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Географическое положение и экономика Испании

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?AOA?AO

Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea e yeiiiieea Eniaiee

Aaaaeaiea

Ii eeanneoeeaoeee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai oi?oia,
aiaeece?othuaai eiie?aoiua iiceoeee no?ai ii 14 naeoi?ai i?iecaiaenoaa,
Eniaiey iaoiaeeony a aa?oiae iyo??ea ii/oe ai anao naeoi?ao n?aaeiaai
oaoiieiae/aneiai o?iaiy, iniai auaeaeyynue eae i?iecaiaeeoaeue
aaoiiiaeeueiuo cai/anoae e aenannoa?ia (10 ianoi a ie?a), i?iiuoeaiiuo
noaieia e iai?oaeiaaiey (15 ianoi), aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo n?aaenoa (17
ianoi), i?iaeoeoeee i?aaie/aneie e iai?aaie/aneie oeiee (15 ianoi),
ecaeaeee iaoaeeiia?aaioee (13 ianoi) e iaoae (3 ianoi). Ii ii
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee e auionea yeaeo?iiiuo eiiiiiaioia iia iaoiaeeony oieueei a
o?aoueae aeanyoea no?ai. N?aaee 100 iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo a ie?a a?aiaeia o
Eniaiee iao ie iaeiiai, oioy eiathony io?aneaaua eeaea?u: «O?aeoaiao»
(oeio/ea aeia), Chupa Chups, «I?iiiaean» (naaaeaaiua ieaouey) e
«Eueyae?i» (oa?oi?iaua oeao?ee), a oaeaea aoiaeyuea a ia?aoth o?ieeo
Zara, a ia?aoth iyo??eo — «Nieue Iaeuey» (ainoeie/iue aecian).
Iaeaaeaiea ie?iaui a?aiaeii n/eoaaony aaaeiui eiieo?aioiui i?aeiouanoaii
e iaeiei ec i?eciaeia aunieiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey yeiiiieee

1. Ei?ieaanoai Eniaiey — Reino de Espana

Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea: iaoiaeeony ia thai-caiaaea Aa?iiu, ia
Ie?aiaeneii iieoino?iaa; aeeth/aao Aaeaa?neea (a o./. Ieoeonneea) e
Eaia?neea i-aa. Ieiuaaeue – 504 750 ea.ei. Ianaeaiea – 39 143 000.
Noieeoea – Iaae?eae (2 910 000). E?oiiaeoea ai?iaea – Aa?naeiia (1 626
000), Aaeainey (753 000), Naaeeuey (660 000). Aaeieieno?aoeaiia
aeaeaiea: 17 aaoiiiiiuo iaeanoae (regione autonomicas), eiathueo naia
i?aaeoaeuenoai e ia?eaiaio; 50 i?iaeioeee (provincia). Aunoay oi/ea –
ai?a Ieei-aea-Oaeaea (3 718 i). Ainoaea?noaaiiue ycue – eniaineee
(eanoeeueneee). Iniiaiay ?aeeaey – o?enoeainoai. Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea –
eniaineay ianaoa. Iniiaiua noaouee yenii?oa – aaoiiiaeee, aeii,
i?iaeoeoeey iaoeiino?iaiey, o?oeou, iaiue, oeieeaou, oaenoeeue, noaeue.
Oi?ia i?aaeaiey – eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey.

Enoi?e/aneea ai?iaea e i?ae?aniua acii?uey Eniaiee i?eaeaeatho nthaea
oo?enoia ni anaai ie?a. Eiino?aiiue oo?eci aeeciaiii aaaeai aeey
yeiiiieee no?aiu, iineieueeo a iaaieueoie ii ieiuaaee Eniaiee i/aiue
iaei i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Ii/oe anth oeaio?aeueioth /anoue no?aiu,
oaeaeaiioth io eaiaienouo iiaa?aaeee Aoeaioeee e ian/aiuo acii?ee
N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y, caieiaao nooia iueueiia ieineiai?uea, ia?ana/aiiia
ioaeaeueiuie ai?iuie a?yaeaie. A Eniaiee iaei iaoioiuo caiaeue, e eeeiao
ia anae aa oa??eoi?ee, e?iia naaa?iie, canooeeaue. A oa/aiea XVI aaea
eniaineea aieiu-iooaoanoaaiieee, eioi?ua iacuaaeenue eiieaenoaaei?aie
(caaiaaaoaeyie), nicaeaee ia?iiioth eiia?eth a THaeiie e Naaa?iie
Aia?eea. Eniaiey auea iaeiie ec naiuo aiaaouo e iiaouanoaaiiuo no?ai a
ie?a, iiea aieiu n ae?oaeie no?aiaie e yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu ia aucaaee
aa iinoaiaiiue oiaaeie, eioi?ue aeeeeny aieioue aei iineaaeiaai
noieaoey. A iaoe aeie a yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie Eniaiee
i?ienoiaeyo aieueoea ia?aiaiu. N 1939 ii 1975 aiae no?aia iaoiaeeeanue
iiae aeanoueth aeeeoaoi?a aaia?aea O?ainenei O?aiei e auea eciee?iaaia
io ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Iaeiaei onoaiiaeaoayny
aiineaaenoaee aeaiie?aoey e anooieaiea Eniaiee a Aa?iiaeneee Nithc
niinianoaiaaee oi?i/aieth yeiiiie/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo naycae no?aiu n
ninaaeyie. A 1992 aiaeo a Aa?naeiia i?ioiaeeee XXV Ieeiieeneea ea?u, a a
Naaeeuea oiaaea aea ono?aeaaeanue Anaie?iay y?ia?ea “Yenii-92”.

Iinea nia?oe aaia?aea O?aiei a 1975 aiaeo Eniaiey noaea iiia?oeae,
iaeiaei, any iieeoe/aneay aeanoue iaoiaeeony a ?oeao i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Ianiio?y ia iiiuoeo aiaiiuo nee naa?aiooue i?aaeoaeuenoai a 1981 aiaeo,
no?aia i?ioeaaoaao i?e nouanoaothuai iuia no?ia. Iiiaea iaeanoe Eniaiee
eiatho naia iaiiaoi?eiia eeoei, e aeeoaee eo ?aaiinoii caaioyony i
nio?aiaiee ae?aaiae eoeueoo?u e ianoiuo ia?a/ee. Yoi i?eaaei e ia/aeo
ai?ueau ca naiioi?aaeaiea n?aaee eaoaeiioeaa e aaneia. E?iia oiai, a
Eniaiee nouanoaoao ?aceee eiio?ano iaaeaeo aeeciueth a nia?aiaiiuo
ai?iaeao e a aea?aaiyo, aaea aeeciaiiue oeeaae iaei eciaieeny ca
iineaaeiea ianeieueei aaeia.

Aaia?aoey

Eniaiey eaaeeo ia neaeenoii Ie?aiaeneii iieoino?iaa, naiie caiaaeiie
ieiia/iinoe Aa?iiu. Ia naaa?i-ainoiea iia ia?aie/eaaaony a?yaeie
Ie?aiaeneeo ai?. AEeaiieniua naaa?iua aa?aaa no?aiu caeaiatho e?oaeue
aiae iiae iaeeueiuie aeiaeaeyie. THaeiaa, ca eanenouie ai?aie,
i?inoe?aaony iaoe?iia ieaoi Ianaoa. Yoi iacaaiea i?ienoiaeeo io neiaa
“iana” (ii-eniainee iii icia/aao ” noie”); ianaoie caeanue iau/ii
iacuaatho ieineea o/anoee caiiie iiaa?oiinoe. Ieaoi caieiaao aieueooth
/anoue Oeaio?aeueiie Eniaiee. Eeeiao caeanue eiioeiaioaeueiue, nooie, ni
ciieiui eaoii e oieiaeiie ceiie. Ia ieaoi aa?oo ia/aei ?aee
Aaaaeaeeaeae? e Oaoi, a naaa?iaa iaoiaeyony enoiee Ya?i, ianouae naie
aiaeu /a?ac ?aaieiu Naaa?i-ainoi/iie Eniaiee. THa Eniaiee – yoi e?ae
oaienouo ianee/iuo ?iu e aeeaiieniuo Aa?naeiineeo eoaia, eioi?ua iuoii
caeaiatho aaniie, ii nai?atho iiae ?aneaeaiiuie eo/aie eaoiath nieioea.
Neeiiu iiao/eo ai? Nuea??a Iaaaaeu nioneathony e ieiaei?iaeiui ?aaieiai,
eioi?ua oyioony aaeieue nieia/iiai iiaa?aaeuey N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y,
ecaanoiiai naieie iiiai/eneaiiuie eo?i?oaie. Naiay thaeiay oi/ea Eniaiee
iaoiaeeony anaai eeoue a 13 eeeiiao?ao io Naaa?iie Ao?eee. A ninoaa
Eniaiee aoiaeyo oaeaea Eaia?neea e Aaeaa?neea ino?iaa. Eaia?neea ino?iaa
?aniieiaeaiu a Aoeaioe/aneii ieaaia o caiaaeiiai iiaa?aaeuey Ao?eee, a
Aaeaa?neea – a N?aaeecaiiii ii?a.

Yeiiiieea

Aei 1950-o aiaeia Eniaiey auea iaeiie ec naiuo aaaeiuo aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai, ii n oao ii? a aa yeiiiieea ia/aeny no?aieoaeueiue iiaeuai.
Aeaaiaea?y anaie?ii ecaanoiui eo?i?oai ia iiaa?aaeuea N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y
caeanue i?ioeaaoaao eiino?aiiue oo?eci. E?iia oiai, iieo/eee ?acaeoea
iiiaea iiaua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A naaa?iuo ?aeiiao Eniaiee
i?iecaiaeyo noaeue ec aeaeaciie ?oaeu, eioi?ay yaeyaony naiui oeaiiui
eneiiaaiui yoie no?aiu. Ia naaa?i-caiaaea ?aaioatho oaenoeeueiua
oaa?eee, a i?aaei?eyoey oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe nin?aaeioi/aiu a
ie?anoiinoyo Aeeueaai, Iaae?eaea e Aa?naeiiu. A iineaaeieo aeaoo
ai?iaeao, a oaeaea a Aaeainee e Na?aaina anoue aaoiiiaeeano?ieoaeueiua
caaiaeu. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Eniaiey caieiaao iaeii ec ia?auo iano a
Aa?iia ii i?iecaiaenoao aaoiiiaeeae. Aei 50-o aiaeia Eniaiey auea
i?aeiouanoaaiii aa?a?iie no?aiie. Naeueneia oicyenoai aei neo ii? ea?aao
aaaeioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea no?aiu, oioy a iai caiyoi eeoue 15 i?ioeaioia
anae ?aai/ae neeu. A iaoe aeie aieueoea ieiuaaee caiaeue, iniaaiii a
thaeiuo iaeanoyo Eniaiee, yaeythony nianoaaiiinoueth aiaaouo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. Ia oo/iuo i?ea?aaeiuo ianoaeuao naaa?a ianoony
ei?iau, a a aieaa nooeo ?aeiiao ?acaiaeyo iaaoe e eic. Neoaeiay ii/aa e
canooeeaue eeeiao Ie?aiaeneiai iieoino?iaa aeaeatho yoio ?aeii
iaeii?eaiaeiui aeey caieaaeaeey. Iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo ianoiinoyo caeanue
iieo/atho oi?ioea o?iaeae ca?iiauo e iaiuae, a oaeaea ianeei,
aeiia?aaea, iiaenieia/ieea, aiaeueneiia e eeiiiia. A ia Eaia?neeo
ino?iaao au?aueaatho aeaaea aaiaiu. Eniaineea aeia, iniaaiii oa?an,
ecaanoiu ai anai ie?a. Ae?oaei aiaaoui enoi/ieeii aeioiaea yoie no?aiu
yaeyaony ?uaiue i?iiunae.

Ianaeaiea

A Eniaiee iaaethaeaaony i?e/oaeeeaia niaoaiea ?aciuo o?aaeeoeee,
aeeciaiiuo oeeaaeia e ia?a/ee. AEeaouea ia naaa?a i?aaenoaaeoaee
aaneneie ia?iaeiinoe aiai?yo ia aaneneii ycuea, eioi?ue ia eiaao
?iaenoaaiiuo naaa n?aaee ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo ycueia. Aaeeeoeeeoeu,
i?eoaaeoea a no?aio ec ioaeaeaiiuo naaa?i-caiaaeiuo iaeanoae Aa?iiu,
i?iecioee io ae?aaieo eaeueoia. Aeey ieo o?aaeeoeeiiiu ea?a ia aieuiea e
caaeeaaoaeueiua oaioeu iiae aeeiiiaiaiaio aa?aaaiia. Auoiaeoeu ec
Naaa?iie Ao?eee iiaeeyee ia a?oeoaeoo?iue noeeue THaeiie Eniaiee. A a
aeoa?iuo ia?aai?ao e caaeeaaoaeueiuo ieyneao thaeiuo eniaioeaa io/aoeeai
/oanoaoaony aeeyiea oeuaai. Eaoaeiioeu, aeeaouea ia naaa?i-ainoiea,
nio?aieee naith nianoaaiioth eoeueoo?o e ycue.

Ianiio?y ia neeueiua ianoiua ?acee/ey, iiiaea /a?ou aeeciaiiiai oeeaaea
yaeythony iaueie aeey anao aeeoaeae Eniaiee. Ainoaea?noaaiiue ycue –
eanoeeueneee eniaineee – i?eiyo ia anae oa??eoi?ee no?aiu. Oioy a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Eniaiee iao ioeoeeaeueiie ?aeeaee, caeanue oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaii eaoiee/anoai. ?aeeaeiciua i?acaeieee ioia/athony ii anae
no?aia, aeaaea a naiuo iaeaiueeeo aea?aaiyo. Ii/oe ai anao ai?iaeao
i?iaiaeyony aie aueia. N?aaee iiioey?iuo aeaeia nii?oa – oooaie e
aaeineiaaeiua aiiee.

Ia iianaaeiaaioth aeeciue eniaioeaa ieacaee aeeyiea eeeiaoe/aneea
oneiaey. Iaeyuay aea?a iieoaeaiiuo /ania aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue neanou
(ioaeuoa). A na?aaeeia aeiy ana i?aaei?eyoey e iaaaceiu cae?uaathony e
ioe?uaathony eeoue e aa/a?o.

Enoi?ey

Ianeaeueiua ecia?aaeaiey a iaua?a Aeueoaie?a ia naaa?a Eniaiee
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi yoe caiee auee canaeaiu ethaeueie aua a
aeienoi?e/aneoth yiioo. Ieiei 5 000 eao iacaae a Eniaieth i?eoee
eaa?eeneea ieaiaia ec Naaa?iie Ao?eee e niaoaeenue n eaeueoaie, eioi?ua
aeeee a naaa?iuo iaeanoyo no?aiu. E?iia ieo caeanue naeeeenue
oeieeeeneea e a?a/aneea oi?aiaoeu. Eniaiey aoiaeeea a ninoaa ?eineie
eiia?ee n 200 aiaea aei i.y. aieioue aei 475 aiaea i.y., eiaaea n
ainoiea a iaa aoi?aeenue aanoaiou. A ia/aea VIII aaea Eniaieth caaiaaaee
ia?iaeiinoe Naaa?iie Ao?eee. A yiioo iicaeiaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey e aeanoe
iinoaiaiii i?eoee o?enoeaineea ei?iee e auoanieee ec no?aiu ao?eeaineeo
caoaao/eeia. A 1512 aiaeo Eniaiey noaea aaeeiui eaoiee/aneei
ei?ieaanoaii. Iia eieiiece?iaaea THaeioth e Naaa?ioth Aia?eeo e
i?aa?aoeeanue a /?acau/aeii aiaaooth no?aio. Ii a ia/aea XIX aaea
Eniaiey iioa?yea aieueooth /anoue naieo aia?eeaineeo aeaaeaiee. A ia?aua
aeanyoeeaoey iaoaai aaea a no?aia oea aeanoieay iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa,
eioi?ay caeii/eeanue a?aaeaeaineie aieiie (1936-1939). N 1939 ii 1975
aiae Eniaiey iaoiaeeeanue iiae aeanoueth aeanoieiai aeeeoaoi?a, aaia?aea
O?ainenei O?aiei. Iinea aai nia?oe auea ainnoaiiaeaia iiia?oey. A
iineaaeiea aiaeu auee ?anoe?aiu i?aaa aaneia e eaoaeiioeaa.

Aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n NNN?: onoaiiaeaiu 28 ethey 1933 a.,
i?a?aaiu a ia?oa 1939 a., aiiaue onoaiiaeaiu 9 oaa?aey 1977 a. A
aeaeaa?a 1991 a. ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey i?eciaia i?aaii?aaiieoeae NNN?.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue i?acaeiee: 12 ieoya?y – Aeaiue Eniaineie Iaoeee (1492
a.).

2. Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu

I?eaaoecaoeey. Iaeiei ec iaaeno?aeueiuo iai?aaeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai eo?na
yaeyaony i?eaaoecaoeey aini?aaei?eyoee a ?aieao i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie
i?ia?aiiu (ethiue 1996 a.), ?ac?aaioaiiie ia iniiaa ?aeiiaiaeaoeee AN.
Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho i?aaei?eyoey, eiathuea aaaeiia nioeeaeueiia e
no?aoaae/aneia cia/aiea, a oaeaea iaaieueoie naaiaio «iai?iiee».

Ca enoaeoea aeaa aiaea i?aaeoaeuenoao oaeaeinue aueoe ia «e?aena?neoth»
nei?inoue i?eaaoecaoeee, ninoaaeythuoth 1,5 i?aaei?eyoey a ianyoe, e
iieo/eoue i?e yoii a athaeaeao 26,7 ie?ae. aeiee., /oi a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie iaeaa/eei auiieiaiea Eniaieae Iaano?eooneeo o?aaiaaiee e
aoiaeaeaiea a iniiaioth a?oiio aa?i. Aea?aeaoaeyie aeoeee noaee 6 iei.
eniaioeaa. Ia?aue yoai oi?ne?iaaiiie i?eaaoecaoeee einioeny iaeaieaa
?aioaaaeueiuo oicyenoaaiiuo iauaeoia, aeoeee eioi?uo eiaee aunieea
eioe?iaee ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oiiaeiauo ?uieao
«Oaeaoiieea» (oaeaeiiioieeaoeee), «?ainieue», «Aan Iaoo?aeue» e «Yiaaan»
(iaooue e aac), «A?oaioa?ey» (oeiainu), «Oaaaeaea?a» (neaa?aou).

Iieacaoaeueiie yaeyaony i?eaaoecaoeey yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneiai eiioea?ia
«Yiaeana». A ai?aea 1998 a. Niaiei iaeia?ee i?iaaaeaiea caaa?oathuae
noaaeee e?oiiaeoae ca enoi?eth no?aiu i?eaaoecaoeeiiiie naeaeee,
?ac?aoea i?iaeaaeo inoaaoeony 41,19% aeoeee eiiiaiee ia noiio 7 ie?ae.
aeiee. Ia iaoeeiiaeueiue ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa auei aunoaaeaii 76,6%
aeoeee, ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiue – inoaaoayny /aoaa?oue. 69,5% oeacaiiie
iaoeeiiaeueiie eaiou auei i?aaeeiaeaii iaeeei aea?aeaoaeyi. 30,5% –
einoeoooeeiiiui eiaanoi?ai (aaieai, eiaanoeoeeiiiui e iaineiiiui
oiiaeai, no?aoiaui eiiiaieyi). Iiaeiaiay noaia ia aeiioneaao
nin?aaeioi/aiey eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa a ?oeao iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo
aeoeeiia?ia, iaania/eaaao inouanoaeaiea aineiio?iey /a?ac iaoaieci
«cieioie aeoeee» (i?aai aaoi ia i?eieiaaiua aioo?e eiiiaiee ?aoaiey a
oa/aiea iyoe eao). «Yiaeana» inouanoaeyao oe?ieiianooaaioth i?ia?aiio
eiaanoeoeee, ?anoe?yy noa?o o?aaeeoeeiiiiai aeciana (aacii?iiuoeaiiue
eiiieaen, oaeaeiiioieeaoeee. aiaeiniaaaeaiea). Cia/eoaeueiua
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey iai?aaeythony ca ?oaaae, aeaaiui ia?acii a Eaoeineoth
Aia?eeo. I?i?aaaouaathony i?iaeou nio?oaeie/anoaa n ?AI «AYN ?innee» .

Ei aoi?ie a?oiia iauaeoia i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaeoaeuenoai ioiineo
i?aaei?eyoey, iaoiaeyueany a noaaeee no?oeoo?iie ?ai?aaiecaoeee, ii a oi
aea a?aiy nio?aiythuea i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue aeey iioaioeeaeueiuo
eiaanoi?ia (“?aoaaenueii» – oaeaeiiioieeaoeee, «?aae yeaeo?eea
yniaiueiea» e ?yae ae?.).

A o?aoueth a?oiio aeeth/aiu ia?aioaaaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey /a?iie e
oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, noaeino?ieoaeueiie, no?ieoaeueiie,
ai?iiaeiauaathuae io?aneae, o?aaothueo ia oieueei ianooaaiie
?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee, ii e na?ueaciiai oeiainiaiai icaei?iaeaiey. Ia yoe
oeaee i?aaeoaeuenoai auaeaeeei 1,8 ie?ae.aeiee. A ?acoeueoaoa /anoue
yoeo i?aaei?eyoee oaea i?eaaoece?iaaia (“Aoeneie», «Eianiae»,
«Aeueiaaa?a», « Yeeaii» ). Ia 1999 aiae caieaie?iaaia i?eaaoecaoeey
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaeaeiiiaiee «Eaa?ey», eioi?ay nio?oaeie/aao n
iioaioeeaeueiuie eiaanoi?aie – «Aia?eeai ye?eaeic» e «A?eoeo ye?oyec» .
Ay?ieinie/aneay EANA aoaeao i?eaaoece?iaaia ii aieaa neiaeiie noaia,
/a?ac eioaa?aoeeth a aa?iiaeneee ay?ieinie/aneee eiini?oeeoi. Eaeao
iiaeaioiaea e oi?aai ii i?iaeaaea yeaeo?iiiie «Eiae?a», «Aaaeie e
Oeeeien» e ?yaea ae?. eiiiaiee.

*aoaa?oay a?oiia eiiiaiee, iauaaeeiaiiuo a Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?iiuoeaiiia
aaaionoai i?e Ieienoa?noaa i?iiuoeaiiinoe e yia?aaoeee, ia ia?aii yoaia
ia iiaeeaaeaea i?eaaoecaoeee. Iaeiaei iinea na?ueaciuo oeiainiauo
eiuaeoeee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia naiaoeeth yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee yoie a?oiiu, a 1998 a. oaeaeinue i?eaaoece?iaaoue
iaoaeeo?ae/aneoth «Ana?aeeth», noaeiaa?oue «Aa??a?an» a Aaeenee.
Iai?iiiay «Naioa Aa?aa?a» anooieea a ia?aaiai?u n iaiaoeeie «?aeiiaoaee»
e iaoeeiiaeueiie «Oaeueai» ii aii?ino i aiciiaeiie i?iaeaaea /anoe
iaeaoa naieo aeoeee. ?a/ue eaeao ia iaeiii ec oeeeaeia eiiiaiee, eioi?ue
iieo/ee iaoianeee caeac ia i?iecaiaenoai 325 oaieia «Eaiia?ae» .

Iiea aia noa?u i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia inoathony «?aioa»
(iaoeeiiaeueiua aeaeaciua aei?iae), «Yiona» (iinoaaee o?aia ia
iaoeeiiaeueiua AYN), aieueoay /anoue oaeaaeiauaathueo i?aaei?eyoee a
ninoaaa aineiiiaiee «Oiina» . Ia iaeiii ec iineaaeieo canaaeaiee Niaieia
aue ooaa?aeaeai ei?ieaaneee aeae?ao ia aeoeeiie?iaaiee noaaeeueii
?aioaaaeueiiai o?ainii?oiiai aini?aaei?eyoey «Yiaoea?» (aaoiaoniua
ia?aaicee), ioiinyuaainy e yoie a?oiia. Yoi ?aoaiea niaiaei ii a?aiaie n
ia?aui canaaeaieai ieieno?ia yeiiiieee ia?aaeiaie a?oiiu aa?i a
A?thnnaea, ia eioi?ii eniaioeai auei ?aeiiaiaeiaaii eniieueciaaoue,
aeaaii?eyoioth yeiiiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o n oeaeueth auoiaea a
n?aaeian?i/iii ieaia ia iieiaeeoaeueiue aaeain ainathaeaeaoa.

I?ioeann i?eaaoecaoeee iaeaa/aao Eniaiee auiieiaiea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee AN, a
oii /enea «iaeoa noaaeeueiinoe», ii naycai n ?yaeii na?ueaciuo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ecaea?aeae. ?a/ue eaeao i cia/eoaeueiii
nie?auaiee /enea ?aai/eo iano a ?acoeueoaoa iioeiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna e no?oeoo?iie ?ai?aaiecaoeee
i?eaaoece?oaiuo iauaeoia. A yoie neooaoeee ainoaea?noai ?ac?aaaouaaao e
?aaeecoao i?ia?aiiu ii nicaeaieth aeueoa?iaoeaiuo enoi/ieeia caiyoinoe,
i?ioanneiiaeueiie ia?aiiaeaioiaee, oa??eoi?eaeueii-io?aneaaiai
ia?ai?ioeee?iaaiey.

E iaaaoeaiui oaeoi?ai oioaeueiie i?eaaoecaoeee ?yae ianoiuo yeiiiienoia
ioiinyo ia?aianuuaiiinoue oiiaeiaiai ?uiea oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, /oi, ii eo
iiaieth, yaeyaony iaeiie ec i?e/ei ia?eiaee/anee aicieeathueo
eiiuthieoo?iuo eieaaaiee ia eniaineeo ae?aeao, nicaeaao ii/ao aeey
«ia?aa?aaa» yeiiiieee a oeaeii. Aiaeec aeeiaieee eniaineeo ae?aeaauo
eiaeaenia ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yoe iianaiey. A /anoiinoe,
iiyaeaiea ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea iineaaeiaai iauaiiiai iaeaoa aeoeee
«Yiaeanu», a oaeaea niaeoeyoeaiua iia?aoeee n ieie i?eaaee e nieaeaieth
eo eioe?iaie ia 4,93%. E ana aea iuiaoiee yoai i?eaaoecaoeee
ioeaieaaaony aeinoaoi/ii iiceoeaii. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi Eniaiey iaeia ec
iineaaeieo no?ai – /eaiia AN caionoeea iaoaieci oi?ne?iaaiiie
i?eaaoecaoeee, aa aieueoia i?aeiouanoai caeeth/aeinue a eniieueciaaiee
iiuoa ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa AN (a /anoiinoe o?aioeocneiai). Aeaaea
iiiiceoeey, e?eoeeothuay i?aaeoaeuenoai ca eceeoithth eaeaieiaecaoeeth
i?eaaoecaoeee a eiioaenoa iaieeaa?aeueiie aeieo?eiu auioaeaeaia
i?eciaaaoue aa iieiaeeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiieeo no?aiu.

I ia?niiaeueiii iiia?a iaeiaiaie eaeaioeoeeaoeee. A niioaaonoaee n
Ei?ieaaneei Aeae?aoii ia?oa 1990 aiaea aaaaeai a aeaenoaea a ea/anoaa
iniiaiiai o/aoiiai iieacaoaey i?e inouanoaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe iiia? iaeiaiaie eaeaioeoeeaoeee NIF. Ii i?enaaeaaaony
Ieienoa?noaii yeiiiieee e oeiainia.

Ia?niiaeueiue iiia? iaycaii eiaoue eaaeaeia oece/aneia eee th?eaee/aneia
eeoei, inouanoaeythuaa oa eee eiua aeaeu e?aaeeoiuo, caeiaiauo e ae?oaeo
oeiainiauo iia?aoeee, iia?aoeee ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea e oiea/eaathuaa
iaeiae. TH?eaee/aneea eeoea iaycaiu ia anao naieo ioeoeeaeueiuo
aeieoiaioao e oe?iaiiuo aeaieao oeacuaaoue naie NIF. A ioiioaiee
oece/aneeo eeoe aeaiiue iiia? i?enaaeaaaony a?aaeaeaiai Eniaiee ii
aeinoeaeaiee 14 eao e eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai, eaaaeueii i?iaeeaathuei a
no?aia n 18 eao.

Naie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiia? iaycaiu oaeaea eiaoue
iaia?niieoeoee?iaaiiua th?eaee/aneea eeoea, oaeea eae: eiouanoaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee n aeieaaui o/anoeai; iaineiiiua e eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu;
a?aiaiiua iauaaeeiaiey i?aaei?eyoee e eiiiaiee n oeaeueth ?aaeecaoeee
eiie?aoiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeoia; oiiaeu ii ?aaeecaoeee ianeaaenoaa;
ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee, ia eiathuea /aoeiai th?eaee/aneiai eeoea e
caieiathueany aeayoaeueiinoueth, iiaeeaaeauae iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth.

Iaycaoaeueiia iaee/ea e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia aeaeea?e?iaaiea naiaai NIF
o?aaoaony i?e inouanoaeaiee neaaeothueo oeiainiauo e ae?oaeo iia?aoeee:
ioe?uoea aeaiiceoiiai n/aoa a eiiia?/aneii aaiea e ia?aaiae ia iaai
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa; iia?aoeee ii iieo/aieth eee ia?aaiaeo ?acee/iuo
oeaiiuo aoiaa e oeiainiauo aeoeaia; aeaioiepoaaiee oeaiiuo aoiaa; ana
aeaeu e?aaeeoia e nnoae, a oaeaea iia?aoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia oi?iuaiea
oeiainiaiai iai?ioa, aeeth/ay aaainu e eniieueciaaiea e?aaeeoiuo
ea?oi/ae; aaiie?iaaiea aaieianeeo naeoia n iiiauaieai a ieo ia o?aiaiea
aeaiiceoiuo n?aaenoa; iia?aoeee n /aeaie, oae eae e?aaeeoothuea
i?aaiecaoeee ia eiatho i?aaa iaiaieaaoue eo ia iaee/iua aeaiueae,
oeaiiua aoiaae e ae?oaea /aee aac auyniaiey NIF. A aeaiiii neo/aa iie
oaeaea iaycaiu eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue ee/iinoue aeaiiiai eeoea e
oaaaeeoueny a i?aaiii/iinoe ?anii?yaeaiey i auaea/a aeaiaa.

Oaeei aea ia?acii e?aaeeoothuea i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu o?aaiaaoue
niiauaiey eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiiai iiia?a n oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe
i?e i?aaeuyaeaiee eie e iieaoa /aeia, yieoe?iaaiiuo ae?oaei e?aaeeoi?ii,
a neo/aa, eiaaea iieaoo iaaiciiaeii inouanoaeoue n aaieianeiai n/aoa.
Oaeaea o?aaoaony niiauaiea aeaiiiai iiia?a aeey /aeia, auienaiiuo ia
ae?oaeo eeoe, a oaeaea i?e ?acee/iuo iia?aoeeyo ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea,
aeeth/ay iieaoo iaee/iuie, eiaaea noiia iieaou i?aauoaao iyouenio ouny/
ianao.

A aeaoo iineaaeieo neo/ayo i?e iieaoa /aeii oaeaea iaycaoaeueiui
yeaiaioii yaeyaony eaeaioeoeeaoeey ee/iinoe aeaaeaeueoea /aea,
i?aaeuyaeythuaai aai e iieaoa, a oaeaea caeiiiinoue aai iieo/aiey.

NIF aeieaeai auoue ioeoeeaeueii i?iaeaeea?e?iaai iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
aeaiue ioe?uoey n/aoa, aeaiiie?iaaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, inouanoaeaiee
eaeie-eeai ae?oaie oeiainiaie iia?aoeee eee naeaeea ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea.
Iaeneiaeueiia a?aiy ion?i/ee a aeaiiii neo/aa aeiioneaaony ia n?ie ia
aieaa iaeiiai ianyoea e iaeiiai aeiy n iiiaioa niaa?oaiey oeacaiiiai
aeaenoaey.

Ia o?aaoaony i?aaeuyaeaiey NIF oieueei i?e inouanoaeaiee neaaeothueo
aaieianeeo iia?aoeee: eoiey-i?iaeaaea eacia/aeneeo aeeaoia; ?acee/iiai
?iaea ii?o/eoaeuenoaa e aaaee; iia?aoeee ii ianeoaeeaaieth n/aoia.

Aoaeo/e iaycaoaeueiui yeaiaioii yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ac?ineiai
a?aaeaeaieia Eniaiee, NIF oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony, a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, ia aai ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae, a oaeaea eeoe,
i?eciaiiuo iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii iaaeaaniiniaiuie, iiaeoiaie eee
ioeoeeaeueiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?uo iie yaeythony.

Inaiaiaeaeaiu io iaycaiiinoe eiaoue naie ia?niiaeueiue iiia? a?aaeaeaia
Eniaiee iieiaea 14 eao e eiino?aioeu, eaaaeueii i?iaeeaathuea ia
oa??eoi?ee Eniaiee, /ae aic?ano ia i?aauoaao 18 eao, a neo/aa, anee eo
i?aauaaiea a no?aia ia naycaii n i?ioanneiiaeueiie eee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Aeaiiia aic?anoiia ia?aie/aiea
aeey eiino?aioeaa oaeaea naycaii n oai, /oi iaycaoaeueiue ee/iue
eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia? eiino?aioea ei iiaeao auoue i?enaiai oieueei
ii aeinoeaeaiee oeacaiiiai aic?anoa.

Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea, a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoue
iiia? naieo ?iaeeoaeae, iiaeoiia eee ioeoeeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae. A
aaieianeeo aeieoiaioao ii n/aoai, ioe?uoui ia eiy aeaoae, aianoa n eo
ia?niiaeueiuie aeaiiuie oeao?e?otho e ia?niiaeueiua aeaiiua eo
ioeoeeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae. I?e yoii aaieianeea neoaeau iaycaiu
ia?eiaee/anee inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue ca iiaeiaiuie n/aoaie ia i?aaeiao
oiai, i?iaeieaeatho ee eo aeaaeaeueoeu ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaaoueny
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie eeoeaie, caeiiii ia eiathueie ia?niiaeueiiai NIF.

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ioi?ieythony n/aoa ia eeoe, i?eciaiiuo, ia iniiaaiee
ioeoeeaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey, /anoe/ii eee
iieiinoueth iaaeaaniiniaiuie.

A neo/aa nia?oe iaeiiai ec niaeaaeaeueoeaa aaieianeiai n/aoa, ii, eae
i?aaeei, ia iiaeeaaeeo caaeiee?iaaieth, anee aaie nio?aiyao aeiaa?ea e
ee/iui iiia?ai inoaeueiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa aeaiiiai n/aoa, e anee oiea/aiu
iieaaathueany iaeiae ia ianeaaenoai eee aea?aiea. Ionoonoaea eee
nie?uoea NIF a neo/ayo, eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii aai ioeoeeaeueiia
aeaeea?e?iaaiea, ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaeiaiaia i?anooieaiea.

A neo/aa, anee eaeay-eeai e?aaeeoiay, oeiainiaay eee ae?oaay
i?aaiecaoeey, aeeth/ay i?aaei?eyoey noa?u oi?aiaee e ianeoaeeaaiey,
oaeaea ia niaethaeaao o?aaiaaiey ii o/aoo ia?niiaeueiuo iiia?ia naieo
eeeaioia, a neo/ayo eiaaea yoi i?aaeoniio?aii caeiiii, ia iaa iaeaaaaony
oo?ao a ?acia?a 50% noiiu iacaeiiii ioi?ieaiiiai n/aoa eee i?iaaaeaiiie
iia?aoeee, ii ia iaiaa 150 oun. ianao. Eee aea, i?e iaee/ee ioya/athueo
ianoiyoaeuenoa, anee o?aaoaony cae?uoea aeaiiiai n/aoa eee aiioee?iaaiea
i?iaaaeaiiie iia?aoeee, oo?aoii io 150 oun. aei 1 iei. ianao.

I?e i?enaiaiee NIF oece/aneei eeoeai auaeaaony ia?niiaeueiay ea?oi/ea,
ia eioi?ie oeacuaathony eiy, oaieeey aeaaeaeueoea e cae?aieaiiue ca iei
iiia?. I?enaiaiea iiia?a e auaea/a ea?oi/ee inouanoaeyaony ii
ienueiaiiiio cayaeaieth a ianoiii ioaeaeaiee Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee e
oeiainia n i?aaeuyaeaieai ee/iuo aeieoiaioia, oaeinoiaa?ythueo ee/iinoue
a?aaeaeaieia. Aeaiiay ea?oi/ea eiaao eeoue aniiiiaaoaeueiue,
eioi?iaoeaiue oa?aeoa?, e a neooaoeeyo, eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii
i?iaeaeea?e?iaaoue ee/iue NIF, aeinoaoi/ii eeoue iacaaoue aai e
iiaeoaa?aeeoue aeieoiaioaeueii naith ee/iinoue.

Oeiainiaua, oi?aiaua e ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua iaycaiu
eiio?iee?iaaoue e o/eouaaoue iiia?a naieo eeeaioia, eiatho aeinooi ii
eiiiuethoa?iui naoyi a niioaaonoaothuoth eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaco aeaiiuo
Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee e oeiainia aeey i?iaa?ee e eaeaioeoeeaoeee
cayaeaiiiai iiia?a.

Ia?niiaeueiue iiia? iaeiaiaie eaeaioeoeeaoeee yaeyaony a Eniaiee
aaaeiaeoei e i?aeoe/anee iaycaoaeueiui yeaiaioii aineiio?iey ca
yeiiiie/aneie aeeciueth a?aaeaeai, a oaeaea eiino?aioeaa, eaaaeueii
i?iaeeaathueo a no?aia. Ii noae iaiouaieaiui ao?eaooii iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie e eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea a ea/anoaa o/aoiie eaoaai?ee,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuae ee/iinoue e i?aaiii/iinoue aeaaeaeueoea.

Oiiaeu. A Eniaiee ian/eouaaaony ieiei 2,5 oun. oiiaeia. A niioaaonoaee n
aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii oiiae – yoi iai?eaueueiay
i?aaiecaoeey, eioi?ay eniieuecoao naie eaieoae a iauanoaaiiuo eioa?anao:
caieiaaony nioeeaeueiie, ia?aciaaoaeueiie, eoeueoo?iie, iao/iie eee
nii?oeaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, ?aaioaao a iaeanoe io?aiu ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, niaeaenoaoao yeiiiie/aneiio ?acaeoeth e o.ae. Oiiaeu aeaeyony ia
aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu. Ia?aua i?eaioe?iaaiu ia inouanoaeaiea nianoaaiiie
oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee i?iaeoai a noa?a eo eiiiaoaioeee. Aoi?ua
nicaeathony aeey iienea n?aaenoa n oeaeueth ?aaeecaoeee naieo onoaaiuo
oeaeae.

?aaeno? oiiaeia aaaeoo niioaaonoaothuea ieienoa?noaa (ii i?ioeeth).
Iiaeaaeythuay eo /anoue ca?aaeno?e?iaaia a Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey e
eoeueoo?u, a Ieienoa?noaa cae?aaiio?aiaiey e a Ieienoa?noaa o?oaea e
nioeeaeueiuo aii?inia. Eeoue iinea aianaiey a iaeei ec ioeoeeaeueiuo
?aano?ia e oieaou niioaaonoaothueo nai?ia oiiae noaiiaeony th?eaee/aneei
eeoeii. Ianeieueei i?aaiecaoeee, auiieiythueo nioeeaeueii cia/eiua
ooieoeee – «Iaoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey neaiuo Eniaiee» e «Eniaineee
E?aniue E?ano», iieuecothony oaie aea i?aaaie e i?eaeeaaeyie, /oi e
oiiaeu, ii nouanoao ia yaeyynue oaeiauie.

Iniaue noaoon eiatho oiiaeu i?e eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e i?aeaiao. Eo
aeayoaeueiinoue, eae i?aaeei, ainoaea?noaii ia eiio?iee?oaony.
Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho oiiaeu, nicaeaiiua aeey nai?a n?aaenoa n?aaee
ianaeaiey (iai?eia?, ia no?ieoaeuenoai iiianou?ae). Nicaeaiea
eoeueoo?iuo oiiaeia a Eniaiee ia/aeinue a aeaaii?eyoiie yeiiiie/aneie
neooaoeee iinea niioaaonoaothuaai cae?aieaiey eo noaoona e i?aa a
Eiinoeoooeee 1978 aiaea.

A ia?aie iieiaeia 1998 aiaea a ?aaeno?a Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey e
eoeueoo?u /eneeeinue ieiei 1.100 eoeueoo?iuo oiiaeia e annioeeaoeee. Eo
aeayoaeueiinoue eo?e?oaony aeaia?oaiaioii ii aeaeai eoeueoo?iuo oiiaeia
ieienoa?noaa. Aeaia?oaiaio, yaeyynue i?iiaaeooi/iui caaiii iaaeaeo
aaeieieno?aoeeae oiiaeia e ainoaea?noaii, inouanoaeyao iauee iaaeci?
iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth oiiaeia, ieacuaaao ei niaeaenoaea (i?aaeaea anaai
th?eaee/aneia), i?aaenoaaeyao eo eioa?anu a ae?oaeo i?aaiao aeanoe
(iai?eia?, ia iniiaa i?aaenoaaeaiiuo oiiaeaie aeaiiuo aioiaeo naiaeiue
athaeaeaoiue io/ao aeey Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee e oeiainia). I?e iaee/ee
?anoiaeaeaiee iaaeaeo onoaaiuie oeaeyie oiiaea e aai i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, a oaeaea i?e na?ueaciuo yeiiiie/aneeo ia?ooaieyo
aeaia?oaiaio iinea noaeaaiiai iinoaiiaeaiey iiaeao a?aiaiii acyoue ia
naay oi?aaeaiea oiiaeii eee cae?uoue aai.

Iinea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey n ieienoa?noaii oiiaeu, ianiio?y
ia oi, /oi ii ii?aaeaeaieth iie yaeythony aani?eaueueiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, iiaoo o/anoaiaaoue a eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iaeiaei 70% i?eauee io iaa aeieaeii auoue iai?aaeaii ia ?aoaiea onoaaiuo
caaea/ oiiaea.

Eiino?aiiua eoeueoo?iua oiiaeu, inouanoaeythuea naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia
oa??eoi?ee Eniaiee, oaeaea iaycaiu ?aaeno?e?iaaoueny a oeacaiiii auoa
aeaia?oaiaioa e eiaoue caeanue aeaenoaothuaa i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai.

Iniiaaoue eoeueoo?iue oiiae iiaeao eae oece/aneia, oae e th?eaee/aneia
eeoei, eae ainoaea?noaaiiua (iauanoaaiiua), oae e /anoiua no?oeoo?u. I?e
yoii eiino?aioeu iieuecothony oaie aea i?aaaie, /oi e a?aaeaeaia
Eniaiee. I?e nicaeaiee oiiaeia iniiaaoaee iiea/eaatho eeoue
iioa?eaeueiua oneoae. Iie onoaiaaeeaatho i?eioeeiu aai aeayoaeueiinoe,
aeaaiua oeaee, iacia/atho iao?iiao e ii?aaeaeytho ?aaeaiaio aai
aeaeueiaeoae ?aaiou e ia?aeca?aiey (i?e yoii naie iniiaaoaee iiaoo
oaeaea auoue /eaiaie iao?iiaoa). Iaeneiaeueiia /enei iniiaaoaeae oiiaea
ia ia?aie/aii, ieieiaeueiia – 1 /aeiaae. Oaeaea ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei
ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai /eaiia iao?iiaoa – 3 /aeiaaea.

I?iaeo onoaaa oiiaea aeieaeai auoue iaeia?ai aeaia?oaiaioii ii aeaeai
eoeueoo?iuo oiiaeia. Onoaaiui eaieoaeii oiiaea iiaeao auoue ethaia
eiouanoai, aeaiueae eee, iai?eia?, aaoi?neea i?aaa, o.a. ana, /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoa?eaeueioth oeaiiinoue. Iaee/ea aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa aeieaeii auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaii iioa?eaeueii. Oi?ie?iaaiea
onoaaiiai eaieoaea aeiioneaaony ii /anoyi, a oa/aiea iyoe eao, i?e
ia?aiia/aeueiii aciina a 25%. Iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai yaeyaony
aeinoaoi/iinoue onoaaiiai eaieoaea aeey inouanoaeaiey caaea/ oiiaea.

Iao?iiao caieiaaony ieaie?iaaieai aeayoaeueiinoe oiiaea, ?anii?yaeaaony
eiouanoaii e onoaaiui eaieoaeii. *eaiii iao?iiaoa iiaeao yaeyoueny
th?eaee/aneia eeoei, /uee eioa?anu i?aaenoaaeyao aua?aiiia ei oece/aneia
eeoei. Ana ooieoeee iao?iiaoa, ca eneeth/aieai ooaa?aeaeaiey athaeaeaoa,
iiaoo auoue aeaeaae?iaaiu iaeiiio ec aai /eaiia.

*eaiu iao?iiaoa oiiaea ia iieo/atho ca?aaioiie ieaou e ia eiatho i?aaa
?aaioaoue a i?aaiecaoeeyo, caaenyueo io aeayoaeueiinoe e ?aoaiee oiiaea.
Ei iiea/eaaaony i?iacae ii aeaeai oiiaea e aiii?a?u ca ?aciaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue (iai?eia?, /oaiea eaeoeee, ioaeeeaoeee e o.ae.), /oi
i?iaiaeeony ii noaouea «aaeieieno?aoeaiua ?anoiaeu» e ninoaaeyao ia
aieaa 10% aiaeiaiai athaeaeaoa oiiaea. Ca?ieaoa ia?niiaea i?ioiaeeo ii
noaouea «iauea ?anoiaeu» .

Onoaiiaeai ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iiaea?oaiaaiee oiiaeai – 1 iei. ianao.
Eiy aea?eoaey, ii aai iiaeaeaieth, iiaeao ia ?ane?uaaoueny
iauanoaaiiinoe, ii i?e yoii oiiae ia eiaao i?aaa i?eieiaoue aiiieiiua
iiaea?oaiaaiey. Ii iaycai i?aaeinoaaeyoue aeaiiua ia enoi/ieeao
iieo/aiey ethauo n?aaenoa ii o?aaiaaieth noaea. Iiaea?oaiaaiea iiaeao
auoue i?eiyoi oiiaeii eeoue i?e aaeeiiaeaniii iaeia?aiee iao?iiaoa.

Oiiaeu iaycaiu i?aaeinoaaeyoue iauoth eioi?iaoeeth i naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe anai aeaeathuei. Ii onoaiiaeaiiiio a 1990 a. oeiiaiio
ieaio aooaaeoa?neie aiaeiaie io/aoiinoe aaeaaiaeii iao?iiaoii
ooaa?aeaeaaony aaeain, i?iaiaeeony eiaaioa?ecaoeey, iiaeaiaeeony eoia
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ca aiae. Aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ea eaaeaeua
aeaa aiaea iiaeeaaeeo aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue oiiaeia, onoaaiie
eaieoae eioi?uo i?aauoaao 400 iei. ianao, e oao, aaea /enei neoaeaueo
aieaa 50.

*oiau iieueciaaoueny eueaioiui iaeiaiiaeiaeaieai, oiiaeu aeieaeiu
auiieiyoue neaaeothuea oneiaey: iai?aaeyoue 70% anae iieo/aiiie i?eauee
ia iniiaiua oeaee oiiaea, inouanoaeyoue iauanoaaiii-iieacioth
aeayoaeueiinoue, no?iai auiieiyoue caeiaeaiiua a onoaaa caaea/e e
i?aaenoaaeyoue oeiainiaoth io/aoiinoue a Ieienoa?noai yeiiiieee e
oeiainia a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee (/a?ac aeaia?oaiaio ii aeaeai eoeueoo?iuo
oiiaeia).

Ieienoa?noai yeiiiieee e oeiainia iiaeao ioiaieoue eueaioiue iaeiaiaue
?aaeei aeey oiiaeia, ia auiieiythueo o?aaiaaiey a iieiii iauaia.
Eueaioiue iaeiaiaue ?aaeei, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue oiiaeai, i?aaeiieaaaao
inaiaiaeaeaiea io neaaeothueo iaeiaia: ia aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee;
ia iaaeaeaeeiinoue; ia yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

Oece/aneea eeoea, aiinyuea iiaea?oaiaaiey a eoeueoo?iua oiiaeu e
annioeeaoeee, eiatho i?aai au/anoue yoo noiio ec iaeaaaaiie iiaeioiaeiui
iaeiaii. Eiino?aiiua oiiaeu iiaeiaaeatho iiae eueaioiue iaeiaiaue ?aaeei
oieueei a neo/aa iaee/ey o ieo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiiai
a Eniaiee.

3. Yenii?o. Eiaanoeoeee

Aiaoiaoi?aiaue iai?io a 1997 a. ninoaaee 226 ie?ae. aeiee. Ia aeooo
ianaeaiey i?eoiaeeeinue 56,5 oun. aeiee. iauaia aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

Aeiey yenii?oa ai aioo?aiiai aaeiaii i?iaeoeoa a 1997 a. ioeaieaaaony a
19,6%. I?e/ai iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey aa iinoaiaiiiai ?inoa. Iai?eia?,
a 1990 a. iia ninoaaeea 11,28%.

Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia ieaoaaeiue aaeain no?aiu.
A 1996 a. aeioiaeu io aiaoiae oi?aiaee ninoaaeee 12,8% io iauaia anao
iinooieaiee.

A 1997 a. ia oaeaeinue iaania/eoue nie?auaiey io?eoeaoaeueiiai naeueaei
aiaoiaoi?aiaiai aaeaina, eioi?ia ninoaaeei 2,6 o?ei. ianao. (18,34
ie?ae. aeiee.), i?e yenii?oa a noiia 15 o?ei. ianao (103,8 ie?ae.
aeiee.) e eiii?oa – 17,9 o?ei. ianao (122,2 ie?ae. aeiee.).

Ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 a. yenii?o aic?in ia 18,1% e eiii?o – ia 16,4%.
Iaeiaei i?e ian/aoa ii iaeciaiiui oeaiai ieacuaaaony, /oi oaii ?inoa
yenii?oa ninoaaee 14,9%,a oaii ?inoa eiii?oa – 11,4%.

Ia ?ino yenii?oa ieacaee aeeyiea neooaoeey ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea
aioo?e no?aiu e aeaaii?eyoiay eiiuthieoo?a ia ie?iauo oiaa?iuo ?uieao, a
oaeaea iaaeaiea oeaiu ianaou ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o NOA e iaiaoeeie
ia?ea. Iaoaaoea nianoaaiiuo nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia, ionoonoaea aeiau/e iaooe
e aaca auioaeaeatho Eniaieth i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia aiaoiee ?uiie aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eiii?oiuo iio?aaiinoae. A nayce n yoei aeiey
yia?aaoe/aneeo oiaa?ia a iauai iauaia eiii?oa eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao io
8% aei 11%, a aeiey ae?oaeo nu?ueaauo oiaa?ia – io 4% aei 6%.

Ii i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiui oiaa?ai Eniaiey o?aaeeoeeiiii yaeyeanue
iaooi-eiii?oa?ii. A 1996 a. ia ieo i?eoiaeeeinue 15% aiaoiaoi?aiaiai
iai?ioa; aia?aua iinea 1988 a. yenii?o yoie a?oiiu oiaa?ia a 1996-97
aa.. i?aaunee eo eiii?o.

*oi eanaaony eciaiaiee a eiii?oa ca 1997 a., oi a iaeaieueoae ia?a
aic?inee iinoaaee a Eniaieth noaeia, iai?oaeiaaiey niaoeeaeueiiai
iacia/aiey, iacaiiiai o?ainii?oa, iaoae, oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia.

Ii iauaio oiaa?iiai?ioa e oaeaeueiiio aano ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea Eniaiee
1-a ianoi ii-i?aaeiaio caieiaao O?aioeey, ca iae neaaeotho O?A, Eoaeey,
Ii?ooaaeey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey. Iniaaiii aic?in eniaineee yenii?o a Eoaeeth
(ia 31,9%), Oeieyiaeeth (ia 56,6%), Ii?ooaaeeth (ia 24%). Oaii ?inoa
eniaineiai eiii?oa ec ia?a/eneaiiuo no?ai ia i?aauoae 16,4%.

Eiaanoeoeee.

A 1997 a. Eniaiey aeoeaece?iaaea naith eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue,
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ca ?oaaaeii, /oi i?eaaei e ?inoo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee
ia 59% ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii e yaeyaony naiui aieueoei ?inoii ca
anth enoi?eth. Yoio i?ioeann noae iaeiie ec iniiaiuo iniaaiiinoae
?acaeoey eniaineie yeiiiieee a iineaaeiea aiaeu: 1995 a. – 2,9 ie?ae.
aeiee.; 1996 a. – 9,7 ie?ae. aeiee.; 1997 a. – 13,6 ie?ae. aeiee.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui niiniaii auaica eaieoaea noaei i?eia?aoaiea
eniaineeie i?aaei?eyoeyie aeieae o/anoey a eaieoaea ianoiuo oe?i. Ia
oaeea iia?aoeee a 1997 aiaeo i?eoiaeeeinue 48% anaai iauaia eniaineeo
eiaanoeoeee ca ?oaaaeii. A ia oaaee/aiea oaea nouanoaothuaai o/anoey
eniaineeo oe?i a eaieoaea ca?oaaaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee auei iai?aaeaii 45%
anao eiaanoeoeee.

Iaeaieaa aeeiaie/ii ?inee eniaineea aiaoiea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a
oeiainiaoth noa?o – ia ieo i?eoiaeeeinue 38% anao eniaineeo eiaanoeoeee
ca ?oaaaeii. Iaeiaei, oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie a 1997 aiaeo noaee
cia/eoaeueiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey eniaineeo oe?i a
i?iiuoeaiii-oieaeeiaiaua eiiiaiee, a /anoiinoe, a iaeanoe yia?aaoeee –
24% io anaai iauaia ca?oaaaeiuo eiaanoeoeee a 1997 a., oiaaea eae a 1996
a. iie ia aeinoeaaee e 5%. Ia aoi?ii ianoa noieo noa?a oaeaeiiioieeaoeee
– 9%. Au?inee eiaanoeoeee a iaeioi?ua io?anee ia?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaeea eae i?iecaiaenoai oeaiaioa, aaoiiiaeeae, /oaoia –
iie ninoaaeee 8% io anaai iauaia eniaineeo eiaanoeoeee ca ?oaaaeii.

Iniiaiay ianna eniaineeo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee iai?aaeyeanue a no?aiu
Eaoeineie Aia?eee. A 90-a aa. Eniaiey caieiaea ia?aia ianoi n?aaee
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai ii iauaio eiaanoeoeee a yoio ?aaeii, iaaiiyy
Aaeeeia?eoaieth, Aa?iaieth e O?aioeeth. A 1997 a. 51% ca?oaaaeiuo
eiaanoeoeee Eniaiee auee iai?aaeaiu a Eaoeineoth Aia?eeo (a 1996 a. –
41%), i?e yoii 16% i?eoiaeeeinue ia A?aceeeth e ii 14% – ia A?aaioeio e
*eee. I?e yoii iniiaiua n?aaenoaa aeeaaeuaaeenue a aaieianeoth noa?o,
yia?aaoeeo e oaeaeiiioieeaoeee. Eniaiey inouanoaeyao eiaanoeoeee a
no?aiu Eaoeineie Aia?eee ia ii o?aaeeoeeiiiie noaia: aia/aea a no?aia
iiyaeythony i?iiuoeaiiua oe?iu, caoai iiaeeeth/athony aaiee aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a iaiai?io. Aia/aea a
no?aia ia/eiatho aeaenoaiaaoue oeiainiaua no?oeoo?u, a caoai iiyaeythony
i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu e oe?iu.

Iaeiie ec e?oiiaeoeo iia?aoeee auei i?eia?aoaiea yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneie
eiiiaieae «Yiaeana» 32% aeoeee /eeeeneie eiiiaiee Endesa de Chile ia
noiio 1300 iei. aeiee. Eniaineay aaieianeay a?oiia Santander inouanoaeea
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey ia noiio 220 iei. aeiee. aeey onoaiiaeaiey eiio?iey
iaae Aanni General de Comercio de Brasil ia noiio 700 iei. aeiee. a
Banco del Rio de la Plata a A?aaioeia. Aaieianeay a?oiia Aanni Bilbao o
Vizcaia inouanoaeea eiaanoeoeee a ?acia?a 360 iei. aeiee. a A?aaioeia,
e?oiiay iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuay eiiiaiey Repsol i?eia?aea ca 360 iei.
aeiee. 45% aeoeee a?aaioeineie iaooyiie eiiiaiee Pluspetrol Energy.
«Oaeaoiieea» eiaanoe?iaaea 350 iei. aeiee. a A?aceeee.

A oi aea a?aiy eniaineea eiaanoeoeee a no?aiu Aa?iiaeneiai Nithca
i?iaeieaeatho nieaeaoueny. A 1997 a. ia ieo i?eoiaeeeinue anaai 24% io
iauaai iauaia eniaineeo eiaanoeoeee ca ?oaaaeii, oiaaea eae a 1995 e
1996 aa. yoio iieacaoaeue ninoaaeye 30%, a a 1994 a. – 40%. N?aaee
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai aieueoa anaai eniaineeo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee auei
iai?aaeaii a Ieaea?eaiaeu e Ii?ooaaeeth – 6% e 7% niioaaonoaaiii, /oi
iauyniyaony aeaaii?eyoiui ?aaeeiii aeey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee,
nouanoaothuei a yoeo no?aiao.

Iniaaiii caiaoii auei nieaeaiea eniaineeo eiaanoeoeee a no?aiu oae
iacuaaaiiai «iaeiaiaiai ?ay» – n 34,5% a 1995 a. aei 14,4% a 1996 a. e
4% a 1997 a. Yoi iauyniyaony eciaiaieyie a iaeiaiaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
naiie Eniaiee, eioi?ua eeoeee oeacaiiua no?aiu eo oeneaeueiuo
i?aeiouanoa aeey eniaineeo eiaanoi?ia.

N 1996 a. eniaineea oe?iu, eiaanoe?othuea eaieoaeu ca ?oaaaeii,
inaiaiaeaeathony io oieaou iaeiaia, anee iie oieaoeee eo a no?aia
aeiaeaiey eaieoaea. Aei 1996 a. yoi ?ac?aoaeinue oieueei oai eniaineei
eiaanoi?ai, eioi?ua ?aaioaee a no?aiao, n eioi?uie o Eniaiee auee
niaeaoaiey ia ecaaaeaiee aeaieiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Aoi?ui aeaaii?eyoiui oaeoi?ii noaea aiciiaeiinoue ia iiaeaa?aaoueny
aeaieiiio iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth aeioiaeia i?e iaee/ee eae ieieioi 5% o/anoey
eniaineiai eaieoaea a eiino?aiiie oe?ia a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea. N
o/aoii yoeo oaeoi?ia eniaineea oe?iu aeoeaii noaee eniieueciaaoue i?yiua
eiaanoeoeee, ieioy «oeneaeueiue ?ae» eae i?iiaaeooi/iue yoai a
?aaeecaoeee naieo eiaanoeoeee.

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