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Географическое положение и экономика Финляндии

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Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea e yeiiiieea Oeieyiaeee

Oeieyiaeneay ?anioaeeea – Suomen Tasavalta Republiken Finland.
Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea – iaoiaeeony a Naaa?iie Aa?iia. Ieiuaaeue –
338 150 ea.ei. (niaeanii iioaeeeiaaiiiio 31 ethey 1995 a. cayaeaieth
IEAe a Oeieyiaeee anooiee a neeo caeii i ?anoe?aiee oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
aiae no?aiu n 4 aei 12 ieeue, oa??eoi?ey Oeieyiaeee niioaaonoaaiii
oaaee/eeanue ia 16,8 oun. ea. ei. IEAe Oeieyiaeee iiyniee, /oi oaia?ue
ii?neea a?aieoeu Oeieyiaeee niioaaonoaotho oai, eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiiu
anaie ninaaeieie n iae no?aiaie). Ianaeaiea – 5 067 000 /ae. Noieeoea:
Oaeueneiee – Helsinki – 502 000 /ae.; n i?eai?iaeaie – 784,1 oun. /ae.
Ae?oaea e?oiiaeoea ai?iaea – Oaiia?a (175 000), Oo?eo (160 000). Aunoay
oi/ea – ai?a Oaeoey (1 328 i). Ainoaea?noaaiiua ycuee – oeineee,
oaaaeneee. Iniiaiay ?aeeaey – o?enoeainoai. Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea –
oeieyiaeneay ia?ea. Iniiaiua noaouee yenii?oa – eaniiaoa?eaeu,
aaoiiiaeee, ecaeaeey aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?iaeoeoeey
iaoeiino?iaiey, noaea, iaeaaeaea, iaaaeue. Oi?ia i?aaeaiey –
eiinoeoooeeiiiay ?anioaeeea.

Oeieyiaeey — aeaiie?aoe/aneia oieoa?iia i?aaiaia ainoaea?noai n
?anioaeeeaineie oi?iie i?aaeaiey. Aeaenoaothuay Eiinoeoooeey — Iniiaiie
caeii Oeieyiaeee auea i?eiyoa 11 ethiy 1999 a. e anooieea a neeo n 1
ia?oa 2000 a. *aou?a eiinoeoooeeiiiuo caeiia ninoaaeytho aianoa
Eiinoeoooeeth: Aeo i oi?ia i?aaeaiey (i?eiyo 17 ethey 1919 — eciaiaiey e
aeiiieiaiey aiineeenue a 1926, 1930, 1943, 1955, 1992 e 2000), Aeo i
i?aaa ia?eaiaioa eiio?iee?iaaoue caeiiiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e eaioeea?a thnoeoeee 1922, Caeii i Aunoai
noaea (1922) e Ia?eaiaioneee Onoaa (1928). A niioaaonoaee n eciaiaieyie
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo aeoia a 2000 a. no?aia ia?aoea io i?aceaeaioneie e
ia?eaiaioneie aeaiie?aoee.

Niaeanii Ecae?aoaeueiiio aeoo 1998 onoaiiaeaiu auai?u 4 o?iaiae: a
Yaeoneoio — iaeiiiaeaoiue ia?eaiaio, auai?u i?aceaeaioa, auai?u a
ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe (446 eiiioi) e auai?u 16 aeaiooaoia a
Aa-?iia?eaiaio (n 1999). Ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai i?aaeinoaaeyaony anai
a?aaeaeaiai, aeinoeaoei 18 eao.

N ia?oa 2000 a. yoio iino caieiaao eca?aiiay a ea/anoaa eaiaeeaeaoa io
Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee O. Oaeiyai (iinea eca?aiey a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaeeoeeae auoea ec ia?oee) – ia?aay aeaiueia-i?aceaeaio
a enoi?ee no?aiu. Aeaaa ain-aa inouanoaeyao ?oeiaiaenoai aiaoiae
iieeoeeie niaianoii n i?aaeoaeuenoaii, ooaa?aeaeaao caeiiiaeaoaeueiua
aeou e iinoaiiaeaiey, iacia/aao /eaiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aunoeo ain.
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, yaeyaony aa?oiaiui aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei
Iai?iieoaeueiuie neeaie.

Aianoa n iaeiiiaeaoiui ia?eaiaioii ii inouanoaeyao caeiiiaeaoaeueiue
ooieoeee. A ninoaaa ia?eaiaioa 200 aeaiooaoia, ecae?aaiiai ia 4 aiaea ia
iniiaa i?yiiai e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai aieiniaaiey. Eniieieoaeueiay aunoay
aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo Ainoaea?noaaiiiio niaaoo, eioi?ue ia?acotho
i?aceaeaio e i?aaeoaeuenoai. Iuiaoiaa i?aaeoaeuenoai yaeyaony
eiaeeoeeiiiui: nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey, iaoeeiiaeueiay
eiaeeoeeiiiay ia?oey, oaaaeneay ia?iaeiay ia?oey, aeie «eaauo» nee e
ia?oey «caeaiuo».

Ii eoiaai ninoiyaoeony a ia?oa 2003 a. auai?ia a iai i?aaenoaaeaiu 8
ia?oee: Ia?oey Oeieyiaeneee oeaio? (IOOe) ~ 55 aeaiooaoia.
Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay (NAeIO)- 53, Iaoeeiiaeueiay eiaeeoeeiiiay (IEI)
– 40, Eaaue nithc (EN) – 19, Nithc «caeaiuo» -14, Oaaaeneay ia?iaeiay
(OII) -9, o?enoeaineeo aeaiie?aoia – 7, ei?aiiuo oeiiia – 3.
I?aaenaaeaoaeue ia?eaiaioa – I. Eeiiiiai (NAeIO). Ec 18 ieieno?ia,
aoiaeyueo a i?aaeoaeuenoai – 6 aeaiuei.

Aunoee caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai — Yaeoneoio — iaeiiiaeaoiue ia?eaiaio,
ninoiyuee ec 200 aeaiooaoia, ecae?aaiuo ianaeaieai ia 4 aiaea ii nenoaia
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. Aeaaa aunoaai i?aaia
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe — Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa — i?aaenaaeaoaeue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i?aiuea?-ieieno? (Iaooe Aaioaiai — ia?oey «Oeieyiaeneee
Oeaio?», n ethiy 2003).

I?aaeoaeuenoai Oeieyiaeee — Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao — inouanoaeyao iauaa
?oeiaiaenoai no?aiie. A aai ninoaa aoiaeyo I?aiuea?-ieieno?, ieieno?u,
aicaeaaeythuea aaa?aiiua ei ieienoa?noaa, e ieieno?u aac ii?ooaeae.

I?aiuea?-ieieno? ecae?aaony ia?eaiaioii, iinea /aai oi?iaeueii
iacia/aaony I?aceaeaioii ?anioaeeee aeey auiieiaiey aai iaycaiiinoae.
Ae?oaea ieieno?u iacia/athony I?aceaeaioii ii i?aaeeiaeaieth
I?aiuea?-ieieno?a. I?aaeaea /ai aoaeao eca?ai I?aiuea?-ieieno?,
i?aaenoaaeoaee io ia?oeeiuo a?oii Yaeo-neoiou ciaeiiyony n i?ia?aiiie
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aai ninoaaii. I ?acoeueoaoao yoiai iciaeiieaiey
niiauaaony I?aceaeaioo, /oiau ii i?aaenoaaee Yaeo-neoioa oi eeoei,
eioi?ia i?aaeeaaaaony eaiaeeaeaoii a i?aiuea?-ieieno?u.

Anee eaiaeeaeao ai a?aiy ioe?uoiai aieiniaaiey a Yaeoneoioa iieo/eo
aieaa iieiaeiu iiaeaiiuo aieinia, ii n/eoaaony eca?aiiui a
i?aiuea?-ieieno?u. Anee aea eaiaeeaeao ia iieo/eo o?aaoaiiai
aieueoeinoaa, oi a oii aea ii?yaeea aeieaeai i?aaeeaaaoueny iiaue
eaiaeeaeao. Anee e iiaue eaiaeeaeao ia iieo/eo aieaa iieiaeiu iiaeaiiuo
aieinia, oi i?iaiaeyony iiaua auai?u iooai ioe?uoiai aieiniaaiey. I?e
yoii eca?aiiui n/eoaaony oio, eoi iieo/eo iaeaieueoaa /enei aieinia.

Ianoiia oi?aaeaiea a eyie (aoaa?ieyo) inouanoaeyaony i?aaeaieai ai aeaaa
n aoaa?iaoi?ii, iacia/aaiui i?aceaeaioii. Aeaiaeneei ino?iaai (aoaa?iey
Aoaaiaiia) i?aaeinoaaeaia /anoe/iay aaoiiiiey. I?aaiu ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey a eiiioiao — ecae?aaiua ia 4 aiaea ai?iaeneea e naeueneea
eiiioiaeueiua niaaou.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiia aeaeaiea: 5 eyie (Laani – aoaa?iey), aac o/aoa
Aeaiaeneeo i-aia, eioi?ua n iay 1991 a. eiatho noaoon naiioi?aaeaiey.
Eyie aeaeyony ia eiiioiu (kunta). 1 naioya?y 1997 a. aaaaeaii iiaia
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui
/enei aoaa?iee nie?auaii n 11 aei 5, a noieeoea Oaeueneiee oo?aoeea
noaoon aoaa?ineiai oeaio?a: 1) THaei. Oeieyiaeey (aaei. oeaio? – a.
Oyiaaieeiia), 2) Cai. Oeieyiaeey (aaei. oeaio? – Oo?eo), 3) Aino.
Oeieyiaeey (aaei. oeaio? – a. Ieeeaee), 4) Ioeo (aaei. oeaio? – a.
Ioeo), 5) Eaieaiaeey (aaei. oeaio? – a. ?iaaieaie). Iaoeeiiaeueiue
i?acaeiee: 6 aeaeaa?y – Aeaiue Iacaaeneiinoe (1917 a.). Aeeieiiaoe/aneea
ioiioaiey n NNN? onoaiiaeaiu 31 aeaeaa?y 1920 a. A aeaeaa?a 1991 a.
?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey i?eciaia i?aaii?aaiieoeae NNN?.

Yoi aeeaiieniue e?ae ouny/ ica? e ino?iaia. Ii/oe aeaa o?aoe oa??eoi?ee
no?aiu iie?uoi eanaie, aaea ianoaie aiaeyony iaaeaaaee, aieee e iiey?iua
eenu. A naaa?iua ?aeiiu Oeieyiaeee, eaaeauea ca Iiey?iui e?oaii, aoiaeeo
/anoue Eaieaiaeee. AEeaouea caeanue naaiu (eiia?e) yaeythony iioiieaie
ia?auo ecaanoiuo enoi?ee iaeoaoaeae yoeo caiaeue. Iacia/eoaeueiay /anoue
eo aei neo ii? aaaeao o?aaeeoeeiiiue ia?ac aeecie. Iaeiaei aieueoay
/anoue ianaeaiey aeeaao ia thaa Oeieyiaeee e i?aaenoaaeaia iioiieaie
oeineeo ieaiai, ieiei 2 ouny/ eao iacaae ia?anaeeaoeony nthaea n
O?aeueneeo ai?. Iaaieueooth /anoue ianaeaiey

I?ioeaaoaiea nia?aiaiiie Oeieyiaeee iaoneiaeaii aa aiaaouie i?e?iaeiuie
?ano?naie. Aonoua eana iaania/eaatho nu?ueai iaaaeueioth e aoiaaeioth
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?iaeoeoeey eioi?uo ninoaaeyao iaeio o?aoue anaai
yenii?oa no?aiu. *oiau ?ano?nu ae?aaaneiu ia enoiuaeenue, au?oaeaiiua
eaniua ianneau iinoiyiii aiiaue canaaeeaathony. Oeieyiaeey auaiaeii
eniieuecoao naie ia?iiiua aiaeiua ?ano?nu – aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee
au?aaaouaatho ieiei /aoaa?oe anae yia?aee no?aiu. ?aee e ica?a
Oeieyiaeee eciaeeotho oi?aeueth e uoeie. Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo io?aneae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa no?aiu yaeyaony ii?neia ?uaieianoai.

Ia enoi?eth Oeieyiaeee ieacaee aeeyiea aeia na iiaouanoaaiiuo ninaaea:
Oaaoeey e ?inney. Oaaoeey onoaiiaeea naia ainiiaenoai ia yoeo caieyo a
XII aaea. ?inney caoaaoeea Oeieyiaeeth a 1809 aiaeo e naeaeaea aa
/anoueth ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Iaeiaei iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee 1917
aiaea Oeieyiaeey iauyaeea i naiae iacaaeneiinoe.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai Oeieyiaeee. Iae?iyeiiiieea. Oeiainu

Oeieyiaeey i?iaicaeaoaia noaa?aiiie ?anioaeeeie a 1919 a. Aeaenoaotho 4
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo caeiia: “Oi?ia i?aaeaiey Oeieyiaeee” io 17 ethey 1919
a. n iineaaeothueie eciaiaieyie; Onoaa ia?eaiaioa io 1928 a. n
iineaaeothueie iii?aaeaie; Caeii i i?aaa ia?eaiaioa eiio?iee?iaaoue
caeiiiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe /eaiia Ainniaaoa e eaioeea?a thnoeoeee io
1922 a. e Caeii i ainoaea?noaaiiii noaea io 1922 a. 14 oaa?aey 1995 a.
ia?eaiaio iaeia?ee i?iaeo eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?iu, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae
ia?aoiae iieiiii/ee ii iacia/aieth i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Oeieyiaeee io
i?aceaeaioa e ia?eaiaioo. 1 aaaonoa 1995 a. i?eiyoa iii?aaea e
eiinoeoooeee, ?anoe?ythuay a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa e naiaiaeu oeiiia,
i?eieiaaoeany ?aiaa i?e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie i?ioeaaeo?a.

Aeaaa ainoaea?noaa – i?aceaeaio. N 1994 a. i?aceaeaio ecae?aaony iooai
i?yiuo e oaeiuo auai?ia anaie a?aaeaeaiaie no?aiu, eiathueie i?aai
aieina, n?ieii ia 6 eao (caeii i?eiyo a ethia 1991 a.). I?aai
auaeaeiooue naiaai eaiaeeaeaoa a i?aceaeaiou eiatho ana ia?oee,
i?aaenoaaeaiiua a ia?eaiaioa, a oaeaea iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee e
aeaeaeaiey, nia?aaoea ca naiaai i?aoaiaeaioa ia iaiaa 20 oun. iiaeienae.
Anee ie iaeei ec eaiaeeaeaoia a i?aceaeaiou ia iaaa?ao a i?ioeanna
auai?ia aieaa 50 i?ioeaioia aieinia, i?iaiaeeony aoi?ie oo? auai?ia, e
eioi?iio aeiioneathony aeaa eaiaeeaeaoa, iaa?aaoea iaeaieueoaa
eiee/anoai aieinia a ia?aii oo?a. A?aiy i?aauaaiey iaeiiai eeoea ia
iinoo i?aceaeaioa ia?aie/aii aeaoiy n?ieaie. Niaeanii o?aaeeoeee
i?aceaeaio iinea anooieaiey a aeieaeiinoue auoiaeeo ec ia?oee.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue inouanoaeyaony niaianoii ia?eaiaioii e
i?aceaeaioii. Ia?eaiaio – iaeiiiaeaoiue, ninoieo ec 200 aeaiooaoia,
ecae?aaiuo i?yiui aieiniaaieai ii nenoaia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa n?ieii ia 4 aiaea (a o?aouea aine?anaiuea ia?oa a
aiae auai?ia). Ia?eaiaio eiaao i?aaenaaeaoaey e aeaoo aai caianoeoaeae.
Niaeanii Onoaao ia?eaiaioa, aai i?aaenaaeaoaeue ecae?aaony n?ieii ia
iaeei aiae. Ii ?oeiaiaeeo ieaia?iuie canaaeaieyie, iaeiaei i?e yoii
aeieaeai inoaaaoueny iaeo?aeueiui, ia eiay i?aaa o/anoaiaaoue ie a
ianoaeaeaieyo, ie a aieiniaaiee.

Iae?iyeiiiieea Oeieyiaeee

Ia 1997 aiae i?eoaeny iee iiaeuaia oeineie yeiiiieee, ia/aaoaainy a 1994
aiaeo, a aiae auoiaea Oeieyiaeee ec e?ecena. Ii anai yeiiiie/aneei
iieacaoaeyi e i?aeoe/anee ai anao io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaaethaeaeny
onoie/eaue ?ino ia oiia aeaaii?eyoiuo aeieain?i/iuo i?iaiicia e ieceeo
o?iaiae eioeyoeee e o/aoiuo noaaie ii e?aaeeoai.

A 1997 a. iauai AII au?in ia 5,9% e ninoaaee a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee
618 ie?ae. oie (aeiey ainnaeoi?a a i?iecaiaenoaa AII – 16,7%), a iauai
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a 1997 aiaeo aue ia 9% auoa, /ai a 1996 a.
Oaeiio ?inoo niinianoaiaae yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai a caiaaeiuo
i?iiuoeaiii-?acaeouo no?aiao, n eioi?uie o Oeieyiaeee neiaeeeenue
onoie/eaua oi?aiaiyeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, e oeo/oaiea ?uii/iie
neooaoeee a eaniie e aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, /oi, a naith
i/a?aaeue, auei iaoneiaeaii oe?aieaieai eo?na aeieea?a e ooioa
noa?eeiaia e oeineie ia?ea e ?inoii ni?ina ia oiaa?u yoeo io?aneae ia
aiaoiai ?uiea.

A 1997 a. eo?n oeineie ia?ee nieceeny ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o ii/oe ia
15%. Oaeia iuooeiia iaaeaiea eo?na oeineie ia?ee e aeieea?o i?eianei
eaniia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ieiei 1,2 ie?ae. oie
aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeioiaeia ca n/ao ?inoa yenii?oa.

?aaioathuay ia yenii?o oeineay i?iiuoeaiiinoue iieo/eea i?e oaeie
aeeiaieea aaethoiuo eo?nia aeiiieieoaeueioth i?eaueue a ?acia?a ieiei 2
ie?ae. oie. Oaeei ia?acii, oioy oaeaeueiue aan eaniia?a?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe a yenii?oa no?aiu ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 31%, iia iieo/eea
aieaa 50% i?eauee io iiauoaiey eo?na aeieea?a. N?aaieoaeueii aieueoay
auaiaea, iieo/aiiay eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth ca n/ao oaeoe/aneie
aeaaaeueaaoeee ia?ee iauyniyaony oai. /oi yoa io?aneue i?iiuoeaiiinoe
iiaeao o?aoeoue iaiueoa aaethou NOA ia caeoieo nu?uey, iaaeaee,
iai?eia?, iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuay.

Noaiaiue caa?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae a i?iiuoeaiiinoe a 1997 a.
ninoaaeea a i?ioeii aiaeo a n?aaeiai 86,5%.

?ino i?iecaiaenoaa a iaoaeeii?iiuoeaiiinoe ninoaaee a 1997 aiaeo 11,5%,
a iniiaiii, aeaaiaea?y ?inoo yenii?oa. Ii/oe ia 20% aic?inei
i?iecaiaenoai a yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie e yeaeo?iiiie io?aneyo. I?iecaiaenoai
a eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aic?inei a 1997 a. ia 14,5% a nayce n
iaeeaeaieai ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth io?anee eae ia aioo?aiiai (a
/anoiinoe, a nayce n iaeeaeaieai no?ieoaeuenoaa), oae e ia aiaoiai
?uiea. I?iecaiaenoai a oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe eeoue iaiiiai aic?inei
a 1997 aiaeo. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie yaeeenue i?inoie oeineeo
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathueo caaiaeia ec-ca i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ?aiiioia.

Cia/eoaeueii aic?inei i?iecaiaenoai no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e
i?iecaiaenoai a oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeaaiaea?y ?inoo aioo?aiiaai
ni?ina. Iaiai?io, a ?yaea io?aneae ii i?iecaiaenoao iio?aaeoaeueneeo
oiaa?ia, a /anoiinoe, a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, ?ino aue
iacia/eoaeueiui, a a oaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iecioae aeaaea iaeioi?ue
niaae i?iecaiaenoaa.

A oeaeii, oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea oeineie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ie?aiei, e?oiiua
i?aaei?eyoey aeinoeaee eo/oeo, /ai eiaaea-eeai ?aiaa, ?acoeueoaoia naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, iaeiaei, ioiineoaeueiay ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ieacaeanue ieaea, /ai a ?aei?aeiii 1995a. Oaeaeueiue aan
oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa a AII ninoaaee a 1997 a. 28,9%. ?ino
no?ieoaeuenoaa a 1997 aiaeo aue cia/eoaeueiui e ninoaaee 15,5%. Yoi auei
iaania/aii, a iniiaiii, ca n/ao iiaiai aeeeeuiiai, i?iiuoeaiiiai e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. A /anoiinoe, no?ieoaeuenoai 31
oun. iiauo aeeeuo aeiiia, 20 oun. ec eioi?uo no?iyony i?e oeiainiaie
iiaeaea?aeea ainoaea?noaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii aue i?iaaaeai aieueoie iauai
?aiiioiuo ?aaio. Aeiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e no?ieoaeuenoaa a i?iecaiaenoaa
AII no?aiu ninoaaeea a 1997 a. 35,7%.

?ino naeueoici?iecaiaenoaa ninoaaee a 1997 a. 7,5%. Ianiio?y ia nooia
eaoi, o?iaeae ca?iiauo au?in ia 3% ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii.
Aic?inei i?iecaiaenoai iyna, a i?iecaiaenoai iieiea nie?aoeeinue. Aeiey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa aianoa n ioioie e ?uaieianoaii a AII no?aiu
ninoaaeea a 1997 a. 2,9%.

Aeiee ae?oaeo io?aneae yeiiiieee a i?iecaiaenoaa AII ?ani?aaeaeyeenue a
1997 a. neaaeothuei ia?acii: oi?aiaey, iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea e
eiiioiaeueiua oneoae – 10,4%, o?ainii?o – 9,4% oeiainiaua iia?aoeee,
no?aoiaaiea, iia?aoeee n iaaeaeaeeiinoueth e oneoae a noa?a aeciana –
18. 1%.

Oaiiu ?inoa aiaoiae oi?aiaee a 1997 a. cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeeee
iieacaoaee i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea. ?ino yenii?oa oiaa?ia e oneoa ninoaaee
13,5%, yenii?o oiaa?ia au?in ia 15,5%. ?ino eiii?oa oiaa?ia e oneoa
ninoaaee 9,5%, eiii?o oiaa?ia au?in ia 10,8%. Cia/eoaeueii aic?inea
aiaoiyy oi?aiaey n ?inneae: ?ino aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa a 1997 a.,
ninoaaee a oeineeo ia?eao 29,4%, yenii?o au?in ia 36%, a eiii?o – ia
22%. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ni no?aiaie-o/anoieoeaie AN aic?inea ia 10%.

Iauai eiaanoeoeee a yeiiiieeo Oeieyiaeee a 1997a. ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii oaaee/eeny cia/eoaeueii, ia 11,5%, a eo oaeaeueiue
aan a i?iecaiaenoaa AII no?aiu ninoaaee 16,9% (16% a 1996 a.). Ia aeieth
/anoiuo eaiaeiaeaiee a 1997 aiaeo i?eoeinue 84%, ainoaea?noaaiiuo – 16%.

O?iaaiue eioeyoeee a oa/aiea anaai 1997 a. aue ieceei a nayce n ?aceei
nieaeaieai o/aoiuo noaaie ii e?aaeeoai e cia/eoaeueiui nieaeaieai
?anoiaeia ii no?aoiaaieth aac?aaioeoeu e ninoaaee n aeaeaa?y 1996 a. ii
aeaeaa?ue 1997 a. 1,9%, a ?ann/eoaiiue ii eiaeaeno iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai
n?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaii eioeyoeee ninoaaee 1,2%. Iniiaiia aeeyiea ia
eciaiaiea o?iaiy eioeyoeee ieacaei iiauoaiea oeai ia aeeeuea, iniaaiii a
ia?aie iieiaeia 1997 aiaea.

*anoiia iio?aaeaiea aic?inei a 1997 a. ia 3,1% ii n?aaiaieth n o?iaiai
1996 a. Iaeaieaa caiaoiue ?ino /anoiiai iio?aaeaiey aue ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia i?ioeiai aiaea, eiaaea iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey oeo/oaiey
neooaoeee n aac?aaioeoeae ia oiia iinoiyiiuo iieiaeeoaeueiuo i?iaiicia i
aeaaii?eyoiii ?acaeoee yeiiiieee. *enei caiyouo a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa
au?inei a 1997 a. ia 43 oun. /aeiaae, a iniiaiii, ca n/ao ?inoa /enea
?aai/eo iano a iaoaeeii?iiuoeaiiinoe, no?ieoaeuenoaa, oi?aiaea, ia
/anoiuo oe?iao a noa?a oneoa, a cae?aaiio?aiaiee e nioeeaeueiie noa?a.
Oai ia iaiaa, o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a Oeieyiaeee i?iaeieaeae inoaaaoueny
aunieei e ninoaaeye a eiioea 1997 aiaea 14,5% (367 oun. aac?aaioiuo).

Ii ioeaieai, ?ino AII no?aiu a 1998 a. aoaeao iaiueoa, /ai a 1997 a. e
ninoaaeo io 3, 5% aei 3,9%. Oai ia iaiaa yoi aoaeao iaeei ec naiuo
aunieeo iieacaoaeae n?aaee no?ai AN. Iauaiu e oaiiu ?inoa yenii?oa
Oeieyiaeee oaeaea aoaeoo nie?auaoueny. Iaeiaei, aeaaiaea?y aunieie
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oeineeo oiaa?ia ia ie?iaii ?uiea, ?ino yenii?oa
no?aiu a 1998 aiaeo inoaeny ia aunieii o?iaia, e ninoaaeo, ii
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui ioeaieai, 6,5%. Yenii?oiua oeaiu i?e yoii aic?anooo
iacia/eoaeueii, ia aieaa 0,5%. Eiii?o oiaa?ia aic?anoao ia 7,5%,
eiii?oiua oeaiu aic?anooo oaeaea eae e yenii?oiua iacia/eoaeueii.

Eioeyoeey a 1998 a. inoaaaeanue ia ieceii o?iaia, iaeiaei, iaiiiai
aic?anoao ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeui aiaeii e ninoaaeo 2%. Ia yoii oiia
nio?aieony e oaiaeaioeey cia/eoaeueiiai ?inoa aioo?aiiaai iio?aaeaiey,
aeaaiaea?y ?inoo eiaanoeoeee (ii ioeaiea ia 7%), a iniiaiii, a aeeeeuiia
no?ieoaeuenoai.

Ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo a 1998 aiaeo i?iaeieaeae oaaee/eaaoueny e
iaeeaeaeinue, /oi o?iaaiue aac?aaioiuo a no?aia nieceony e eiioeo 1998
a. aei 12,5%.

Oeiainu

Oeiainiaia ?aaiiaanea yeiiiieee Oeieyiaeee a 1997 a. inoaaaeinue
noaaeeueiui, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina ii oaeouei iia?aoeeyi ianeieueei nie?aoeeinue ii n?aaiaieth n
i?ioeui aiaeii.

Noaaee i?ioeaioia ii e?aaeeoai caiaoii nie?aoeeenue, a aeioiaeiinoue
aaieia aic?inea a oa/aiea 1997 a. Aic?inei eiee/anoai e?aaeeoia.
auaeaaaaiuo a oeineeo ia?eao, iniaaiii e?aaeeoia ia aeeeeuiia
no?ieoaeuenoai.

Aeaoeoeeo ainathaeaeaoa a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaee 0,9% io aaeiaiai
aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa. Aeinoeaiooue iieacaoaeue iaiiiai eo/oa, /ai
i?iaiice?iaaei i?aaeoaeuenoai e ni cia/eoaeueiui caianii ioaa/aao
iaiaoiaeeiui e?eoa?eyi aeey anooieaiey a Aa?iiaeneee aaethoiue nithc. A
1998 aiaeo aia?aua aoaeao aeinoeaioo aacaeaoeoeeoiue athaeaeao, e
athaeaeaoiua aeioiaeu i?aaunyo ?anoiaeu ia 0,6%.

Naaeaine?iaaiiia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee a 1997 a. aeaaii?eyoii io?aceeinue e
ia athaeaeaoiie noa?a. Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa nie?aoeeny
ia o?e ioieoa e ninoaaee 4,1% io AII. Aeioiaeu io nai?a iaeiaia aic?inee
ia 8%, ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu nie?aoeeenue. Oai ia iaiaa,
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea Oeieyiaeee au?in a 1997 a. ia 5,8% e ninoaaee ia
31. 12. 97 a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee 418 ie?ae. oie eee 67,7% io AII.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay caaeieaeaiiinoue a 1997 aiaeo oaaee/eeanue eeoue ia 16
ie?ae. oie; ?aiaa a aiaeiaii en/eneaiee ?ino ainaeieaa ninoaaeye aieaa
50 ie?ae. oie. Oaiiu ?inoa caaeieaeaiiinoe, ii ioeaieai, aoaeoo
i?iaeiaeaoue nieaeaoueny.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aaethoiay caaeieaeaiiinoue iieiinoueth aeieain?i/iay, e
a eiioea 1997 a. aeeth/aea neaaeothuea iniiaiua aaethou: yeth (8%),
iaiaoeeea ia?ee (29%), o?aioeocneea o?aiee (16%), yiiineea eaiu (11%) e
aia?eeaineea aeieea?u (10%). Ia aeieth ae?oaeo aaetho i?eoiaeeeinue 26%
aaethoiiai aeieaa.

Caaeieaeaiiinoue ainoaea?noaa a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaeea ieiei 56% io
noieiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, /oi oaeiaeaoai?yao iieacaoaeth –
60% – ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiiio aeey anooieaiey a Aa?iiaeneee aaethoiue nithc.

I?aaeoaeuenoai cayaeyao, /oi i?aaeiinueeie i?iaeieaeaiey aeanoeie eeiee
a ioiioaiee ?anoiaeia ainathaeaoa yaeyaony ia no?aieaiea
niioaaonoaiaaoue e?eoa?eyi Aa?iiaeneiai aaethoiiai nithca, a ?ino
ainoaea?noaaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe. Oeieyiaeey ia iiaeao iicaieyoue naaa
oa oaiiu oaaee/aiey ainaeieaa, eioi?ua aua ioia/athony naaiaeiy.
Niioaaonoaea e?eoa?eyi AAN ia naiii aeaea aeinoaoi/ii i?inoay caaea/a ii
n?aaiaieth n caaea/ae naaeaine?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.

Iauai aaethoiuo caiania Oeieyiaeee ia eiiaoe 1997 aiaea ninoaaee 51,4
ie?ae. oie ii n?aaiaieth n 36,4 ie?ae. oie a 1996 aiaeo.

Ii ioeaiea Moody’s (ia?o 1998 a.) e?aaeeoiue ?aeoeia Oeieyiaeee
oeo/oeeny e eiaao iieacaoaeue Aa1, a 1996 a. – Aa2. ?aeoeia Aal –
yaeyaony aoi?ui iinea iaeaunoaai Aaa.

Oeieyiaeey i?eniaaeeieeanue e Aa?iiaeneiio iaoaiecio aaethoiuo eo?nia
(AIAE) n 14 ieoya?y 1996 aiaea, no?aiynue e aieaa oaniiio
nio?oaeie/anoao a iaeanoe aaethoiie iieeoeee n ae?oaeie no?aiaie AN.
I?eniaaeeiaiea e AIAE, ii iiaieth oeineeo yeiiiienoia, ia aeieaeii
nouanoaaiii neacaoueny ia i?iaiaeeiie no?aiie oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie
iieeoeea. AIAE iicaieyao aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiia eieaaaiea aiaoiaai
eo?na ii ioiioaieth e aaethoai no?ai-o/anoieoe AIAE (15%), a oi a?aiy
eae ?aaeueiua eciaiaiey aiaoiae noieiinoe oeineie ia?ee oaea aeieaia
a?aiy ninoaaeytho caiaoii iaiueoea aaee/eiu. AIAE ii?aaeaeee n?aaeiee
eo?n oeineie ia?ee ii ioiioaieth e yeth – 5,85, iaiaoeeie ia?ea – 3,04.
Eo?n oeineie ia?ee ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o ia 7.01.98 ninoaaeye 5,5334
oie ca 1 aeiee. NOA. Aeeiaieea eciaiaiey aaethoiiai eo?na ca iineaaeiea
aiaeu (n?aaeiee eo?n, oie ca 1 aeiee.): 1994a. – 5,2184; 1995 a. –
4,3658; 1996 a. – 4,5905; 1997 a. – 5, 1944).

Ii-i?aaeiaio aaaeiaeoae oeaeueth anae aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee Oeieyiaeee
inoaaony nio?aiaiea noaaeeueiiai o?iaiy iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai, oi anoue
iaaeiiouaiea aieaa /ai 2% aiaeiaie eioeyoeee, eae yoi auei i?iaicaeaoaii
Aaieii Oeieyiaeee a oaa?aea 1993 aiaea.

Eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai e eiioeo 1997 a. aic?in ia 1,9%.
Cia/eoaeueiuo eciaiaiee oeai ia iaeeaeaaony, eae e eaeeo-eeai ?aceeo
eieaaaiee noieiinoe ?aai/ae neeu. Oaeoi?u, naea?aeeaaaoea eioeyoeeth a
1997 a., i?iaeieaeaee ieacuaaoue aeeyiea ia ia?aie/aiea ?inoa oeai e a
1998 aiaeo. A niioaaonoaee n A?aiaiiui iaiauaiiui eiaeaenii
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai AN, eo ?ino a Oeieyiaeee a aeaeaa?a 1997 a.
ninoaaee a aiaeiaii en/eneaiee 1,6% e iaoiaeeeny ia n?aaeiai o?iaia
eioeyoeee a no?aiao AN.

A 1997 aiaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaii aaeinue aeoeaiia oi?ie?iaaiea iauanoaaiiiai
iiaiey ii aii?ino iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eniaaeeiaiey Oeieyiaeee e o?aoueaio
yoaio Aa?iiaeneiai aaethoiiai nithca (AAN). Aaaeouea niaoeeaeenou
oeiainiaie iieeoeee Aa?iiu /aoei cayaeyee, /oi o?aoee yoai Aa?iiaeneiai
aaethoiiai nithca ia/iaony a niioaaonoaee n ?aiaa i?eiyoui a?aiaiiui
a?aoeeii, o. a. n 1999 aiaea.

Eiaanoeoeee. Yenii?o

Eiaanoeoeeiiiay iieeoeea Oeieyiaeee ii?aaeaeyaony aa ianoii a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, /eainoaii a AAOO e Aa?iiaeneii
Nithca e aic?anoathuae eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoueth oeineeo e?oiiuo
eiiiaiee ia aiaoieo ?uieao, a oii /enea ?yaea no?ai NIA, iniaaiii ?innee
e Aaeoee. A nayce ni anooieaieai a AN, n ia/aea 2000 aiaea a Oeieyiaeee
aoaeoo ioiaiaiu iineaaeiea ia?aie/aiey, eanathueany eiino?aiiiai
aeaaeaiey, ca eneeth/aieai eiiiaiee, ?aaioathueo a iai?iiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiino?aiiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi a Oeieyiaeee i?e
inouanoaeaiee eiaanoeoeee i?aaeinoaaeyaony iaoeeiiaeueiue ?aaeei n
ecuyoeyie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie a niioaaonoaothueo iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
niaeaoaieyo. Niaeanii Caeiio ia inouanoaeaiee eiio?iey iaae caeoieaie
i?aaei?eyoee eiino?aioeaie io 1992 a., eiino?aiiua th?eaee/aneea eeoea
iiaoo naiaiaeii i?eia?aoaoue aeoeee oeineeo eiiiaiee aieioue aei 100% n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie ia?aie/aieyie, nouanoaiaaiea eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieeae ia iaeioi?ua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaeaea oeineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?ac?aoaao auaic eaieoaea ec no?aiu
aeey eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ca ?oaaaeii. Iniaia cia/aiea a
Oeieyiaeee i?eaeaaony niaeaenoaeth a eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
iaeeei e n?aaeiei i?aaei?eyoeyi, eioi?ui i?aaeinoaaeythony ii?aaeaeaiiua
oneiaey iaeiaiauo eueaio, caeiia e noaneaeee.

Ia?u ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee i?aaeinoaaeythony e eiino?aiiui
eiaanoi?ai, eioi?ua iaia?aiu inouanoaeyoue aeayoaeueiinoue a ?aeiiao
Oeieyiaeee, o?aaothueo ia?niaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey (iniaaiii ainoi/iue e
naaa?iue ?aaeiiu) a caaeneiinoe io auai?a eiie?aoiiai ?aeiia e noa?u
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii, ?acia? ainoaea?noaaiiie
noaneaeee iiaeao aa?uee?iaaoueny a i?aaeaeao io 20 aei 45% noieiinoe
i?iaeoa. I?aaeii/oeoaeueiuie io?aneyie yaeythony: i?iecaiaenoai, oo?eci
e noa?a oneoa. Oaeei ia?acii, ainoaea?noai no?aieony e i?eaea/aieth
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea aeey noeioee?iaaiey ?inoa yeiiiieee no?aiu, a
noaaeeueiinoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e oneiaey eiaanoe?iaaiey
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea iaania/eaatho i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue oeineiai
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai ?uiea.

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee, aiaea/aiiuo a yeiiiieeo Oeieyiaeee a 1997
aiaeo, oaaee/eeny ia 11,5% ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii.
Iaeeaeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe eiaei ianoi a eaniie io?anee,
no?ieoaeuenoaa, a oii /enea a iauaeou o?ainii?oiuo eio?ano?oeoo?, a
noa?a oi?aiaee, oneoa, oo?ecia e ainoeie/iiai eiiieaena. Iaeioi?ia
nieaeaiea a i?eaea/aiee eiaanoeoeee ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii
auei a yia?aaoe/aneie, oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie, aea?aaiia?a?aaaouaathuae,
ieuaaie, iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, iaeioi?uo aeaeao iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathueo
io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneii oicyenoaa. Iniauo eciaiaiee ia
iaaethaeaeinue a oaenoeeueiie, oaaeii-o?eeioaaeiie, eiaeaaaiii-iaoaiie,
iooii-iaoiaie, oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie, iaaeeoeeineie io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iauay iaeiieaiiay noiia i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a yeiiiieeo
Oeieyiaeee, aeeth/ay 1997 aiae, ninoaaeea 48,9 ie?ae. oie e oaaee/eeanue
ca 1997 aiae i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 8 ie?ae. oie eee 19% ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii.

A no?aia aeaenoaoao ieiei 1 oun. oe?i, a eioi?uo aeiey eiino?aiiiai
aeaaeaiey i?aauoaao 20%, eo niaieoiiue iai?io ninoaaeyao ieiei 60 ie?ae.
oie e /eneaiiinoue ia?niiaea – 45 oun. /ae.

E?oiiaeoea oeineea eiiiaiee eiatho cia/eoaeueioth, a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo,
iniiaioth aeieth eiino?aiiiai aeaaeaiey. Oae, o eiiiaiee «Iieea»,
«Ooooiiyee», «Neainea», «INN Iioeeiaoea» a eiino?aiiii aeaaeaiee
iaoiaeeony aieaa 70% aeoeee, o oe?i «Oaiiaeea» – aieaa 60%, «Aaeiao»,
«Oai?i», «Eoeoi?», «Aaiaoii» – aieaa 50%, «?aenei» – aieaa 45% aeoeee.

A 90-a aiaeu eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee a Oeieyiaeee iai?aaeythony a
iniiaiii a i?iiuoeaiiinoue (ieiei 60%), oioy ii eiee/anoao eiino?aiiua
oe?iu aieueoa aeaenoaotho a noa?a oi?aiaee e i?i/eo oneoa. Naiui e?oiiui
eiaanoi?ii a Oeieyiaeeth a 1997 aiaeo yaeyeanue Oaaoeey (23%), caoai
Ieaea?eaiaeu (9%). Aaeueaey (7,3%) e NOA (3,3%).

Iauee iaeiieaiiue iauai i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee Oeieyiaeee ca ?oaaaeii ia
eiiaoe 1997 aiaea ninoaaee aieaa 104 ie?ae. oie e oaaee/eeny
i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 23 ie?ae. oie eee 28% ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii.
Oeineea eiaanoi?u aeiaeeee a 1997 aiaeo ca a?aieoeo ii/oe a o?e ?aca
aieueoa, /ai eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u a Oeieyiaeeth.

Iaeaieaa aeoeaii ca ?oaaae eiaanoe?oao oeineay i?iiuoeaiiinoue (aei 80%
aiaeiaiai iauaia eaiaeiaeaiee), aaiee e no?aoiaua eiiiaiee. Iniaia ianoi
a aaia?aoee eiaanoeoeee a 90-a aiaeu caieiatho no?aiu AN (a 1997 aiaeo
61%), NOA (13%), THai-Ainoi/iie Acee (4,3%), a oaeaea Aaeoee e ?inney. O
iiiaeo e?oiiuo oeineeo eiioea?iia, eae iai?eia? «Iooieoiio», «Eaie?a»,
«Aeueno?ai», «Eiia» e «Ooooaiyee» oi?aiaue iai?io ca?oaaaeiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee oaea i?aauoaao noieiinoue i?yiiai yenii?oa i?iaeoeoeee
ec Oeieyiaeee. Aianoa n oai, o oaeeo oe?i eae «Iieea», «Ianoa», «Yini»,
«OII-Ethiiaia», «Iaona Na?ea» noieiinoue o?aaeeoeeiiiiai yenii?oa ana
aua i?aauoaao iai?io eo ca?oaaaeiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

?anoe?yy iaaeaeoia?iaeioth aeayoaeueiinoue, oeineea oe?iu no?aiyony
oeo/oeoue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue naiae i?iaeoeoeee iooai ?aciauaiey
naieo i?iecaiaenoa aaeece nu?ueaauo enoi/ieeia e aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeu,
a oaeaea iniiaiuo ?uieia nauoa.

Iniiaiuie einoeoooaie e oiiaeaie, aeaenoaothueie a Oeieyiaeee, eioi?ua
inouanoaeytho iiaeaea?aeeo eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ioa/anoaaiiuo
eiiiaiee eae aioo?e no?aiu, oae e ca ?oaaaeii, yaeythony i?aaiecaoeee
«Ea?a», «Oeiioaiae», «Ii?oi» (“Naaa?i-caiaaeiue oiiae aai/o?iiai
eaieoaea» ), «Neo?a», «Oaean», e ?yae ae?oaeo. Yoe oiiaeu, a ioee/ee io
AA??, AEA e NEA, i?eaioe?iaaiu ia oeiaine?iaaiea i?iaeoia aeey n?aaeieo
e iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee. I?aeoe/anee anaaaea i?aaeiieaaaaony o/anoea a
i?iaeoa oeineiai eee ae?oaiai aa?iiaeneiai ia?oia?a. Oiiaeu oanii
eii?aeeie?otho naith aeayoaeueiinoue n ieienoa?noaaie oi?aiaee e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eiino?aiiuo aeae, ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, o?ainii?oa e
nayce, ae?oaeie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aaaeiinoaaie.

Iniiaiay oeaeue – niaeaenoaea a i?eaea/aiee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e
iiaeaea?aeea aai/o?iuo oeineeo i?iaeoia ca ?oaaaeii. Oiiaeu ieacuaatho
eiinoeueoaoeaioth e oaoie/aneoth iiiiuue oe?iai ii oi?aaeai/aneei e
th?eaee/aneei aii?inai, a oaeaea ii nicaeaieth iiauo eiiiaiee.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiue oiiae «Ea?a» – e?aaeeoiay i?aaiecaoeey,
niaoeeaeece?othuayny ia ?acaeoee ?aaeiiia e ?eneiaii oeiaine?iaaiee
iaeeeo e n?aaeieo i?aaei?eyoee. 99,95% aeoeee i?eiaaeeaaeeo
I?aaeoaeuenoao. «Ea?a» eiaao naoue naieo ?aaeiiaeueiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa a Oeieyiaeee e ca ?oaaaeii, a o. /. a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa. N iauaiii ?ac?aoaiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey aei 6,7 ie?ae.
oie a aiae, o/anoaoao a aai/o?iii oeiaine?iaaiee eiiiaiee n o/anoeai
oeineiai eaieoaea.

Oiiae oeiaine?iaaiey niaianoiuo eiaanoeoeee e i?iiuoeaiiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa «Oeiioaiae» niaeaenoaoao eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
oeineeo eiiiaiee a ?acee/iuo no?aiao. Oiiae eiaanoe?oao a aeoeeiia?iue
eaieoae ia?niaeoeaiuo niaianoiuo oe?i e i?aaeinoaaeyao n?aaeia e
aeieain?i/iua aaethoiua e?aaeeou ia eiieo?niuo oneiaeyo (aei 50% io
o/anoey oeineiai ia?oia?a ii i?iaeoo). Ia eiiaoe 1997 a. oiiae eiae
oieueei 2 ?aaeecoaiuo e 7 ia?niaeoeaiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a
?innee. A oeaeii iauai oeiaine?iaaiey ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa
ninoaaeyao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy 180 iei. oie a aiae, a o. /. ?innee – 10
iei. oie.

“Naaa?i-caiaaeiue oiiae aai/o?iiai eaieoaea» nicaeai AA?? i?e o/anoee
n?aaenoa Naaa?iuo no?ai a 1995 aiaeo aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey ieiei 30 iei.
aeiee. a aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae ia?niaeoeaiuo ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee,
aeaaiui ia?acii, Io?iaineie e A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoae e ?anioaeeee
Ea?aeey. Oeineay oi?aaeythuay eiiiaiey – «Ii?oi» inouanoaeyea
?aaeecaoeeth 3 i?iaeoia, oeiaine?iaaiea ii eioi?ui iaania/eaaeinue a
1997 aiaeo.

Iacaaeneiue oiiae «Neo?a», iniiaaiiue a 1950 aiaeo, yaeyaony eiaanoi?ii
a oeineea i?aaei?eyoey, i?iecaiaeyuea aunieea oaoiieiaee, eae i?aaeei,
ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee eo aeayoaeueiinoe. A 1991 aiaeo «Neo?a» auoea ec
iiae/eiaiey Aaiea Oeieyiaeee e noaea iacaaeneiui oiiaeii, ioaaonoaaiiui
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae ia?eaiaioii. Iau/ii aai eiaanoeoeee ninoaaeytho
0,5-10 iei. oie. Eiaao naith nianoaaiioth naoue aioo?aiieo e eiino?aiiuo
ia?oia?ia e iiaeao niaeaenoaiaaoue iieneo aeiiieieoaeueiuo enoi/ieeia
oeiaine?iaaiey.

Oiiae «Neo?ain» o/?aaeaeai a 1991 a., eae ?inneenei-oeineia
i?aaei?eyoea, inouanoaeythuaa o?ainoa? ?inneeneeo ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee,
noaiiae?yaeiua e eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua ?aaiou a ?inneeneii iai?iiiii
eiiieaena, eiinoeueoaoeee oe?i e i?aaiecaoeee a noa?a ?acaeoey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee e o. ae.

“Oeineee yenii?oiue e?aaeeo» – niaoeeaeueiay oeiainiaay eiiiaiey,
i?aaeinoaaeythuay n?aaeia- e aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou. Eiiiaiey
oeiaine?oao iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iia?aoeee e aioo?aiiea iinoaaee oeineeo
oe?i, i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aaeoaeuenoao Oeieyiaeee. «Oeineee yenii?oiue
e?aaeeo» oeiaine?oao i?iaeou eae iiae ainoaea?noaaiiua, oae e iiae
eiiia?/aneea aa?aioee. A 1997 aiaeo aioae a oieaeeia n aaieii
«Iinoeiaieee» .

E?aaeeou i?aaeinoaaeythony a ?aieao I?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa e ?acaeoey (IY?N) ia no?ieoaeuenoai ii?neeo noaeia e a
aeaea noaneaeee aeey ?acaeaathueo ainoaea?noa a ?aieao iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
niaeaoaiee. ?uii/iua e?aaeeou eniieuecothony oeineeie oe?iaie aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey yenii?oa e ae?oaeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea
aeey aioo?aiieo iinoaaie n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. «Oeineee yenii?oiue
e?aaeeo» i?eaeaeaao n?aaenoaa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey, a o. /. ec-ca
?oaaaea.

NEA-Naaa?iue eiaanoeoeeiiiue aaie, – n oeaio?aeueiui ioenii a a.
Oaeueneiee, inouanoaeyao eiaanoeoeee a i?iaeou ia oa??eoi?ee Naaa?iuo e
o?aoueeo no?ai. NEA iieo/aao oeiainiaua ?ano?nu ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?uiea eaieoaeia e i?aaeinoaaeyao aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou iiae
niioaaonoaothuaa ?aaeueiia iaania/aiea. Oanii nio?oaeie/aao n
yeieiae/aneei oiiaeii «Iaoei» .

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy NEA ?anniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey
e?aaeeoia iiae eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou a ?innee a niioaaonoaee n
iiaeienaiiui n i?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O niaeaoaieai. Iaeiaei ?aoeoeeaoeey
yoiai niaeaoaiey iaeeaeaeanue a1998 aiaeo e eiie?aoiuo oaaia ii
oeiaine?iaaieth ia i?aaei?eiyoi. ?aiaa, aei 1990 aiaea, NEA
i?aaeinoaaeye e?aaeeou Aiaoyeiiiiaaieo.

Oeaio? ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee Oeieyiaeee OAEAN – i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
?ac?aaioee eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo oiaa?ia e aiaae?aiey aunieeo oaoiieiaee.
OAEAN inouanoaeyao oeiaine?iaaiea oe?i, enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooia e
oieaa?neoaoia aeey i?iaaaeaiey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e inaiaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa n eniieueciaaieai iio-oao.

Ioieoeeiaeueiue oeiainiaue oiiae – aai aeoeee iieiinoueth i?eiaaeeaaeao
iaineiiiui oiiaeai ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. N?aaenoaaie oiiaea iiaoo
ainiieueciaaoueny ?aaeiiaeueiua aeanoe, iauaaeeiaiiua ioieoeeiaeueiua
niaaou e nio?oaeie/athuea n ieie eiiiaiee. Ioieoeeiaeueiue oeiainiaue
oiiae caieiaaony aeieain?i/iuie e?aaeeoaie eae a oeineeo ia?eao, oae e a
ae?oaeo aaethoao, ioieoeeiaeueiuie oeaiiuie aoiaaaie e eeceiaii.

Ioieoeeiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey aeey oeiaine?iaaiey aeeeeuiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa i?iecaiaeeo aeieain?i/iia oeiaine?iaaiea iiauo
ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?iaeoia e ?aiiioa caeaiee.

Oeaio? ainaa?aioee Oeieyiaeee. Iniiaiie ooieoeeae oeaio?a yaeyaony
niaeaenoaea ?anoe?aieth yenii?oa e iiaeaea?aeea iaeeeo e n?aaeieo
oeineeo i?aaei?eyoee, iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo yenii?oiuo
aa?aioee ia eiiia?/aneeo oneiaeyo.

A 1997 aeey iaeioi?uo ?inneeneeo aaieia auee oaaee/aiu n?iee
e?aaeeoiaaiey n 2 aei 5 eao. Oeaio?ii aaaaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua oneiaey
aeey eiiiainaoeee n?aaeian?i/iuo ?eneia i?e iinoaaeao a ?inneth. Aeey
aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoiuo niaeaoaiee aiciiaeii i?aaeinoaaeaiea aa?aioee
i?e oneiaee i?aaiecaoeee ano?a/iuo iinoaaie ec ?innee, a aeaea
eino?oiaioa aa?aioee aica?aoa e?aaeeoa. A iiya?a 1997 aiaea i?e o/anoee
Ieioeia ?O e Oeaio?a ainaa?aioee Oeieyiaeee iiaeienaiu
Iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua iaii?aiaeoiu i acaeiiiiieiaiee ii
i?aaeinoaaeaieth aa?aioee ia noiio ieiei 2 ie?ae. oie.

Oeaio? aa?aioee eiaao niaeaoaiea n IIEE NOA (Overseas Private Investment
Corporation) n oeaeueth iiaeaea?aeee oeinei-aia?eeaineeo i?iaeoia a
?innee e no?aiao Aaeoee. E?iia oiai, Oeaio? inouanoaeyao nio?oaeie/anoai
n e?aaeeoiuie aaaionoaaie Aa?iaiee, Aiaeee, O?aioeee e Oaaoeee.

Ia?yaeo n oeacaiiuie auoa oiiaeaie, nouanoaaiiuie eiaanoeoeeiiiuie
aiciiaeiinoyie iaeaaeatho e?oiiua oeineea oe?iu. Iaeiaei eo aeoeaiinoue
iiea ia ioaa/aao eae eo iioaioeeaeueiui aiciiaeiinoyi, oae e iauaiai
o/anoey a aeaoonoi?iiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa n o/aoii eiathuaeny o ieo ?aiaa
iiiaieaoiae niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia ?inneeneii ?uiea.

Oeieyiaeey aeoeaii nio?oaeie/aao n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e
oeiainiauie einoeoooaie a inouanoaeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
A /anoiinoe, ii i?ia?aiiai Aa?inithca OANEN, «Eioa??aa», «Oa?a», ii
eeiee eioi?ie ia ?aaeiiu, a?aie/auea n Oeieyiaeeae, aaeaaiaeii
auaeaeyaony ieiei 400 iei. oie (ii ioeaiea oeineeo enoi/ieeia, oeineea
oe?iu o/anoaotho i?eaeeceoaeueii a 30% i?iaeoia OANEN) e a ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoia iiae e?aaeeou AA??, IA, NEA e ae?oaeo.

Iauay noiia athaeaeaoa Oeieyiaeee ia nio?oaeie/anoai nii?aaeaeueiuo
?aaeiiia inoaeanue a 1997 aiaeo i?eia?ii ia oaeii aea o?iaia, eae e a
1996 aiaeo e ninoaaeea 234 iei. oie. Iniiaiuie noauaeoaie
nio?oaeie/anoaa a ?aieao acaeiiaeaenoaey nii?aaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia
ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaaeenue oa??eoi?ee Naaa?i-caiaaea ?innee e no?aiu
I?eaaeoeee.

Eii?aeeie?othuei oeaio?ii eiaanoeoeeiiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo
?inneae e Oeieyiaeeae yaeythony Iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay Eiienney ii
yeiiiie/aneiio nio?oaeie/anoao (IIE) e aeaenoaothuea a aa ?aieao ?aai/ea
a?oiiu ii eiaanoeoeeiiiiio nio?oaeie/anoao e ii nio?oaeie/anoao
nii?aaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia, eioi?ua i?iaiaeyo cia/eoaeueioth ?aaioo ii
niaeaenoaeth ?aaeecaoeee eiathueony niaianoiuo i?iaeoia, a oaeaea ii
ooi/iaieth ieeioiuo i?iaeoia, i?aaenoaaeythueo eioa?an eae ia ?inneeneii
oaaea?aeueiii, oae e ?aaeiiaeueiii e ianoiii o?iaia, ii
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiio eo iainiiaaieth e ii?aaeaeaieth i?ei?eoaoiinoe eo
?aoaiey, a oaeaea iieneo aiciiaeiuo n?aaenoa oeiaine?iaaiey.

Iauee iauai i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee oeineeo eiiiaiee a ?inneth ca iineaaeiea
10 eao, ii ioeaieai Aaiea Oeieyiaeee, ninoaaee ia eiiaoe 1997 aiaea 1,5
ie?ae. oie (ieiei 300 iei. aeiee.), /ooue aieaa 1% anao oeineeo
eiaanoeoeee ca ?oaaaeii. E i?eia?o, iauai i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee Oeieyiaeee
a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo a 1997 aiaeo, ninoaaee 319 iei. oie (61 iei.
aeiee.) eee anaai 1,4% io iauaai iauaia oeineeo ca?oaaaeiuo eiaanoeoeee
(22879 iei. oie).

Aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth eiaanoeoeeiiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa iiaoo
niinianoaiaaoue eiaaoea ianoi a 1997 aiaeo aeiaiai?aiiinoe, aeinoeaiooua
a oiaea ano?a/ I?aceaeaioia e I?aiuea?-ieieno?ia aeaoo no?ai, a oaeaea
i?iaaaeaiiay o?aouey nanney Iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eiiennee ii
yeiiiie/aneiio nio?oaeie/anoao e ?aaeecaoeey Noi?iiaie iaeaoa
aeaonoi?iiieo aeieoiaioia i oeiaine?iaaiee e aa?aioe?iaaiee i?iaeoia
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa.

Ii?aaeaeaiiia niaeaenoaea aiciiaeiinoe iiauoaiey aeaeiaiai eieaeaea
?innee, a oii /enea a Oeieyiaeee, oeo/oaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai eeeiaoa e
i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo iiaeao
ieacaoue aeinoeaiooay aeiaiai?aiiinoue n Ia?eaeneei e Eiiaeiineei
eeoaaie ii ii?aaeaeaieth eiie?aoiuo aeaenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee aeey ?innee ii
aa e?aaeeoai e aeieaai n ae?oaeie no?aiaie, a oaeaea i?eiyoea eiie?aoiuo
ia? ii onei?aieth ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee eiathuaeny caaeieaeaiiinoe ii
Oeieyiaeee. E?iia oiai, iiceoeaiia aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneeo aeaonoi?iiieo ioiioaiee, iiaea au ieacaoue
i?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey eae ia iauaainoaea?noaaiiii, oae e
?aaeiiaeueiii e ianoiii o?iaiyo iaaeo no?ai iiaeienaiiiai 27 iiya?y 1997
a. iaeaoa aeieoiaioia i oeiaine?iaaiee e aa?aioe?iaaiee i?iaeoia
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa, o. a. Iaii?aiaeoiu i acaeiiiiieiaiee,
i i?aaeinoaaeaiee oeiaine?iaaiey iiae aa?aioeth eee iiae eiioi?oiia
ienueii I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O. Ii cayaeaieth oeineiai Oeaio?a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee (OeAA) i?e iieiaeeoaeueiii ?aoaiee ?inneeneie
noi?iiie auoaoeacaiiuo aii?inia iauay noiia eiaanoeoeee Oeieyiaeee a
?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo a aeeaeaeoea 2-3 aiaea iiaea au aeinoe/ue 1 ie?ae.
aeiee.

Ec iaaa?iiaeneeo i?iiuoeaiii-?acaeouo no?ai yenii?o Oeieyiaeee a NOA
inoaeny ia o?iaia 1996 a., a yenii?o a ssiiieth nie?aoeeny ia 17%.

Oiaa?iay e io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a eiii?oa. Onoie/eaue ?ino i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a Oeieyiaeee a 1997 a. noae iniiaiie i?e/eiie oaaee/aiey
eiii?oa nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia, a ?ino /anoiiai iio?aaeaiey ia 3,1% –
cia/eoaeueiiai iiauoaiey eiii?oa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, iio?aaeoaeueneeo
oiaa?ia e oneoa ii ca?oaaaeiiio oo?ecio.

No?oeoo?o oeineiai eiii?oa a 1997 a. ninoaaeyee neaaeothuea a?oiiu
oiaa?ia: nu?uea, iieooaa?eeaou e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaoa?eaeu, aeeth/ay
nu?oth iaooue (57,2%); oiieeai (3,7%); eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u (15%);
iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u (21,9%); ae?oaea oiaa?u (2,1%).

Eiii?o nu?uey, iieooaa?eeaoia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia au?in a
1997 a. ia 14% ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii e a noieiinoiii
au?aaeaiee ninoaaee 91 ie?ae. oie.

Eiii?o nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aeey iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae e
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aic?in ia 15%. Eiii?o nu?uey aeey
iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oaaee/eeny a 1997 a. ia 11%, nu?uey aeey
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – ia 14%.

Eiii?o nu?ie iaooe nie?aoeeny a 1997 a. ia 3%. 33% io anaai iauaia
eiii?oe?oaiie iaooe Oeieyiaeey aaiceea ec ?innee, 30% – ec Ii?aaaee e
15% – ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Eiii?o oiieeaa a 1997 a. oaaee/eeny ia 3%.
Eiii?o i?e?iaeiiai aaca eeoue iaiiiai au?in ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei
aiaeii e a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ninoaaee 1,6 ie?ae. oie.

Eiii?o eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia au?in a 1997 a. ia 10%. Eiii?o iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey oaaee/eeny ia 13% e ninoaaee 20 ie?ae. oie. Eiii?o
a?ociauo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa nie?aoeeny ia 15%.

Eiii?o iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia au?in a 1997 a. ia 13% e ninoaaee 35
ie?ae. oie. A Oeieyiaeeth auei aaacaii 112 oun. eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae eee
ia 8 oun. (ia 7%) aieueoa, /ai a 1996 a. 27% eiii?oe?iaaiiuo Oeieyiaeeae
eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae auei aaacaii ec Aa?iaiee e 17% – ec ssiiiee. Eiii?o
ae?oaeo iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey au?in ia
18%. Eiii?o i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey au?in ia 14%. A yoie a?oiia oiaa?ia
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeny eiii?o iiei/iuo oiaa?ia e eioa. Eiii?o
oaenoeeueiuo ecaeaeee e iaeaaeaeu au?in ia 16%, eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia
ia 20%.

Aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea eiii?oa. Oaeaeueiue aan no?ai AN a eiii?oa
Oeieyiaeee a 1997 a. ninoaaee 60%. Ia aeieth Aa?iaiee i?eoeinue 15%
anaai eiii?oa, caeoiee oiaa?ia Oeieyiaeeae ec yoie no?aiu aic?inee a
1997 aiaeo ia 8%. Eiii?o ec O?aioeee au?in ia 20%, ec Ieaea?eaiaeia –
ii/oe ia 25%, ec Oaaoeee – ia 13%. Ec no?ai AN eeoue eiii?o Oeieyiaeee
ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee nie?aoeeny ia 3%. Iniiaiuie noaoueyie eiii?oa ec
no?ai-/eaiia AN auee iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea.

Eiii?o ec no?ai AANO au?in a 1997 a. ia 5%, i?e/ai eiii?o ec Ii?aaaee
inoaeny i?aeoe/anee ia o?iaia i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea. Aieaa 30% eiii?oa ec
Ii?aaaee ninoaaeyee iaooue e iaooai?iaeoeou.

Eiii?o Oeieyiaeee ec ?innee au?in a 1997 aiaeo aieaa /ai ia 22% e
ninoaaee 12, 5 ie?ae. oie. 50% eiii?oa ec ?innee ninoaaeyee
yia?aiiineoaee (nu?ay iaooue, i?e?iaeiue aac e yeaeo?iyia?aey). Iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiii, ia 32%, aic?in eiii?o ?inneeneie iaooe.

Eiii?o Oeieyiaeee ec no?ai Aaeoee ninoaaee 2,5 ie?ae. oie, /oi ia 27%
auoa /ai a 1996 a., ec eioi?uo 2,2 ie?ae. oie i?eoeinue ia Ynoiieth.

Eiii?o ec NOA aue a 1997 a. aieueoa, /ai a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo. Eiii?o ec
ssiiiee au?in a i?ioeii aiaeo ia 17% ca n/ao oaaee/aiey caeoiie eaaeiauo
aaoiiiaeeae, iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey.

Oi?aiaue aaeain. Iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina Oeieyiaeee
aic?inei a 1997 a. ii/oe ia 8 ie?ae. oie e ninoaaeei 52,5 ie?ae. oie.
Iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei a oi?aiaea ni no?aiaie AN aic?inei ia 2 ie?ae.
oie e ninoaaeei 18 ie?ae. oie.

A oi?aiaea ni no?aiaie AANO Oeieyiaeee oaeaeinue i?aiaeieaoue aeaoeoeeo
oi?aiaiai aaeaina 1996 a. e a 1997 a. yenii?o e eiii?o a oi?aiaea n
yoeie no?aiaie iaoiaeeeenue a ioiineoaeueiii ?aaiiaanee.

I?eia?ii ?aaiua cia/aiey iieiaeeoaeueiiai naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina –
ii 15 ie?ae. oie, neiaeeeenue a oi?aiaea Oeieyiaeee n inoaeueiuie
aa?iiaeneeie e n ?acaeaathueieny no?aiaie, a n iaaa?iiaeneeie
i?iiuoeaiii-?acaeouie no?aiaie ninoaaeei a 1997 a. 3 ie?ae. oie.

A oi?aiaea n ?inneae iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina
ninoaaeei a 1997 a. 2,9 ie?ae. oie., /oi ii/oe ia 1 ie?ae. oie i?aauneei
iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei a oi?aiaea iaaeaeo no?aiaie a i?aaeuaeouai
aiaeo.

Yenii?o

A yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea iniaia ianoi caieiaao ?acaeoea i?ei?eoaoiuo
io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ua a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ni?eaioe?iaaiu
ia yenii?o. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, yoi oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, aea?aaiia?aaioea, yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay e yeaeo?iiiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, noaeino?iaiea. Caaeneiinoue yeiiiieee Oeieyiaeee io
aiaoiae oi?aiaee aua aieueoa aic?inea a 1997 a.: oaeaeueiue aan yenii?oa
oiaa?ia e oneoa a AII no?aiu ninoaaee 39,8% (a 1996 a. – 38,2%).

Oiaa?iiai?io aiaoiae oi?aiaee Oeieyiaeee a 1997a. ninoaaee 370,9 ie?ae.
oie, ec eioi?uo ia yenii?o i?eoeinue 211 ie?ae. oie, /oi ia 14% auoa,
/ai a 1996 a. Eiii?o aic?in ia 12% e a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ninoaaee
159 ie?ae. oie. Ii iauaio yenii?o au?in ia 16%, a eiii?o – ia 11%. A
?acoeueoaoa iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina ninoaaeei a 1997
a. 52,5 ie?ae. oie, /oi ii/oe ia 8 ie?ae. oie aieueoa, /ai a 1996 a.

A 1997 a. yenii?o cia/eoaeueii au?in ii anai i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia aiaoiee
?uiie io?aneyi. Yenii?o iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae, iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie e
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe au?in ia 16% ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii. A noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee yenii?o iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey ninoaaee 70 ie?ae. oie. /oi niioaaonoaoao ?inoo ii/oe a
20%. Iaeaieaa caiaoii au?in yenii?o aunieioaoiieiae/iuo oiaa?ia,
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneeo iaoei, i?eai?ia e iai?oaeiaaiey. A /anoiinoe, yenii?o
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie aiia?aoo?u ninoaaee 24 ie?ae. oie, ia 32% auoa /ai
a 1996 a. Cia/eoaeueiui aue e ?ino yenii?oa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e
iao/iuo i?eai?ia e iai?oaeiaaiey.

Yenii?o o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa a 1997 a. iaiiiai nie?aoeeny ii ioiioaieth
e i?aaeuaeouaio aiaeo, a iniiaiii, ca n/ao cia/eoaeueiiai nie?auaiey
yenii?oa noaeia e eaaeieieia, eioi?ue a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ninoaaee
eeoue 4,7 ie?ae. oie, /oi niioaaonoaiaaei nie?auaieth ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii ia 37%. Iaeiaei, aeaaiaea?y ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeea ii?ooaeue caeacia ia no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo noaeia caiaoii
iiiieieeny e eiioeo 1997 a. e iaeeaeaaony ?ino yenii?oa noaeia.

A iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe yenii?o /oaoia e noaee inoaeny ia
o?iaia 1996 a. A yenii?oa oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia ia 32% aic?in yenii?o iaaee.

Yenii?o a eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoe nouanoaaiii au?in a ia/aea 1997 a. e ii
eoiaai aiaea ?ino ninoaaee 10%. Yenii?oiua oeaiu ia i?iaeoeoeeth io?anee
nie?aoeeenue a 1997 aiaeo a n?aaeiai ia 2%. A oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ni?in ia oeaeetheico, aacaoioth aoiaao e
aunieiea/anoaaiiua ni?oa aoiaae iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaaeny. A eoiaa yenii?o
aoiaae e ea?oiia au?in ia 10%, a oeaeetheicu ia 20%. ?ino yenii?oa ii
anae aoiaaiaeaeaoaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oeieyiaeee ninoaaee a n?aaeiai
20%. Yenii?oiua oeaiu ia oiaa?u yoie i?iiuoeaiiinoe nie?aoeeenue ia 5%.

Cia/eoaeueii au?in a 1997 a. e yenii?o oiaa?ia aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee yenii?o a yoie io?anee aic?in
ia 28%, a nayce n oaaee/aieai yenii?oiuo oeai ia oiaa?u io?anee a
n?aaeiai ia 10%, a ii iauaio – ia 20%. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue
cia/eoaeueiue ?ino yenii?oa oaia?u, ieeiiaoa?eaeia, aioiauo aea?aayiiuo
aeiiia e iaaaee. Iaeaieueoee ni?in ia yoe oiaa?u aue a ssiiiee. Ni?in ia
ieo a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia – aeaaiii ?uiea nauoa oeineie i?iaeoeoeee,
oaaee/eeny eeoue aaniie 1997 a., caoai, a iniiaiii ec-ca nie?auaiey
iauaiia no?ieoaeuenoaa a Aa?iaiee, ia/ae nie?auaoueny.

Yenii?o oiaa?ia oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe au?in ia 12%. I?e yoii yenii?o
iaooai?iaeoeoia nie?aoeeny ii/oe ia 10%. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie yoiai
yaeeenue i?inoie oeineeo iaooaia?a?aaaouaathueo caaiaeia ec-ca
i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ?aiiioia. Yenii?o ae?oaeo oiaa?ia oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a /anoiinoe, e?aneoaeae, ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee e
ieanoiann, aic?in ia 20%. Yenii?o eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia au?in ia 13%.

?ino yenii?oa iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, oaeeo eae i?iaeoeou ieoaiey,
oiaa?u oaenoeeueiie, oaaeiie e iaoaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe caiaaeeeeny a 1997
a. ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii e ninoaaee a n?aaeiai 3,5%. Oai
ia iaiaa, yenii?o iaeaaeaeu au?in ia 8%, oiaa?ia oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe – ia 14%, cia/eoaeueii aic?in yenii?o ioaeaeueiuo
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, a /anoiinoe, iiei/iuo oiaa?ia, iyna e iyniuo
oiaa?ia. Yenii?o iaoae nie?aoeeny.

Aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea yenii?oa. Oaeaeueiue aan no?ai AN a iauai
iaueaia yenii?oa Oeieyiaeee i?iaeieaeae nie?auaoueny e ninoaaee a 1997
aiaeo 53% (a 1995 a. – 58%, a 1996 a. – 55%). Aeiey no?ai AANO a
yenii?oa no?aiu nio?aieeanue ia o?iaia 1996 aiaea e ninoaaeea 4%. Aeiey
ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai a yenii?oa no?aiu auea a 1997 aiaeo 16%, /oi
ia 2% aieueoa iieacaoaey 1996 aiaea.

Oaeaeueiue aan yenii?oa Oeieyiaeee a ?acaeaathueany no?aiu inoaeny ia
o?iaia 1996 a. e ninoaaee 13%, a ia aeieth yenii?oa a iaaa?iiaeneea
i?iiuoeaiii-?acaeoua no?aiu i?eoeinue 14%.

Aeiey e?oiiaeoaai oi?aiaiai ia?oia?a Oeieyiaeee – Aa?iaiee a yenii?oa
no?aiu nie?aoeeanue ia 1% ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 a. e ninoaaeea 11%. I?e
yoii yenii?o a Aa?iaieth au?in ia 3%. Ii 10% yenii?oa i?eoeinue a 1997
a. ia Aaeeeia?eoaieth e Oaaoeeth, yenii?o a yoe no?aiu aic?in ia 11% e
4% niioaaonoaaiii. N?aaee ae?oaeo e?oiiuo oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia Oeieyiaeee
ec no?ai AN, yenii?o a eioi?ua cia/eoaeueii aic?in: O?aioeey – ?ino ia
12%, Ieaea?eaiaeu – ii/oe ia 20%, Aeaiey – ia 15%. Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie
noaoueyie yenii?oa a yoe no?aiu a 1997 a. auee oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua
n?aaenoaa, eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea, /a?iua e oeaaoiua
iaoaeeu e oiaa?u eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ec no?ai AANO iaeaieueoee ?ino yenii?oa Oeieyiaeee i?eoaeny ia Ii?aaaeth
– ia 20%, yenii?o a Oaaeoea?eth inoaeny ia o?iaia 1996 a.

Yenii?o Oeieyiaeee a ?inneth au?in a 1997 a. ia 36% ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii e a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ninoaaee 15,5 ie?ae. oie.
Oaeaeueiue aan ?innee a yenii?oa Oeieyiaeee ninoaaee a i?ioeii aiaeo
7,9%, /oi auaaei aa ia o?aouea ianoi iinea Aa?iaiee e Oaaoeee.

Yenii?o Oeieyiaeee a no?aiu Aaeoee a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ninoaaee a
1997 a. 9 ie?ae. oie, /oi ia 32% auoa /ai a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo, ec
eioi?uo 6,7 ie?ae. oie. i?eoeinue ia Ynoiieth. Aieueooth /anoue yenii?oa
a Ynoiieth ninoaaeyee iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea, iaooai?iaeoeou e
oeie/aneea aauanoaa.

Yenii?o a no?aiu THai-Ainoi/iie Acee ninoaaee a 1997 a. 13,5 ie?ae. oie,
/oi ii/oe ia 25% auoa /ai a 1996 a., a aai aeiey a yenii?oa no?aiu
ninoaaeea 6%. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiui ?ino yenii?oa a 1997 a. aue a
Iaeaeceth – ia 75%, a Eiaeiiaceth – ia 74%, a Aiieiia – ia 30%, a
Neiaaio? – ia 18% e a Oaeeaiae – ia 14%. Aieaa 60% yenii?oa a no?aiu
yoiai ?aaeiia i?eoeinue ia iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea.

Ec iaaa?iiaeneeo i?iiuoeaiii-?acaeouo no?ai yenii?o Oeieyiaeee a NOA
inoaeny ia o?iaia 1996 a., a yenii?o a ssiiieth nie?aoeeny ia 17%.

Oiaa?iay e io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a eiii?oa. Onoie/eaue ?ino i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a Oeieyiaeee a 1997 a. noae iniiaiie i?e/eiie oaaee/aiey
eiii?oa nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia, a ?ino /anoiiai iio?aaeaiey ia 3,1% –
cia/eoaeueiiai iiauoaiey eiii?oa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, iio?aaeoaeueneeo
oiaa?ia e oneoa ii ca?oaaaeiiio oo?ecio.

No?oeoo?o oeineiai eiii?oa a 1997 a. ninoaaeyee neaaeothuea a?oiiu
oiaa?ia: nu?uea, iieooaa?eeaou e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaoa?eaeu, aeeth/ay
nu?oth iaooue (57,2%); oiieeai (3,7%); eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u (15%);
iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u (21,9%); ae?oaea oiaa?u (2,1%).

Eiii?o nu?uey, iieooaa?eeaoia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia au?in a
1997 a. ia 14% ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii e a noieiinoiii
au?aaeaiee ninoaaee 91 ie?ae. oie.

Eiii?o nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aeey iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae e
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aic?in ia 15%. Eiii?o nu?uey aeey
iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oaaee/eeny a 1997 a. ia 11%, nu?uey aeey
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – ia 14%.

Eiii?o nu?ie iaooe nie?aoeeny a 1997 a. ia 3%. 33% io anaai iauaia
eiii?oe?oaiie iaooe Oeieyiaeey aaiceea ec ?innee, 30% – ec Ii?aaaee e
15% – ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Eiii?o oiieeaa a 1997 a. oaaee/eeny ia 3%.
Eiii?o i?e?iaeiiai aaca eeoue iaiiiai au?in ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei
aiaeii e a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ninoaaee 1,6 ie?ae. oie.

Eiii?o eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia au?in a 1997 a. ia 10%. Eiii?o iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey oaaee/eeny ia 13% e ninoaaee 20 ie?ae. oie. Eiii?o
a?ociauo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa nie?aoeeny ia 15%.

Eiii?o iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia au?in a 1997 a. ia 13% e ninoaaee 35
ie?ae. oie. A Oeieyiaeeth auei aaacaii 112 oun. eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae eee
ia 8 oun. (ia 7%) aieueoa, /ai a 1996 a. 27% eiii?oe?iaaiiuo Oeieyiaeeae
eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae auei aaacaii ec Aa?iaiee e 17% – ec ssiiiee. Eiii?o
ae?oaeo iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey au?in ia
18%. Eiii?o i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey au?in ia 14%. A yoie a?oiia oiaa?ia
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeny eiii?o iiei/iuo oiaa?ia e eioa. Eiii?o
oaenoeeueiuo ecaeaeee e iaeaaeaeu au?in ia 16%, eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia
ia 20%.

Aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea eiii?oa. Oaeaeueiue aan no?ai AN a eiii?oa
Oeieyiaeee a 1997 a. ninoaaee 60%. Ia aeieth Aa?iaiee i?eoeinue 15%
anaai eiii?oa, caeoiee oiaa?ia Oeieyiaeeae ec yoie no?aiu aic?inee a
1997 aiaeo ia 8%. Eiii?o ec O?aioeee au?in ia 20%, ec Ieaea?eaiaeia –
ii/oe ia 25%, ec Oaaoeee – ia 13%. Ec no?ai AN eeoue eiii?o Oeieyiaeee
ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee nie?aoeeny ia 3%. Iniiaiuie noaoueyie eiii?oa ec
no?ai-/eaiia AN auee iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea.

Eiii?o ec no?ai AANO au?in a 1997 a. ia 5%, i?e/ai eiii?o ec Ii?aaaee
inoaeny i?aeoe/anee ia o?iaia i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea. Aieaa 30% eiii?oa ec
Ii?aaaee ninoaaeyee iaooue e iaooai?iaeoeou.

Eiii?o Oeieyiaeee ec ?innee au?in a 1997 aiaeo aieaa /ai ia 22% e
ninoaaee 12, 5 ie?ae. oie. 50% eiii?oa ec ?innee ninoaaeyee
yia?aiiineoaee (nu?ay iaooue, i?e?iaeiue aac e yeaeo?iyia?aey). Iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiii, ia 32%, aic?in eiii?o ?inneeneie iaooe.

Eiii?o Oeieyiaeee ec no?ai Aaeoee ninoaaee 2,5 ie?ae. oie, /oi ia 27%
auoa /ai a 1996 a., ec eioi?uo 2,2 ie?ae. oie i?eoeinue ia Ynoiieth.

Eiii?o ec NOA aue a 1997 a. aieueoa, /ai a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo. Eiii?o ec
ssiiiee au?in a i?ioeii aiaeo ia 17% ca n/ao oaaee/aiey caeoiie eaaeiauo
aaoiiiaeeae, iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey.

Oi?aiaue aaeain. Iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina Oeieyiaeee
aic?inei a 1997 a. ii/oe ia 8 ie?ae. oie e ninoaaeei 52,5 ie?ae. oie.
Iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei a oi?aiaea ni no?aiaie AN aic?inei ia 2 ie?ae.
oie e ninoaaeei 18 ie?ae. oie.

A oi?aiaea ni no?aiaie AANO Oeieyiaeee oaeaeinue i?aiaeieaoue aeaoeoeeo
oi?aiaiai aaeaina 1996 a. e a 1997 a. yenii?o e eiii?o a oi?aiaea n
yoeie no?aiaie iaoiaeeeenue a ioiineoaeueiii ?aaiiaanee.

I?eia?ii ?aaiua cia/aiey iieiaeeoaeueiiai naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina –
ii 15 ie?ae. oie, neiaeeeenue a oi?aiaea Oeieyiaeee n inoaeueiuie
aa?iiaeneeie e n ?acaeaathueieny no?aiaie, a n iaaa?iiaeneeie
i?iiuoeaiii-?acaeouie no?aiaie ninoaaeei a 1997 a. 3 ie?ae. oie.

A oi?aiaea n ?inneae iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina
ninoaaeei a 1997 a. 2,9 ie?ae. oie., /oi ii/oe ia 1 ie?ae. oie i?aauneei
iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei a oi?aiaea iaaeaeo no?aiaie a i?aaeuaeouai
aiaeo.

?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe Oeieyiaeee. Aa?iiaeneee
Aaethoiue Nithc (AAN)

Oeieyiaeey ia/aea i?eiaiyoue a iieiii iauaia oi?aiai-iieeoe/aneea
eino?oiaiou AN e, a /anoiinoe, oaiiaeaiiue oa?eo AN a ioiioaiee o?aoueeo
no?ai, a oii /enea e ?innee. ?acia?u iioeei niioaaonoaotho iioeeiai AOI
e eo n?aaeiaacaaoaiiue o?iaaiue ia i?aauoaao 3-5%. Iaeiaei, n?aaiaiea
noaaie aaiciuo iioeei ii iniiaiui noaoueyi ?inneeneiai yenii?oa a
Oeieyiaeeth (iaooue nu?ay, aeecoiieeai, eaaeee iacoo e oyaeaeue iacoo,
i?e?iaeiue aac, aa?aciaua aaeainu, yeaeo?iyia?aey, nu?uea aeey
oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaieue eienothueeny, nu?uea e iieooaa?eeaou
aeey iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe), ii eioi?ui AN i?eiaiyao oae
iacuaaaioth iauoth iioeeio a oi?aiaea n o?aoueeie no?aiaie, iieacuaaao,
/oi a oeaeii i?iecioei iaeioi?ia oooaeoaiea oneiaee aeinooia ?inneeneeo
oiaa?ia ia oeineee ?uiie.

Ianiio?y ia nieaeaiea a ia/aea 1995 aiaea iioeei a ?aieao AAOO-AOI ia
7%, ionoonoaea eee nieaeaiea a iauaaeeiaiiii oiaa?iii oaiiaeaiiii oa?eoa
(TAR1N) iioeei ia ioaeaeueiua oiaa?u (i?e?iaeiue aac, oyaeaeue iacoo) e
nieaeaiea iioeei ia ioaeaeueiua oiaa?u (aeecoiieeai) ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey
aieaa oi/iuo oaiiaeaiiuo iiaea?oii a neo/aa ionoonoaey i?yiuo aiaeiaia a
iiiaieeaoo?a AN, a aeeaeaeoea aeaa aiaea oneiaey oi?aiaee iaaeaeo iaoeie
no?aiaie aoaeoo oooaeoaoueny. Ec-ca iiyoaiiie ioiaiu Iauae Nenoaiu
I?aoa?aioeee (INI) AN, oioy yoi ia ioaa/aao eioa?anai eae ?innee, oae, a
?yaea neo/aaa, e Oeieyiaeee. Anee n?aaieaaoue i?eiaiaiea oaiiaeaiiuo
iioeei Oeieyiaeee e AN, oi iauee oaiiaeaiiue nai? ii oeineei noaaeai
ninoaaee au ieiei 15,9 iei. oie, a ii noaaeai AN (n o/aoii INI) a 1996
a. ninoaaee ieiei 39 iei. oie. Iiyoaiiay ioiaia INI AN ii
iaooaoeie/aneei oiaa?ai a 1997-98 aa., ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui
ioeaieai,iiauneea oaiiaeaiiua nai?u AN i?e yenii?oa ?innee a Oeieyiaeeth
aei 57 iei. oie a 1997 a. e a 1998 a. – aei 75 iei. oie.

Anoue e iieiaeeoaeueiua aniaeou, eioi?ua i?eianee i?ioeannu aa?iiaeneie
eioaa?aoeee a ?inneenei-oeieyiaeneia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneia
nio?oaeie/anoai. A iiauo oneiaeyo, ia?aeaey ?inneenei-oeineoth a?aieoeo,
oiaa? n?aco ieacuaaaony ia oa??eoi?ee AN e i?e aai neaaeiaaiee a ae?oaea
no?aiu Aa?inithca iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aioi?ieyoue o?ainii?oiua
aeieoiaiou e i?ioiaeeoue aeiiieieoaeueiua oaiiaeaiiua oi?iaeueiinoe.

Iaoa?eoiua iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey AYAe. Oeieyiaeey, yaeyynue /eaiii
AAOO-AOI n 1950a., no?ieo naie yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ia i?eioeeiao
naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee. Noaa n 01.01.95 a. iieiii?aaiui /eaiii Aa?inithca,
Oeieyiaeey noa?aaony no?iai i?eaea?aeeaaoueny i?aeoeee e aee?aeoea AN a
ioiioaiee i?eioeeiia naiaiaeiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey,
ia?aua o?e aiaea /eainoaa Oeieyiaeee a AN io/aoeeai iieacaee, /oi
i?iecioei eciaiaiea aaciaie eaeaieiaee Oeieyiaeee e ?innee, /oi
au?aceeinue a iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaiaeeiie eeiee ia ?acaeoea ioiioaiee
n ?inneae iin?aaenoaii e a ?aieao AN, a ia iai?yioth.

Ia i?aeoeea yoi icia/aao, /oi aeaaiui niiniaii ?aaoee?iaaiey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a no?aiao-/eaiao AN, a oii /enea e a
Oeieyiaeee, yaeythony iaoa?eoiua iaoiaeu, oaeea eae aioeaeaiieiaiaua,
niaoeeaeueiua e eiiiainaoeeiiiua iioeeiu e eaiou ia oiaa?u, iinoaaeyaiua
naa?o ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauaia, a oaeaea ?acee/iua oaoie/aneea aa?uea?u, a
oii /enea iiiai/eneaiiua na?oeoeeaou niioaaonoaey iaoeeiiaeueiui e
iauaaa?iiaeneei noaiaea?oai ea/anoaa. Neaaeiaaiea yoie eeiee i?eaiaeeo e
aicieeiiaaieth neooaoeee, ia?aaeienaeueiinoue eioi?ie caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi oa aea no?aiu, eioi?ua, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?aaeinoaaeytho
?innee ?aciiai ?iaea niaeaenoaea, n ae?oaie – oaeoe/anee ia?aie/eaatho n
iiiiuueth iaoa?eoiuo iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey AYAe aa yenii?oiua
iinooieaiey e aiciiaeiinoue iiaaoaiey aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe (a oii
/enea auaoaai NNN?).

I?e yoii Oeieyiaeey, iiaeaea?aeeaay ?aoaiey AN, ieacuaaaony a
iaauaiaeiii aeey naay iieiaeaiee, ia?aie/eaay eiii?o o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
?inneeneeo oiaa?ia. Iai?eia?, ?inney o?aaeeoeeiiii iinoaaeyea a
Oeieyiaeeth oei?eae eaeey, iniiaiui iio?aaeoaeai eioi?iai a Oeieyiaeee
yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiay oe?ia «Eaie?a», iio?aaiinoe eioi?ie ia 50-80%
iie?uaaeenue ca n/ao eiii?oa ec ?innee. A neo/aa i?ae?auaiey eiii?oa
oei?eaea eaeey ec ?innee (/oi aanueia aa?iyoii ec-ca aioeaeaiieiaiauo
i?ioeaaeo?), ii iiaieth niaoeeaeenoia oe?iu, eiii?o ec ae?oaeo no?ai
auciaao aeiiieieoaeueiua ecaea?aeee eae ii oeaiai, oae e ii o?ainii?oiui
?anoiaeai e neeaaee?iaaieth a ceiiaa a?aiy. ?ino oeai ia oaeia?aiey
neaaeaony ia eiia/iuo oeaiao ia oeineoth naeueoici?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?ay e
nae/an iaeiieo?aioiniiniaia ia aa?iiaeneii ?uiea. N?aaiaiea
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo 1994-97 aa. iieacuaaao, /oi ca iineaaeiea aeaa
aiaea eiii?o ec ?innee a Oeieyiaeeth oei?enoiai eaeey nie?aoeeny a 2,5
?aca.

A eiioea aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea Eiienney AN i?eiyea ?aoaiea i aaaaeaiee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie aioeaeaiieiaiaie iioeeiu ia eiii?o iaaiey ec ?innee.
Aaeeinoaaiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeai iaaiey a AN yaeyaony oe?ia «Iaoeia»,
O?aioeey. A Naaa?iie Aa?iia i?iecaiaeeoaeai iaaiey yaeyaony oe?ia «Iioe
Aeae?i», Ii?aaaey. Iniiaiua iio?aaeoaee iaaiey: aaoiiiaeeueiay e
iaoaeeo?ae/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, no?ieoaeuenoai. Ii?in no?ai-/eaiia AN
a ioiioaiee oeaeaniia?aciinoe aaaaeaiey aioeaeaiieiaiauo iioeei ia
?inneeneee iaaiee aeae ?acoeueoao: 8 – «ca» e 7 – «i?ioea» . I?e/ai
n?aaee aieiniaaaoeo «ca» auea e Oeieyiaeey, oioy iia yaeyaony
iio?aaeoaeai ?inneeneiai iaaiey. E?iia oiai, iniiaiua ?inneeneea
eiii?oiua iinoaaee eaeoo o?aiceoii /a?ac a. Eiaeco, /oi auaiaeii oeineei
o?ainii?oiui eiiiaieyi. Iaeiaei, ia?aie/eoaeueiua ia?u a ioiioaiee
?inneeneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, a iieueco eioi?uo auneacuaathony «Iaoeia» e
«Iioe Aeae?i», a?yae ee niiniaiu inoaiiaeoue nieaeaiea oeai ia iaaiee
aneaaenoaea e?oiiuo iinoaaie ec Eeoay. A oi aea a?aiy yoe ia?u nicaeatho
na?ueaciue i?aoeaaeaio aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ioiioaiee ?inney-AN,
?inneeneiio yenii?oo e aeaonoi?iiiei ?inneenei-oeineei ioiioaieyi e
nio?oaeie/anoao.

Ae?oaeie i?eia?aie ia?aie/eoaeueiuo ia? Oeieyiaeee i?e eiii?oa
?inneeneeo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua i?iaiaeeeenue a niioaanoaee n aee?aeoeaaie
AN, yaeythony aioeaeaiieiaiaua i?ioeaaeo?u ii ioiioaieth e oiaa?ai
oeie/aneie (eaeueoeee, aooaiie, ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey) e
iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (/enoue /oaoi n niaea?aeaieai oinoi?a
0,5% eee iaiaa, oa??iia?aaiaoe, oa??ineeeeiia?aaiaoe, oa??io?ii,
ai?y/aeaoaiiay noaeue oieueiie 600 ii e aieaa, oeeie). E?iia oiai, n 1
ieoya?y 1996 aiaea a Oeieyiaeee cai?auaia i?iaeaaea aaoiiaoei AAC
2104-2107 (“Eaaea» a yenii?oiii eniieiaiee), ia ioaa/athueo noaiaea?oai
AN. Yooaeo aioeaeaiieiaiauo i?ioeaaeo?, n oi/ee c?aiey iioa?ue ?innee io
nie?auaiey yenii?oa a Oeieyiaeeth, ninoaaeyao 93,8 iei. oie (18,4 iei.
aeiee.) a aiae.

Iieiaeeoaeueiui oaaii a iai?aaeaiee eciaiaiey yoie neooaoeee iiaeii
n/eoaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea a ia/aea ai?aey 1997 aiaea e ?anniio?aieth
Aa?iia?eaiaioii Aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo Eiienneae AN e ?inneae i iiyoaiiie
ioiaia e 2001 aiaeo anao ia?aie/aiee ia eiii?o ?inneeneie noaee a AN. A
niioaaonoaee n yoei Aeiaiai?ii AN oaaee/eaaao eaiou ?innee ia eenoiaie
i?ieao a 1997 a. ia 10%, a 1998 a. – ia 5% e aeaeaa ii 2,5% aaeaaiaeii
aei 2001a. A iaiai ia yoi ?inney aeieaeia ioeacaoueny io ainiiaeaea?aeee
naiae noaeaeeoaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey naiaiaeiie
eiieo?aioeee e i?eiyoue ia?u ii iaaeiiouaieth yenii?oa ii aeaiieiaiaui
oeaiai eenoiaiai i?ieaoa.

AAN

Iniiaiie caaea/ae yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa a 1997 aiaeo
yaeyeanue iiaeaioiaea no?aiu e o/anoeth a o?aoueai yoaia Aa?iiaeneiai
Aaethoiiai Nithca (AAN). Oeieyiaeey oaea a 1996 aiaeo niioaaonoaiaaea
anai 5 e?eoa?eyi aeey anooieaiey a AAN e a 1997 a. eeoue oe?aieea naie
iiceoeee ii yoei e?eoa?eyi.

Aeiey ainoaea?noaaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe Oeieyiaeee a AII a i?ioeii aiaeo
nieceeanue aei 59,1%, a oi a?aiy eae iaeneiaeueiay a?aieoea aeey yoiai
iieacaoaey, caoeene?iaaiiay a Iaano?eooneii aeiaiai?a, ninoaaeyao 60%.
Ae?oaea iieacaoaee – ia?aie/aiea aeaoeoeeoiinoe ainnaeoi?a yeiiiieee,
o?iaiy o/aoiuo noaaie ii aeieain?i/iui e?aaeeoai, o?iaiy eioeyoeee, a
oaeaa i?eniaaeeiaiea e Aa?iiaeneiio iaoaiecio aaethoiuo eo?nia. Ii anai
yoei iieacaoaeyi Oeieyiaeey oaeaea niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaaieyi AN.

Ii ii?o/aieth i?aaeoaeuenoaa Oeieyiaeee enneaaeiaaiea aii?inia
oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?eniaaeeiaiey no?aiu e AAN i?iaiaeeea a?oiia oeineeo
yeiiiienoia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii i?ioanni?a THeee Iaeea?eiaia, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeea naie auaiaeu a 1997 a.:

Iniiaiua i?aeiouanoaa i?eniaaeeiaiey Oeieyiaeee e AAN

Aeaaiaea?y aeanoeie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea AAN o Oeieyiaeee anoue
oi?ioea oainu au?iaiyoue aeioiaeiua e ?anoiaeiua /anoe ainathaeaeaoa;
aic?anoao yooaeoeaiinoue yeiiiieee e oeo/oaony i?aaeiinueee e
yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo;

oeiainiaue naeoi? (aaethoiua eo?nu, o/aoiua noaaee ii e?aaeeoai e
o?iaaiue eioeyoeee) noaaeeece?oaony, anee ia?aoiae aoaeao
inouanoaeyoueny ii iaia/aiiiio ieaio; Oeaio?aeueiue Aaie AN aeaaiaea?y
i?iaaaeaieth aieaa aeanoeie eeiee ii n?aaiaieth n Aaieii Oeieyiaeee
noiaao oaea?aeaoue eioeyoeeth ia aua aieaa ieceii o?iaia, i?e yoii
o/aoiua noaaee ii ?aaeueiui e?aaeeoai nie?aoyony, /oi nicaeano
i?aaeiinueee e onoie/eaiio ?inoo yeiiiieee;

i?eiaiaiea aaeeiie aaethou oi?inoeo e onei?eo ?an/aou iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie no?ai-o/anoieoe AAN, naeaeaao aioo?aiiaa i?iecaiaenoai
aieaa yooaeoeaiui e i?eaaaeao e aeaeueiaeoaio oaeoaeaieth aa?iiaeneie
eioaa?aoeee;

oaeia iaeia ainoaea?noai eae Oeieyiaeey i?eia?aoao aan e aaoi?eoao e
aoaeao ia?aaia n ae?oaeie o/anoaiaaoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee.

Iniiaiua ?enee i?e i?eniaaeeiaiee Oeieyiaeee e AAN.

ioee/ey a no?oeoo?a oeineie yeiiiieee io no?oeoo? aieueoeinoaa
no?ai-/eaiia AN iiaeao noaoue i?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey i?iaeai a aoaeouai;

iniiau nenoaiu oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey e naiioi?aaeaiey Oeieyiaeee e
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu iiaoo ni a?aiaiai i?aoa?iaoue nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey;

i?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi ia ia/aeueiii yoaia ?aaeueiua niauoey ieeiaaea
ia niioaaonoaotho ia?aiia/aeueiui e ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiui ieaiai;

aeueoa?iaoeaie i?eniaaeeiaiey e AAN a ia?auo ?yaeao aeey Oeieyiaeee
iiaeao auoue o. i. AAN-2, oi anoue i?eniaaeeiaiea e AAN n iaeioi?ie
caaea?aeeie, /oi iiaea/ao ia ia?aoiaeiii yoaia aaaaeaiea ieaaathuae
ia?ee e iaecaaaeiia iiauoaiea eioeyoeee e o/aoiuo noaaie ii e?aaeeoai,
/oi iaaeaeaoaeueii.

Aeieeaae i?aaeoaeuenoaa i aioiaiinoe no?aiu e o?aoueaio yoaio AAN,
iiaeaioiaeaiiue ia iniiaa auaiaeia ?aai/ae «a?oiiu Iaeea?eiaia», aue
i?aaenoaaeai ia?eaiaioo a na?aaeeia iay 1997 aiaea. «I?e aeaaii?eyoiuo
oneiaeyo, aa?iiaeneia aaethoiia i?ino?ainoai i?aaeinoaaeei au ia?iaeiiio
oicyenoao Oeieyiaeee aieueoa noaaeeueiinoe e iinoiyiioth aiciiaeiinoue
aeey no?aiu o/anoaiaaoue a ?acaeoee Aa?iiaeneiai Nithca», – aiai?eony a
aeieeaaea. Ai?acaei ooaeoei aa?eaioii aue au oae iacuaaaiue AAN-2 eee
i?eniaaeeiaiea e AAN oieueei iinea iaeioi?iai iaeeaeaiey, n/eoatho
aaoi?u aeieeaaea. I?aaeoaeuenoai ia aeaeeei aieueoeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
i?iaeai ia iooe Oeieyiaeee e AAN, oae eae iniiaiay /anoue
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo i?iaeai auea ?aoaia oaea oiaaea, eiaaea Ia?eaiaio
iaeia?ee anooieaiea Oeieyiaeee a AN a 1994a., e iaia?aaaeinue iieo/eoue
iaeia?aiea aeieeaaea i i?eniaaeeiaiee e AAN.

Oeaio?aeueiue Nithc oi?aiaee Oeieyiaeee iieaaaao, /oi cao?aou ii
ia?aoiaeo ia aa?i aoaeoo iie?uou a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao ca n/ao
i?aeiouanoa eniieueciaaiey aaeeiie aa?iiaeneie aaethou. Oieueei ca n/ao
yeiiiiee n?aaenoa i?e iaiaia aaethou oi?aiaey aoaeao aaeaaiaeii
iieo/aoue aeiiieieoaeueii ieiei 200 iei. oie. Nithc oi?aiaee Oeieyiaeee
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi iioiaay oi?aiaey ia?aeaeao ia ?an/aou a aa?i a ia/aea
1999 a., a ?icie/iay – a ieoya?a 2001 a. Iaeeaeaaony, iaeiaei, /oi
aaeeiia?aiaiiua iioa?e ?icie/iie oi?aiaee i?e ia?aoiaea ia ?an/aou a
aa?i ninoaayo io 400 aei 800 iei. oie.

Niaeanii ii?ino iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, i?iaaaeaiiiio a yiaa?a 1998 a.,
i?ioeaioiia niioiioaiea noi?iiieeia e i?ioeaieeia anooieaiey Oeieyiaeee
a AAN iaoiaeeeinue a ioiineoaeueiii ?aaiiaanee: ca i?eniaaeeiaiea
auneacaeenue 41% ii?ioaiiuo, i?ioea – 42%. A iniiaa yoiai eaaeeo ia
oieueei iaoaa?aiiinoue a yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe anooieaiey
no?aiu a AAN e ioeac Oaaoeee io anooieaiey a aaethoiue nithc a
«ia?aaeiaie a?oiia» no?ai, ii e no?ao iioa?e iacaaeneiinoe a i?eiyoee
?aoaiee ii iiiaei aii?inai aioo?aiiaai ono?ienoaa Oeieyiaeee.

Ia oaeouee iiiaio iieiaeeoaeueiui oaeoi?ii iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa
Oeieyiaeee ii anooieaieth a AAN a ia?aaeiaie a?oiia, yaeeanue eeoue
ii?aaeaeaiiay noaaeeecaoeey ia aaethoiii e oeiainiaii ?uieao.

Iaeiae. Eueaiou. No?aoiaaiea

Nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey Oeieyiaeee, a o. /. e AYAe, ii-i?aaeiaio
ioee/aaony noaaeeueiinoueth e ioeaaeaiiui iaoaieciii eiio?iey ca oieaoie
iaeiaia. O?iaaiue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii aunie, iaeiaei
aeaenoaothuay nenoaia /aoei iaiai?aiiuo iaeiaiauo eueaio iicaieyao ia
i?aeoeea aai oiaiueoeoue aei aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy, /ai a ae?oaeo
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao. Nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeeth/aao
ianeieueei aeanyoeia i?yiuo e einaaiiuo iaeiaia.

Iniiaiuie i?yiuie iaeiaaie yaeythony ainoaea?noaaiiue iiaeioiaeiue
iaeia, eiiioiaeueiue iiaeioiaeiue iaeia e eiouanoaaiiue iaeia,
ninoaaeythuea a noiia ieiei 50% iauae noiiu iaeiaia, auiea/eaaaiuo
th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie. E i?yiui iaeiaai ioiinyony oaeaea
oea?eiaiue iaeia, iaeiae ia ianeaaenoai e aea?aiea, aa?aiaua nai?u,
iaeiae ia ieaoaaee ia?aceaeaioaie e ae?., oaeaeueiue aan eioi?uo a iauae
noiia iieo/aaiuo ainoaea?noaii iaeiaia ninoaaeyao ieiei 20%.

Iiieii oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei iaeaieaa aaaeiui n?aaee einaaiiuo iaeiaia
yaeyaony iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue (aei 01. 06. 94 – iaeia n
iai?ioa),aceiaaiue i?e i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia e i?aaeinoaaeaiee oneoa, i?e
eiii?oa e i?e i?eia?aoaiee oiaa?ia i?aaiecaoeeyie. Noaaea IAeN
ninoaaeyao 22% io oeaiu, aac o/aoa nianoaaiiiai iaeiaa. Iiieaeaiiue
o?iaaiue a ?acia?a 12% i?eiaiyaony e i?ieaoo eeiioeeueiia,
aeayoaeueiinoe nii?oeaiuo e icaei?iaeoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?iaeaaea
iaaeeeaiaioia e eiea, a oaeaea a ?acia?a 6% i?eiaiyaony e iannaaee?neei
o?ainii?oiui oneoaai, ainoeie/iui oneoaai, iinauaieyi nii?oeaiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, oaao?ia, iocueaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
eoeueoo?iuo ia?ii?eyoee, i?e iieaoa iieo/aiey oaeaaeceiiiuo eeoeaicee,
i?iaeaaaaiuo Eiiiaieae iaoeeiiaeueiiai oaeaaeaeaiey. Iiieaeaiiay noaaea
a ?acia?a 17% i?eiaiyaony a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae, e i?iaeoeoai ieoaiey e
eiiaeei?iai ca eneeth/aieai ?anoi?aiiuo oneoa, aeeauo aeeaioiuo,
ieoueaaie aiaeu, aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia, oaaa/iuo ecaeaeee.
Ieaie?iaaeinue, /oi n ia/aea 1996 aiaea noaaea aceiaaiiai iaeiaa ii yoei
a?oiiai oiaa?ia aoaeao nieaeaia aei 12%, iaeiaei auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i
aa nio?aiaiee a ?acia?a 17% e a 1998 aiaeo.

Aeey au?aaieaaiey o?iaiy aeioiaeia a ?acee/iuo no?aiao aaaaeai
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ii oiaa?ai e io?aneyi o?aaieoaeueiue iaeia, ?acia?
noaaee eioi?iai niioaaonoaoao n?aaeiaio ?acia?o ne?uouo iaeiaia ia
oiaa?u ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. ?acia? noaaee eieaaeaony a
i?aaeaeao 1-4,5% e a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao 2% oaiiaeaiiie noieiinoe
oiaa?a.

Aeoeeciue iaeia aceiaaony n oaaa/iuo ecaeaeee, neaaeinoae, ieaa,
nie?oiuo e i?ioeaaeeoaeueiuo iaieoeia, i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia,
aaoiiiaeeae, iioi?iiai oiieeaa, ieuaauo aee?ia, naoa?a, ei?ia a aeaea
iooiaeia ianeiaieiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaeia?aiee, eiiaeei?ia, aaeeiaiai
ei?ia. Aceiaiea aeoeecia naycaii n enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny iiiiiieeae
ainoaea?noaa ia ?aaeecaoeeth oaeeo oiaa?ia eae aeeiaieueiua iaieoee,
oaaae e ae?. e n i?iaaaeaieai oi?aiaie iieeoeee a ioiioaiee ?yaea
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo oiaa?ia (eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee e ae?.). ?acia?u noaaee
aeoeeciuo nai?ia aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu e i?aaeoniio?aiu a Caeiia ia
aeoeecao.

A 1997 aiaeo nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Oeieyiaeee ia
aiineeinue. Iniiaiay ?aaioa ii oieoeeaoeee oeineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
auea i?iaaaeaia a ia/aea aeaayiinouo aiaeia, o. a. a ia?eiae,
i?aaeoanoaothuee anooieaieth Oeieyiaeee a AN. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
Oeieyiaeey, iaoiaeynue a oae iacuaaaiii «ia?aoiaeiii ia?eiaea» ia niaoeo
iacaiaaeeeoaeueii e ieii/aoaeueii aaeaioe?iaaoue naia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
?aaeaiaioaoeeyie AN, a i?iaiaeeo iineaaeiaaoaeueioth iiyoaiioth
oieoeeaoeeth. Aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee a
1997 aiaeo yaeeinue i?eiyoea caeiia ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao, eioi?ue
anooiee a neeo 1 naioya?y 1998 a. N 1 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea auea iiauoaia n
25% aei 28% noaaea iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa.

Eueaiou

Iiieii oeiaine?iaaiey yenii?oa?a, iniiaaiiiai ia aica?aoiinoe iieo/aiiuo
n?aaenoa, e no?aoiaaiey, inouanoaeythuaainy oaeaea ia eiiia?/aneie
iniiaa, aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a Oeieyiaeee iieo/eea oaeay oi?ia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai noeioee?iaaiey, eae noaneaee?iaaiea yenii?oa?a,
eioi?ia i?aaeiieaaaao ieacaiea iiiiue ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa ia
aacaiciacaeiie iniiaa. Ia?ii?eyoey ii noaneaee?iaaieth yenii?oa iiaoo
auoue neaaeothuea.

Iaeiaiaua e oaiiaeaiiua eueaiou: iaeiaiaua eueaiou a no?ieoaeuenoaa e
iaoaeeii?iiuoeaiiinoe; iaeiaiaua eueaiou noaeiaeaaeaeueoeai; aica?ao
eiii?oiie iioeeiu (a neo/aa, anee eiii?oe?iaaiiua oiaa?u eniieuecothony
a i?iecaiaenoaa yenii?oiuo); inaiaiaeaeaiea io aianaiee o?aaieoaeueiuo
ieaoaaeae; inaiaiaeaeaiea io oieaou IAeN ii yenii?oo (yoi iieiaeaiea
?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia eiii?o oiaa?ia, eniieuecoaiuo a i?iecaiaenoaa
yenii?oiie i?iaeoeoeee).

Noaneaeee: nenoaia au?aaieaaiey oeai ia nu?uea aeey ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe; aeioaoeey ioa/anoaaiiui yenii?oa?ai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee; nieaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo oa?eoia;
au?aaieaaiea o?aooiauo noaaie; ?aaeiiaeueiua o?ainii?oiua noaneaeee aeey
ia?aaicie /a?ac ii?ou Naaa?iie Oeieyiaeee e Naeiaineiai eaiaea;
ainoaea?noaaiiua noaneaeee, iai?aaeyaiua ia ?acaeoea yenii?oa oiaa?ia ia
iiaua ?uiee; niaeaenoaea ia?eaoeiao e nauoo yenii?oiuo oiaa?ia
(Ieienoa?noai oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, Nithc aiaoiae oi?aiaee);
noaneaee?iaaiea yenii?oiuo eiiiaiee (Ieienoa?noai oi?aiaee e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe); nai? e ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee (Nithc aiaoiae
oi?aiaee e oi?aiaua iaeaou); iao/aiea ia?niiaea aeey inouanoaeaiey
yenii?oa (Oiiae yenii?oiiai iao/aiey).

Aiciiaeiu e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea oi?iu noaneaee?iaaiey. Cayaeaiea ia
iieo/aiea aeioaoeee iiaoo iiaeaaaoue ana ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua a Oeieyiaeee
oe?iu e iauaaeeiaiey yenii?oiuo oe?i. Iie aeieaeiu i?aaeeaaaoue ia
yenii?o i?iaeoeoeeth, eiathuoth aunieoth noaiaiue oeineiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiieii yenii?oa oiaa?ia aeioaoeee iiaoo auiea/eaaoueny
aeey yenii?oa oaoiieiaee, eeoeaicee, iio-oao e oneoa. Aeioaoeee iiaoo
iie?uaaoue ia aieaa 50% io iaueo ?anoiaeia a oa/aiea aeaoo eao.
Cayaeaiey ia iieo/aiea aeioaoeee iiaeathony a ?aaeiiaeueiua ath?i
Ieienoa?noaa oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ua oaeaea aeatho aieaa
iiae?iaiua eino?oeoeee i caiieiaiee aieaou.

E?aoein?i/iia oeiaine?iaaiea yenii?oa. Iniiaiuie e?aaeeoiuie
einoeoooaie, inouanoaeythueie e?aoein?i/iia oeiaine?iaaiea yenii?oa,
yaeythony eiiia?/aneea aaiee no?aiu. Yenii?oa? e?aaeeooaony, eae
i?aaeei, ia iaiaoiaeeiue aio ia?eiae i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a, ioa?ocee
oiaa?a, ion?i/ee ieaoaaea aeey iieoiaoaey. Ai anao neo/ayo
oeiaine?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony a aeaea iau/iiai aaieianeiai
e?aaeeoiaaiey. Noaaea ii yoei e?aaeeoai ?ann/eouaaaony n o/aoii aaciaiai
i?ioeaioa, onoaiaaeeaaaiiai Aaieii Oeieyiaeee, e eioi?iio i?eaaaeyaony
0,25%.

I?e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee oeineei yenii?oa?ii eiino?aiiiio iieoiaoaeth
?ann?i/ee ieaoaaea ca ioa?oaeaiiua oiaa?u, e?aoein?i/iia oeiaine?iaaiea
yenii?oa?a ia?aoiaeeo a ae?oaoth oi?io – e?aaeeoiaaiea yenii?oa?ii
eiii?oa?a eee a eiiia?/aneee yenii?oiue e?aaeeo. Iiaeiaiue aeae
oeiaine?iaaiey ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oi?aiaeth naeueoici?iaeoeoeeae,
nu?ueaauie oiaa?aie, i?iaeoeoeeae aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
a oaeaea ia ?ayenii?oiua oiaa?u.

Niaoeeaeueiie nenoaiie oeiaine?iaaiey yenii?oa?a a ia?eiae i?iecaiaenoaa
oiaa?a yaeythony e?aaeeou ia ?acaeoea oae iacuaaaiiai iiaiai yenii?oa,
eioi?ua Aaie Oeieyiaeee noae i?aaeinoaaeyoue n 1996 aiaea. Oneiaeai
iieo/aiey oaeiai e?aaeeoa yaeyaony oaaee/aiea iauaia yenii?oa
i?aaei?eyoey. Oaoieea iieo/aiey e?aaeeoa ia ?acaeoea iiaiai yenii?oa
i?inoa – oe?ia iieo/aao e?aaeeo /a?ac naie eiiia?/aneee aaie, eioi?ue, a
naith i/a?aaeue, o/eouaaao aaenaey a Aaiea Oeieyiaeee. ?ac?aoaiea ia
iieo/aiea iiauo yenii?oiuo e?aaeeoia auaeaaony Aaieii Oeieyiaeee, eae
i?aaeei, aeaa ?aca a aiae (a ai?aea e a ieoya?a).

Iaeneiaeueiue iauai i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai e?aaeeoa ninoaaeyao 5 iei. oie,
ieieiaeueiue – 20 oun. oie. I?ioeaioiay noaaea, auiea/eaaaiay ii
aeaiiiio aeaeo e?aaeeoa, naycuaaaony n iniiaiie o/aoiie noaaeie Aaiea
Oeieyiaeee e onoaiaaeeaaaony ia 0,75% auoa iineaaeiae. Iniaaiiinoueth
yoie nenoaiu oeiaine?iaaiey yaeyaony oi, /oi eioaineaiinoue aa
eniieueciaaiey ?anoao i?e iaino?aiee iieiaeaiey ia aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiii
?uiea.

N?aaeia- e aeieain?i/iia e?aaeeoiaaiea yenii?oa. Oeiaine?iaaieai
yenii?oa ni n?ieii ieaoaaea nauoa aiaea a Oeieyiaeee caieiathony AI
«Noiiai aeaioeeoiooi» (NAE), «Oeineee yenii?oiue e?aaeeo», nicaeaiiia a
ia/aea 1997 aiaea AI «Oeaea» e Oeaio? ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee OAEAN.

Oeie/iuie iia?aoeeyie yaeythony yenii?o eaieoaeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee,
naycaiiua n iei oneoae e i?iaeoiue yenii?o. Auoaoiiiyiooua o/?aaeaeaiey
oaeaea oeiaine?otho i?i/ea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iia?aoeee, iinoaaee ia
iaoeeiiaeueiue ?uiie e eiaanoeoeee oeineeo oe?i. Oeiaine?iaaiea yenii?oa
iiae?acaeaeaii ia aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu – e?aaeeou ia eiiia?/aneeo
oneiaeyo e eueaioiua e?aaeeou. Oneiaey ia?auo ii?aaeaeythony a
caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoe eeeaioa e ?uii/iiai iieiaeaiey. E?aaeeo
iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoueny eae yenii?oa?o, oae e iieoiaoaeth eee aaieo
iieoiaoaey. Ii iiaeao iie?uaaoue aei 100% io noieiinoe eiio?aeoa.

?acee/athony neaaeothuea aeaeu n?aaeia- e aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoia:
yenii?oiua e?aaeeou aeey no?ai IYN?, iie?uaatho ia aieaa 85% io
noieiinoe eiio?aeoa e auaeathony ia 5-10 eao; eueaioiua e?aaeeou aeey
iinoaaie eaieoaeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee, oneoa eee i?iaeoia a ?acaeaathueany
no?aiu; ?aii/iua e?aaeeou ia iniiaa niaeaoaiee n aaieaie e ca?oaaaeiuie
oeiainiauie o/?aaeaeaieyie, AI «Oeaea» aa?ao ia naay ?ene ii auieaoa ii
e?aaeeoai, auaeaiiui eiino?aiiui caeac/eeai eee oeiainiaui o/?aaeaeaieyi
aeey inouanoaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo i?iaeoia.

Oeaio? ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee OAEAN auaeaao e?aaeeou e aeioaoeee aeey
i?iaaaeaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?ia?aii ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee, yaeythueony
eiieo?aioiniiniaiuie ia ie?iaii ?uiea. OAEAN i?eieiaao o/anoea e a
i?iaeoao, n oaoie/aneei i?iaaaeaieai eioi?uo naycai aieueoie
yeiiiie/aneee ?ene, ii eiathueo iaauathuea ia?niaeoeau.

Yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea oe?iu, oiaeaoaenoaothuae a iieo/aiee e?aaeeoa
eee aeioaoeee, aeieaeii auoue oi?ioei. I?iaeou oeiaine?othony
e?aaeeoaie, aeioaoeeyie eee aea iauaaeeiaieai yoeo aeaoo oi?i
oeiaine?iaaiey. Oeaeueth i?iaeoa aeieaeii yaeyoueny aeinoeaeaiea
nouanoaaiiiai oeo/oaiey i?eiaiyaiuo iuia oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.
Aeiey aeioaoeee aeey oeiaine?iaaiey i?iaeoa ii
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneei ?aaioai e niaa?oainoaiaaieth oaoiieiaee
ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 25-50% io iaueo ?anoiaeia i?iaeoa.

?acia? e?aaeeoa ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 60% io niaou i?iaeoa. N?ie e?aaeeoa
ninoaaeyao 10 eao, /anoue inaiaiaeaeaia io iiaaoaiey. Iaania/aiey aeey
e?aaeeoa ia o?aaothony. A neo/aa, anee i?iaeo ieaaeaony
aac?acoeueoaoiui, OAEAN iiaeao i?inoeoue /anoue aeieaa. Aeioaoeee e
e?aaeeou iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey iie?uoey neaaeothueo ?anoiaeia;
ca?ieaou e einaaiiua ?anoiaeu ii ca?ieaoai, aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
eiinoeueoaioai e niaoeeaeenoai, ?anoiaeu ia iai?oaeiaaiea e eiaaioa?ue,
iiacaeee, ?anoiaeu ia iieo/aiea iaoaioia, eioi?iaoeeiiiua e
aaeieieno?aoeaiua ?anoiaeu. Iaeneiaeueiay aeiey aeioaoeee eee e?aaeeoa
ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 50% io yoeo ?anoiaeia. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey aeaiiuo
i?iaeoia ia iiaoo auoue iaeiia?aiaiii iieo/aiu aeioaoeee eee eueaioiua
e?aaeeou ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia. Iaeua e n?aaeiea oe?iu iiaoo iieo/eoue
aeioaoeeth aeey iie?uoey ia aieaa 75% io iaueo ?anoiaeia ii iiaeaioiaea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?iaeoia nio?oaeie/anoaa, eioi?uie iiaoo auoue
?ac?aaioea ieaia aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu, iiacaeee,
auyniaiea ia?niaeoea nauoa, iiene e ioeaiea iioaioeeaeueiuo ia?oia?ia.

No?aoiaaiea

No?aoiaaiea yenii?oa Oeieyiaeee, yaeythueiny iaeiie ec oi?i aai
oeiaine?iaaiey, caieiaaony «Aaeoeiioaeooeaneon» (AOE), «Oeaio?
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee» – i?aaiecaoeey a nenoaia Ieienoa?noaa
oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Caaea/ae AOE yaeyaony noeioee?iaaiea yenii?oa
iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey yenii?oa?ai neaaeothueo aeaeia aa?aioee:

aa?aioey ia neo/ae iaieaoaaea eiii?oa?a (L-aa?aioey). Oeineee yenii?oa?
iiaeao caueoeoueny io iaieaoaaea caeac/eea iooai no?aoiaaiey yenii?oiuo
iinooieaiee a Oeaio?a ainaa?aioee. Aa?aioey iiaeao ioaaoeoue ?ene
iaieaoaaea eee aea ?anoi?aeaiey eiio?aeoa ai a?aiy ecaioiaeaiey
iinoaaeyaiiai oiaa?a. Aa?aioey iiaeoiaeeo eae aeey e?aoein?i/iuo, oae e
aeieain?i/iuo eiio?aeoia, ?aciauo e iinoiyiiuo iinoaaie, iiaeao
?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia iaeio eee aieaa naeaeie n iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie
caeac/eeaie a iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo no?aiao. Aeey aieaa iiuoiuo
yenii?oa?ia i?aaeinoaaeythony aa?aioee anaai ii?ooaey yenii?oiuo
caeacia, i?e/ai oe?ia no?aooao ana iinooieaiey io yenii?oa. I?e yenii?oa
a no?aiu IYN? aa?aioey. eae i?aaeei, ioaaouaaao oieueei eiiia?/aneee
?ene, i?e yenii?oa a ae?oaea no?aiu – eae eiiia?/aneee, oae e
iieeoe/aneee ?ene. A neo/aa iaieaoaaea yenii?oa? aeieaeai ianoe ?ene a
?acia?a 10-15% io oauoeia. No?aoiaie aciin caaeneo io
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe yenii?oa?a, no?aiu caeac/eea, n?iea ieaoaaea e
i?i/eo oneiaee ieaoaaea yenii?oiie iinoaaee;

aa?aioey aeey iaania/aiey e?aaeeoa (P-aa?aioey). Aeaiiay oi?ia aa?aioee
i?aaeinoaaeyaony oeiainiaiio o/?aaeaeaieth, auaeaaoaio e?aaeeo oeineiio
yenii?oa?o. Aa?aioey iiaeao eanaoueny iaeiie naeaeee eee aea
auaeaaaoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio a neo/aa iinoiyiiuo e iaeaaeaiiuo
yenii?oiuo iinoaaie. Aa?aioey aeey iaania/aiey e?aaeeoa iiaeao auoue
aeiiieiaia aa?aioeae ia neo/ae iaieaoaaea caeac/eeii (ni. auoa). Ieaoa
ca auaea/o aa?aioee ninoaaeyao 1-3% io aa noiiu. Iiieii yoiai aceiaaony
ieaoa ia iie?uoea ?anoiaeia ii ianeoaeeaaieth a ?acia?a 0,3-0,8% io
noiiu e?aaeeoa;

aa?aioey oeiainiaui o/?aaeaeaieyi (F-aa?aioey). Aa?aioey iiaeao
auaeaaaoueny oeineiio eee ca?oaaaeiiio oeiainiaiio o/?aaeaeaieth aeey
iaania/aiey aeieaa eiino?aiiiai aeieaeieea. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio oeineee
yenii?oa? iieo/aao iieaoo n?aco iinea iinoaaee, oioy ca?oaaaeiue
caeac/ee iiea/eaaao a ?ann?i/eo. Oaeaea ?ene ia neo/ae iaieaoaaea
ia?aoiaeeo io yenii?oa?a nia/aea oeiainiaiio o/?aaeaeaieth e aeaeaa
Oeaio?o aa?aioee. Aa?aioey iiaeoiaeeo aeey iinoaaie eae n e?aoeei, oae e
aeeeoaeueiui n?ieii ieaoaaea. I?aaeiinueeie i?aaeinoaaeaiey aa?aioee
yaeyaony iieo/aiea io eiino?aiiiai caeac/eea aaciocuaiiai e ia?aaiaeiiai
ieaoaaeiiai iaycaoaeuenoaa. No?aoiaie aciin caaeneo io
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe yenii?oa?a, no?aiu caeac/eea, oneiaee ieaoaaea
yenii?oiie iinoaaee e iaania/aiee;

ano?a/iay aa?aioey (A-aa?aioey). Ano?a/iay aa?aioey iiaeao
i?aaeinoaaeyoueny a ea/anoaa ano?a/iiai iaania/aiey aaieo io eiaie
yenii?oa?a eee aea ia neo/ae iaiainiiaaiiiai ecuyoey i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai
ei iaania/aiey eee iioa?e aai aneaaenoaee iieeoe/aneeo ia?aiai. Aa?aioey
iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny oaeaea a iaania/aiea i?aaeiieaou e iaycaoaeuenoa
ia a?aiy i?aaeeiaeaiey, iinoaaee e aa?aioeeiiai ia?eiaea. Aiaeiaie aciin
ninoaaeyao 1-3% io noiiu aa?aioee. Iiieii yoiai aceiaaony nai? ia
ianeoaeeaaiea a ?acia?a 0,3-0,8%;

aa?aioey eiaanoeoeee io iieeoe/aneiai ?enea (I-aa?aioey). Eiaanoi?
iiaeao no?aoiaaoue naie ca?oaaaeiua eiaanoeoeee e iaeeaeaaiua io ieo
aeioiaeu ia neo/ae iieeoe/aneiai ?enea. Eiaanoeoeee aeieaeiu iiiu?youe
yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea eae no?aiu iacia/aiey, oae e Oeieyiaeee;

aa?aioey aee?aaeeoeaai (D-aa?aioey). Aaie iiaeao caueoeoueny io ?enea
iaieaoaaea ii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiiio ei aee?aaeeoeao yenii?oiie naeaeee.
Aa?aioey iie?uaaao eae iieeoe/aneee, oae e eiiia?/aneee ?ene;

E-aa?aioee I?aaeinoaaeythony oeineei oe?iai-yenii?oa?ai, i?aaeaea anaai
caiyoui a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia n aeeeoaeueiui n?ieii ecaioiaeaiey,
inouanoaeythuei iinoaaee noaeia, oyaeaeuo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey,
no?ieoaeueiua i?iaeou. Iie iai?aaeaiu ia /anoe/ioth eiiiainaoeeth
oauoeia a neo/aa iai?aaeaeaeaiiiai oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
?anoiaeia a nayce n ?inoii eioeyoeee a no?aia. N eo iiiiuueth
ainoaea?noai no?aieony eiiiaine?iaaoue oo noiio, ia eioi?oth ?ino
ecaea?aeae oeineiai yenii?oa i?aaunee ?ino ecaea?aeae a
no?aiao-eiieo?aioao.

Iineieueeo oeineee e?aaeeoiue ?uiie oa?aeoa?ecoaony ioiineoaeueiie
ocinoueth, aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey oeineie yenii?oiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
eiatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiua enoi/ieee aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoia. Iniiaiui
enoi/ieeii n?aaenoa aeey Oeieyiaeee yaeyaony aa?iiaeneee ?uiie
eaieoaeia. Iaeiaei ana aieaa caiaoiia ianoi caieiatho ?uiee eaieoaeia
Naaa?iie Aia?eee (Iueth-Ei?e) e Acee (Neiaaio?, Oieei). Aeaaioth ?ieue a
i?aaiecaoeee eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoia oeineei oe?iai ea?atho ioaeaeaiey,
oeeeaeu e aei/a?iea aaiee oeineeo aaieia ca a?aieoeae. Iaeiie ec caaea/
nicaeaiey yoeo einoeoooia a aeaaiuo oeiainiauo oeaio?ao ie?a yaeyaony
aieaa aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea oeiainiauo enoi/ieeia ca a?aieoeae a
eioa?anao oeineeo oe?i-yenii?oa?ia.

Oeiaine?iaaiea io «Oeiioaiaea» . Eanaaony eiaanoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
noa? oneoa, iniaaiii a no?aiao Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e Acee.
Oiiae aeeaaeuaaao n?aaenoaa a aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae ia?niaeoeaiuo oe?i.
Auaeaao ei e?aaeeou e aa?aioee. Ii oaeaea i?eieiaao o/anoea a
oeiaine?iaaiee iiaeaioiaee i?iaeoia e iao/aiee ?oeiaiaenoaa ia/eiathueo
oe?i. «Oeiioaiae» iiaeao i?eia?aoaoue aeiee aeoeeiia?iiai iaiueoeinoaa
ia?niaeoeaiuo oeineeo oe?i, aeaenoaothueo a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e noa?a
oneoa. Noieiinoue aeeaaea caaeneo io i?iaeoa, ?enea e noieiinoe aeeaaea
oeineie oe?iu.

“Oeiioaiae» auaeaao oe?iai e?aaeeou e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eieiaao
o/anoea a i?aaiecaoeee iaania/aiey e?aaeeoo. Oneiaey e?aaeeoa
niaeanothony ioaeaeueii a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa. E?aaeeou
i?aaeinoaaeythony eee a oeineeo ia?eao eee a iaeaieaa aaaeiuo
eiiaa?oe?oaiuo aaethoao. O/anoea oiiaea, eae i?aaeei, ia i?aauoaao 30%
io iio?aaiinoe a oeiaine?iaaiee i?iaeoia. «Oeiioaiae» aaaeao oaniia
nio?oaeie/anoai n eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie oeiainiauie
o/?aaeaeaieyie. Ii iiaeao oaeaea niaeaenoaiaaoue a nai?a n?aaenoa ec
?aciuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey. Ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe oiiae iiaeao oaeaea
acyoue ia naay /anoue ?enea, naycaiiiai n ia/aeii aeayoaeueiinoe
nicaeaaaaiie n aai o/anoeai oe?iu. Oiiae i?aaenoaaeyao a Oeieyiaeee
i?ia?aiiu ii oeiaine?iaaieth eiaanoeoeee Eiiennee AN.

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