyaony ionoonoaeai eiaanoeoeee e
ianoaaeeueiie ianoaiiaeie a no?aia.

A no?aia i/aiue iaei i?eaiaeiuo aeey noaeioiaenoaa ?ae, ca eneeth/aieai
Aioaea?uee, noaeioiaeiie ia i?ioyaeaiee 1400 ei. Ia iae auee iino?iaiu
ii?ou Eaeeo, Oae?aaaae e Oa?oai. ?aea Eaaoe noaeioiaeia ia i?ioyaeaiee
iaiiiaei aieaa 100 ei. Ia?aaicea anao a?ocia ii Aioaea?uea aei ia/.
1990-o inouanoaeyeinue noaeaie N?aaeiaaceaoneiai ia?ioiaenoaa
Ieienoa?noaa ii?neiai oeioa NNN? (a?ociiiaeuaiiinoueth aei 500 o).

Eiathony iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ay?iii?ou a Eaaoea e Eaiaeaaa?a e 47
ay?iae?iiia aeey ianeoaeeaaiey ianoiuo eeiee, i?e/ai oieueei 10 ec ieo n
oaa?aeui iie?uoeai. Aeaenoaotho iyoue aa?oieaoiuo ay?iae?iia. Iniiaiua
aaeaia?aaicee iaania/eaatho eiiiaiey “A?eaia Aoaai Ye?eaeic”, eioi?ay
niaa?oaao eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiua, oae e aioo?aiiea ?aenu. “A?eaia” auea
nicaeaia 27 yiaa?y 1955 e aeieaia a?aiy, ii ioeaieai yenia?oia,
ioiineeanue e /eneo aaaeoueo eiiiaiee ie?a. Aeaaioth eiieo?aioeeth
“A?eaia” ninoaaeyao aaeaeeiey “Eai Ye?” (“Eam air”), eioi?ay a 2003
ia/aea aioo?aiiea ?aenu, a oaia?ue niaa?oaao iieaou e a ae?oaea no?aiu.
Iieaou a Iineao, Eneaiaaaae, Oaaa?ai, Aeaee, Aeoaae, Noaiaoe e O?aieoo?o
inouanoaeythony aaeaeiiiaieae “A?eaia”.

A Eaaoea n iiiiuueth ssiiiee a 1978 aue nicaeai oeaio? oeaaoiiai
oaeaaeaeaiey. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaeei- e oaeaaauaiea aaaeaony ia ycueao
aea?e e ioooo. Ia?yaeo n ainoaea?noaaiiuie ?aaioatho /anoiua oaeaeaiaeu
– a Eaaoea e Oeaa?aaia. Oaeaoiiiay naoue ?acaeoa neaai: a 2005
ian/eouaaeinue 38,6 oun. aaiiaioia. A oi aea a?aiy auno?i ?anoao
eiee/anoai nioiauo e niooieeiauo oaeaoiiia. A Aoaaienoaia
ooieoeeiie?otho aeaa eiiiaiee iiaeeueiie nayce – /anoiay “?ioai” e
iieoainoaea?noaaiiay “Aoaaineay aani?iaiaeiay naycue”. *eneaiiinoue
aaiiaioia ia?aie e eiioeo 2005 aeinoeaea 1 iei. /ae., aoi?ie – 400 oun.
Ana aeoeee “?ioai” i?eiaaeeaaeao eiino?aiiui eiiiaieyi, a o./. 51% –
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio oiiaeo Aaa Oaia. 80% aeoeee “Aoaaineie aani?iaiaeiie
nayce” oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeao aia?eeaineie Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oaeaoiiiie
nenoaia (Iueth-Aeaea?ne). Inoaeueiua 20% – aoaaineiio i?aaeoaeuenoao.
“?ioai” iia?e?oao a 25 ai?iaeao no?aiu, “Aoaaineay aani?iaiaeiay naycue”
– a 15. ?anoao o?iaaiue iieueciaaiey naoueth Eioa?iao (a 2002 a no?aia
ian/eouaaeanue 1 oun. Eioa?iao-iieueciaaoaeae), eioi?ia i?e oaeeaao auei
cai?auaii anai, e?iia /eaiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. Aoaaienoai aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie eiae ia?aie/aiiua
oi?aiaua nayce n ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaie. I?e yoii iauai eiii?oa
iinoiyiii i?aauoae iauai yenii?oa. Iniiaiua noaouee yenii?oa –
nooio?oeou, eia?u, naaaeea o?oeou, oa?noue, oeiiie e ea?aeoeue. No?aia
auea auioaeaeaia eiii?oe?iaaoue i?iaeiaieuenoaea e oe?ieee niaeo?
i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia, aeeth/ay i?iiuoeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea, aaoiiiaeee,
iaooai?iaeoeou, oeaie, oiaa?u oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey. Ia i?ioyaeaiee
iiiaeo eao NNN? aue aeaaiui oi?aiaui ia?oia?ii Aoaaienoaia, yoa
oaiaeaioeey aua aieaa oneeeeanue a 1980-a.

A?aaeaeaineay aieia a Aoaaienoaia a 1990-a i?eaaea e ?aceiio nieaeaieth
iauaia e aeaoi?iaoeee no?oeoo?u aiaoiae oi?aiaee – aei 60% aiaoiaai
oiaa?iiai?ioa ninoaaeyea eiio?aaaiaea oiaa?ia, a iniiaiii ec Iaeenoaia,
E?aia e IAY, eioi?ua e yaeyeenue iniiaiuie oi?aiauie ia?oia?aie no?aiu.
Aieueoa iieiaeiu iauaia eiio?aaaiaeiie oi?aiaee ninoaaeyee ia?eioeee.

A aiaeu aieiu i?iecioei ?aceia nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, niioaaonoaaiii aic?inea caaeneiinoue
no?aiu io iinoaaie i?iaeiaieuenoaey ec-ca ?oaaaea. A Aoaaienoai
aeinoaaeyeenue ioaieoea, ?en, ?anoeoaeueiua ianea, naoa? e iiei/iua
i?iaeoeou. Iinea ii?aaeaiey oaeeaia ia/aeny auno?ue ?ino aiaoiae
oi?aiaee Aoaaienoaia. A 2004/2005 aoaaineee yenii?o (aeeth/ay ?ayenii?o)
ninoaaee 2,4 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA, eiii?o – 4,7 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA. I?e yoii
iiiaieeaoo?a aoaaineiai yenii?oa i?aeoe/anee ia eciaieeanue. A oi aea
a?aiy ianeieueei ?anoe?eeny anni?oeiaio eiii?oe?oaiuo oiaa?ia.

?anoe?eeny oaeaea nienie oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia Aoaaienoaia: a 2004
iniiaiuie iinoaaueeaie oiaa?ia a Aoaaienoai auee Iaeenoai (25,5%), NOA
(8,7%), Eiaeey (8,5%), Aa?iaiey (6,5%), Oaaeaeeeenoai (5,3%), ?inney e
THaeiay Ei?ay (ii 4,2% eaaeaeay). Aoaaineee yenii?o inouanoaeyaony a
Iaeenoai (24%), Eiaeeth (21,3%), NOA (12,4%), Aa?iaieth (5,5%) e ae?. –
2004. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ia?aii ianoa ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony Iaeenoai,
iauai oiaa?iiai?ioa n eioi?ui a 2005 aeinoea 1,3 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA.
Aeaeaa neaaeotho Eeoae, Eiaeey, E?ai, IAY, Ocaaeenoai, Oo?eiaienoai.

Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e aaieianeay nenoaia. Aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeae
Aoaaienoaia neoaeeea: n eiioea 1880-o aei 1921 – 1 ?oiey = 3 aaane = 6
naia?ai = 12 oaoe, n 1921 ii 1926 – 1 ?oiey = 2 e?aiai = 12 oaoe = 60
iaenai, n 1927 – 1 aoaaie = 100 ioeai, ii a nayce n ecieyoeeae
Aoaaienoaia io ie?iauo oeiainiauo ?uieia a ?an/aoao aua aeieaia a?aiy
eniieueciaaeanue eiaeeeneay ?oiey. Aaieiiou auioneathony n 1919. Iinea
ia/aea a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a 1992 ?acee/iua a?aaeaeothuea o?aeoeee
eneaienoia auioneaee nianoaaiiua aaieiiou, eiaaoea ?aciue iaiaiiue eo?n
e iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue. Oae, aeanoue, onoaiiaeaoay eiio?ieue
iaae naaa?iie /anoueth Aoaaienoaia e aace?iaaaoayny a Iaca?e-Oa?eoa,
aaaea a iai?io aaieiiou, ?aaeueiay oeaia eioi?uo auea aaeaia iaiueoa
iiieiaeueiie. E?iia oiai, oiaeaeaiea a no?aia eiaee aeaiaaeiua ciaee,
auiouaiiua aua aei 1973, e aaethou ninaaeieo ainoaea?noa. I?ioeann
eioeyoeee ia?anoae n 1981, aeinoeaioa 58,2% a 1992, 34% a 1993 e 20% a
1994. I?aaeiee aoaaie neeueii iaanoeaieeny e a naioya?a 2002
i?aaeoaeuenoai Aoaaienoaia i?iaaei aeaiaaeioth ?aoi?io, aaaaey a
ia?auaiea iiaue aoaaie (ii eo?no 1 iiaue aoaaie = 1000 aoaaie ?aaaaie =
2000 aoaaie Aeinooia). I?e iaiaia a iai?io auei auiouaii 16,5 ie?ae.
aoaaie.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeae yaeyaony aoaaie,
eioi?ay ?aaia 100 ioeai. Ia?yaeo n iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoie a no?aia
eiatho oiaeaeaiea oaeaea aeieea?u NOA. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea ?aaoee?oao
Oeaio?aeueiue aaie Aoaaienoaia (“Aeu Aoaaienoai Aaie”). Ii aue iniiaai a
1938, yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiui ainoaea?noaaiiui aaieii no?aiu e
aicaeaaeyao e?aaeeoii-aaieianeoth nenoaio. Aaie inouanoaeyao auione a
ia?auaiea aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia, caieiaaony eo yienneae, i?aaeinoaaeyao
e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou i?aaeoaeuenoao, ioieoeeiaeueiui aeanoyi e ae?oaei
aaieai e i?iaiaeeo iieeoeeo ia oe?aieaiea aaieianeie nenoaiu. Ana
/anoiua aaiee a Aoaaienoaia auee iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiu a 1975, e oieueei a
2003 ioe?ueenue e iieo/eee eeoeaiceth ia?aua iyoue aoaaineeo
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Ia?yaeo n nenoaiie aaieia a Aoaaienoaia
o?aaeeoeeiiii nouanoaotho o.i. “aeaiaaeiua aaca?u”, ia eioi?uo a
iaoi?iaeueiie ianoaiiaea inouanoaeythony ?acee/iua e?aaeeoiua e iaiaiiua
iia?aoeee n aaethoie.

A 2003/2004 oeiainiaii aiaeo aaethoiua caianu Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea
ninoaaeee 773 iei. aeiee. NOA. A no?aia ooieoeeiie?otho oaeaea
ainoaea?noaaiiua Iooooineee eiiia?/aneee aaie, Aaie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, Aaie ?acaeoey yenii?oa e ianeieueei
/anoiuo aaieia. Ia 2005 ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea Aoaaienoaia (a iniiaiii
?innee) ninoaaeye 8 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA.

Athaeaeao, ninoaaeyaoeeny aei eii. 1980-o, iau/ii ioee/aeny i?aauoaieai
aeioiaeia iaae ?anoiaeaie. E i?aaeoaeuenoai Aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee
Aoaaienoai, e oaeeaia oaeouea aeioiaeu iieo/aee, i?aaeaea anaai, ca n/ao
einaaiiuo iaeiaia, iniaaiii io iioeei ia eiii?o e iaeiaa ia i?iaeaaee,
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa, a o./. i?e oaeeaao – “aa?ieiiaiai”, a oaeaea
aiaoiae iiiiue. Ia aiaeiae/ioth iiiiuue ?ann/eouaaee e iiiiceoeeiiiua
oaeeaai neeu. Yoe n?aaenoaa iaa noi?iiu iai?aaeyee ia aii?oaeaiea e
i?iaeiaieuenoaea.

N 2002 athaeaeao Aoaaienoaia neaaaaony ec o?aioae no?ai-aeiii?ia e
nai?ia aioo?e Aoaaienoaia, a o./. aioo?aiieo iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee,
eioi?ua ninoaaeytho aei 30% athaeaeaoa. A 2002/03 aioo?aiiea aeioiaeu
athaeaeaoa (a aeiee. NOA) ninoaaeyee 132 iei., a 2003/04 – 190 iei. e a
2004/05 au?inee aei 300 iei. Oe?aieaieth aeioiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa
aeieaeii niinianoaiaaoue aaaaeaiea n 2005/06 iaeiaa ia i?eaueue n
i?ia?anneaiie oeaeie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao a 2005/2006 ninoaaee 678 iei. aeiee. NOA (11%
AII). Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu ninoaaeee 300 iei. aeiee. NOA,
inoaeueiua 378 ieeeeiiia auee iie?uou ca n/ao eiino?aiiie iiiiue. AII
Aoaaienoaia a 2005/2006 ninoaaee 5,75 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA (204 aeieea?a ia
aeooo ianaeaiey). 93% yoie noiiu iaania/aii ca n/ao ca?oaaaeiie
oeiainiaie iiiiue.

Ia eiioa?aioeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiii?ia Aoaaienoaia a Aa?eeia (ai?aeue
2005) ia ainnoaiiaeaiea no?aiu auei auaeaeaii 8,2 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA
n?ieii ia 3 aiaea. Iniiaiua aeiii?u Aoaaienoaia ia eiioa?aioeee,
ninoiyaoaeny a 2006 a Eiiaeiia, aeiaiai?eeenue auaeaeeoue no?aia aei
2011 aua 10,5 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA, ec ieo iaeaieaa e?oiioth noiio
i?aaeinoaaeytho Anaie?iue aaie – 1,2 ie?ae., NOA – 1,1 ie?ae., Aceaoneee
aaie ?acaeoey – 1 ie?ae., Aaeeeia?eoaiey – 855 iei., Aa?iaiey – 480
iei., ssiiiey – 450 iei., Aa?iiaeneee Nithc – 268 iei., Eniaiey – 182
iei., Eiaeey – 181 iei., Aieeaiaeey – 179 iei., Naoaeianeay A?aaey – 153
iei., Iaeenoai – 150 iei., Ii?aaaey – 144 iei., Eeoae – 80 iei. e
O?aioeey – 55 iei. aeiee. NOA.

IAUANOAI

Nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a. Aei 1964 /eaiu ei?ieaaneiai eeaia iooaiiaaecae
(iooooiu nithca ieaiai aeo??aie) o?aaeeoeeiiii caieiaee aa?oithth
nooiaiue nioeeaeueiie ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoeu. Neaaeothuee ii cia/aieth
neie ninoaaeyee aunieiiinoaaeaiiua /eiiaieee, ?aeeaeiciua eeaea?u,
aiaeaee aeeyoaeueiuo ieaiai, aaia?aeeoao, e?oiiia eoia/anoai, e?oiiua
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu, a aieueoeinoaa naiai oaeaea iooooiu. *ooue ieaea
?aniieaaaeenue iieiaeua aaeieieno?aoi?u e ioeoea?u, iieo/eaoea
ia?aciaaiea ca a?aieoeae e aeaaiaea?y ciaieyi e ee/iui caneoaai,
caiyaoea ianoa a no?oeoo?a ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, a?iee e
iieeoeee, a oaeaea iao/iay yeeoa e e?oiiua aiaineiau. Ieaea noiyee
eaai/ieee, a?a/e, iaeeea e n?aaeiea oi?aiaoeu, aea?aaaineea
nayuaiiineoaeeoaee (ioeeu), i?iaeioeeaeueiua /eiiaieee e ae?oaea
aeieaeiinoiua eeoea ia ianoao. A naiii ieco ea?a?oee iaoiaeeeenue
?yaeiaua e?anoueyia e iaeieiouea ei/aaieee-neioiaiaeu.

Iinea naa?aeaiey iiia?oee a 1973 auee oi?acaeiaiu ioeoeeaeueiua oeooeu
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oeia, o?aaeeoeeiiiay ciaoue iinoaiaiii oa?yea
ainiiaenoaothuea iiceoeee a iieeoeea e yeiiiieea.

Iinea i?eoiaea e aeanoe a 1978 “Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee
Aoaaienoaia” i?aayuay yeeoa iiaeaa?aeanue ?aaeeeaeueiie o?ainoi?iaoeee:
aeiieie?othuea iiceoeee a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey caiyee
ooieoeeiia?u i?aayuae ia?oee e eeoea, iiaeaea?aeeaaaoea i?aaeoaeuenoai
(ioeoea?u, eioaeeeaaioeey, n?aaeiea i?aaei?eieiaoaee, /eiiaieee).
Aeooiaainoai, oaiu ieaiai, e?oiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee e caieaaeaaeaeueoeu
auee ?ai?anne?iaaiu e a ianniaii ii?yaeea iieeioee no?aio. Ca i?aaeaeu
Aoaaienoaia aaaeaee e ieeeeiiu e?anoueyi, eaai/ieeia, i?aaenoaaeoaeae
eioaeeeaaioeee. A ia?eiae i?aaeaiey i?aceaeaioa Iaaeaeeaoeeu (1986–1992)
iiiaea aeaeiua iinou a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey caiyee
eiyeueiua ?aaeeio aania?oeeiua aeayoaee.

Iinea iaaeaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aceaeaioa Iaaeaeeaoeeu a 1992 e i?eoiaea
e aeanoe eneaienoia ninoaa i?aayuae yeeou aiiaue ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieeny:
ainiiaenoaothuea iiceoeee a iieeoeea e yeiiiieea caiyee eeaea?u
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie oaeeaia, aa?oooea aeooiaainoaa e e?oiiua
iieaaua eiiaiaee?u: aeanoue caoaaouaaeanue neeie i?oaeey. I?e yoii
auno?i ?acaeaaeny i?ioeann aa o?aaiaioaoeee: eniieuecoy neeo, eeaea?u
e?oiiuo aii?oaeaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee nicaeaaaee ia ianoao iieoaaoiiiiiua
no?oeoo?u aeanoe, oaeoe/anee ia iiae/eiyaoeany oeaio?aeueiiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao. Aunoea o?aaeeoeeiiiua neie – aa?oooea aeooiaainoaa e
oaiu ieaiai – auee ieii/aoaeueii auoaniaiu ec aeanoiuo no?oeoo?.

A nicaeaiiii oaeeaaie a 1996 Eneaineii Yie?aoa Aoaaienoai aeanoue
ia?aoea e ioeeai e naycaiiui n ieie eiiaiaee?aie aii?oaeaiiuo io?yaeia.
Iinea ?aca?iia ?aaeeia oaeeaia e aeanoe ia ianoao aiiaue aa?ioeenue
iieaaua eiiaiaee?u iiaeaeaoaaeia i?e neaaii oeaio?aeueiii
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Naeaeaaoea ninoiyiea ia aii?oaeaiiii a?aaaaea e
ia?eioeeao, iie aea-oaeoi noaiiaeeenue ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie ianoiuo
aaeieieno?aoeee. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey iiauo,
nia?aiaiiuo einoeoooia eo iieeoe/aneea iiceoeee neaaatho. A eo n?aaea
oi?ie?othony ia?eiaa?iiu e e?oiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee. Iaeiia?aiaiii ia
iieeoe/aneoth a?aio Aoaaienoaia auoiaeyo i?aaenoaaeoaee iiaiai iieieaiey
oaoiie?aoia ec /enea aiaeoeeiciuo e ia?aciaaiiuo yiea?aioia,
aica?auathueony ec-ca ?oaaaea. Eo i?ioeainoiyiea ni noa?ie aaa?aeeae
eneaienoia aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoue niaea?aeaiea iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau a
Aoaaienoaia a aeeaeaeoaa aeanyoeeaoea.

?ieue ?aeeaee. Iinea eeeaeaeaoeee ?aaeeia oaeeaia a 2001 iieeoe/aneay
?ieue eneaia auea naaaeaia e ieieioio, iaeiaei ii nio?aiee neeueiua
iiceoeee a ia?aciaaiee, noaeii?iecaiaenoaa e a noa?a naiaeii-a?a/iuo
ioiioaiee. I?e aeinoaoi/ii aieueoii iauaia ?aeeaeiciie ?eoi?eee eneai
oaea ia ii?aaeaeyao oa?aeoa? e iai?aaeaiea iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai
?acaeoey no?aiu, oioy aua aeieaia a?aiy aoaeao aeeyoue ia iaai.

N?aaee ionoeueiaineeo aiaineiaia e neoaeeoaeae eoeueoa auaeaeythony
ie?u, oac?aou, eoaiu, noiyuea ai aeaaa ?aeeaeiciuo naeo, aea?aeoneeo
i?aeaiia e iauei, a oaeaea oeaia (o/aiua aiaineiau); nooiaiueeie ieaea
noiyo eiaiu (ianoiyoaee ia/aoae), iioeaae (eeoea, iieo/eaoea
niaoeeaeueiia aiaineianeia ia?aciaaiea a iaae?ana) e ioeeu a e?oiiuo
ia/aoyo. Iaeaieaa cia/eioth ?ieue a iianaaeiaaiie ?aeeaeiciie aeecie
ea?atho ioeeu. Ii o?aaeeoeee, ethaie /aeiaae, eioi?ue iiaeao
?anneacuaaoue Ei?ai ii iaiyoe, iiaeao auoue ioeeie. A Aoaaienoaia,
iaeiaei, ioeea iiaeao e ia iiieiaoue neia Ei?aia, iioiio /oi eieaa auea
iaienaia e cao/eaaaony ia a?aaneii ycuea, eioi?ue ia yaeyaony ?iaeiui
aeey aoaaioeaa. Ioeeu ia oieueei neoaeao a ia/aoe e ioi?aaeytho ae?oaea
?aeeaeiciua ia?yaeu (caeeth/aiea a?aeia, iioi?iiu e o.ae.), ii ii
nouanoao ia?aaeei ea?atho ?ieue o/eoaeae, noaeae e niaao/eeia ii
?acee/iui aii?inai. Iie auiinyo ?aoaiey ii ianoiui nii?ai,
?oeiaiaenoaoynue eneaineeie th?eaee/aneeie ii?iaie, ?aoatho iiiaea
i?iaeaiu nioeeaeueiiai e ee/iiai oa?aeoa?a, iai?eia?, nii?u ii ?acaeaeo
aiaeu eee naiaeiua eiioeeeou.

Iaeaieaa nayuaiiui ianoii iaeiiie/anoaa aoaaineeo ionoeueiai n/eoaaony
Iaca?e-Oa?eo, aaea a ia/aoe 15 a. iaoiaeeony, eae iieaaatho, iiaeea
eiaia Aee.

Iieiaeaiea aeaiuei. Aoaaineea o?aaeeoeee ia?aie/eaatho ?ieue aeaiuei a
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie iauanoaa. Iiiuoee eo yiaineiaoeee,
i?aaei?eieiaaoeany a 20-o, 60-o e 80-o aiaeao 20 a., ieacaeenue
iayooaeoeaiuie. ?aaeeeaeueiiio ia?aie/aieth, ii nouanoao iii?aieth eo
i?aa, iie iiaeaa?aeenue a ia?eiae i?aaeaiey oaeeaia, eiaaea ?ieue
aeaiuei auea naaaeaia eeoue e ?iaeaeaieth e ainieoaieth aeaoae. AEaiueiu
auee eeoaiu aeaaea i?aaa ia ?aaioo e o/aao.

A iinooaeeaneee ia?eiae eeaa?aeueiue ?aaeei O.Ea?cay i?iaicaeanee
?aaainoai ioae/ei e aeaiuei, /oi cae?aieaii a iiaie eiinoeoooeee 2004. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaai/ee o/aony a oeieao e ae?oaeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo,
aeaiueiu ?aaioatho a ?acee/iuo noa?ao yeiiiieee, o/anoaotho a
iieeoe/aneie aeecie, nicaeatho iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeiaei
i?iaicaeaoaiiia ?aaainoai i?aa iieia ai iiiaii aua inoaaony
aeaeea?aoeeae. Iiae aeeyieai i?oiaeienaeueiiai aeooiaainoaa aeaiueiu
ii-i?aaeiaio inoathony i?eieaeaiiuie a naiuea e auioaeaeaiu aeeoue a
?aieao o?aaeeoeeiiiuo naiaeii-a?a/iuo ioiioaiee. Ii nouanoao iie aua ia
noaee iieiii?aaiuie noauaeoaie iieeoeee e iauanoaaiiie aeoeaiinoe.

Nioeeaeueiay noa?a. Iinea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu caiaoiua iiceoeaiua
naeaeae i?iecioee a iaaeeoeeineii ianeoaeeaaiee ianaeaiey. Ai iiiaeo
ai?iaeao auee iino?iaiu aieueieoeu e eeeieee, oii? aue ia?aianai n
i?ioeeaeoe/aneie iaaeeoeeiu (eaiiaiee ii ai?ueaa n iaey?eae, iniie e
oeoii) ia ea/aaioth. Iaeiaei nenoaia cae?aaiio?aiaiey auea ?ac?ooaia a
aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. A nia?aiaiiii Aoaaienoaia ioia/aaony iaeei ec
naiuo aunieeo a ie?a iieacaoaeae ieaaeai/aneie nia?oiinoe (163,1 ia 1000
?iaeaeaiiuo), e?aeia ieceie inoaaony oaeaea n?aaeiyy iaeeaeaaiay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie (42,9 aiaea).

Nenoaia ia?aciaaiey ca iineaaeiea aiaeu i?aoa?iaea iaiaeua eciaiaiey. A
iinooaeeaneee ia?eiae ia/aeinue auno?ia ainnoaiiaeaiea ?acaaeeaoaeny a
aiaeu aieiu nenoaiu oeieueiiai ia?aciaaiey, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neeaie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiii?ia Aoaaienoaia, au?inei /enei aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee. A no?aia ?aaioatho 12 oieaa?neoaoia, aiaiiay e iieeoeaeneay
aeaaeaiee, aia?eeaineee oieaa?neoao. Oai ia iaiaa, Aoaaienoai ana aua
inoaaony iaeiie ec naiuo ionoaeuo no?ai n oi/ee c?aiey a?aiioiinoe
ianaeaiey: /enei a?aiioiuo n?aaee ac?ineuo ninoaaeyao 28,7%, 80%
aeaai/ae oeieueiiai aic?anoa ia iinauatho oeieo.

AEeeeua. Ianaeaiea Aoaaienoaia aeeaao i?aeiouanoaaiii aieueoeie
naiueyie, iniaaiii a naeueneie ianoiinoe. I?aiaeaaeatho i?yiioaieueiua a
ieaia aeiia n ieineeie eee eoiieiia?aciuie e?uoaie, iino?iaiiua ec
nu?oeiaiai eee iaiaeaeaiiiai ee?ie/a e iaiacaiiua aeeiie. Onaaeueaa
iaiineony noaiie ec nu?oeiaiai ee?ie/a. A ai?ao aicaiaeyo oaeaea
no?iaiey ec eaiiy, a a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao iiyaeeenue caeaiey nia?aiaiiiai
oeia. Ei/aaieee aeeaoo a /aou?aooaieueiuo oao?ao ec oa?noyiie oeaie.

Iaoeeiiaeueiay eooiy. E o?aaeeoeeiiiui aethaeai ioiinyony ieia n iynii
eee iaiuaie, aea?aiia iyni (eaaaa), io/iua ecaeaeey (aoae, eee iaiou) e
auiaeaaiua a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ia/ao-oaiaeo?ao i?aniua eaiaoee.
Cia/eoaeueioth aeieth a ieuaaii ?aoeeiia ninoaaeytho iaiue (oiiaou,
ea?oioaeue, ai?io, ii?eiaue e iao?oeu). Aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey ia
iiaeao naaa iicaieeoue ?aaoey?iia iio?aaeaiea iyna. Caeaiue eee /a?iue
/ae, eeneiiiei/iua i?iaeoeou, naaaeea e nooaiua o?oeou e i?aoe oaeaea
aoiaeyo a iianaaeiaaiue ?aoeeii.

Iaeaaeaea. Aeaaiua yeaiaiou einothia ii/oe anao yoie/aneeo iauei
Aoaaienoaia – aeeeiiay (aei eieai e ieaea), ?oaaoa e ieioii
iiaeiiynaiiua eooaeii oe?ieea ooaiu (eaiec). Iiaa?o ioae/eiu iaaeaaatho
aac?oeaaeo n /aou?ueiy ea?iaiaie e canoaaeeie e oaeao. Oa?aeoa?
aieiaiiai oai?a, iai?eia? /aeiu, othaaoaeee eee aieei/iiai eieiaea,
ia?aaeei io?aaeaao i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue ioae/ei e ii?aaeaeaiiie
iaoeeiiaeueiie a?oiia e aaia?aoe/aneiio ?aeiio. Iiiaea ioioneatho
ai?iaeo (yoa oaiaeaioeey oneeeeanue iinea oiai, eae oaeeau cai?aoeee
ioae/eiai a?eoueny). A ai?iaeao iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea ioaeneay
iaeaaeaea aa?iiaeneiai iie?iy.

AEaiueiu a naeueneie ianoiinoe iinyo aeeeiioth, auoeooth ii ai?ioo
?oaaoo naiaiaeiiai iie?iy ec oeaaoiie oeii/aoiaoiaaeiie oeaie e
aeeeiiua, aei ueeieioie, ooaiu. AEaiueiu ec n?aaeu ei/aaieeia iiaa?o
?oaaoe iaaeaaatho ianeieueei oe?ieeo thaie, a oaaeaeeeneea, ocaaeneea e
oo?eiaineea aeaiueiu iiaa?o oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo ooaiia iinyo oe?ieea
oeaaoiua ieaouey. Aie?oa aieiau aeaiueiu iiaycuaatho oe?ieee ieaoie, i?e
auoiaea ia oeeoeo iie iaeeaeuaatho oaiioth /aae?o, eee ao?eo, eioi?ay
cae?uaaao oeao?o n iia aei aieiau. Ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee iacaae (a
ia?eiae iiia?oee) iiiaea ia?aciaaiiua ai?iaeneea aeaiueiu ioeacaeenue io
o?aaeeoeee iioaiey /aae?u, ii i?eoaaeoea e aeanoe oaeeau aaaee no?iaea
i?aaeea, niaeanii eioi?ui ana ionoeueiaineea aeaiueiu aeieaeiu auee i?e
auoiaea ec aeiia iaaeaaaoue ao?eo. E naaiaeiy a iaeioi?uo ianoao
aeaiueiu i?iaeieaeatho iineoue /aae?o (iau/ii ia ii nianoaaiiiio auai?o,
a a ?acoeueoaoa aeaaeaiey ni noi?iiu ianoiiai aeooiaainoaa). AEaiueiu
iinyo na?aa?yiua oe?aoaiey n na?aeieeeii e eaco?eoii, aonu e iaea?aeuey
ec iiiao. Aeaaea aa?iiaeneea aeaiueiu a Aoaaienoaia ia?aaeei iaycaiu
iaaeaaaoue aieiaiua ieaoee e iineoue iaeaaeaeo, cae?uaathuoth ?oee e
iiae.

Naiaeiua iau/ae. Oioy aoaaineia iauanoai ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo
yoie/aneeo a?oii, iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou eo ia?aca aeecie eiatho iauea
/a?ou. Oae, o aoaaioeaa (iooooiia) e ae?oaeo ia?iaeia, iniaaiii o
aeeoaeae naeueneeo e ai?iuo ?aeiiia, iau/iu aieueoea iao?ea?oaeueiua
naiuee. ?iaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey nicaeatho oii aeey i?iyaeaiey
nioeeaeueiie, yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A?aee, /anoi
caeeth/aaiua iaaeaeo aeaith?iaeiuie a?aoueyie e nano?aie, eae i?aaeei,
i?aaiecotho noa?oea a naieo naiueyo aeaiueiu.

I?e naaoianoaa e iiiieaea aeiaiaa?eaathony i eaeuia, i?eaeaiii e
ono?ienoaa naaaeaaiiai ie?oanoaa. ?acaiaeu neo/athony ?aaeei. N?aaee
ninoiyoaeueiuo aoaaioeaa ia?aaeee neo/ae iiiaiaeainoaa.

EOEUeOO?A

N ae?aaieo a?aiai Aoaaienoai aieouaae eoeueoo?u e o?aaeeoeee ?acee/iuo
ia?iaeia, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ia oieueei e eneaineie, ii e e aioe/iie,
eiaeoenoneie eee aoaeaeeeneie o?aaeeoeeyie.

Eeoa?aoo?a e eneonnoai. ?acaeoea aoaaineie eeoa?aoo?u ia i?ioyaeaiee
iiiaeo aaeia i?ienoiaeeei iiae aeeyieai ia?neaeneie o?aaeeoeee. Iniaia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea iiycey, i?aaeaea anaai a oaeeo aeai?ao eae
aacaeue (a ee?e/aneeo ianiyo) e /a?aaeoa (a enoi?e/aneeo). ?anoeaao
iiycee ia oa?ne i?eoaeny ia 10–15 aa. A 1010 caeii/ee naith ia?iiioth
yie/aneoth iiyio “Oaoiaia” (“Eieaa oea?ae”) Aaoeueeanei Oe?aeione
(Oe?aeaane) (940–1020). Ia?iiiia aicaeaenoaea ia eneaineoth eeoa?aoo?o e
iuneue ieacaei oai?/anoai Aeaeaeae aae-Aeeia ?oie, nooeeneiai ienoeea e
iiyoa 13 a., aaoi?a yie/aneie iiyiu “Maniaae-ea Maiaae” (“Aeooiaiua
aeaonoeoey”). Iiiaea ecaanoiua o/aiua e iiyou oiai ia?eiaea, ienaaoea ia
aea?e, auee ?iaeii ec Aoaaienoaia – Naiae Aaciaae (12 a., o?iaeaiaoe
Aacie), Aaaeo??aoiai Aeaeaie Aa?aae (15 a., o?iaeaiaoe Aeaeaie-Aa?aoa),
Iecai oae-Aeei Aeeoa? Aa?aae Iaaie (1441— 1501, o?iaeaiaoe Aa?aoa).
Ia/aei aoaaineie eeoa?aoo?u naycuaatho n eiaiai Aayceaea Aina?e (Ie?
?ioaia), ienoeea e iniiaaoaey naeou ?ioaieoia, i?iiiaaaeiaaaoae
i?ieiiioienoe/aneea eaeae. Ii?ie ?anoeaaoa iiycee ia ioooo auee 17–18
aa. Ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee i?iecaaaeaiey Ie?cu-oaia Aina?e, eee Oaoao-oai
(1580–1631), aioea Ie? ?ioaia, eniuouaaaoaai neeueiia aeeyiea nooecia,
Ooooaeue-oaia Oaooaea (1613–1691), ecaanoiiai iooooineiai iiyoa,
eceiaeeaoaai a noeoao aoaaineee ieaiaiiie eiaeaen, Aaaeo??aoiaia
Iiiaiaea (1632–1708), Aaaeoeoaieaea Iiiaiaea (1660–1732) e Eacui-oaia
Oaeaea (1723–1778). Iicaea iieo/aao ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?eaeai?iay
eeoa?aoo?a.

Ia ?oaaaea 19–20 aa. ia/aea neeaaeuaaoueny nia?aiaiiay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay
eeoa?aoo?a ia ycueao ioooo e aea?e. Ienaoaee oiai a?aiaie (Iaoioae
Oa?ce, Aoeai Iooeaeaeei Aoaai, Naeeo Iooaiiaae, Aaaeoeaee Ionoaaie)
ia?auaeenue e i?iaeaiai nia?aiaiiinoe. Iie iuoaeenue naeeceoue
ie?iaini?eyoea aoaaioeaa n ia?aiaiaie, i?ienoiaeyueie a ie?oaeathuai eo
ie?a, i?ecuaaee eo iaeaaeaaaoue ciaieyie e ciaeiieoueny n ae?oaeie
eoeueoo?aie. Ia?auaiea e nioeeaeueiui iioeaai auei naienoaaiiui aeey
oai?/anoaa iiiaeo ienaoaeae e iiyoia 1940–1950-o (Aaaeo??aoo Aaiaaa,
Aoeue-Ia/a Oeueoao, Io? Iooaiiaae Oa?aee e ae?.). Enoi?e/aneia iauanoai
Aoaaienoaia e Aeaaeaiey Ioooo auioneaee eeoa?aoo?iua aeo?iaeu e
iiaeaea?aeeaaee ia/eiaiey iiaiai iieieaiey eeoa?aoi?ia. E?oiiuo
i?icae/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee a aoaaineie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a
iaiiiai, ii iiycey aeinoeaea niaa?oainoaa.

A?oeoaeoo?a. A Aoaaienoaia nio?aieeenue iaiyoieee a?oeoaeoo?u e
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa ?aciuo enoi?e/aneeo yiio – io yeeeiecia
ia?eiaea A?aei-Aaeo?eeneiai oea?noaa (ie. 3–1 aa. aei i.y.) aei iino?iae
aoaeaeeeneie eoeueoo?u (ie. 1–4 aa. i.y.). Iaeaeaiu ?acaaeeiu iiiaeanoaa
aoaeaeeeneeo iiianou?ae, o?aiia e nooi (nayouie eee a?iaieoeu). Iaeiaei
nio?aieeenue eeoue iaiiiaea o?aaiaiou iaiyoieeia a?oeoaeoo?u yoiai
ia?eiaea. Oae, a ia?oa 2001 oaeeaaie auee aci?aaiu noaooe Aoaeaeu a
aeieeia Aaieaia, au?oaeaiiua a neaeueiie ii?iaea a 4–5 a. i.y. Yoi auee
iaeie ec naiuo e?oiiuo neoeueioo? a ie?a: aunioa iaeiie noaooe
aeinoeaaea 53, a ae?oaie – 38 iao?ia. Oaeeau n/eoaee, /oi iieeiiaiea
aoaeaeeeneei nayouiyi i?ioeai?a/eo ionoeueiaineie aa?a.

A n?aaeiea aaea ia oa??eoi?ee Aoaaienoaia iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eoeueoiaay iiioiaioaeueiay a?oeoaeoo?a, i?aaenoaaeaiiay ieia?aoaie,
ia/aoyie e e?aiinoyie. E /eneo iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo iaiyoieeia ioiinyo
no?aeue/aooth a?eo ai?iaeneie ia/aoe (11 a.) n?aaee ?acaaeei a
Eaeaee-Aonoa; aeaa iiiaia?aiiuo ieia?aoa (“aaoie iiaaaeu”), iino?iaiiua
ia ie?aeia Aacie i?e noeoaia Ianoaea III e Aao?ai-oaoa (12 a.) e aiaaoi
oe?aoaiiua i?iaiaioii e a?aaneeie iaaeienyie; “iaaeathuee” ieia?ao
aunioie 65 i (eii. 12 – ia/. 13 aa.) aeec naeaiey Aeaeai ia caiaaea
Oeaio?aeueiiai Aoaaienoaia. E 15 a. iaeiei ec oeaio?ia eneonnoaa ia
N?aaeiai Ainoiea noae Aa?ao. Ec iaiyoieeia nio?aieeanue aeaaioneay
niai?iay ia/aoue Aeaeoia-Ianaeaeeae (13 a., ?aeiino?oe?iaaia iinea
caieao?ynaiey a 1498–1500), oe?aoaiiay ?acueaie e ec?acoeiaie iicaeeie,
a oaeaea inoaoee eiiieaena Ionaeea (1417–1438) n iiiaeanoaii ieia?aoia e
iaacieaai Aaooa?oaae. Aei neo ii? ii/eoaaia a?iaieoea e ia/aoue
?oace-Oa?eo (eii. 15 a.) a Iaca?e-Oa?eoa, oe?aoaiiay aieoauie
ec?acoeaie. Oi?ioi ecaanoiu iiaeea eiia?aoi?a Aaao?a e aaee/anoaaiiay
e?aiinoue Aaea-Oenna? a Eaaoea, eioi?ua iaiaeiie?aoii ?ac?ooaeanue e
iono?aeaaeanue. A n?aaeiea aaea iieo/eea ?acaeoea oaeaea eaeeea?aoey e
aeeaiieniay ieieaoth?a, eniieueciaaaoayny a ea/anoaa eeethno?aoeee i?e
ioi?ieaiee ?oeiieniuo eiea.

Aiaaoua o?aaeeoeee eiaao i?eeeaaeiia eneonnoai. Aoaaineea ianoa?a
neaayony ecaioiaeaieai oe?aoaiee ec cieioa e na?aa?a, aeaei?aoeaiie
auoeaeie, ?acueaie ii aea?aao e eia?ioea/anoaii. Iniiaiua oeaio?u
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ia?aaioee iaoaeea – Aacie, Aa?ao e Eaiaeaaa?.

Iocuea e oaiaoe. A Aoaaienoaia aei neo ii? nio?aiythony o?aaeeoeee
iocueaeueiiai oieueeei?a. Ia?iaeiay iocuea nii?iaiaeaeaao iaiea e oaioeu
e aunooiaao oaeaea eae naiinoiyoaeueiue aeae eneonnoaa. Iau/ii iia
eniieiyaony ia naaaeueaao e ia anyeiai ?iaea oi?aeanoaao (?iaeaeaiea
?aaaiea, i?acaeieee). Iniaaiii iiioey?iu aa?ie/aneea ianie e aaeeaaeu,
ainiaaathuea iaoeeiiaeueiia aeinoieinoai e ai?ueao aoaaioeaa ca
iacaaeneiinoue, a oaeaea ianie-aeaonoeoey, ?anneacuaathuea i ethaae.
Oaioeu iau/ii ?acaeaeueiua (ioaeneea e aeaineea). A iooooineeo ?aeiiao
ecaanoai aiaaie oaiaoe aoai. Iiioey?iu no?oiiua (aeiia?a, oaiao?, naoa?)
e no?oiii-ueieiaua (?oaaa), aeooiaua (oeaeoa e no?ia), oaea?iua
(aa?aaai, aeoie, oeeiaaeu), eeaaeoiua (a?iiiey) e no?oiii-niu/eiaua
(aeaeaeae) eino?oiaiou.

?iaeaeaiea aoaaineie iiioey?iie iocuee naycuaatho n ?aaioie iocueaeueiie
?aaeaeoeee “?aaeei Aoaaienoaia”, aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi eioi?ie a no?aia
aicieeee ia?aua i?ioanneiiaeueiua i?eano?u e iiyaeeinue iiaia iieieaiea
aoaaineeo iaaoeia. N?aaee eniieieoaeae auei iaiaei aeaiuei, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei ia eciaiaiee iano?iaiee a iauanoaa, aaea i?aaeaea
i?ioanneiiaeueiay iocuea n/eoaeanue iaaeinoieiui caiyoeai aeey aeaiueiu.
Iiioey?iinoue o neooaoaeae i?eia?aea iooooineay iocuea n oaaeaeeeneie
ee?eeie, a oaeaea iaeiaeee ec eiaeeeneeo e iaeenoaineeo eeiioeeueiia.

Aei onoaiiaeaiey aeanoe oaeeaia Eaaoe n/eoaeny iniiaiui oeaio?ii
aoaaineie iocueaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Iaeiaei eneaineea ?aaeeeaeu
iiiuoaeenue enei?aieoue yoe “/oaeaeua”, n eo oi/ee c?aiey, aeeyiey,
iaaycaa cai?ao ia oaioeu, ea?o ia iocueaeueiuo eino?oiaioao e
caoeicaienue. Iinea iaaeaiey ?aaeeia oaeeaia aoaaineay iocueaeueiay
noeaia ia/aea aic?iaeaeaoueny, aiciaiiaeeenue iocueaeueiua ia?aaea/e ia
?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee, a iaeioi?ua eieeaeoeau (iai?eia?, Eaaoeueneee
ainaiaeue) iiauaaee n aano?ieyie a ?acee/iuo no?aiao ie?a.

Oaao?. Nia?aiaiiia oaao?aeueiia eneonnoai ia/aei ca?iaeaeaoueny iinea
ia?aoaiey no?aiie iacaaeneiinoe. Ia?aue oaao? aue ioe?uo a Iaaiaia
(i?eai?iae Eaaoea) a ia/. 1920-o. Iicaea iiyaeeenue ae?oaea
ethaeoaeueneea (“Caeiaa iaiaea?a”, “I?anooi”) e i?ioanneiiaeueiua
(“Oao?e iaiaea?a”) oaao?u. E 1978 auea nicaeaia o?oiia Eaaoeueneiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ae?aiaoe/aneiai oaao?a. Aei oiai, eae a Aoaaienoaia
ia/aeenue aieiu, a Eaaoea iinoiyiii noaaeee iueanu eae aoaaineeo
ae?aiaoo?aia, oae e ca?oaaaeiuo aaoi?ia. Ioaeaeueiua aoaaineea
?aaeenna?u-iinoaiiaueee iuoathony aic?iaeeoue noeaie/aneea o?aaeeoeee
i?ioeiai.

Nenoaia ia?aciaaiey. Iaeaieaa i?eia/aoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth eoeueoo?iie
aeecie Aoaaienoaia a 20 a. noaei ?anoe?aiea naoe o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee e
iaeaa/aiea aeinooia e ia?aciaaieth. Aieioue aei ia/. 20 a. a Aoaaienoaia
ainiiaenoaiaaea ?aeeaeiciay nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, ?aaioaee o?aaeeoeeiiiua
aea?aaaineea oeieu, a eioi?uo iao/aee acai /oaiey, ienueia e a?eoiaoeee.
E ia/. 20 a. noaee ioe?uaaoueny naaoneea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, ii oieueei
?aoi?iu 1920-o caeiaeeee iniiao nia?aiaiiie iiaeaee iao/aiey.
Iaycaoaeueiui e aanieaoiui ia anao o?iaiyo ia?aciaaiea noaei e 1931,
oioy aeinooi aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey e n?aaeiaio e aunoaio ia?aciaaieth
aue ia?aie/ai. A 1961 i?aaeoaeuenoai ioe?uei aeaiueiai aeinooi ai ana
ainoaea?noaaiiua aocu. Iniaue aeoeaio aeaeaeny ia ?acaeoee ia/aeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey. A 1970-a iiyaeeinue iiiai ia/aeueiuo e n?aaeieo oeie,
nicaeaiiuo ii aa?iiaeneei ia?acoeai.

Aeieaea aiaeu aieiu ?ac?ooeee a Aoaaienoaia iaeaaeaiioth nenoaio
i?inaauaiey. Ca a?aiy eiioeeeoa aieaa 7,5 oun. oeie auee cae?uou eee
oie/oiaeaiu. Iiiaea i?aiiaeaaaoaee inoaaeee ?aaioo e iieeioee no?aio. E
eii. 1990-o ia aieueoae /anoe Aoaaienoaia auee cai?auaiu naaoneea oi?iu
i?aiiaeaaaiey, oaeaea eae e iao/aiea aeaai/ae e aeaiuei. Iniiaiia ianoi
a o/aaiuo i?ia?aiiao caiyee aiaineianeea iaoee e eco/aiea Ei?aia ia
a?aaneii ycuea. Ainnoaiiaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey
ia/aeinue a 2002.

Iao/aiea a ia/aeueiie oeiea (io 3 eao a naeueneie ianoiinoe aei 6 eao a
ai?iaeao) yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui e aanieaoiui aeey aeaoae a aic?anoa io
7 aei 14 eao. A 2002/03 o/. a. eo iinauaei na. 1,2 iei. o/aueony (ie.
30% aeaoae niioaaonoaothuaai aic?anoa). Ii ieii/aiee ia/aeueiie oeieu
ioe?uaaaony aeinooi e n?aaeiaio ia?aciaaieth, eioi?ia ?acaeaeaii ia
iaiieioth (7–9 eeannu) e iieioth (10–12 eeannu) n?aaeithth oeieu. A
2002/03 o/. a. a ieo iao/aeinue ie. 300 oun. o/aueony. E eii. 2005
?aaioaei ie. 7 oun. oeie. Iao/aiea aanieaoiia e ?acaeaeueiia ia anao
nooiaiyo. A 2004/05 o/. a. a oeieao ?aaioaei 74466 o/eoaeae. Caiyoey
aaaeoony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia ycueao aea?e e ioooo, a ianoao eiiiaeoiiai
i?iaeeaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii – ia eo ?iaeiii ycuea. Ii ioeoeeaeueiui
aeaiiui, e 2004/05 o/. a. a oeieao iao/aeinue, ii ?aciui ioeaieai, io
3,7 aei 4,2 iei. o/aueony, a o./. 40,5% aeaai/ae io 7 aei 14 eao.
Iaeiaei a oeaeii ii no?aia iinauaaiinoue oeie ia?aaiiia?ia. A thaeiuo
i?iaeioeeyo Aoaaienoaia nauoa 61% aeaoae ia eiatho aiciiaeiinoe oiaeeoue
a oeieo. Aeey ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu ?ac?aaioaia i?ia?aiia ia?aaeaeaeiuo
oeie, /oiau aeiianoe ia?aciaaiea a naeueneea ?aeiiu. A aoaeouai
ieaie?oaony eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoe aiaae?aiey iiaie no?oeoo?u
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao ainueieeaoiaa
ia/aeueiia e /aou?aoeaoiaa n?aaeiaa ia?aciaaiea.

Eaaoeueneee oieaa?neoao, ioe?uoue a 1946 ia aaca nicaeaiiiai a 1932
iaaeeoeeineiai oaeoeueoaoa, yaeyaony naiui e?oiiui e iaeaieaa
i?anoeaeiui aunoei o/aaiui caaaaeaieai no?aiu. Ec-ca aiaauo aeaenoaee a
1990-a aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie aue cae?uo. Naaiaeiy a iai iao/aaony ie.
7 oun. nooaeaioia, a o./. ie. 1,7 oun. nooaeaioie. ?aaioatho oaeaea
iaaieueoie Iaiaa?oa?neee oieaa?neoao ei. Aayceaea ?ioaia
(a.Aeaeaeaeaaaae, ini. a 1962, ia?aiia/aeueii aioiaee iaaeeoeeineea
eaae?u), Aaeoneee oieaa?neoao (ini. a 1988), Aa?aoneee oieaa?neoao
(1987), Eaiaeaaa?neee oieaa?neoao (1988), a oaeaea oieaa?neoaou a
Aaieaia, Aaaeaooaia e Oinoa. I?aiiaeaaaiea a oieaa?neoaoao aaaeaony
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia aea?e. Ooieoeeiie?oao Eaaoeueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue
iaaeeoeeineee einoeooo (ini. a 1932). Eiee/anoai nooaeaioia aunoeo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee oaaee/eeinue n 4 oun. a 2001 aei 37 oun. a 2004 e 40
oun. a 2005, 19% ec ieo ninoaaeytho aeaaooee.

O?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey a Aoaaienoaia ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue yaeyaony
iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ieceeo n?aaee ?acaeaathueony no?ai. A 2000 oieueei
28,7% aoaaioeaa noa?oa 15 eao oiaee /eoaoue e ienaoue, ec ieo anaai
19,6% aeaiuei e 51% ioae/ei (ioeaiea III).

Iao/iua o/?aaeaeaiey. A ia/. 1930-o a Eaaoea, Aa?aoa e Eaiaeaaa?a
iiyaeeenue ia?aua enoi?eei-eeoa?aoo?iua iauaaeeiaiey aoaaineeo o/aiuo e
ienaoaeae. A oaa?aea 1979 auea iniiaaia Aeaaeaiey iaoe Aoaaienoaia
(AHA), nicaeaiiay ii iiaeaee Aeaaeaiee iaoe NNN?. Iia aeeth/aea
Aoaaineoth aeaaeaieth ycuea e eeoa?aoo?u “Iaooi oieuia” (1937),
Enoi?e/aneia iauanoai Aoaaienoaia (1942) e naycaiiua n ieie
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea o/?aaeaeaiey.

Aeaeeioaee e iocae. Aeaaiua eieaio?aieeeua no?aiu – Ioaee/iay aeaeeioaea
Eaaoea (1957) e aeaeeioaea Eaaoeueneiai oieaa?neoaoa (1931), a oaeaea
Ioaee/iay aeaeeioaea Aa?aoa e Iaoeeiiaeueiue a?oea, nicaeaiiue ia aaca
ioaeaea ?oeiienae Eaaoeueneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Aieueoay /anoue eo oiiaeia
e eieeaeoeee oo?a/aia; ouny/e oiiia ec nia?aiee aeaeeioae e iocaaa a
1990-a auee niaeaeaiu eee ?aca?aaeaiu ?aeeaeiciuie ooiaeaiaioaeenoaie.

Ec iocaaa iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiui yaeyaony enoi?eei-yoiia?aoe/aneee
Eaaoeueneee iaoeeiiaeueiue iocae (ini. a 1922), n?aaee yeniiiaoia
eioi?iai iaoiaeeeinue aieueoia eiee/anoai i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa,
noa?eiiua ?oeiiene, ieieaoth?u e i?. Iniaaiii oeaiiuie auee iaoa?eaeu
ia?aiauoiiai, ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai e aoaeaeeeneiai ia?eiaeia, aiaaoaeoay
eieeaeoeey iiiao (nauoa 30 oun.), cieiouo oe?aoaiee e noaooyoie. A 1993
iocae iaoiaeeeny a ciia aiaa, e e 1995 aieaa 90% aai eieeaeoeee auei
?aca?aaeaii e auaacaii /a?ac Iaeenoai aeey i?iaeaaee aiaaoui
eieeaeoeeiia?ai a ae?oaeo no?aiao. Iiieii yoiai, a 2000–2001 nauoa 2700
i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa ec o?aieeeu iocay auee oie/oiaeaiu eee
iia?aaeaeaiu ?aeeaeiciie iieeoeeae oaeeaia. Iinea iaaeaiey ?aaeeia
oaeeaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia niiauanoai auaeaeeei n?aaenoaa ia
ainnoaiiaeaiea Iaoeeiiaeueiiai iocay. Ii aue aiiaue ioe?uo a yiaa?a
2005. Iocae ?aniieaaaao aiaaouie a?oaieiae/aneeie e yoiia?aoe/aneeie
eieeaeoeeyie, eioi?ua ioaaouaatho ia?eiae io iaeaieeoa aei noaiiaeaiey
ionoeueiaineiai ainoaea?noaa, a iai oaeaea i?aaenoaaeaiu i?iecaaaeaiey
nia?aiaiiuo aoaaineeo ooaeiaeieeia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a aai yeniiceoeee
iaoiaeyony ie. 2,5 oun. i?aaeiaoia.

I?anna e ianniaay eoeueoo?a ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee Aoaaienoaia
?acaeaaeenue a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie oeaico?u. Ia?aay
aacaoa “Oain oi-iaoa?” (“Iieoaeaiiia nieioea”, ia aea?e) auoiaeeea a
Eaaoea a 1873–1878. A ia/. 20 a. ecaeaaaeanue oaeaea aacaoa “Ne?aaeae
oeue-aoaa?” (“Naaoeeueiee iiainoae”, ia aea?e) – iieeoe/aneee ?oii?
aeaeaeaiey “ieaaeiaoaaioeaa”, eiaaoay oe?ieee e?oa /eoaoaeae ca
i?aaeaeaie Aoaaienoaia. ?anoeaao aoaaineie i?annu i?eoiaeeony ia ia?eiae
iinea ainnoaiiaeaiey Aoaaienoaiii iacaaeneiinoe, eiaaea a noieeoea e
i?iaeioeee ecaeaaaeinue aieaa 20-oe aacao e aeo?iaeia. Eiinoeoooeey 1931
aia?aua aa?aioe?iaaea iiieiaeueioth naiaiaeo ia/aoe, ii oaeoe/anee
i?aaeoaeuenoai eiio?iee?iaaei n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. E ia/.
1930-o /anoiua ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey auee cai?auaiu. Iinea i?eiyoey
caeiia i ia/aoe (1951), oi?iaeueii oi?acaeieaoaai i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth
oeaico?o, a Aoaaienoaia auoiaeeei ieiei aeanyoe iacaaeneiuo ecaeaiee,
eioi?ua io?aaeaee iiceoeee ?acee/iuo iieeoe/aneeo a?oii.
I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue eiio?ieue iaae i?annie, oaeanoi/aiiue a 1952 iinea
ianniauo aeaiiino?aoeee a Eaaoea, aue ineaaeai a na?aae. 1960-o. A 1962
ia/aea auoiaeeoue aacaoa “Eaaoe oaein” ia aiaeeeneii ycuea. E 1972 ana
iniiaiua iiiiceoeeiiiua ecaeaiey aiiaue auee cae?uou.

Iinea 1978, a ia?eiae i?aaeaiey IAeIA, ana ioaeeeaoeee auee aiiaue
iiae/eiaiu oeaico?a. Auoiaeeei ianeieueei aaeaaeiaaiuo aacao iauei
oe?aaeii aei 150 oun. yecaiiey?ia, n?aaee ieo – ia/aoaaoayny ia aea?e e
ioooo “Oaeeeaoa eieeeaaa nao?” (“I?aaaea nao?neie ?aaiethoeee”, i?aai
OeE IAeIA, ini. a 1979), “Aien” (“Niaanaaeiee”, i?aai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ioa/anoaaiiiai o?iioa, n 1927) e “Oeaaae” (“Ioa/anoai”, n 1949), a
oaeaea “Eaaoe iueth oaein” ia aiaeeeneii ycuea. Ecaeaaaeenue oaeaea
aaeaiaaeaeueiee aeey aeaiuei “AEaaiaeoi” e ?yae i?iaeioeeaeueiuo aacao.
Ieienoa?noaa, oaeoeueoaou Eaaoeueneiai oieaa?neoaoa, a oaeaea aaiee
auioneaee ?ac a ianyoe eee a eaa?oae nianoaaiiua ia?eiaee/aneea
ecaeaiey. A 1979 ana ecaeaoaeuenoaa auee iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiu. E 1996 a
Aoaaienoaia ecaeaaaeinue 12 aaeaaeiaaiuo aacao, ii ii/oe ana iie auee
cae?uou n i?eoiaeii e aeanoe aeaeaeaiey “Oaeeaai”. Ioeoeeaeueiui
ia/aoiui i?aaiii “Oaeeaai” n 1998 noaea aacaoa “Oa?eao” (“Iooue e
Aeeaoo”). A ia/. 2002 iiaia a?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai no?aiu i?eiyei
caeii, aa?aioe?othuee naiaiaeo i?annu. E 2005 iiyaeeinue aieaa 300
ecaeaiee. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua aacaou e aeo?iaeu – i?ii?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua
“Eaaoe oaein”, “Oeaaae” e “Aien”, /anoiue aaeaiaaeaeueiee “Eaaoe oeeee”
(naiue aieueoie ii oe?aaeo, ini. a 1991, auoiaeeo ia ycueao aea?e e
iaooo). Iiiiceoeeiiiua i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/ay yiea?aioneea, eiatho naie
ecaeaiey ia ianoao. Aieueoeinoai aacao ecaeathony ia?aaoey?ii.

A no?aia, aaea aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey iaa?aiioii, iniaia cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao ?aaeeiaauaiea. O?aineyoeee ia?aaea/ ia/aeenue a 1920-a, ii
ai a?aiy ainnoaiey a 1929 iai?oaeiaaiea ?aaeeinoaioeee auei oie/oiaeaii.
A 1941 auei nicaeaii “?aaeei Eaaoea” (n 1964 ecaanoii eae “?aaeei
Aoaaienoaia”). I?e oaeeaao iii auei ia?aeiaiiaaii a “Aiein Oa?eaoa”,
eioi?ia ia?aaeaaaei iiainoe, ?aeeaeiciua i?ia?aiiu, a oaeaea aaei
ia?aciaaoaeueiua ia?aaea/e ia ianoiuo ycueao. “?aaeei Aoaaienoaia”
aa?ioeinue a yoe? a iiya?a 2001. Naaiaeiy a Eaaoea e ae?oaeo ?aeiiao
Aoaaienoaia neooaoaeyi aeinooiiu ia?aaea/e ianoiuo (“?aaeei Aa?ao”) e
/anoiuo ?aaeeinoaioeee (“A?iai OI”, “?aaeei Oeeeae Eaaoe” e ae?.),
aauathueo a ?acee/iuo aeeaiaciiao, eee ?ao?aineyoeee ca?oaaaeiuo
?aaeeinoaioeee – Ae-Ae-Ne, “Iaiaoeeay aieia”, “?aaeei Naiaiaea” e “Aiein
Aia?eee” (ecaanoia a Aoaaienoaia eae “?aaeei Aoia” (“Ae?oa”)), “?aaeei
Naiaiaeiue Aoaaienoai” (“?aaeei Acaaee”) e ?aaeei “O?ain
eioa?ianeiiaeue”.

Ia?aue oeaio? oeaaoiiai oaeaaeaeaiey aue nicaeai n iiiiuueth ssiiiee a
Eaaoea a 1978. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaeei- e oaeaaauaiea aaeinue a 1980-a
ia aea?e, ioooo e aeanyoe ae?oaeo ycueao. Iaeiaei oaeeau, caoaaoea
noieeoeo a 1996, cae?uee ana oaeaaeceiiiua noaioeee e iaeiaeeee cai?ao
ia oaeaaeceiiiua ia?aaea/e e eeii eae i?ioeai?a/auea aeiaiaoai eneaia.
I?iaiaeeeenue ia?ii?eyoey ii oie/oiaeaieth oaeaaeci?ia. A eii. 2001
ia/aee ?aaioaoue ianeieueei ainoaea?noaaiiuo e /anoiuo oaeaeaiaeia, a
oaeaea ?yae oaeaaeceiiiuo eaaaeueiuo naoae, o?ainee?othueo ia oieueei
iiainoe, ii oaeaea caiaaeiua oeeueiu e iocueo. A i?iaeioeee iaeioi?ua
?aaeei e oaeaaeceiiiua noaioeee iaoiaeyony iiae eiio?ieai ianoiuo
aeanoae e ?acee/iuo iieaauo eiiaiaee?ia, ia aeiioneathueo
?ani?ino?aiaiey iacaaeneiuo n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee a eo ?aeiiao.

Ea?aoaeueiua aeoeee “Eneaineie ia?oee Aoaaienoaia”, aeaeaeaiey “Oaeeaai”
e ae?oaeo a?oiie?iaie iiaeaeaoaaeia iaaaoeaii io?aaeaeenue ia ianniaie
eoeueoo?a. Iiioey?iay iocuea auea cai?auaia, auei oie/oiaeaii iiiaeanoai
aoaeeieannao e aieueoia eiee/anoai aeaeaioaoieee. Iocuea auea cai?auaia
aeaaea ai a?aiy naaaeaaiuo e i?acaeie/iuo ia?ii?eyoee, a 1996 auee
cae?uou eeiioaao?u.

Iinea oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aoiaeiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa auea ainnoaiiaeaia
aoaaineay eeiinooaeey “Aoaaioeeuei”. Aa aicaeaaee Neaeaeee Aa?iae –
iaeaieaa ecaanoiue eeii?aaeenna? Aoaaienoaia, niyaoee oeeuei “Onaia”,
eioi?ue a 2003 iieo/ee i?ec iieiaeaaeiiai aeth?e Eaiineiai oanoeaaey, a
a 2004 – i?anoeaeioth iaa?aaeo Aa?eeineiai eeiioanoeaaey “Cieioie
aeiaon” a iiieiaoeee “Eo/oee ca?oaaaeiue oeeuei”.

Nii?o e i?acaeieee. ?acaeoea nii?oa eii?aeeie?otho Oaaea?aoeey
aoaaineiai nii?oa e Iaoeeiiaeueiue ieeiieeneee eiieoao Aoaaienoaia.
Nii?oniaiu ec Aoaaienoaia aeaathoe?iaaea ia eaoieo Ieeiieeneeo ea?ao a
Aa?eeia a 1936 e o/anoaiaaee ai anao ea?ao. I?e oaeeaao ana oi?iu nii?oa
auee cai?auaiu, a ioaao ia yoi Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ieeiieeneee eiieoao
eneeth/ee Aoaaienoai ec o/anoey a eaoieo Ieeiieeneeo ea?ao a 2000.

Aoaaioeu oaeaeathony oooaieii, oieeaai ia o?aaa, aieaeaieii, aaneaoaieii
e iniaaiii iaoeaaaie (ianoiue aa?eaio eeanne/aneie ai?ueau). Ia naaa?a
Aoaaienoaia i?aeoeeoaony ea?a “aoceaoe” (“eiceiae?aiea”), a eioi?ie
ni?aaiothueany eiiaiaeu anaaeieeia aeieaeiu eae iiaeii auno?aa
aeinoaaeoue oooo aeeaioiiai a e?oa ca oneiaioth eeieth. A ?aeiiao e thao
io Eaaoea ?ani?ino?aiaiu ianoiua eiiiinii?oeaiua ni?aaiiaaiey. Aca?oiuie
ea?aie oaeaeathony ii/oe ana a?oiiu ianaeaiey. Iiiaea aoaaioeu ea?atho a
ia?aeu. N?aaee iiae?inoeia iiioey?iu aie aicaeooiuo ciaaa. ?aeeaeiciua
i?acaeieee a Aoaaienoaia, eae i?aaeei, ioia/athony ii eoiiiio
eaeaiaea?th, iauaainoaea?noaaiiua e naaoneea eiatho oeene?iaaiioth
aeaoo. Iaeaieaa aaaeiue i?acaeiee a Aoaaienoaia – Iaa?oc, eee Iiaue
aiae, eioi?ue i?eoiaeeony ia aeaiue aanaiiaai ?aaiiaeainoaey, o.a. 21
eee 22 ia?oa. Ae?oaea ?aeeaeiciua i?acaeieee – ?aiacai
(o?eaeoeaoeaeiaaiue ionoeueiaineee iino), Eae aeue-oao? (ieii/aiea
iinoa, i?acaeiee ?acaiaaiey), Eae aeue-aaeoa (aea?oaii?eiioaiea),
oeeoneee i?acaeiee “Aoo?a” (aeaiue iiieiiaaiey eiaia Oonaeia).
Iaoeeiiaeueiua i?acaeieee – Aeaiue eneaineie ?aaiethoeee (28 ai?aey),
Aeaiue iiieiiaaiey io/aieeia (4 iay) e Aeaiue iacaaeneiinoe (19
aaaonoa).

ENOI?Ess

Enoi?ey ia?iaeia, ianaeythueo Aoaaienoai, ian/eouaaao ianeieueei ouny/
eao. Oa??eoi?ey nia?aiaiiiai Aoaaienoaia aoiaeeea a ninoaa
iiiai/eneaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee, a a?aiaiaie naia auea
i/aaii aicieeiiaaiey e?oiiaeoeo eiia?ee a ?aaeiia. Iaoiaeynue a oeaio?a
Acee, Aoaaienoai a ae?aaiaa a?aiy e n?aaeiea aaea noaiiaeeny aea?oaie
?aciiai ?iaea iaoanoaee e caaiaaaiee, a iiaia a?aiy ? ianoii
noieeiiaaiey eioa?ania aeaoo aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ? ?innee e Aaeeeia?eoaiee,
a a ia?eiae “oieiaeiie aieiu” a 20 a. ? i?ioeainoiyiey aeaoo ie?iauo
nenoai.

Yoa caiey ciaea ia?eiaeu yeiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?anoeaaoa. Aei
ioe?uoey a 15 a. ii?neiai iooe ec Aa?iiu a Eiaeeth e Eeoae aie?oa
Ao?eee, Aoaaienoai neoaeee e?oiiui iaaeaeoia?iaeiui oi?aiaui
ia?ae?anoeii: /a?ac aai oa??eoi?eth i?ioiaeeei ianeieueei ia?o?ooia
“Aaeeeiai oaeeiaiai iooe” ? n caiaaea ia ainoie (ec Aa?iiu a Eiaeeth e
Eeoae) e n naaa?a ia tha (ec N?aaeiae Acee a Eiaeeth). Caeanue oai?eee
ecaanoiua o/aiua, iiyou, oeeiniou, ooaeiaeieee, i?ienoiaeeei
acaeiiaeaenoaea e niaoaiea ?acee/iuo eoeueoo?, ycueia, ia?iaeia, ieaiai,
?aeeaee e aeaaea oeeaeeecaoeee (yeeeineie, aoaeaeeeneie,
ionoeueiaineie).

A?oaieiae/aneea iaoiaeee, naeaeaiiua a oiaea ?aneiiie,
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi naaa?iua iaeanoe nia?aiaiiiai Aoaaienoaia
auee canaeaiu oaea a yiioo iaeaieeoa (ie. 50 oun. eao iacaae), a e
eiioeo iaieeoa (ie. 4 oun. aei i.y.) a aeieeiao ?ae noaee aicieeaoue
iinaeaiey caieaaeaeueoeaa. A 3 ouny/aeaoee aei i.y. iiyaeeenue i?oaeey
ec iaaee, ia/aeinue canaeaiea thaeiuo iaeanoae no?aiu, a ai 2 oun. aei
i.y. ia aa oa??eoi?eth n caiaaea aoi?aeenue ieaiaia, aiai?eaoea ia
eiaei-e?aineeo (a?eeneeo) ycueao.

?aiiee enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae. E 1-e iieiaeia 1 oun. aei i.y. ioiinyo
ia?aciaaiea caeanue ia?auo ainoaea?noa, ae?aaiaeoeie ec eioi?uo auee
A?aoiney (a ?aeiia Eaiaeaaa?a), A?ay (a ?aeiia Aa?aoa), Aaeo?ey (a
?aeiia Iaca?e-Oa?eoa) e Ieaeey. Ia?aia aeinoiaa?iia oiiieiaiea i caieyo,
ia eioi?uo noi?ie?iaaeny Aoaaienoai, ioiineony e ianeieueeei i?iaeioeeyi
ae?aaiaia?neaeneiai ainoaea?noaa Aoaiaieaeia, iniiaaiiiai Ee?ii Aaeeeei
a na?aaeeia 6 a. aei i.y. Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee ?aca?iiee yoo
aea?aeaao ai a?aiy iioiaea a Eiaeeth a 330–327 aei i.y. Ii caoaaoee
i?iaeioeeth Aaeo?eth, iniiaae oai ai?iae Aeaenaiae?eth-A?eeneoth
(nia?aiaiiue Aa?ao) e aeaieeny ia aaeo?eeneie i?eioeanna ?ienaia. Iinea
nia?oe Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai a 323 aei i.y. aieueoay /anoue yoeo
caiaeue auea i?eniaaeeiaia e aeaaeaieyi Naeaaeeaeia – ainoaea?noaa,
nicaeaiiiai iaeiei ec aai aiaia/aeueieeia – Naeaaeii I Ieeaoi?ii,
ae?oaay aea aioea a ninoaa eiia?ee Iao?ueaa a Eiaeee, iniiaaiiie
*aiae?aaoioa Iao?ueae. Iicaea, n oiaaeeii Naeaaeeaeia e Iao?ueaa, a
na?aaeeia 3 a. aei i.y. a Aaeo?ee ooaa?aeeeanue iiaay a?aei-iaeaaeiineay
aeeianoey, i?aaeoaee eioi?ie iniiaaee A?aei-Aaeo?eeneia oea?noai (256
aei i.y.–130 aei i.y.). A yoio ia?eiae a Oeaio?aeueiie Acee ?anoeaaea
yeeeienoe/aneay eoeueoo?a, aia?aaoay a naay yeaiaiou ianoiuo o?aaeeoeee.
?inee ai?iaea (Aaeo?a, Aioeioey-Ia?aeaia, Eaiena e ae?.), i?aa?auaaoeony
a oeaio?u oi?aiaee e ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A iacenao ?acaeaaeenue
naaeiaiaenoai e aeiia?aaea?noai. Iaeiaei ie. 175 aei i.y. oea?noai
?aniaeinue ia A?aei-Aaeo?eeneia e A?aei-Eiaeeeneia, e anei?a iaa iaee
iiae oaea?aie ei/aaieeia, i?eoaaeoeo ec Oeaio?aeueiie Acee. Ia niaio ei
ai 2 a. aei i.y. i?eoee ia?oyia, onoaiiaeaoea ainiiaenoai iaae /anoueth
Aaeo?ee.

A 7 a. Aoaaienoai iiaeaa?any iaoanoaeth a?aaia, i?eianoeo nthaea iiaoth
?aeeaeth, eneai, e naith eoeueoo?o, eioi?ay anneieee?iaaeanue n ianoiie,
ieacaa neeueiaeoaa aicaeaenoaea ia oa?aeoa? iineaaeothuaai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey Aoaaienoaia.

Ia niaio a?aaai a 10 a. i?eoee n?aaeiaaceaoneea oth?ee, iaeei ec
eeaea?ia eioi?uo, noeoai Iaoioae, nicaeae a 11 a. e?oiiaeooth a ?aaeiia
Aaciaaeaeneoth eiia?eth, a ninoaa eioi?ie aioee E?ai, tha N?aaeiae Acee
n Oi?aciii e naaa?i-caiaaeiay Eiaeey. Aaee/ea aea?aeaau aaciaaeaeneeo
noeoaiia aiieioeeinue a oai?/anoaa ciaiaieouo o/aiuo e iiyoia ?
Oe?aeione, Ae?oie, Oino?e e ae?. A oii aea aaea ?aniaaoayny
Aaciaaeaeneay eiia?ey noaea /anoueth iiaiai ainoaea?noaa aoi?aoeony
nthaea ec N?aaeiae Acee oo?ie-naeueaeaeoeia.

A 13 a. ia caieth aoaaioeaa aoi?aeenue i?aeu *eiaenoaia. Ia ecaaaeae
Aoaaienoai e i/a?aaeiie anneieeyoeee, ia nae ?ac yoie/aneie: iaeiei ec
neaaenoaee iiiaieueneiai iaoanoaey noaei ia?aciaaiea a 14–15 aa. ia aai
oa??eoi?ee iiaie ia?iaeiinoe ? oaca?aeoeaa (naiiiacaaiea oaca?a).

A 14 a. oa??eoi?ey iuiaoiaai Aoaaienoaia noaea /anoueth aeaaeaiee iiaiai
caaiaaaoaey, i?aaeoaey Iaaa?aiiao?a (iaaeaeo?a/uey Aioaea?uee e
Nu?aea?uee) Oeio?a. Ai?i/ai, a ?acoeueoaoa iaaeaeioniaeoe aai eiia?ey
anei?a ?aniaeanue. Iaeiaei aai nui Oao?oo e caoai Noeoai Oonaei Aaeea?a,
iaeei ec oeio?eaeneeo oea?aae/ae, a 15–16 aa. noiaee nicaeaoue
i?ioeaaoathuaa ainoaea?noai a Oi?anaia ni noieeoeae a Aa?aoa. Ii
i?aa?aoeeny a e?oiiaeoee oeaio? ?aianae, oi?aiaee, eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaa
ia Aeeaeiai e N?aaeiai Ainoiea. Ai?iae ii?aaeae aaeeeieaieai a?oeoaeoo?u
(ia/aoe, aeai?oeu, iaae?ana, naaeu, ia?ee, iaacieae) e oai?aieyie iiyoa,
o/aiiai e ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey Aeeoa?a Iaaie, iiyoa-nooey
Aaaeo??aoiaia Aeaeaie, enoi?eeia Ie?oiiaea e Oiiaeaie?a, ianoa?a
ieieaoth?u Aaocaaea. Nthaea i?eacaeaee iineu ec ae?oaeo no?ai. A naith
i/a?aaeue, Oeio?eaeu ioi?aaeyee naie iinieuenoaa a Eiaeeth, Eeoae e
aeaaea Iineianeia ainoaea?noai e oea?th Eaaio III (1490).

A 16 a. enoi?ey ia?iaeia Aoaaienoaia iiiieieeanue aua iaeiei
caaiaaaieai: a 1504 nui i?aaeoaey Oa?aaiu Caoe? aae-Aeei Aaao? caoaaoee
Eaaoe e n iiiiuueth iiie/aiee aoaaineeo ieaiai, ?aca?iiea a aeoaa i?e
Iaieiaoa aeaeeeneiai noeoaia Ea?aoeia Eiaee, i?eniaaeeiee e naiei
aeaaeaieyi Naaa?ioth Eiaeeth aianoa ni noieeoeae a.Aeaee, iniiaaa
aeeianoeth Aaeeeeo Iiaieia. Aai aeanoue, iaeiaei, ia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue
ia thaeiua e caiaaeiua iaeanoe Aoaaienoaia, eioi?ua a iineaaeothuai
noaee iauaeoii ai?ueau iaaeaeo Aaeeeeie Iiaieaie e Naoaaeaeneie
aea?aeaaie. E eii. 17 a. thai-ainoie Aoaaienoaia iaoiaeeeny a
aannaeueiie caaeneiinoe io Aaeeeeo Iiaieia, a tha e caiaae aoiaeeee a
ninoaa ia?neaeneiai ainoaea?noaa Naoaaeaeia.

E ia/. 18 a. a oneiaeyo ineaaeaiey ainoaea?noaa Naoaaeaeia aoaaioeai a
?acoeueoaoa ainnoaiee oaeaeinue nicaeaoue iacaaeneiua eiyaeanoaa a
Eaiaeaaa?a (1709) e Aa?aoa (1716). A 1722 iie niiaee aeaaea niaa?oeoue
iioiae a Ia?neth e caoaaoeoue aa noieeoeo Enoaoai. Iaeiaei iiaue
ia?neaeneee i?aaeoaeue Iaaee?-oao Aooa? a 1736–1737 noiae iaianoe
ii?aaeaiea aoaaioeai e ?ani?ino?aieoue naith aeanoue ia Aa?ao e
Eaiaeaaa?. Ai?i/ai, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aio oaeaeinue niaa?oeoue iioiae
a Eiaeeth e caoaaoeoue Aeaee, aai aeanoue a iaeanoyo, ianaeaiiuo
aoaaioeaie, ieacaeanue iai?i/iie. Iinea aai aeaaee a 1747 aea?aeaaa
Naoaaeaeia ?aniaeanue. *anoue aiene Iaaee? Oaoa, ninoiyaoay ec iiie/aiee
aoaaineeo ieaiai, aa?ioeanue a Eaiaeaaa?.

A ieoya?a 1747 oaiu e?oiiaeoeo iooooineeo ieaiai, nia?aaoenue ia
aeaee?ao (nia?aiea), eca?aee iieiaeiai aiaia/aeueieea Aoiaae-oaia naiei
iaaeeoaoii, iieo/eaoei oeooe Aoiaae-oaoa. Oae auei iieiaeaii ia/aei
aicieeiiaaieth ia?aiai iacaaeneiiai aoaaineiai ainoaea?noaa iiae
iacaaieai “Aeo??aieeneay aea?aeaaa”. A ?acoeueoaoa iiaaaeiiiniuo
iioiaeia Aoiaae-oao i?eniaaeeiee e naiei aeaaeaieyi Aacie, Eaaoe e
Iaoaaa?, a caoai e Aa?ao. Aneaae ca yoei a ninoaa aai ainoaea?noaa aioee
Oi?anai, Aaeoaeaeenoai, Iaiaeaeaa, Eaoie? e Neiae. Ia naaa?a io
Aeiaeoeooa aienea Aoiaae-oaoa iiei?eee ianeieueei iaeeeo ocaaeneeo
oainoa. Aea?aeaaa Aeo??aie a oio ia?eiae auea e?oiiaeoei ainoaea?noaii
N?aaeiaai Ainoiea.

Iinea nia?oe Aoiaae-oaoa a 1774 aai nui Oeio?-oao ia?aian noieeoeo a
Eaaoe. Ai a?aiy aai i?aaeaiey oneeeeenue ainnoaiey e oaiaeaeueiua
iaaeaeioniaeoeu. Ianeaaeiee Oeio?a oao Caiai aaconiaoii iuoaeny iooai
?ai?annee inoaiiaeoue ?aniaae ainoaea?noaa. Ia/aaoeeny i?ioeann
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee Aoaaienoaia i?eaae e ia?aciaaieth ia aai oa??eoi?ee
iacaaeneiuo oaiaeaeueiuo aeaaeaiee, e?oiiaeoeie ec eioi?uo auee /aou?a
eiyaeanoaa ? Aa?aoneia, Eaiaeaaa?neia, Eaaoeueneia e Iaoaaa?neia.

A yoio ia?eiae ia aaainoeaio iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau a ?aaeiia auoiaeyo
a?eoaineea eieiiecaoi?u, a?aieoeu aeaaeaiee eioi?uo oaea iiaeoiaeeee e
aoaaineei oa??eoi?eyi. A naieo ieaiao iie eniieueciaaee caaiaaaoaeueneea
ono?aieaiey i?aaeoaey neeoia ?aiaeaeeo Neiaoa, eioi?ue a 1823
i?eniaaeeiee e naiaio ainoaea?noao (Iaiaeaeaa) e Iaoaaa?neoth iaeanoue.
Iiiuoee i?eoaaeoaai e aeanoe a Eaaoea yie?a Aeino Iooaiiaae-oaia
aa?iooue oo?a/aiiua caiee ieii/eeenue iaoaea/ae. Eniieuecoy a ea/anoaa
i?aaeeiaa aeey aoi?aeaiey i?aauaaiea a Eaaoea ?inneeneiai i?aaenoaaeoaey
ii?o/eea E.Aeoeaae/a e iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe
naaa?i-caiaaeiuo a?aieoe eieiieaeueiuo aeaaeaiee, aiaee/aia a 1838
aeaeioee naie aienea ia Aoaaienoai. Anei?a iie caiyee Eaaoe e
i?iaicaeaneee i?aaeoaeai naith ia?eiiaoeo oaoa Ooaeaeo. Oae ia/aeanue
ia?aay aiaei-aoaaineay aieia.

Iinea iaaeieaeo iiiuoie aa?iooueny e aeanoe yie? Aeino Iooaiiaae naeaeny
a?eoaineei aeanoyi e aue ioi?aaeai a Eiaeeth. Oai a?aiaiai iiuiia
ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea auioaeeei ieeoiaioia iieeiooue Aoaaienoai. I?e
ionooieaiee any eo a?iey auea oie/oiaeaia. Iiaoi?iay iiiuoea aiaee/ai a
1842 ieeoie?iaaoue no?aio aiiaue ieii/eeanue iaoaea/ae. E aeanoe
aa?ioeny yie? Aeino Iooaiiaae. A 1850-a aio oaeaeinue iauaaeeieoue
?ac?iciaiiua iaeanoe Aoaaienoaia. Iaeiaei a 1855 ii aue auioaeaeai
iiaeienaoue n aiaee/aiaie aeiaiai?, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee eo i?aaa ia
Iaoaaa? e ae?oaea aoaaineea iaeanoe, caoaa/aiiua eie ?aiaa. Iinea
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo iaaeaeioniaeoe a ai?ueaa ca aeanoue a no?aia yie?ii
Aoaaienoaia a 1869 noae Oa? Aee-oai, eioi?ue i?iaae ?yae aiaiiuo,
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo, oeiainiauo e eoeueoo?iuo ?aoi?i.

Iaaeaeo oai a?eoaineea eieiiecaoi?u anooieee a ino?ia niia?ie/anoai n
?inneae, ?acaa?ioaoae ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 a. oe?ieoth yeniaineth a
N?aaeiae Acee. A 1878 aeey onoaiiaeaiey ioiioaiee n Aoaaienoaiii a Eaaoe
i?eauea ?inneeneay aeeieiiaoe/aneay ienney aaia?aea Noieaoiaa. Aiaee/aia
iio?aaiaaee io yie?a auneaoue aa e i?eiyoue a?eoaineia iinieuenoai.
Iinea iieo/aiey ioeaca Aaeeeia?eoaiey aoi?aeanue a Aoaaienoai, ?acaycaa
aoi?oth aiaei-aoaaineoth aieio.

Yie? Oa? Aee-oai iieeioe noieeoeo, ioi?aaeaoenue ia naaa? no?aiu, aaea
anei?a oia?. Aai ianeaaeiee yie? sseoa iioae ia naiai? n aiaee/aiaie e a
1879 iiaeienae Aaiaeaiaeneee aeiaiai?, ii eioi?iio no?aia oaeoe/anee
oa?yea iacaaeneiinoue. Anaaeanoea a?eoaineeo ieeoiaioia anei?a aucaaei
aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea a Eaaoea, a oiaea eioi?iai aanue a?eoaineee
aa?iecii aue oie/oiaeai. Aiaee/aia auee auioaeaeaiu aiiaue i?aaei?eiyoue
iioiae ia Eaaoe, yie?a sseoaa naa?aioee e ioi?aaeee a Eiaeeth, iaeiaei
aeanoue eieiiecaoi?ia a no?aia inoaaaeanue iai?i/iie.

Iiae iaii?ii aioeeieiieaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey aiaee/aia auee auioaeaeaiu
i?eciaoue yie?ii Aoaaienoaia aa?ioaoaainy ec yiea?aoeee a ?innee
ieaiyiieea Oa? Aee-oaia Aaaeo??aoiaia. Iaeiaei iie ia oioaee ioaeaaaoue
yie?o Eaiaeaaa?, aaea i?aaee eo noaaeaiiee. Oiaaea a ai?ueao i?ioea ieo
anooiee i?aaeoaeue Aa?aoa Iooaiiaae Atha-oai, eioi?ue ni naieie aieneaie
27 ethey 1880 iaian e?oiiia ii?aaeaiea aiaee/aiai i?e Iaeaaiaea aeec
Eaiaeaaa?a. A eoiaa a aieia ianooiee ia?aeii, /oi canoaaeei a?eoaioeaa
iieeiooue no?aio. Iaeiaei yie? Aaaeo??aoiai, ?ani?ino?aieaoee naith
aeanoue ia Eaiaeaaa? e Aa?ao, aue auioaeaeai iieoe ia onooiee aiaee/aiai
e niaeaneoueny ia a?eoaineee eiio?ieue iaae aiaoiae iieeoeeie
Aoaaienoaia. A 1893 ii iiaeienae niaeaoaiea n a?eoaineei i?aaenoaaeoaeai
ei?aeii Aeth?aiaeii, ii eioi?iio ianaeaiiua ainoi/iuie iooooiaie
oa??eoi?ee, iooi?aiooua ?aiaa io Aoaaienoaia, auee i?eniaaeeiaiu e
eieiieaeueiui aeaaeaieyi Aaeeeia?eoaiee. A aiaeu naiaai i?aaeaiey yie?
Aaaeo??aoiai iiaeaaee ainnoaiey iooooineeo ieaiai e oaca?aeoeaa, neeie
caoaaoee iieoiacaaeneiua iaeanoe Aoaaineiai Oo?eanoaia e Eaoe?enoai
(iaeanoue ia ainoiea no?aiu, ianaeaiioth eaoe?aie, eioi?uo ii ia?aoee a
eneai). Iaeiia?aiaiii yie? i?iaae na?eth ?aoi?i, oeaeueth eioi?uo auei
oe?aieaiea no?oeoo?u ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e naiie aeanoe.
I?iaaaey ?aca?aie/aiey n ?inneae e Aaeeeia?eoaieae, Aoaaienoai iieo/ee
naie ainoaea?noaaiiua a?aieoeu. Oaeei ia?acii, oe?aiea aeanoue ia anae
oa??eoi?ee no?aiu, yie? Aaaeo??aoiai nicaeae aaeeiia oeaio?aeeciaaiiia
aoaaineia ainoaea?noai n aeanoeei aaniethoenoneei ?aaeeiii.

Aoaaienoai a 20 a. Iinea nia?oe Aaaeo??aoiaia a 1901 yie?ii aue
i?iaicaeaoai aai nui Oaaeaoeea-oai. A 1905 ii iiaeienae n aiaee/aiaie
aeiaiai?, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee iaycaoaeuenoaa iooea. Oaaeaoeea i?iaae
iaeioi?ua iiaa?oiinoiua ?aoi?iu. Iaeiaei Aoaaienoai i?iaeieaeae
inoaaaoueny eciee?iaaiiie no?aiie, aiaoiyy iieeoeea eioi?ie iaoiaeeeanue
iiae a?eoaineei eiio?ieai. A 1907 ?inney e Aaeeeia?eoaiey iiaeienaee
Niaeaoaiea i ?aca?aie/aiee noa? aeeyiey a Acee, eioi?ia cae?aieei
caaeneiue noaoon Aoaaienoaia. Yoi niaeaoaiea iineoaeeei iniiaie aeey
iineaaeothuaai oi?ie?iaaiey Aioaiou. A 1906 a no?aia aicieeei
iiiiceoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea noi?iiieeia aaaaeaiey eiinoeoooeee. A 1909 iii
auei ?aca?iieaii, iaeiaei anei?a i?ioeaieee ?aaeeia nicaeaee iiaia
aeaeaeaiea “ieaaeiaoaaioeaa”, o?aaiaaaoeo iacaaeneiinoe e ia?aie/aiey
aaniethoecia. A aiaeu Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu Aoaaienoai i?eaea?aeeaaeny
iaeo?aeueiiai eo?na, ianiio?y ia iaaeei, ieacaiiue ia iaai
Aano?i-Aaia?eae e Aa?iaieae, eioi?ua iuoaeenue i?eaea/ue Aoaaienoai ia
naith noi?iio.

A 1919 yie? Oaaeaoeea aue oaeo, e aeanoe i?eoae aai nui Aiaioeea,
?acaeaeyaoee eaeae ieaaeiaoaaioeaa. Ioeac Aaeeeia?eoaiee i?eciaoue
iacaaeneiinoue Aoaaienoaia i?eaae e o?aoueae aiaei-aoaaineie aieia,
caaa?oeaoaeny iiaeienaieai oae iacuaaaiiai I?aeeieia?iiai niaeaoaiey, a
eioi?ii aiaee/aia einaaiii i?eciaee iacaaeneiue Aoaaienoai. Eaeay
iacaaeneiinoe no?aiu auea iiaeaea?aeaia Niaaoneie ?inneae, eioi?ay a iaa
1919 onoaiiaeea aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n Aoaaienoaiii. A 1921
Aoaaienoai iiaeienae Aeiaiai? i ae?oaeaa n ?inneae, ca?o/eaoenue
iaauaieai aa iiiiue. A oii aea aiaeo Eaaoe iiaeienae aeiaiai? n
Aaeeeia?eoaieae, iiaeoaa?aeeaoee iacaaeneiinoue no?aiu. 31 ia?oa 1926
Niaaoneee Nithc caeeth/ee n Aoaaienoaiii Aeiaiai? i iaeo?aeeoaoa e
acaeiiii iaiaiaaeaiee (Iaaiaineee iaeo).

Ia oiia oniaoia ai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie noa?a yie? Aiaioeea i?iaae na?eth
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, iaoeaeaiiuo ia
eeeaeaeaoeeth oaiaeaeecia. Ia?aay eiinoeoooeey Aoaaienoaia, i?eiyoay 9
ai?aey 1923, iauyaeea iineoaeai aa?oiaiie aeanoe yie?a, ii aianoa n oai
iia aeaeea?e?iaaea ?aaainoai anao iiaeaeaiiuo ia?aae caeiiii e ioiaio
iaeioi?uo oaiaeaeueiuo iiaeiiinoae, a oaeaea i?iaicaeaoaea iaeioi?ua
aa?aioee (naiaiaea ee/iinoe, ia/aoe, iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue eiouanoaa).
?aoi?iu cao?iioee i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey: aeey ianoaeaeaiey
e ooaa?aeaeaiey caeiiii?iaeoia, athaeaeaoa e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia
nicaeaaaeny ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, iaaeaeyaoeeny niaauaoaeueiuie
ooieoeeyie, oiaaea eae eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue ia?aaeaaaeanue eaaeiaoo
ieieno?ia. Iaeiaei eiinoeoooeey 1923 aeaenoaiaaea iaaeieai. E?ecen,
aicieeoee a eii. 1920-o, caaa?oeeny i?eoiaeii e aeanoe iiaie aeeianoee.

A 1928 ei?ieue Aiaioeea niaa?oee aeeeoaeueioth iiacaeeo ii no?aiai Acee
e Aa?iiu. A oiaea iiacaeee ii ca?o/eeny iaauaieyie ?yaea aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai ia yeiiiie/aneie iiiiue. Iinea aica?auaiey ei?ieue i?aaeeiaeee
iiaoth na?eth ?aoi?i, ia iieo/eaooth iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey. A yiaa?a
1929 a ?acoeueoaoa iiuiiai aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey Aiaioeea
aue naa?aioo e iieeioe no?aio.

E aeanoe i?eoae noaaeaiiee eiina?aaoeaiie iiiiceoeee oaaeaeee Oaaeaoeea
(Aa/ae Naeai). Ii ioiaiee ana ?aoi?iu Aiaioeeu, iiaa?ioa ?acaeoea no?aiu
aniyoue. Iiiuoee ?acee/iuo i?aoaiaeaioia ia i?anoie caoaaoeoue aeanoue
caeii/eeenue i?iaaeii. Iaoaea/iie ieacaeanue iiiuoea Iineau a 1929 iooai
aiaiiie eioa?aaioeee iiaeaea?aeaoue noi?iiieeia iiaeueiiai Aiaioeeu. 15
ieoya?y 1929 Iaaee?-oai aue i?iaicaeaoai ei?ieai Aoaaienoaia. Aai
iieeoeea iieo/eea io?aaeaiea a eiinoeoooeee 1931, nio?aiyaoae
iiia?oe/aneoth oi?io i?aaeaiey. A oi aea a?aiy eiinoeoooeey
i?aaeoniao?eaaea nicaeaiea aeaooiaeaoiiai ia?eaiaioa n iinoiyiiui
auai?iui i?aaiii (Ia?iaeiue niaao) e iacia/aaiui naiaoii (Niaao
noa?aeoei). Ii aeanoiei ?ani?aaeeny n iiiiceoeeae (noi?iiieeaie
Aiaioeeu), i?iaae oia?aiiua ?aoi?iu, aaae iiaoth eiinoeoooeeth,
cae?aieaooth aeanoue caiaeueiie a?enoie?aoee e e?oiiiai oi?aiaiai
eaieoaea. A 1933 ii aue oaeo. E aeanoe i?eoae aai nui Iooaiiaae Caoe?
Oao, iaeiaei oaeoe/anee aeanoue ieacaeanue a ?oeao aai aeyaee –
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Oaoei-oaia, nicaeaaoaai aeaniioe/aneee ?aaeei. A eii.
1930-o ia/aeanue iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneay yeniainey Aa?iaiee a
Aoaaienoaia, eioi?iio ioaiaeeeanue aaaeiay ?ieue a ieaiao Aa?eeia a
ioiioaiee Eiaeee. A 1941 Eaaoe iiae iaaeeiii i?aaeoaeuenoa NNN? e
Aaeeeia?eoaiee aue auioaeaeai auneaoue oaoenoneoth aaaioo?o ec no?aiu.
Ai Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia Aoaaienoai i?eaea?aeeaaeny iaeo?aeeoaoa.

A 1946 e aeanoe i?eoei i?aaeoaeuenoai ae?oaiai aeyaee ei?iey – Oao
Iaoioaea. A no?aia aicieeee ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneea iiiiceoeeiiiua
a?oiie?iaee, o?aaiaaaoea aeaiie?aoecaoeee iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie
aeecie. A 1952 iie auee ?aca?iieaiu. A 1953 i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii noae
aeaith?iaeiue a?ao ei?iey Iooaiiaae Aeaoae, iieiaeeaoee ia/aei
iiaea?iecaoeee no?aiu iooai nicaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a a
yeiiiieea. N 1955 caaycaeenue oaniua yeiiiie/aneea e aiaiiua nayce
iaaeaeo Aoaaienoaiii e Niaaoneei Nithcii. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu a
Aoaaienoaia i?e oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneii e oeiainiaii niaeaenoaee NNN? auee
iino?iaiu e?oiiaeoea i?iiuoeaiiua iauaeou.

A 1963 ei?ieue ioi?aaee Aeaoaea a ionoaaeo. A 1964 i?eiyoa iiaay,
eeaa?aeueiay eiinoeoooeey, ?anoe?eaoay iieiiii/ey ia?eaiaioa e
?ac?aoeaoay aeayoaeueiinoue iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee. Iiaue iniiaiie caeii
caeiaeee iniiau aeey iiaea?iecaoeee no?aiu, iieo/eaoae iacaaiea
“aeaiie?aoe/aneee yenia?eiaio”, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeaee ?acaeaeaiea
aaoaae aeanoe, aeayoaeueiinoue iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, ecaeaiea
/anoiuo aacao e aeo?iaeia, naiaiaeiua auai?u a ia?eaiaio.

A 1965 auea nicaeaia “Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia”
(IAeIA) ai aeaaa n Io? Iooaiiaaeii Oa?aee, i?iaicaeaneaoay
no?ieoaeuenoai a no?aia nioeeaeecia. A 1967 iia ?aneieieinue ia aeaa
o?aeoeee – ?aaeeeaeueioth “Oaeuee” (“Ia?iae”) e eeaa?aeueioth “Ia?/ai”
(“Ciaiy”). Iiyaeeenue e ae?oaea iiiiceoeeiiiua ia?oee – io
eaaiyeno?aienoneeo aei i?aaieea?eeaeueiuo.

E ia/. 1970-o a no?aia iac?ae nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee e?ecen. A 1973
auaoee i?aiuea?-ieieno? Aeaoae aicaeaaee ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io e
i?iaicaeanee Aoaaienoai ?anioaeeeie. Aue oi?acaeiai ia?eaiaio e
cai?auaiu iieeoe/aneea ia?oee. I?iaaaeaiu iaeioi?ua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?aia?aciaaiey a eioa?anao n?aaeiaai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. A 1977 i?eiyoa iiaay eiinoeoooeey, cae?aieaoay
aeanoue Aeaoaea, e ii aue eca?ai i?aceaeaioii no?aiu. Ai aiaoiae
iieeoeea oneeeeanue i?eaioaoeey ia E?ai e no?aiu Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa,
iaauaaoea e?oiioth yeiiiie/aneoth iiiiuue Aoaaienoaio. A oii aea aiaeo
i?iecioei oi?iaeueiia iauaaeeiaiea o?aeoeee “Oaeuee” e “Ia?/ai”.

27 ai?aey 1978 IAeIA inouanoaeea ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io
(“Ai?aeueneoth ?aaiethoeeth”) e i?iaicaeaneea Aeaiie?aoe/aneoth
?anioaeeeo Aoaaienoai (Ae?A). I?aceaeaio Aeaoae aue oaeo. Aeaaie
ainoaea?noaa e i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii noae eeaea? IAeIA Oa?aee. A iaa 1978
i?iaicaeaoaiu “Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiuo caaea/” – i?ia?aiia
?aaeeeaeueiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i. Anei?a a ia?oee aiiaue
i?iecioae ?aneie, aeanoue caoaaoeea o?aeoeey “Oaeuee”, eioi?ay
?acaa?ioea ?ai?annee i?ioea “ia?/aienoia” e ae?oaeo eiaeiiuneyueo. Ana
ae?oaea iieeoe/aneea ia?oee ieacaeenue aia caeiia.

A oneiaeyo oneeeaoaeny aioo?eia?oeeiie ai?ueau ?aaeei IAeIA i?enooiee e
i?iaaaeaieth ?aoi?i – inaiaiaeaeaieth e?anoueyi io aeieaiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa, iaania/aieth ?aaiii?aaey ioae/ei e aeaiuei, caiaeueiie
?aoi?iu. Yoe iiaiaaaaeaiey i?ioeai?a/eee onoiyi o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
aoaaineiai iauanoaa (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ii?iai eneaia), e ia auee
i?eiyou aieueoeinoaii ianaeaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa iie noieeioeenue n
ianniaui nii?ioeaeaieai ai aeaaa n ?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneeie ia?oeyie
eneaienoia, iauyaeaoeo aeaeeoaae aaoi?eoa?iiio ?aaeeio. Ai aiaoiae
iieeoeea eaaoeueneee ?aaeei i?iaiaeee i?eaioaoeeth ia Niaaoneee Nithc, n
eioi?ui a aeaeaa?a 1978 caeeth/ee Aeiaiai? i ae?oaeaa, aeia?ininaaenoaa
e nio?oaeie/anoaa.

A naioya?a 1979 aeeaeaeoee niiaeaeaeiee aeaau ainoaea?noaa Oaoecoeea
Aiei, caieiaaoee iino “ia?aiai ieieno?a”, inouanoaee ainoaea?noaaiiue
ia?aai?io, caiya aunoea iinou a no?aia e ?acaa?ioa aeanoi/aeoea
?ai?annee i?ioea eiaeiiuneyueo. AEa?oaie ?ai?annee noae e naa?aiooue
eeaea? IAeIA Oa?aee, eioi?ue ii i?eeaco Aieia aue oaeo 8 ieoya?y 1979.

Aeaii?aeecaoeey e oaeoe/aneee ?acaae a?iee, ianniaia aaanoai aoaaioeaa
ca ?oaaae, aiaiiua oniaoe iiiiceoeee, iaoaea/e ?aoi?iaoi?neie iieeoeee
iinoaaeee iiae oa?ico naii nouanoaiaaiea ?aaeeia Aieia. A ioaao ia
iaiaeiie?aoiua ia?auaiey Oa?aee e caoai Aieia i i?yiie aiaiiie iiiiue,
Niaaoneee Nithc a eiioea aeaeaa?y 1979 aaae aienea a Aoaaienoai. 27
aeaeaa?y /anoe niaaoneiai niaoeiaca acyee ooo?iii ?aceaeaioeeth Aieia,
ai a?aiy eioi?iai ii aue oaeo. Aeanoue ia?aoea e i?eauaoaio n niaaoneeie
/anoyie eeaea?o o?aeoeee “Ia?/ai” Aaa?aeo Ea?iaeth.

Iaeiaei o/anoea NNN? a aoaaineie aieia ia noi?iia iaeiie ec iieeoe/aneeo
nee aua aieaa aeanoaaeeece?iaaei neooaoeeth a Aoaaienoaia. Iiiiceoeey,
i?aaenoaaeaiiay ?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneeie ia?oeyie ni ooaa-eaa?oe?aie a
Iaoaaa?a (Iaeenoai), a naith i/a?aaeue iieo/aea aiaiioth e oeiainiaoth
iiiiuue Caiaaea e ?yaea no?ai Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea, /oi oneeeaaei eiioeeeo.

Iiiuoee Ea?iaey ?anoe?eoue nioeeaeueioth aaco ?aaeeia i?e nio?aiaiee
iaeiiia?oeeiie no?oeoo?u aeanoe ieacaeenue aaconiaoiuie. A 1986 ia iinoo
aeaau ainoaea?noaa aai niaiee Iaaeaeeaoeea. Ii iuoaeny eeaa?aeeciaaoue
?aaeei, i?iaicaeanea iiiaiia?oeeioth nenoaio i?e nio?aiaiee oaeoe/aneie
iiiiiieee IAeIA ia aeanoue. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaiaeeeny eo?n ia
iaoeeiiaeueiia i?eie?aiea, eioi?ue iiiiceoeey ioaa?aea.

Iinea iaoaea/iuo iiiuoie o?aaoee?iaaoue aoaaineee eiioeeeo aiaiiui iooai
niaaoneia ?oeiaiaenoai iiaeienaei a ia?oa 1988 AEaiaaneea niaeaoaiey ii
Aoaaienoaio, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ia/aeny auaiae niaaoneeo aiene,
caaa?oeaoeeny a oaa?aea 1989.

Iinea iiaeienaiey a naioya?a 1991 niaaonei-aia?eeaineiai niaeaoaiey i
i?ae?auaiee iinoaaie i?oaeey eiioeeeoothuei noi?iiai a Aoaaienoaia e ia
oiia ?acaaea nioeeaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu ?aaeei Iaaeaeeaoeeu aue ia?a/ai.
A ai?aea 1992 io?yaeu iiiiceoeee aioee a Eaaoe. Aeanoue a no?aia ia?aoea
e eeaea?ai aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie eneaienoia. IAeIA auea
iauyaeaia aia caeiia. 28 ai?aey 1992 no?aia auea i?iaicaeaoaia Eneaineei
Ainoaea?noaii Aoaaienoai. I?aceaeaioii no?aiu noae iaeei ec eeaea?ia
iiaeaeaoaaeia, Naaaaooeea I.Iiaeaeaaeaeeaee. 28 ethiy 1992 n?ie
a?aiaiiuo i?aceaeaioneeo iieiiii/ee Iiaeaeaaeaeeaee enoae, aeanoue
ia?aoea e i?aceaeaioo Ao?oaioaeaeeio ?aaaaie. Iaeiaei i?ioeai?a/ey a
noaia iiaaaeeoaeae anei?a ia?a?inee a e?oiiiianooaaiia aiaiiia
i?ioeainoiyiea. Oieueei a aeaeaa?a 1992 ?aaaaie aue eca?ai i?aceaeaioii
Aoaaienoaia, ii aieueoeinoai aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo nee no?aiu ioeacaeenue
i?eciaoue aai i?aaiii/iinoue. I?aaiu caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe ieii/aoaeueii oae e ia auee noi?ie?iaaiu.

A Aoaaienoaia oaeoe/anee ?acaa?ioeanue iaaeaeioniaiay aieia iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie a?oiie?iaeaie iiaeaeaoaaeia, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo yeiiiieea
i?eoea a oiaaeie, a ?acee/iuo ?aeiiao no?aiu aicieeaee ?aaeiiaeueiua
i/aae aeanoe, ia iiae/eiyaoeany oeaio?aeueiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao. A
ianoaiiaea anaiauaai e?ecena inaiueth 1994 aicieeei
?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea “Oaeeaai”, yae?i eioi?iai ninoiyei ec
o/aueony iaae?ana (oaeeaia). Iiaeaioiaeaiiua a iaae?ao iaeenoaineeo
?aeeaeiciuo oeie e niiine?oaiua iaaeaieneiaie ?acaaaeeie Iaeenoaia,
caiaaeiuo no?ai e yeno?aienoneeie ?aeeaeiciuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, oaeeau
anei?a ?ani?ino?aieee naith aeanoue ia caiaaea, thaa e ainoiea
Aoaaienoaia, a a naioya?a 1996 caoaaoeee Eaaoe. Ai aeaaa aeaeaeaiey
noiye ioeea Iia?, eioi?ue i?iaicaeanee nicaeaiea Eneaineiai Yie?aoa
Aoaaienoai. A no?aia aue onoaiiaeai aeanoi/aeoee oaie?aoe/aneee ?aaeei,
a ?aieao eioi?iai iiaeaaeyeenue yeaiaioa?iua i?aaa e naiaiaeu aoaaioeaa.
A aeaeueiaeoai aienea oaeeaia i?aaei?eiyee ianooieaiea ia naaa?
Aoaaienoaia, e e ia/. 21 a. eiio?iee?iaaee 90% oa??eoi?ee no?aiu.
Nii?ioeaeaiea ei ieacuaae Naaa?iue aeueyin – eiaeeoeey a?oiie?iaie
iiaeaeaoaaeia ai aeaaa n Aoiaae Oaoii Ianoaeii.

A 1996 a Aoaaienoaia iiyaeeny Inaia aai Eaaeai, iaeaaeeaoee
nio?oaeie/anoai n ?aaeeiii oaeeaia. Ii i?aaieciaae naoue aiaiiuo aac e
eaaa?ae ii iiaeaioiaea oa??i?enoia, eioi?ua ia?ai?aaeyeenue a ai?y/ea
oi/ee ieaiaou (Einiai, *a/iy, Ocaaeenoai, Neiueoecyi, Eaoie?), aaea
o/anoaiaaee a aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueaa ia noi?iia naia?aoenoia e eneaineeo
yeno?aienoia. Oneeeyie aai Eaaeaia e aai i?aaiecaoeee “Aeue-Eaeaea”
Aoaaienoai i?aa?aoeeny a e?oiiaeoee i/aa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oa??i?ecia.
Iinea ioeaca ?aaeeia oaeeaia auaeaoue Onaio aai Eaaeai i?aainoaeeth,
Niaao aaciianiinoe III 14 iiya?y 1999 i?iaieiniaae ca iaeiaeaiea ia
Aoaaienoai yeiiiie/aneeo naieoeee, i?aaeoniao?eaaaoeo caii?aaeeaaiea
eiino?aiiuo aaieianeeo aeoeaia i?aaeoaeuenoaa oaeeaia, cai?auaiea
iieaoia aoaaineie aaeaeiiiaiee “A?eaia Aoaai Ye?eaeic” e ae?.

Oai a?aiaiai, a no?aia neeaaeuaaeanue oyaeaeay aoiaieoa?iay neooaoeey.
Ii ioeaieai, ia iaiaa iieieeeeiia /aeiaae iieeioee naie aeiia, nianaynue
io aiaa e aieiaea, aucaaiiiai iineaaenoaeyie canooe. Iaeaieaa oyaeaeay
neooaoeey neiaeeeanue a eaaa?yo aaaeaioeaa e caiaaeo io Aa?aoa. E oioy
Naaa?iue aeueyin e “Oaeeaai” niaeaneeenue aiciaiiaeoue ia?aaiai?u,
ninoiyaoeany a Aooaaaaea a aeaeaa?a 2000, iie ia i?eianee iuooeiuo
?acoeueoaoia.

Iiaua naieoeee, iaeiaeaiiua Niaaoii Aaciianiinoe III ia “Oaeeaai” a
aeaeaa?a 2000, a o./. yiaa?ai ia iinoaaee i?oaeey, i?eaaee e auoiaeo
oaeeaia ec ia?aaiai?iiai i?ioeanna. Iioa?ya iaaeaaeaeo ia i?eciaiea, 26
oaa?aey 2001 Iia? ecaeae aeae?ao ia oie/oiaeaiee anao iauaeoia
iieeiiaiey aeieneaineiai ia?eiaea. Auee oie/oiaeaiu aeaa oieeaeueiuo
iaiyoieea 5 a. – auna/aiiua a neaea aeaaioneea neoeueioo?u Aoaeaeu. Aua
aieueoaa aiciouaiea ie?iaie iauanoaaiiinoe aucaae i?eiyoue a iaa 2001
aeae?ao, i?aaeienuaaaoee iaionoeueiaiai iineoue ia naiae iaeaaeaea
aeaeoue cia/ie, eioi?ie au /aoei oeacuaae ia ieo eae ia iaionoeueiai.
Iaaethaeaoaee ?aoeoaeueii inoaeeee yoio aeano, iaiiieiathuee a?aiaia
i?aneaaeiaaiey aa?aaa a Aa?iaiee. A ethea 2001 Niaao Aaciianiinoe III
i?eiye iiaoth ?aciethoeeth, oaeanoi/ea naieoeee a ioiioaiee “Oaeeaaia”.

Iinea oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoia a Iueth-Ei?ea 11 naioya?y 2001,
i?aaiecaoi?aie eioi?uo aaeieieno?aoeey NOA iacaaea “Aeue-Eaeaeo” e Inaio
aai Eaaeaia, aia?eeaineay aaeieieno?aoeey iaianea aiaiiue oaea? ii aacai
oa??i?enoia. Aeaaiie neeie aeey nooiiooiiai ianooieaiey ia aienea
oaeeaia noaee aii?oaeaiiua neeu Naaa?iiai aeueyina, eioi?ua iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea I.Oaoeia e i?e iiaeaea?aeea AAN NOA,
oie/oiaeeaoeo aiaiioth eio?ano?oeoo?o oaeeaia, i?iaaee oniaoiia
ianooieaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai 9 iiya?y aue acyo ai?iae
Iaca?e-Oa?eo – eeth/aaie ioieo iai?iiu oaeeaia. 13 iiya?y aienea
Naaa?iiai aeueyina acyee Eaaoe, a 26 iiya?y caiyee Eoiaeoc, iineaaeiee
ai?iae, eioi?ue oaea?aeeaaeny oaeeaaie ia naaa?a.

E aeaeaa?th oaeeau ionooieee ia tha, e Kaiaeaaa?o. Iinea aai iaaeaiey
inoaoee oaeeaia aaaeaee a Iaeenoai eee oe?ueenue a ai?ao ia ainoiea
Aoaaienoaia, ii i?iaeieaeaee ieacuaaoue nii?ioeaeaiea eiino?aiiui
aieneai.

Aoaaienoai a ia/aea 21 aaea. A ia/aea aeaeaa?y 2001 ia eiioa?aioeee a
Aiiia, i?aaieciaaiiie ii eieoeeaoeaa III, iiiiceoeeiiiua oaeeaai
aoaaineea o?aeoeee (“Naaa?iue aeueyin”, “?eineee i?ioeann”, “Eei?neay
a?oiia” e “Iaoaaa?neia niaeaoaiea”), au?aaioaee iniiaiua i?eioeeiu
iiaiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aono?ienoaa Aoaaienoaia e aeiaiai?eeenue i
oi?ie?iaaiee A?aiaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee n iaiaeaoii ia oanoue ianyoeaa.
22 aeaeaa?y 2001 A?aiaiioth aaeieieno?aoeeth Aoaaienoaia aicaeaaee
Oaieae Ea?cae, iooooineee iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue, aeeceee e auaoaio
ei?ieth Caoe? Oaoo. A ethia 2002 a Eaaoea auea nicaaia /?acau/aeiay Eiey
aeaee?aa, ia eioi?ie iinea aeieaeo e o?oaeiuo ia?aaiai?ia Oaieae Ea?cae
aue eca?ai a?aiaiiui i?aceaeaioii “Ia?aoiaeiiai Eneaineiai Ainoaea?noaa
Aoaaienoai” e noi?ie?iaaia Ia?aoiaeiay aaeieieno?aoeey Aoaaienoaia. A
iieneao oeiainiaie iiiiue ia ?aeiino?oeoeeth no?aiu Ka?cae ia?aoeeny e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui oeiainiaui einoeoooai e aaaeouei ?acaeoui no?aiai ie?a.
A yiaa?a 2002 Aoaaienoaio auei aa?aioe?iaaii i?aaeinoaaeaiea noiiu a 4,2
ie?ae. aeiee. NOA ia ainnoaiiaeaiea yeiiiieee.

Iaeiaei iinea ?aca?iia iniiaiuo nee oaeeaia a 2001 a. NOA e eo
nithcieeai ii eiaeeoeee ia i?ioyaeaiee 2002 i?eoeinue iaiaeiie?aoii
i?iaiaeeoue aiaaua iia?aoeee n o/anoeai aoaaineeo aieineeo /anoae i?ioea
iai?eie?eiuo eneaienoia. A ethea 2002 a Eaaoea aue cano?aeai iaeei ec
aeoea-i?aceaeaioia no?aiu Oaaeaee Aaaeoe Eaaeu?, a a naioya?a oiai aea
aiaea a Kaiaeaaa?a auei niaa?oaii iieooaiea ia Ea?cay.

E ia/. 2003 oaeeau noiaee ia?aa?oiie?iaaoue naie neeu e ?acaa?ioee
ia?oecaineoth aieio i?ioea i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ea?cay e eiino?aiiuo aiene,
?aciauaiiuo a Aoaaienoaia. Iie oaeoe/anee eiio?iee?iaaee ?yae naeueneeo
?aeiiia a thaeiuo e thai-ainoi/iuo i?iaeioeeyo. Iieiaeaiea onoaoaeyeinue
ia i?ae?auathuaeny ai?ueaie iaaeaeo iieaauie eiiaiaee?aie, eioi?ua
oi?aaeyee aieueoae /anoueth no?aiu e eeoue iiieiaeueii i?eciaaaee aeanoe
a Eaaoea. Oae, a ia?oa 2003 aaia?ae A.Aeinooi, eiio?iee?iaaaoee naaa?iua
?aeiiu no?aiu, oaeoe/anee noi?ie?iaae nianoaaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai o.i.
Naaa?iie ciiu Aoaaienoaia. A yoeo oneiaeyo i?aaeoaeuenoaii Ea?cay auea
i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea ia?aie/eoue aeanoue e aeeyiea auaoeo iieaauo
eiiaiaee?ia, iniaaiii Aeinooia ia naaa?a e Eniaee-oaia ia caiaaea
Aoaaienoaia, e oai naiui oe?aieoue aeanoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia ianoao.

A iaa 2003 i?aceaeaio Ea?cae iiaeienae niaeaoaiea n aoaa?iaoi?aie
iia?aie/iuo i?iaeioeee, iaycaa eo iiaeaea?aeeaaoue i?aaeoaeuenoai e
iaania/eaaoue ii?yaeie a naieo i?iaeioeeyo, ia nicaeaaaoue nianoaaiiua
a?iee e ia eniieueciaaoue oeooeu (iai?eia?, “yie?” e “niaoeeaeueiue
iineaiiee i?aceaeaioa”), ia niaa?oaoue aeceoia a ninaaeiea no?aiu e ia
iiaeienuaaoue niaeaoaiey n eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie aac oaaaeiieaiey
e ?ac?aoaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ia?aaiaeeoue ana oaiiaeaiiua nai?u, iaeiae
e ae?oaea iinooieaiey a Oeaio?aeueiue aaie, neaaeiaaoue a ?onea aiaoiae
iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ia aunooiaoue n cayaeaieyie, i?ioeai?a/aueie
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiio eo?no. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaeoaeuenoai i?enooieei e
?aci?oaeaieth e aeaiiaeeecaoeee auaoeo iiaeaeaoaaeia, no?aiynue
oi?i/eoue iiceoeee oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe ia ianoao.

A aeaeaa?a 2003 a Eaaoea auea nicaaia eiinoeoooeeiiiay Eiey aeaee?aa,
ooaa?aeeaoay iiaue iniiaiie caeii Aoaaienoaia. No?aia iieo/eea iacaaiea
“Eneaineay ?anioaeeea Aoaaienoai”. I?eiyoay Eiey aeaee?aie a yiaa?a 2004
iiaay eiinoeoooeey Aoaaienoaia onoaiaaeeaaea a no?aia i?aceaeaioneoth
oi?io i?aaeaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaaea nicaeaiea aeaooiaeaoiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai i?aaia e iacaaeneiie noaeaaiie aeanoe, a oaeaea
i?iaicaeaoaea aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?aaa e naiaiaeu a?aaeaeai. Eiinoeoooeey
aa?aioe?iaaea i?aaa iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa, ?aaainoai anao ia?aae
caeiiii, a o./. ?aaainoai i?aa ioae/ei e aeaiuei e naiaiaeo
aa?ieniiaaaeaiey.

Eiinoeoooeey i?ieiaeeea iooue e auai?ai e nicaeaieth iieeoe/aneeo
ia?oee. Iiaue Caeii i iieeoe/aneeo ia?oeyo, ooaa?aeaeaiiue i?aceaeaioii
no?aiu a iiya?a 2003, i?aaeinoaaee i?aai anai a?aaeaeaiai Aoaaienoaia
nicaeaaaoue iieeoe/aneea e iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee. I?aceaeaioneea
auai?u auee iaia/aiu ia ethiue 2004, ii aueacee aiaaeeia i?eiyee a oio
iiiaio noieue ianooaaiue oa?aeoa?, /oi auai?u auee ioeiaeaiu aei inaie.
A ia?oa 2004 eiiaiaeiaaiea aia?eeaineei eiioeiaaioii i?eiyei ?aoaiea
i?iaanoe e?oiioth aioeoa??i?enoe/aneoth iia?aoeeth n o/anoeai
iiae?acaeaeaiee aoaaineie a?iee a iia?aie/iuo n Iaeenoaiii ?aeiiao.
Iaeiia?aiaiii Iaeenoai i?iaiaeee nianoaaiioth iia?aoeeth ia a?aieoea n
Aoaaienoaiii. Oai ia iaiaa iie ia aeaee iuooeiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

I?iaeieaeaeanue ai?ueaa ca ia?aaeae noa? aeeyiey ia naaa?a e caiaaea
no?aiu. A ia?oa 2004 a Aa?aoa aniuoioee noieeiiaaiey iaaeaeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aieneaie e aii?oaeaiiie ieeeoeeae Eniaee-oaia, a
oiaea eioi?uo aue oaeo aai nui – ieieno? oo?ecia e a?aaeaeaineie
aaeaoeee Ie?aaen Naaeae. Anei?a iinea yoiai aii?oaeaiiua io?yaeu
aaia?aea Aeinooia caoaaoeee Iaeiaio (oeaio? naaa?iie i?iaeioeee
Oa?ueya), auioaeea aoaa?iaoi?a e eiiaiaeothuaai aieneaie i?iaeioeee
aaaeaoue ec ai?iaea, a a Iaca?e-Oa?eoa oee aie iaaeaeo io?yaeaie
Aeinooia e aaia?aea Aooa Iooaiiaaea. A aaaonoa 2004 niia?ie/anoai
iaaeaeo Eniaee-oaiii e ianeieueeeie “eiycueeaie”, eiio?iee?iaaaoeie
a.Oeiaeaiae, aueeeinue a iiaua noieeiiaaiey, ia onie?aiea eioi?uo auea
a?ioaia aoaaineay a?iey.

I?aceaeaioneea auai?u a Aoaaienoaia ninoiyeenue oieueei 9 ieoya?y 2004.
Ea?cae iieo/ee 55,4% aieinia ecae?aoaeae. 7 aeaeaa?y 2004 ii aue
i?eaaaeai e i?enyaa a ea/anoaa i?aceaeaioa Eneaineie ?anioaeeee
Aoaaienoaia. Iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai, noi?ie?iaaiiia Ea?caai, iinoaaeei
caaea/o ia?aie/aiey aeeyiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo aiaia/aeueieeia e iieaauo
eiiaiaee?ia, no?ieoaeuenoai yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe e i?iaeieaeaiea inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoia iaoeeiiaeueiie
?aeiino?oeoeee. Iaiaeiie?aoii ioeeaaeuaaaoeany ia?eaiaioneea auai?u
ninoiyeenue a naioya?a 2005. A oeaeii aoaaineee ia?eaiaio, a eioi?ue
i?ioee eaiaeeaeaou io 30-oe ia?oee, iieo/eeny iiiiceoeeiiiui. Ec 249
aeaiooaoneeo iano eiina?aaoi?u e eneaineea ?aaeeeaeu caaiaaaee 66 iano,
o?aaeeoeeiiaeenou e oia?aiiua eneaienou – 47, iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea e
eeaa?aeueiua ia?oee – 37, eaaua – 6 e iacaaeneiua – 93 ianoa. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiua o?aeoeee ia?acotho: Ia?oey “Iiaue Aoaaienoai” (TH.Eaioie) – 25
iano, o?aeoeee “Eneaineiai iauanoaa Aoaaienoaia” (A.?aaaaie, Eniaee-oai
e Aooa Iooaiiaae) e “Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey Aoaaienoaia” (Aoiaae
Aaee Ianoae) – 22 ianoa, “Iaoeeiiaeueiia eneaineia aeaeaeaiea
Aoaaienoaia” (?.Aeinooi) – 20 iano, “Ia?oey eneaineiai aaeeinoaa ia?iaea
Aoaaienoaia” (I. Iioaeeae) – 18 iano, a oaeaea “Iaoeeiiaeueiue eneaineee
o?iio Aoaaienoaia” (10 iano) e o?aeoeee “Eneaineie ia?oee Aoaaienoaia”
(12 iano).

I?aaenaaeaoaeai aa?oiae iaeaou ia?eaiaioa 20 aeaeaa?y 2005 aue eca?ai
Naaaaooeea Iiaeaeaaeaaeaee – aeeceee nithciee Ea?cay e i?aceaeaio
Aoaaienoaia a 1992. Ieaeithth iaeaoo aicaeaaee TH.Eaioie –
iiiiceoeeiiiue eeaea?, iiaaaeeaoee ia auai?ao A.?.Naeyoa, oi?ioi
ecaanoiiai naieie ?aaeeeaeueiuie acaeyaeaie iieaaiai eiiaiaee?a.

Iaeiaei aeaaiie i?iaeaiie Aoaaienoaia yaeyaony ionoonoaea aaciianiinoe a
no?aia. Inoaoee oaeeaia e aiaaeee “Aeue-Eaeaeu”, iaoiaeyueany ia
oa??eoi?ee ninaaeiaai Iaeenoaia, i?iaeieaeatho aii?oaeaiioth ai?ueao
i?ioea i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ea?cay e eiino?aiiuo aiene. A i?iaeioeeyo aei neo
ii? neeueiu iiceoeee auaoeo iieaauo eiiaiaee?ia, iiiaea ec eioi?uo ia
iiae/eiythony oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe. Na?ueaciie i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny
i?iaeaia i?iecaiaenoaa e eiio?aaaiaeu ia?eioeeia. I?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann
n?aueaaiey ia?eiaeciana n e?eieiaeii a eeoea iaeioi?uo iieaauo
eiiaiaee?ia, ioaeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ianoiie aeanoe, oaeeaia e
“Aeue-Eaeaeu”. Oyaeaei ?aoaaony i?iaeaia aaaeaioeaa, eioi?ua
aica?auathony ec-ca ?oaaaea.

Ii-i?aaeiaio iaeieie ec naiuo neiaeiuo i?iaeai naaiaeiyoiaai Aoaaienoaia
inoathony iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue, aic?inoaa a
iineaaeiea aiaeu i?iecaiaenoai e oi?aiaey ia?eioeeaie, i?iaeieaeathuaany
iieeoe/aneia ianeeea e iaania/aiea i?aa aeaiuei e iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iaiueoeinoa. Ia iaiaa o?oaeiie inoaaony caaea/a ainniaaeeiaiey no?aiu,
o/eouaay iiiaeanoai yoie/aneeo e ?aeeaeiciuo i?ioeai?a/ee, iaino?eaoeony
ca aiaeu aieiu.

Ianiiniaiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ea?cay ni?aaeoueny n yoeie i?iaeaiaie
iiaoaeeee ie?iaia niiauanoai aiiaue aa?iooueny e aii?ino ia oaaee/aiee
iiiiue Aoaaienoaio e i aieaa aeoeaiii o/anoee a aai ainnoaiiaeaiee. Ia
eiioa?aioeee a Eiiaeiia, ninoiyaoaeny 31 yiaa?y – 1 oaa?aey 2006,
i?aaenoaaeoaee 70-oe no?ai ie?a iaeia?eee auaeaeaiea 10,5 ie?ae. aeiee.
NOA ia oeiaine?iaaiea o.i. “Aoaaineiai iaeaoa” – iyoeeaoiaai ieaia
?acaeoey Aoaaienoaia. Yoio i?iaeo i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?aci?oaeaiea anao
iacaeiiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee e caaa?oaiea no?ieoaeuenoaa iaoeeiiaeueiie
a?iee; nie?auaiea ieiuaaee caieie?iaaiiuo oa??eoi?ee ia 70%; nicaeaiea
yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu noaeii?iecaiaenoaa; oneeaiea ai?ueau n iacaeiiiui
iai?ioii ia?eioeeia e ei??oioeeae /eiiaie/anoaa; ?anoe?aiea no?oeoo?u
ia?aciaaiey (a o./. noaaeony caaea/a iaania/eoue e 2010 i?eai a
ia/aeueiua oeieu 75% iaeue/eeia e 60% aeaai/ae); ?aoaiea nioeeaeueiuo
aii?inia e ai?ueaa n aaaeiinoueth; iiaea?iecaoeey o?ainii?oiie e
yia?aaoe/aneie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

AOAAINEAss AIEIA

Aoaa?ineay aieiai (1979—1989) — neiaeeaoaany a niaaoneie e ?inneeneie
enoi?eia?aoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee iacaaiea iaeiiai ec yoaiia a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu a Aoaaienoaia, iciaiaiiaaiiiai i?enoonoaeai ia oa??eoi?ee yoie
no?aiu aiaiiiai eiioeiaaioa niaaoneeo aiene. A aeaiiii eiioeeeoa
i?eieiaee o/anoea aii?oaeaiiua neeu i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ae?A n iaeiie noi?iiu
e aii?oaeaiiay iiiiceoeey (iiaeaeaoaaeu) — n ae?oaie. Ai?ueaa aaeanue ca
iieiue iieeoe/aneee eiio?ieue iaae oa??eoi?eae Aoaaienoaia. A aiaiiue
eiioeeeo ieacaeanue iaiin?aaenoaaiii aoyiooa e Niaaoneay A?iey,
aaaae?iiay a no?aio ii ?aoaieth oceiai e?oaa /eaiia Iieeoath?i OeE EINN
(TH. A. Aiae?iiia, Ae. O. Onoeiia, A. A. A?iiuei e E. E. A?aaeiaa,
eioi?ue ii nooe eeoue iiaeoaa?aeee ?aoaiea) aeey caueou ae?oaeanoaaiiiai
?aaeeia io aa?annee ecaia e caiaiu O. Aieia ia A. Ea?iaey. Iiaeaeaoaaeai
a oiaea eiioeeeoa iiaeaea?aeeo ieacuaaee aiaiiua niaoeeaeenou NOA, ?yaea
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai — /eaiia IAOI, Eeoay, a oaeaea iaeenoaineea
niaoeneoaeau.

I?e/eiu

Niaaoneay ?inney n 1919 aiaea ieacuaaea aeeyiea ia Aoaaienoai. Eiaaea a
1919 aiaeo iinea ai?ueau i?ioea a?eoaineeo eieiiecaoi?ia no?aia
aeiaeeanue iacaaeneiinoe, eiaiii Niaaoneay ?inney noaea ia?aui
ainoaea?noaii, i?eciaaoei a? iacaaeneiinoue.

Ianiio?y ia nianoaaiiia oyae?eia iieiaeaiea (oneiaey a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu, eioa?aaioeee e ?ac?ooe) Niaaoneay ?inney i?aaeinoaaeea Eaaoeo
ieeeeii ?oaeae cieioii, iyoue ouny/ aeioiaie e ianeieueei naiie?oia[6].

I?iaeieaeay auno?aeaaoue ioiioaiey n ainoi/iui ninaaeii, a 1929 aiaeo
E?aniay A?iey iiiiaea Aoaaienoaio a eeeaeaeaoeee i?ia?eoaineiai iyoaaea.
Eiaiii oiaaea e ninoiyeny ia?aue aaiae /anoae E?aniie A?iee ia
oa??eoi?eth Aoaaienoaia[6].

A naith i/a?aaeue, Aoaaienoai ioieaoee Niaaoneiio Nithco i?aaeaiiinoueth
a eeth/aauo iieeoe/aneeo aii?inao: iiiiaae eeeaeaee?iaaoue aania/aneia
aeaeaeaiea a 1920—30-o aiaeao e, ianiio?y ia aeaenoaey aa?iaineeo e
a?eoaineeo aaaioia aeeyiey, nio?aiye /?oeee iaeo?aeeoao ai a?aiy Aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieiu[6].

Iaeiie ec i?e/ei aieiu noaei no?aieaiea iiaeaea?aeaoue noi?iiieeia
eiioeaioeee nioeeaeecia a Aoaaienoaia, i?eoaaeoeo e aeanoe a ?acoeueoaoa
Ai?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee 1978 aiaea, noieeioaoeony n iiuiie iiiiceoeeae
naiae nioeeaeueiie, yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie no?aoaaee. Aia?eeaineay
aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a ?aaeiia nicaeaaaea oa?ico auoiaea
Aoaaienoaia ec niaaoneie noa?u aeeyiey. Naii ii naaa iaaeaiea
i?iniaaoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa icia/aei au neeueiue oaea? ii
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneei iiceoeeyi NNN?, iineieueeo, neo/enue oaeia, yoi aue
au ia?aue a iineaaiaiiie enoi?ee neo/ae ieceiaeaiey i?iniaaoneiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia auei cayaeaii i oii, /oi NNN?
?oeiaiaenoaoaony i?eioeeiaie “i?ieaoa?neiai eioa?iaoeeiiaeecia”. A
ea/anoaa oi?iaeueiiai iniiaaiey Iieeoath?i OeE EINN eniieueciaaei
iaiaeiie?aoiua i?inueau ?oeiaiaenoaa Aoaaienoaia e ee/ii Oaoecoeeu Aieia
ia ieacaiee no?aia aiaiiie iiiiue aeey ai?ueau n aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie
neeaie.

?aoaiea

Ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea i aaiaea aiene a Aoaaienoai auei i?eiyoi 12
aeaeaa?y 1979 aiaea ia canaaeaiee Iieeoath?i OeE EINN e ioi?ieaii
nae?aoiui iinoaiiaeaieai OeE EINN ? 176/125 “E iieiaeaieth a „A”

Aoiaieoa?iue aniaeo aiaiiuo aeaenoaee

?acoeueoaoii aiaiiuo aeaenoaee n 1978 ii 1992 aiae noaea ianniaay
iea?aoeey aaaeaioeaa a E?ai e Iaeenoai, iaiaeue i?ioeaio ec eioi?uo
inoaaony oai e ii nae aeaiue. Iaeanoi/aiea aiththueo noi?ii aeinoeaaei
e?aeieo i?aaeaeia. Ecaanoii, /oi iiaeaeaoaaeu iiaeaa?aaee ieaiiuo
iuoeai, n?aaee eioi?uo oe?iei ecaanoia oaeiaay iiae iacaaieai “e?aniue
otheueiai”. I?oaeea i?eiaiyeinue noieue oe?iei, /oi iiiaea ec aea?aaaiue
a aoeaaeueiii niunea neiaa auee iino?iaiu ec ?aeao, inoaaoeony iinea
ooiaea niaaoneie a?iee, aeeoaee eniieueciaaee ?aeaou aeey aicaaaeaiey
aeiiia, a ea/anoaa iioiei/iuo ia?ae?uoee, ieiiiuo e aeaa?iuo aaeie[29],
iaeiaei cayaeaiey aaeieieno?aoeee NOA i i?eiaiaiee 40-e a?ieae
oeie/aneiai i?oaeey, icao/aiiua a ia?oa 1982 aiaea[30], oae e ia auee
aeieoiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu[31].

?acoeueoaou

· Iinea auaiaea Niaaoneie A?iee n oa??eoi?ee Aoaaienoaia i?iniaaoneee
?aaeei Iaaeaeeaoeeu (1986—1992) i?inouanoaiaae au? o?e aiaea e,
eeoeaoenue iiaeaea?aeee ?innee, aue naa?aioo a ai?aea 1992 aiaea
eiaeeoeeae iieaauo eiiaiaee?ia-iiaeaeaoaaeia (/a?ac o?e ianyoea iinea
oiai eae NNN? ia?anoae nouanoaiaaoue).

· A aiaeu aieiu a Aoaaienoaia iiyaeeanue oa??i?enoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey
Aeue-Eaeaea e ie?aiee a?oiiu eneaineeo ?aaeeeaeia, eioi?ua yaeeenue
aeoeaiuie o/anoieeaie eiioeeeoia a Aeaee?a, Aaeioa e *a/ia[32][33][34].

· Aaia?ae-iieeiaiee A?iiia, iineaaeiee eiiaiaeothuee 40-ie a?ieae
(?oeiaiaeee auaiaeii aiene ec Aoaaienoaia), a naiae eieaa “Ia?aie/aiiue
eiioeiaaio” auneacae oaeia iiaiea ioiineoaeueii iiaaaeu eee ii?aaeaiey
Niaaoneie A?iee a Aoaaienoaia:

ss aeoaiei oaaaeaeai: ia nouanoaoao iniiaaiee aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey i oii,
/oi 40-y a?iey iioa?iaea ii?aaeaiea, ?aaii eae e i oii, /oi iu
iaea?aeaee aiaiioth iiaaaeo a Aoaaienoaia. Niaaoneea aienea a eiioea
1979 aiaea aani?aiyonoaaiii aioee a no?aio, auiieieee — a ioee/ea io
aia?eeaioeaa ai Aueaoiaia — naie caaea/e e i?aaieciaaiii aa?ioeenue ia
?iaeeio. Anee a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai i?ioeaieea Ia?aie/aiiiai eiioeiaaioa
?anniao?eaaoue aii?oaeaiiua io?yaeu iiiiceoeee, oi ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iaie
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi 40-y a?iey aeaeaea oi, /oi n/eoaea ioaeiui, a
aeooiaiu — eeoue oi, /oi iiaee.

Ia?aae 40-e a?ieae noiyei ianeieueei iniiaiuo caaea/. A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iu aeieaeiu auee ieacaoue iiiiuue i?aaeoaeuenoao Aoaaienoaia a
o?aaoee?iaaiee aioo?eiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee. A iniiaiii yoa iiiiuue
caeeth/aeanue a ai?ueaa n aii?oaeaiiuie io?yaeaie iiiiceoeee. E?iia
oiai, i?enoonoaea cia/eoaeueiiai aieineiai eiioeiaaioa a Aoaaienoaia
aeieaeii auei i?aaeioa?aoeoue aa?anneth ecaia. Yoe caaea/e ee/iui
ninoaaii 40-e a?iee auee auiieiaiu iieiinoueth.

Ia?aae Ia?aie/aiiui eiioeiaaioii ieeoi e ieeiaaea ia noaaee caaea/o
iaea?aeaoue aiaiioth iiaaaeo a Aoaaienoaia. Ana aiaaua aeaenoaey,
eioi?ua 40-e a?iee i?eoiaeeeinue aanoe n 1980 aiaea e i?aeoe/anee aei
iineaaeieo aeiae iaoaai i?aauaaiey a no?aia, iineee eeai oi?aaeaeathuee,
eeai ioaaoiue oa?aeoa?. Niaianoii n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aieneaie iu
i?iaiaeeee aieneiaua iia?aoeee oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau eneeth/eoue
iaiaaeaiey ia iaoe aa?ieciiu, ay?iae?iiu, aaoiiiaeeueiua eieiiiu e
eiiioieeaoeee, eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue aeey ia?aaicee a?ocia.

Aianoa n oai aieaa 70% nee e n?aaenoa 40-e a?iee iinoiyiii auei
caaeaenoaiaaii aeey ia?aaicee ii oa??eoi?ee Aoaaienoaia aoiaieoa?iuo
a?ocia. Yoa iai?yaeaiiay ?aaioa ia i?ae?auaeanue aieioue aei iineaaeiaai
aeiy i?aauaaiey Ia?aie/aiiiai eiioeiaaioa niaaoneeo aiene a Aoaaienoaia.
Aeaaiaea?y niaaoneei iinoaaeai e aeayoaeueiinoe iaoeo niaoeeaeenoia
yeiiiieea no?aiu ie?aiea e, ia?acii aiai?y, anoaea ia iiae. N iiaieai
A?iiiaa ioiineoaeueii enoiaea aieiu iiaeii niaeaneoueny, iineieueeo
iiaeaeaoaaeai aei ia/aea auaiaea niaaoneie a?iee a iaa 1988 aiaea ie
?aco ia oaeaeinue i?iaanoe ie iaeiie e?oiiie iia?aoeee e ia oaeaeinue
caiyoue ie iaeiiai e?oiiiai ai?iaea. A oi aea a?aiy iiaiea A?iiiaa i
oii, /oi ia?aae 40-e a?ieae ia noaaeeanue caaea/a aiaiiie iiaaaeu, ia
niaeanoaony n ioeaieaie iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aaoi?ia. A /anoiinoe,
aaia?ae-iaei? Aaaaiee Ieeeoaiei, a 1985—1987 aiaeao auaoee caianoeoaeai
ia/aeueieea iia?aoeaiiai ioaeaea ooaaa 40-e a?iee, iieaaaao, /oi ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae aieiu NNN? i?aneaaeiaae iaeciaiiua oeaee — iiaeaaeaiea
nii?ioeaeaiey aii?oae?iiie iiiiceoeee e oe?aieaiea aeanoe aoaaineiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa[36]. Ianiio?y ia ana oneeey, /eneaiiinoue oi?ie?iaaiee
iiiiceoeee ec aiaea a aiae oieueei ?inea[37], e a 1986 aiaeo (ia ieea
niaaoneiai aiaiiiai i?enoonoaey) iiaeaeaoaaeu eiio?iee?iaaee aieaa 70%
oa??eoi?ee Aoaaienoaia[38].

· Iinea ia/aea Aoaaineie aieiu ianeieueei no?ai iauyaeei aieeio
Ieeiieeneei ea?ai 1980 aiaea, i?iaiaeeaoeiny a Iineaa.

· Ii iiaieth aaoi?a aacaou “Ieoa?neay I?aaaea” Aeaaa A?aoineiai, auaiae
niaaoneeo aiene ec Aoaaienoaia oaea /a?ac aeaa aiaea i?ea?e e
a?aaeaeaineie aieia a Oaaeaeeeenoaia. A iae aeaeioth ?ieue ea?aee
aoaaineea eneaienou. Yoa aieia oianea ii?yaeea 150 ouny/ aeeciae. E
/eneo iaaoaiuo oaiaeaioeee, aicieeoeo iinea auaiaea niaaoneiai
eiioeiaaioa ec Aoaaienoaia, A?aoineee ioiineo oaeaea o/anoea aoaaineeo
eneaienoia a aieia a *a/ia e aiciaiiaeaiea ia?eioi?aiaee n oa??eoi?ee
Aoaaienoaia [39].

Iioa?e

Iioa?e Aoaaienoaia

Oi/iia /enei iiaeaoeo a aieia aoaaioeaa iaecaanoii. Iaeaieaa /anoi
ano?a/aaony oeeo?a a 1iei iiaeaoeo; eiathueany ioeaiee eieaaethony io
670 oun. a?aaeaeaineeo eeoe aei 2iei a iauai[40]. Ii aeaiiui[41]
aa?aa?aeneiai i?ioanni?a I. E?aia?a, aia?eeaineiai enneaaeiaaoaey
aoaaineie aieiu: “A oa/aiea aeaayoe eao aieiu auee oaeou eee iieaea/aiu
aieaa 2,5 ieeeeiiia aoaaioeaa (a iniiaiii a?aaeaeaineea eeoea), au?
ianeieueei ieeeeiiia ieacaeenue a ?yaeao aaaeaioeaa, iiiaea ec eioi?uo
iieeioee no?aio”. Oi/iiai ?acaeaeaiey aea?oa ia nieaeao
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie a?iee, iiaeaeaoaaeia e ie?iuo aeeoaeae, ii anae
aeaeeiinoe, ia nouanoaoao.

Iioa?e NNN?

Iinea ieii/aiey aieiu a NNN? auee iioaeeeiaaiu oeeo?u iiaeaoeo niaaoneeo
nieaeao n ?acaeaeie ii aiaeai:

1979 aiae 86 /aeiaae

1980 aiae 1484 /aeiaaea

1981 aiae 1298 /aeiaae

1982 aiae 1948 /aeiaae

1983 aiae 1446 /aeiaae

1984 aiae 2343 /aeiaae

1985 aiae 1868 /aeiaae

1986 aiae 1333 /aeiaaea

1987 aiae 1215 /aeiaae

1988 aiae 759 /aeiaae

1989 aiae 53 /aeiaaea

Eoiai— 13 833 /aeiaaea. Yoe aeaiiua aia?aua iiyaeeenue a aacaoa
“I?aaaea” a aaaonoa 1989 aiaea. A aeaeueiaeoai eoiaiaay oeeo?a
ianeieueei oaaee/eeanue, i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii ca n/?o oia?oeo io
iineaaenoaee ?aiaiee e aieaciae iinea oaieueiaiey ec aii?oae?iiuo nee.
Ii ninoiyieth ia 1 yiaa?y 1999 aiaea aacaica?aoiua iioa?e a Aoaaineie
aieia (oaeoua, oia?oea io ?ai, aieaciae e a i?ienoanoaeyo, i?iiaaoea aac
aanoe) ioeaieaaeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii[42]:

· Niaaoneay A?iey— 14 427

· EAA— 576

· IAAe— 28

Eoiai— 15 051 /aeiaae. Naieoa?iua iioa?e— ii/oe 54 oun. ?aiaiiuo,
eiiooaeaiiuo, o?aaie?iaaiiuo; 416 oun. caaieaaoeo.

Niaeanii naeaeaoaeuenoao i?ioanni?a Aiaiii-iaaeeoeeineie aeaaeaiee
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa Aeaaeeie?a Neaeaeueieeiaa, a eoiaiauo oeeo?ao ia o/oaiu
aiaiiineoaeauea, oia?oea io ?ai e aieaciae a ainieoaeyo ia oa??eoi?ee
NNN?[43].

Ec i?eia?ii 400 aiaiiineoaeaueo, ca/eneaiiuo ai a?aiy aieiu i?iiaaoeie
aac aanoe, eaeia-oi /enei ieaiiuo auei auaacaii caiaaeiuie aeo?iaeenoaie
a no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e Naaa?iie Aia?eee. Ii aeaiiui IEAe NNN?, ia
ethiue 1989 aiaea oai i?iaeeaaei ieiei 30 /aeiaae; o?e /aeiaaea iinea
cayaeaiey Aaia?aeueiiai i?ieo?i?a NNN? i oii, /oi auaoea ieaiiua ia
aoaeoo iiaeaa?aaoueny oaieiaiiio i?aneaaeiaaieth, aa?ioeenue a Niaaoneee
Nithc[44].

Iioa?e a oaoieea, ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui, ninoaaeee 147 oaieia, 1314
a?iiaiaoei (AO?, AII, AIAe, A?AeI), 510 eiaeaia?iuo iaoei, 11 369
a?ociaeeia e aaiciaicia, 433 a?onenoaiu, 118 naiie?oia, 333
aa?oieaoa[1]. A oi aea a?aiy yoe oeeo?u ieeae ia eiie?aoece?iaaeenue— a
/anoiinoe, ia iioaeeeiaaia eioi?iaoeey i eiee/anoaa aiaauo e iaaiaauo
iioa?ue aaeaoeee, i iioa?yo naiie?oia e aa?oie?oia ii oeiai eo.ae.

Ae?oaea iioa?e

Ii eioi?iaoeee aeanoae Iaeenoaia, ca ia?aua /aou?a ianyoea 1987 aiaea a
?acoeueoaoa iae?oia aoaaineie aaeaoeee ia iaeenoaineoth oa??eoi?eth
iiaeaei aieaa 300 ie?iuo aeeoaeae[45].

Yeiiiie/aneea iioa?e NNN?

Ia iiaeaea?aeeo eaaoeueneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ec athaeaeaoa NNN?
aaeaaiaeii ?anoiaeiaaeinue ieiei 800 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia NOA[46].

Ia niaea?aeaiea 40-ie a?iee e aaaeaiea aiaauo aeaenoaee ec athaeaeaoa
NNN? aaeaaiaeii ?anoiaeiaaeinue ieiei 3 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia NOA

EEOA?AOO?A

Aaieianeee TH.A. Eiia?ey Aeo??aie. I/a?ee aaeieieno?aoeaiie e aiaiiie
nenoaiu. I., 1958ne

Ioey?eei A.A. Aoaaienoai. Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey. I., 1964

Ao?aiiae/ ?.O. Aoaaienoai a 1961-1966 aa. Iieeo. iieiaeaiea.
Eiinoeoooeeiiiay ?aoi?ia. I., 1967

Aaaaoiaeaeaaa I.A. I/a?ee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie
enoi?ee Aoaaienoaia (eiiaoe XIX a.). Oaoeaio, 1975

Ei?aoi A.A. Aoaaienoai a 20-30-a aiaeu XX aaea: no?aieoeu iieeoe/aneie
enoi?ee. I., 1979

Ao?aae/ I.I. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey Aoaaienoaia a iiaaeoaa a?aiy. I., 1981

Aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?anioaeeea Aoaaienoai. Ni?aai/iee. I., 1981ne

?iiiaeei A.A. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee e enoi?ee eoeueoo?u Aoaaienoaia,
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Oaie?oaiia E. Ainoi/iua iooooiu: iniiaiua i?iaeaiu iiaie enoi?ee. I.,
1987ne

Aoaa? Ie? Aoeyi Iooaiiaae. Aoaaienoai ia iooe enoi?ee. I., 1987 ne

Aoaaienoai naaiaeiy. Ni?aai/iee. Aeooaiaa, 1988 ne

Oaieeineee E.A. Enoi?ey niaaonei-aoaaineeo ioiioaiee, 1919-1987. I.,
1988ne

Eaeaiaea?aaeia I. E?anoueyineia caieaaeaaeaiea a nia?aiaiiii
Aoaaienoaia. I., 1990ne

?iiiaeei A.A. Aoaaienoai ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX – ia/aea XX a.:
ioeoeeaeueiay enoi?ey e enoi?eia?aoey. I., 1990ne

Niieueieeia A.I. Aoaaienoai: eneaineay iiiiceoeey. Enoiee e oeaee. I.,
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Eyoianeee A.A., Caa?iaeei A.I. Oaeiu aoaaineie aieiu. I., 1991ne

Eaeaiaea?iaa I.N. Aaiiieeoeea Aiaeee a Aoaaienoaia a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX
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Eyoianeee A.A. O?aaaaeey e aeiaeanoue Aoaaia. I., 1995 ne

Ia?eooaa A.A. Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?eia?aoey niauoee 1978-1989 aa. a
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Neeieei I.O. Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey Aoaaienoaia o aeanoe:
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