.

Географические и культурные особенности Египта

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1001
Скачать документ

Aaia?aoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe a Aaeioa

Aaeiao, A?aaneay ?anioaeeea Aaeiao (A?A), ainoaea?noai ia naaa?i-ainoiea
Ao?eee e Neiaeneii i-iaa a Acee (ie. 6% oa??eoi?ee). Aaeioo
i?eiaaeeaaeao oaeaea ianeieueei iaaieueoeo ino?iaia a Noyoeeii caeeaa e
E?aniii ii?a. Aaeiao ia naaa?a iiuaaaony N?aaeecaiiui ii?ai, ia ainoiea
– E?aniui ii?ai. A?aie/eo n Eeaeae ia caiaaea, Noaeaiii ia thaa,
Ec?aeeai ia naaa?i-ainoiea. N oaa?aey 1958 ii naioya?ue 1961 aoiaeee a
ninoaa Iauaaeeiaiiie A?aaneie ?anioaeeee (oaaea?aoeee n Ne?eae). Iinea
auoiaea Ne?ee ec oaaea?aoeee ia i?ioyaeaiee 10 eao nio?aiye i?aaeiaa
iacaaiea.

Aaeiao. Noieeoea – Eae?. Ianaeaiea – 74,71 iei. /aeiaae (2003).
Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey – 68 /aeiaae ia 1 ea. ei. Ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea –
45%, naeueneia – 55%. Ieiuaaeue – 1001,5 oun. ea. ei. Naiay aunieay
oi/ea – ai?a Eaoa?ei (2642 i), naiay ieceay – 133 i ieaea o.i. (aiaaeeia
Eaooa?a). Ioeoeeaeueiue ycue – a?aaneee. Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aeeaey –
eneai. Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea – 26 iooaoac
(aoaa?iaoi?noa). Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea – aaeiaoneee ooio = 100 ieano?ai.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue i?acaeiee: Aeaiue ?aaiethoeee – 23 ethey (1952).
Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeii: «Iiy no?aia, iiy no?aia».

I?E?IAeA

?aeueao ianoiinoe. Iineieueeo aieueoay /anoue Aaeioa i?eo?i/aia e
ie?aeia ae?aaiae ieaooi?iu, ia cao?iiooie neeaaeeiia?aciaaieai, ?aeueao
no?aiu a iniiaiii ?aaieiiue. Auaeaeythony iaoe?iia ieaoi Eeaeeneie
ionouie (caieiaao ie. 60% oa??eoi?ee no?aiu) caiaaeiaa Ieea, ieaoi
A?aaeeneie ionouie ia ainoiea, auoyiooia n naaa?a ia tha iaaeaeo
aeieeiie Ieea e E?aniui ii?ai, a ia e?aeiai thai-ainoiea – naaa?iay
ia?eoa?ey ieaoi Ioaeeneie ionouie. Iaaunieea ai?u (iaiaa 2000 i iaae
o.i.), e eioi?ui i?eo?i/aia auni/aeoay oi/ea no?aiu ai?a Eaoa?ei (2642
i), ?aniieiaeaiu ia thaa Neiaeneiai i-iaa, a n?aaeiaaunioiay ai?iay
oeaiue Yoaae (aei 1000 i iaae o.i.) i?ioyioeanue aaeieue anaai
iiaa?aaeuey E?aniiai ii?y (auni/aeoea aa?oeiu Oaea-yeue-Aaiao – 2187 i e
Oaiaoa – 1977 i). Ieaoi Eeaeeneie e A?aaeeneie ionouiue ?acaeaeaiu
aeieeiie Ieea.

Ieaoi Eeaeeneie ionouie, neiaeaiiia ian/aieeaie e ecaanoiyeaie, eiaao
aaniethoiua auniou ie. 100 i ia naaa?a e aei 600 i ia thaa. A aai
i?aaeaeao ?aniieiaeaiu ianeieueei aiaaeei. Naiay naaa?iay e naiay
e?oiiay ec ieo Eaooa?a (ieiuaaeueth ie. 19 oun. ea. ei) eiaao
aaniethoiua ioiaoee aei 133 i ieaea o.i. Iia caiyoa nieii/aeaie. E
caiaaeo io iaa iaoiaeeony nieii/aeiaay aiaaeeia Neaa, e ainoieo –
aiaaeeia Oaethi, a a thai-ainoi/iii iai?aaeaiee neaaeotho Aaoa?ey,
Oa?ao?a, Aeaoea, Oa?aa. Ei anai aiaaeeiai i?eo?i/aiu iacenu, a eioi?uo
i?ioeaaoaao caieaaeaeea. A ?anniao?eaaaiii ?aeiia ano?a/athony ionouie
neaaeothueo oeiia: eaiaienoua (oaiaaeu), aaea/iua (?aae),
ian/aii-aaea/iua (na?e?u), ian/aiua (y?ae) e nieii/aeiaua (naaoe).
Cia/eoaeueioth ieiuaaeue ia caiaaea caieiaao Aieueoay Ian/aiay ionouiy n
/aoei au?aaeaiiui y/aenoui ?aeueaoii, aaea ian/aiua i?iaeieueiua a?yaeu
niaaeeiaiu ian/aiuie ia?aiu/eaie. Oaiaaeu e ?aae, ia?aciaaaoeany a
?acoeueoaoa auaao?eaaiey ei?aiiuo ii?iae, aeiieie?otho ia naaa?a e
ainoiea. I?aaaea, oai aea ano?a/athony aeeeiiua a?yaeu aethi, n?aaee
eioi?uo iniai auaeaeyaony a?yaea Aao-Iooa??ee i?ioyaeaiiinoueth ie. 650
ei. Eeaeeneay ionouiy i?aeoe/anee aacaiaeia. Auoiaeu a?oioiauo aiae ia
iiaa?oiinoue eiathony eeoue a iacenao.

Ieaoi A?aaeeneie ionouie a iniiaaiee neiaeaii ae?aaieie e?enoaeee/aneeie
ii?iaeaie, auoiaeyueie ia iiaa?oiinoue ia ainoiea a ai?ao Yoaae e
ia?ae?uouie ia caiaaea iiuiie oieuae ecaanoiyeia e ian/aieeia. Iii
caieiaao aunioiia iieiaeaiea io 500 aei 1000 i iaae o.i., eiaao oeeii ii
iai?aaeaieth e aeieeia Ieea e neeueii ?an/eaiaii nooeie ?oneaie ?ae
(aaaee). Caeanue ?ani?ino?aiaiu i?aeiouanoaaii ionouie-oaiaaeu.
Aiaeiae/iia no?iaiea eiaao Ioaeeneia ieaoi n aunioaie io 350 i ia
caiaaea aei 1000 i ia ainoiea. Aai aeiaieueii ?iaiay iiaa?oiinoue
ia?ooaaony ino?iaiuie ai?aie aunioie aei 1350 i. Ieaoi ec?acaii
iiiai/eneaiiuie aaaee.

A i?aaeaeao Neiaeneiai i-iaa auaeaeythony n thaa ia naaa? iaeaieaa
aicauoaiiue a?aieoiue iannea (n ioaeaeueiuie aa?oeiaie aieaa 2500 i iaae
o.i.), ecaanoiyeiaia ieaoi Yeue-Eaia (iaiaa 2000 i iaae o.i.) e
ian/aieeiaia ieaoi Yo-Oeo (aunioie io 1850 aei 500 i iaae o.i.). ?acaeoa
naoue aaaee.

A iaae?ao Aaeioa nin?aaeioi/ai ?yae iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Cia/eoaeueiu
caianu oaeaaiaei?iaeiiai nu?uey. Iaooyiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey i?eo?i/aiu
aeaaiui ia?acii e ?eooiaui aiaaeeiai E?aniiai ii?y e Noyoeeiai caeeaa e
naaa?iie ie?aeia Eeaeeneie ionouie (aiaaeeiu Eaooa?a e Neaa e ae?oaea
naaa?i-caiaaeiua ?aeiiu). A i?aaeaeao iaeioi?uo iaooaiiniuo ai?eciioia,
a oaeaea a aeaeueoiaie iaeanoe ?acaaaeaiu ianoi?iaeaeaiey i?e?iaeiiai
aaca. Caeaaee eaiaiiiai oaey nin?aaeioi/aiu a Oaethineie aiaaeeia e ia
naaa?a Neiaeneiai i-iaa. Iniiaiui ?oaeiiiniui ?aeiiii no?aiu yaeythony
ai?u Yoaae (ianoi?iaeaeaiey o?aia, oeoaia, iaaee, ieiaa, cieioa,
iieeaaeaia, ieiaey, aieueo?aia). Ia Neiaeneii i-iaa cia/eoaeueiu caianu
ia?aaioea. Eiathony e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey oinoi?eoia (iiaa?aaeuea
E?aniiai ii?y, aeieeia Ieea, iacen Oa?aa). A Aaeioa nin?aaeioi/aiu
nouanoaaiiua caianu oeaiaioiiai nu?uey (ecaanoiyee, aeeiu, ia?aaee).
Anaie?iie ecaanoiinoueth iieuecothony anoaineea a?aieou e ae?oaea
no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu. E aeaeueoa Ieea i?eo?i/aiu ianoi?iaeaeaiey
iiaa?aiiie e eaiaiiie niee, niaeu, aeina, oeoaia e ae?oaeo iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo. A iaae?ao Aaeioa eiathony i?iiuoeaiiua caianu anaanoa,
aa?eoa, oaeueea, ieaaeeiaiai oiaoa.

Eeeiao e aiaeiua ?ano?nu. Ia aieueoae /anoe Aaeioa eeeiao o?iie/aneee
eiioeiaioaeueiue ionouiiue n ?aceeie nooi/iuie eieaaaieyie oaiia?aoo?u.
A ionouiyo aeiaaiua oaiia?aoo?u iiaoo aeinoeaaoue 50° N, a ii/ueth
iionoeoueny aei 0° N. I?ioeaaeiue nacii a Aa?oiai Aaeioa (e thao io
Eae?a) i?iaeieaeaaony n aeaeaa?y ii oaa?aeue. N ai?aey ii ieoya?ue
nio?aiyaony i/aiue aea?eay iiaiaea n oaiia?aoo?ie aei 42° N a oaie. A
ai?aea-iaa, eiaaea ec ionouie Naoa?a i?eia?ii a oa/aiea 50 aeiae aeoao
ai?y/ee nooie aaoa? oainei, ia?aaeee ian/aiua ao?e. Ioiineoaeueiay
aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa oaaee/eaaaony a ethea, eiaaea ia/eiaaony ?aceea
Ieea.

A Ieaeiai Aaeioa (e naaa?o io Eae?a), iniaaiii a aai i?ea?aaeiie iieina,
eeeiao i?aeiouanoaaiii noao?iie/aneee n?aaeecaiiiii?neee. I?ioeaaeiue
nacii i?iaeieaeaaony n ieoya?y ii ai?aeue. A oceie n?aaeecaiiiii?neie
iieina ia?aaeee aeiaeaee. Eaoi ianooiaao a iaa e nii?iaiaeaeaaony
cia/eoaeueiui oaaee/aieai ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa.

N?aaeiea aiaeiaua oaiia?aoo?u ia naaa?a 25–26° N, ia thaa – 30–34° N.
N?aaeiea nooi/iua oaiia?aoo?u naiiai oieiaeiiai ianyoea, yiaa?y, io
11–12° N ia naaa?a aei 15–16° N – ia thaa, a naiiai aea?eiai, ethey, –
io 25–26° N ia naaa?a aei 30–34° N – ia thaa.

Aaeiao ?aniieiaeai a e?aeia a?eaeiuo oneiaeyo, inaaeee ?aaeee e
ia?aaoey?iu. Oae, a Aa?oiai Aaeioa inaaeee ia auiaaeatho eiiaaea ia
i?ioyaeaiee 7–10 eao. N?aaeiaaiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia ia aieueoae
/anoe no?aiu iaiaa 100 ii (a ?aeiia Eae?a 28 ii), a ia naaa?a ie. 200 ii
(a Aeaenaiae?ee – 190 ii), ii a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 400
ii.

Oa?aeoa?iua oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe Aaeioa ii?aaeaeythony oai,
/oi aai oa??eoi?eth n thaa ia naaa? ia?anaeaao Iee, eiathuee enoiee a
Yeaaoi?eaeueiie Ao?eea e ia?aciaaiiue a ?acoeueoaoa neeyiey Aaeiai e
Aieoaiai Ieea. Aiaaeaao Iee a N?aaeecaiiia ii?a.

Ia o/anoea iaaeaeo Anoaiii e Eae?ii Iee oa/ao /a?ac aiaaeeio a
ecaanoiyeiaii ieaoi. Oe?eia aeieeiu iaiyaony io 1–3 ei ia thaa aei 20–25
ei ia naaa?a. Ieaea Eae?a ?onei ?anoe?yaony e ia?aoiaeeo a
iiiai?oeaaioth aeaeueoo ieiuaaeueth ie. 24 oun. ea. ei, ?aneeioaoony ia
220 ei n caiaaea ia ainoie e 170 ei n thaa ia naaa?, n iiiai/eneaiiuie
eaaoiiuie ica?aie. Aaeaaiaeiua ?aceeau Ieea, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeany
ioeiaeaieai ia iieia aieueoiai iauaia ieiaei?iaeiiai eea, niinianoaiaaee
?aiiaio ?acaeoeth caieaaeaeey.

A ?acoeueoaoa no?ieoaeuenoaa a 1960-a aiaeu aunioiie Anoaineie ieioeiu
ia thaa no?aiu ia?aciaaeinue e?oiiia ica?i Iana?, iiyaeeanue
aiciiaeiinoue ?aaoee?iaaoue noie Ieea e i?aaeioa?auaoue eaoano?ioe/aneea
iaaiaeee. A Aaeioa Iee ia eiaao ie iaeiiai iinoiyiiiai i?eoiea.
Enia?yaiinoue n iiaa?oiinoe ?aee cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao eiee/anoai
aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia. Ia oa??eoi?ee Aaeioa ia/aei iaaiaeea Ieea
i?eoiaeeony ia ethiue-etheue, a aai iee – ia naioya?ue. Ceiie
i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiia nieaeaiea o?iaiy aiaeu, e a iaa ii ieieiaeueiue.
A yoi a?aiy aiaea i?ic?a/ia, oiaaea eae a iieiaiaeuea – iooiay ec-ca
aunieiai niaea?aeaiey i?eiineiuo ec yeaaoi?eaeueiuo ?aeiiia acaaoaiiuo
iaiinia.

Ia Neiaeneii i-iaa, a A?aaeeneie ionouia e ia naaa?a Ioaeeneie ionouie a
ia?eiae aeiaeaeae ia?acothony a?aiaiiua aiaeioiee e naeaaua iioiee.

Ii/au, ?anoeoaeueiinoue e aeeaioiue ie?. Iiiaea ?aeiiu Aaeioa aiiaua
eeoaiu ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa, iniaaiii caiaaeiua, aaea ainiiaenoaotho
iiaeaeaeiua e iieocae?aieaiiua ianee e eaiaienoua iiaa?oiinoe. Oai, aaea
auiaaeatho inaaeee e eiathony oneiaey aeey i?iec?anoaiey neoaeiie
?anoeoaeueiinoe, oi?ie?othony neaeaoiua ii/au. Ec iaeaieaa ?acaeouo
oeiia ii/a auaeaeytho neaaeothuea: aeaeoi-ao?ua ionouiiua, oaeu?iaeaeiua
na?icaiu, oaeu?u, nieii/aee, n?aaeecaiiiii?neea ionouiii-noaiiua, a a
aeaeueoa Ieea – aieioiua e aieioii-eoaiaua. Ii aa?aaai Ieea ?acaeou
iaeaieaa ieiaei?iaeiua aeethaeaeueiua ii/au.

Aneaaenoaea a?eaeiuo eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee aieueoay /anoue Aaeioa eeoaia
anoanoaaiiiai ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa. Ianoaie a ionouiyo ai a?aiy ceiieo
aeiaeaeae iiyaeythony yoaia?u (iaee, ethoeee, e?enu). Iieoionouiiay e
ionouiiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue aeeth/aao ceaee, ena?ioeeueiua eonoa?ieee,
aeaoeee. A N?aaeecaiiiii?uea oei?a aieaa aiaaoa (eiaueue, aa?aethaeuey
eieth/ea, noaiiie eoe, ano?aaae, oeiiaiee e ae?.). A aeaeueoa Ieea e a
aai aeieeia ii aa?aaai aiaeiaiia i?iec?anoaao iaie?on, ano?a/athony
oeieeiaua e ae?oaea aeaeu iaeuei, a?aaaiuee (oaia?een), ieaaiae?,
neeiii? (niieiaieoea) e ae?. Anoanoaaiiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue a aeieeia
Ieea e a iacenao auoaniaia eoeueoo?iie (ca?iiauie, oeiieii, ieaioaoeeyie
oeieeiaie iaeueiu).

AEeaioiue ie? Aaeioa aaaeai. Iaeaieaa ?aciiia?acia eeoue oaoia ioeoe,
eae aiacaeyueony, oae e i?eeaoathueo ia ceiiaeo ec Aa?iiu (aenou,
oeaiee, iaeeeaiu, aone, ooee, oeaieiai, aaeeaiu). Ec oeuiuo ioeoe
aiaeyony a?eou, nieieu, na?u/e.

A ionouiyo iiiai i?aniueathueony (ciae – aaeiaoneay eia?a, ciay
Eeaiiao?u, ian/aiua ciae, yoa, ath?ca; yua?eoeu – aa?aiu, aaeeiiu,
aaaiu) e ianaeiiuo. Ec ieaeiieoathueo ano?a/athony oaeae, aeaia, eena,
eaaai, iaiaono, eaoo/ea iuoe, iaeeea a?ucoiu. A caiiaaaeieea Eaoa?ei ia
Neiaeneii i-iaa aiaeyony ian/aiay aacaeue e neiaeneee eaiia?ae. A
caiiaaaeieea Aaaee-?eo?ao (aeec Eae?a) iiae io?aiie iaoiaeeony ioaeeneee
eica?ia. Aiaeu Ieea aiaaou ?uaie (ieeueneee ieoiue, oea?iaay ?uaa, nii e
ae?.).

Aaeiao – no?aia ae?aaiaai neioiaiaenoaa. E?anoueyia ?acaiaeyo
aa?aethaeia, ineia, e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio, iaaoe e eioaaeae.

IANAEAIEA

Ianaeaiea Aaeioa, /eneaiiinoue eioi?iai ii ioeaiea ia etheue 2003
ninoaaeea 74,71 iei. /aeiaae, nin?aaeioi/aii aeaaiui ia?acii a aeieeia
Ieea, a aai aeaeueoa e aaeieue Noyoeeiai eaiaea. Iacia/eoaeueiay aai
/anoue i?iaeeaaao a iacenao caiaaeiie ionouie, iaaieueoeo oaooa?neeo
ai?iaeeao ainoi/iie ionouie e ii aa?aaai iaeioi?uo aooo a
N?aaeecaiiiii?uea. *anoue ianaeaiey aei neo ii? aaaeao ei/aaie ia?ac
aeecie. Iaeaieaa ieioii canaeaia aeaeueoa Ieea, enoi?e/aneia iacaaiea
yoiai ?aeiia Aeaeueoa.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey i?ienoiaeeo iooie naeueneiai ianaeaiey a
ai?iaea. Niaeanii ioeaiea 1996, /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ai?iaeia
ninoaaeyea: Eae? – 6789 oun., Aeaenaiae?ey – 3328 oun., Yeue-Aeca – 4525
oun., Ii?o-Naeae – 469 oun., Noyoe – 411 oun. /aeiaae.

N na?aaeeiu 1960-o aiaeia a no?aia inouanoaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiay
i?ia?aiia ii ia?aie/aieth ?iaeaeaaiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa n ia/aea 1960-o
aei 2003 ?iaeaeaaiinoue a no?aia nie?aoeeanue n 46 aei 24,36
iiai?iaeaeaiiuo ia 1000 /aeiaae ianaeaiey. Aeaaiaea?y oeo/oaieth
iaaeeoeeineiai ianeoaeeaaiey nieceeanue nia?oiinoue: n 20 aei 5,35 ia
1000 /aeiaae ca oio aea ia?eiae. E 2003 n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu
anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey ninoaaeee ie. 1,88%. I?eia?ii 35%
aeeoaeae no?aiu iieiaea 15 eao. A?aee o?aaeeoeeiiii caeeth/aeenue a
?aiiai aic?anoa. N ?inoii noieiinoe aeecie e aieaa aeoeaiui o/anoeai
aeaiuei a o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe n?aaeiee aic?ano anooiathueo a a?ae,
iniaaiii a ai?iaeao, oaaee/eeny. Iaeeaeaaiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeecie a Aaeioa ninoaaeyao 70,41 (67,94 o ioae/ei e 73 o aeaiuei).

Ioeoeeaeueiue ycue – a?aaneee. Aiai?yo aaeioyia ia aaeiaoneii aeeaeaeoa
a?aaneiai ycuea. A ai?iaeao eiatho oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea aiaeeeneee e
o?aioeocneee ycuee. Ia yoeo ycueao aiai?yo aeaaea iaeia?aiioiua
oi?aiaoeu. Ianaeaiea iaeioi?uo iacenia ia caiaaea no?aiu aiai?eo ia
aa?aa?neii ycuea.

A eiioanneiiaeueiii ioiioaiee ianaeaiea Aaeioa aeiaieueii iaeii?iaeii –
94% aaeioyi eniiaaaeotho eneai noiieoneiai iai?aaeaiey. Ieiei 6%
aa?othueo ninoaaeytho o?enoeaia-eiiou. *eneaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ae?oaeo eiioanneiiaeueiuo iauei iaaaeeea.

EOEUeOO?A

Iniiaiua aeeyiey e o?aaeeoeee. Eoeueoo?a nia?aiaiiiai Aaeioa ooiaeeo
naieie ei?iyie e o?aaeeoeeyi yiioe oa?aiiia. E yoiio aea ia?eiaeo
ainoiaeyo iiiaea ia?iaeiua iau/ae. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe aeaayoe aaeia,
io caaiaaaiey Aaeioa Aeaenaiae?ii Iaeaaeiineei (3 a. aei i.y.) aei
a?aaneeo caaiaaaiee 7 a., Aeaenaiae?ey yaeyeanue aaaeiaeoei oeaio?ii
a?a/aneeo e ?eineeo eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee. Ia i?ioyaeaiee
iineaaeiaaaoeo 13 aaeia iaeaieaa neeueiia aeeyiea ia aaeiaoneoth
eoeueoo?o ieacuaaee a?aaneea e eneaineea o?aaeeoeee.

Iaeioi?ua i?aaenoaaeoaee aaeiaoneie eioaeeeaaioeee e iieeoe/aneea
aeayoaee, cae?aai ioeaieaay ionoaeia yeiiiie/aneia e aiaiiia iieiaeaiea
no?aiu, aiceaaaee iaaeaaeaeu ia oi, /oi ?ani?ino?aiaiea aa?iiaeneiai
aeeyiey a Aaeioa niiaeao i?eaanoe e onei?aieth oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey e eoeueoo?iiio aic?iaeaeaieth. Aua a 1869, aunooiay ia
oea?aiiiee ii neo/ath ioe?uoey Noyoeeiai eaiaea, oaaeea Eniaee cayaee:
«Oaia?ue Aaeiao noae /anoueth Aa?iiu». Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae aue iaeaieaa
/aoei noi?ioee?iaai a iioaeeeiaaiiie a 1938 eieaa ecaanoiiai aaeiaoneiai
enoi?eea e eeoa?aoo?iaaaea Oaoe Oonaeia (1889–1973) Aoaeouaa eoeueoo?u a
Aaeioa, aaea i?yii ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi a naiae aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iie
iniiaa Aaeiao nei?aa i?eiaaeeaaeeo e oeeaeeecaoeeyi N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, a
ia Ainoiea.

A eiioea 19 a. eeaea? eneaineiai iiaea?iecia e aaeiaoneee iauanoaaiiue
aeayoaeue Iooaiiaae Aaaei (1849–1905) naeaeae iiiuoeo iauaaeeieoue
nia?aiaiioth iao/ioth iuneue e eneai, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi iaaeaeo ieie iao
i?ioeai?a/ee. Aaaei ?aoiaae ca nio?aiaiea eoeueoo?iie nenoaiu eneaia, ii
i?aaeeaaae naeaeaoue aa aieaa aeaeie. Aeiioneay naiaiaeioth o?aeoiaeo
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ionoeueiaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, Aaaei iuoaeny
?aoi?ie?iaaoue ionoeueiaineia noaeii?iecaiaenoai e i?ia?aiio iao/aiey a
eneaineii oieaa?neoaoa aeue-Acoa? a Eae?a.

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiue o/aiee Aaaei – ?aeeaeiciue e iauanoaaiiue aeayoaeue
Iooaiiaae ?aoeae ?eaea (1865–1935) ooaa?aeaeae, /oi Aaeiao e eneai
niiaoo aic?iaeeoueny i?e oneiaee aica?aoa e «i/euaiiiio» io iicaeiaeoeo
eneaaeaiee eneaio a?aiai i?i?iea Iooaiiaaea e ia?auo /aou?ao oaeeoia.
?eaea aicaeaaee aeaeaeaiea, i?iiaaaiaee?iaaaoaa aica?ao e ?aiiaio yoaio
?acaeoey eneaia e ?ani?ino?aieaoaany a 1920–1930-a aiaeu aeaeaei ca
i?aaeaeu Aaeioa. ?eaea ia/eiae i?inaaoeoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue n
i?iiaaaiaeu o/aiey Aaaei. Iaeiaei aai nianoaaiiia o/aiea iiae?acoiaaaei
aieaa no?iaoth e aeanoeoth i?eaioaoeeth ia eneaineea o?aaeeoeee.
Nia?aiaiiia aeaeaeaiea eneaineiai aic?iaeaeaiey a Aaeioa iie?aaony ia
eaeae ?eaea e aai ni?aoieeia.

Nenoaia ia?aciaaiey. Iaoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia ia?aciaaiey Aaeioa
iaoiaeeony a aaaeaiee ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey. N?aaee ac?ineiai
ianaeaiey ie. 52% aeaaeatho a?aiioie. Iao/aiea a oeiea iaycaoaeueii aeey
aeaoae a aic?anoa io 6 aei 12 eao. O/aaa a oieaa?neoaoao aanieaoiay. E
1991 ana aac eneeth/aiey aeaoe iieo/aee ia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea (a 1970 –
72%). A 1995 a n?aaeieo oeieao iao/aeinue 74% aeaoae niioaaonoaothuaai
aic?anoa. Aeey i?iaeieaeaiey o/aau iinea ieii/aiey ia/aeueiie oeieu
o/aueeny aeieaeai oniaoii i?ieoe /a?ac nenoaio neiaeiuo yecaiaiia. Eeoue
ieiei iieiaeiu auioneieeia ia/aeueiie oeieu i?iaeieaeatho iao/aiea a
n?aaeiae oeiea. Aua iaiueoaa /enei iieiaeaaee iinooiaao a oieaa?neoaou.
A 14 ainoaea?noaaiiuo oieaa?neoaoao iao/athony aieaa 700 oun.
nooaeaioia. E?iia oiai, aeaenoaotho Aia?eeaineee oieaa?neoao a Eae?a,
iniiaaiiue i?anaeoa?eaineeie ienneiia?aie, e Aeaaeaiey anoanoaaiiuo iaoe
e oaoiieiaee.

E?oiiaeoea oieaa?neoaou – Eae?neee, Aei-Oaia, Aeaenaiae?eeneee e
ionoeueiaineee aeue-Acoa?. Iineaaeiee iniiaai a 10 a. e yaeyaony iaeiei
ec noa?aeoeo a ie?a ionoeueiaineeo oieaa?neoaoia. Ia?aui nia?aiaiiui
naaoneei oieaa?neoaoii Aaeioa yaeyaony iniiaaiiue a 1907 Eae?neee
oieaa?neoao. Ia?yaeo n ainoaea?noaaiiuie oieaa?neoaoaie a no?aia
eiathony aeanyoee iaaeaaiae/aneeo, oaoie/aneeo, eiiia?/aneeo e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. A 1996 ioe?uee aeaa?e
/aou?a /anoiuo oieaa?neoaoa.

Ca?iaeaeaiea nia?aiaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. Aaeiao yaeyaony oeaio?ii
aic?iaeaeaiey o?aaeeoeee a?aaneie eeoa?aoo?u. A eiioea 19 a.
eiiea?aiou-o?enoeaia ec Eeaaia caiyeenue a Eae?a ecaeaieai aacao e
aeo?iaeia. ?aoi?ie?iaaiea eneaia, i?iaeaiu
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, naeoey?eci, eeoa?aoo?iay
e?eoeea, iiaua ioe?uoey a iaoea, – ianoaeaeaiea anao yoeo aeooaeueiuo
oai iaoiaeeei naia ianoi ia no?aieoeao iiaie i?annu.

I?anna. Noa?aeoay aacaoa Aaeioa, auoiaeyuay aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie,
«Aeue-Ao?ai» («Ie?aieaeu», oe?aae ie. 900 oun. yec.), auea iniiaaia a
1875 a Aeaenaiae?ee. A 20 a. iia i?aa?aoeeanue a aaaeouoth aacaoo anaai
a?aaneiai ie?a. A 1950–1960-a aiaeu aa aeaaiue ?aaeaeoi? Iooaiiaae
Oanaiaei Oaeeae iieueciaaeny aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth eae aaoi?eoaoiue
iieeoee e /aeiaae, aeeceee e Aaaeaeue Iana?o. I?e Aaaeaeue Iana?a e
Naaeaoa inouanoaeyeanue aeanoeay oeaico?a i?annu, eioi?ay auea ineaaeaia
n i?eoiaeii e aeanoe Ioaa?aea. I?anna iieueciaaeanue aieueoae noaiaiueth
naiaiaeu, /ai a ae?oaeo a?aaneeo ainoaea?noaao. Aaeaaeiaaiua
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua aacaou Aaeioa ecaeathony aieueoeie oe?aaeaie:
«Aeue-Aoioo?ey» («?anioaeeea», 650 oun.), «Aeue-Aoaa?» («Iiainoe», 980
oun.). O?e aaaeouea aacaou eiatho oaeaea aaeaiaaeaeueiua auionee.
Aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth iieuecothony iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneee e
eeoa?aoo?iue aaeaiaaeaeueiee «?ic yeue-THnao» (auoiaeeo n 1925),
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee aaeaiaaeaeueiee «Aeue-Ionaaaa?»
(«Eeethno?e?iaaiiue») e aeaa eneaineeo aaeaiaaeaeueieea – «Aeue-Aeaaaa»
(«I?ecua») e «Aeue-Eoenai» («Noieeinoue»). Ana iieeoe/aneea ia?oee
eiatho naie aaeaiaaeaeueiua ecaeaiey.

Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a. Ia?aua nia?aiaiiua a?aaneea iiaanoe e
?iiaiu auee iioaeeeiaaiu a Aaeioa iinea 1914. E 1940-i aiaeai ?iiai noae
iiioey?iui aeai?ii aaeiaoneie eeoa?aoo?u. A 1945–1967 ia eeoa?aoo?iii
iaaineeiia ia oieueei Aaeioa, ii e anaai a?aaneiai ie?a aeenoaee eiaia
oaeeo aaeiaoneeo ianoa?ia a aeai?a ?anneaca e ?iiaia, eae Iaaea Iaoooc
(?. 1911), Aaae a?-?aoiai Oa?eaoe (ao-Oa?eaae, 1921–1987) e THnoo Eae?en
(1927–1991). A naiii ecaanoiii eeoa?aoo?iii i?iecaaaeaiee Iaoooca,
auoaaeoai a 1956–1957, – o?eeiaee Aaei aeue-Ean?aei, Ean? ao-Oioe e
An-Noeea?eea (iacaaiey noa?uo eaa?oaeia Eae?a), – iienuaaaony aeeciue
o?ao iieieaiee naiuee eae?neiai eoioea Aaae aeue-Aaaaaaea a ia?eiae
iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?iauie aieiaie. A iioaeeeiaaiiie Oa?eaoe a 1954 iiaanoe
Caiey iienaia aeeciue e?anoueyineie aaaeiiou e aa ai?ueaa ca
/aeiaa/aneia aeinoieinoai. I?eciaiiui iiaaeenoii yaeyaony THnoo Eae?en.
Ai iiiaeo aai i?iecaaaeaieyo aieiaiea aeoeaioe?oaony ia nioeeaeueiuo e
naenoaeueiuo oaao eneaineiai iauanoaa. Aei neo ii? i?iecaaaeaiey
eeoa?aoo?iuo ianoa?ia iineaaiaiiiai Aaeioa iieuecothony iiioey?iinoueth.
Ia niaio ei i?eoei iiaia iieieaiea aaeiaoneeo ienaoaeae, oaeeo, eae
Niiaeea Ea?aaei (?. 1937), ?anneac eioi?iai Caiao yoiai i?e i?aaeaiee
Aaaeaeue Iana?a aue cai?auai ca e?eoeeo ?aaeeia, e ssouey ao-Oaoa?
Aaaeaeea (1942–1981), ?acei e?eoeeiaaaoee o?aaeeoeeiiaeeci aea?aaaineie
aeecie Aa?oiaai Aaeioa.

N 1870-o aiaeia a no?aia ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny oaao?aeueiia eneonnoai,
ia noeaia noaayony a?aaneea iueanu. Aeaa aaaeoueo aaeiaoneeo ae?aiaoo?aa
20 a. – Oonaei Oaaoee aeue-Oaeei (1898–1987) e Iooaiiaae Oaeio?
(1892–1921). A 1960-a aiaeu iniaie iiioey?iinoueth iieueciaaeenue
ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey, nicaeaiiua ii eaiiiai aa?iiaeneie
ae?aiaoo?aee. Oaaoee aeue-Oaeei, THnoo Eae?en e Ioaiai Aoo? (1922–1987)
yaeythony aaoi?aie naoe?e/aneeo e neiaiee/aneeo iuean ia ?acaiai?iii
aaeiaoneii aeeaeaeoa a?aaneiai ycuea.

Oaaoee aeue-Oaeei ecaanoai oaeaea eae ?iiaieno e iiyo. Aai ?iiai i
niauoeyo ?aaiethoeee 1919 Aica?auaiea aeooa (1933) aue iaeiie ec
ethaeiuo eiea Iana?a. Iaeeaeaiiua aeeneonnee aucaaei iieeoe/aneia ynna
Oaaoeea aeue-Oaeeia Aica?auaiea iiieiaiey (1974), eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyei
niaie iaeio ec ia?auo ioaeeeaoeee, niaea?aeaueo e?eoeeo ioeaie Aaaeaeue
Iana?a.

 Iocae e aeaeeioaee. Iniiaaiiue a 1863 o?aioeocneei a?oaieiaii Iathnoii
Ia?eaoii Aaeiaoneee iocae a Eae?a ?aniieaaaao iaoe?iie eieeaeoeeae
iaiyoieeia yiioe oa?aiiia, aeeth/ay nie?iaeua ec a?iaieoeu Oooaioaiiia.
A Iocaa eneaineiai eneonnoaa a Eae?a (iniiaai a 1880) nia?aia
oieeaeueiay eieeaeoeey. A Eiioneii iocaa a Eae?a o?aieony naiia e?oiiia
nia?aiea i?aaeiaoia eoeueoo?u eiioia, aeeth/ay aaeeeieaiiua ia?acoeu
oeaiae. E 1903 ioiineony iniiaaiea a Aeaenaiae?ee Iocay a?aei-?eineeo
ae?aaiinoae. Iiiaea aai yeniiiaou auee iaia?oaeaiu ai a?aiy
a?oaieiae/aneeo ?aneiiie ia oa??eoi?ee naiiai ai?iaea. Iaoeeiiaeueiay
aeaeeioaea Aaeioa (Aea? aeue-Eoooa), nicaeaiiay eae aeaeeioaea
aaeiaoneeo oaaeeaia (oo?aoeeeo i?aaeoaeae) a 1870, ?aniieaaaao aieaa 1,5
iei. aaeeieoe eiea, ?oeiienae, ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee, iee?ioeeueiia.
Ieiei 60% oiiaeia aeaeeioaee – ia a?aaneii ycuea, 25% – ia aiaeeeneii,
inoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaaiii ia ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo ycueao. Iiaeeeiiui
nie?iaeuai aeaeeioaee yaeyaony oieeaeueiia nia?aiea ec 58 oun. ?aaeeeo
eneaineeo ?oeiienae. A eneaineii oeaio?a aeue-Acoa? nia?aia aiaaoay
aeaeeioaea ii eneaienoeea, ian/eouaathuay 22 oun. ?oeiieniuo ecaeaiee.

Iao/iua o/?aaeaeaiey. A no?aia ooieoeeiie?otho i?eia?ii 30
iaoeeiiaeueiuo e eiino?aiiuo iao/iuo iauanoa e ie. 20 aaeiaoneeo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooia, caieiathueony ananoi?iiiei eco/aieai
?acee/iuo aniaeoia aeecie ae?aaiaai e nia?aiaiiiai Aaeioa. Anaie?ii
ecaanoiu oaeea iao/iua oeaio?u, eae Aaeiaoneia iao/iia iauanoai
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiieee, noaoenoeee e th?eni?oaeaioeee, Aaia?aoe/aneia
iauanoai Aaeioa, O?aioeocneee einoeooo a?oaieiaee Ainoiea e Aia?eeaineee
enneaaeiaaoaeueneee oeaio? a Aaeioa.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a iao/iie aeecie no?aiu ea?atho oaeaea Oeaio?
iieeoe/aneeo e no?aoaae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee Aeue-Ao?ai, Eae?neee
einoeooo ii eco/aieth i?iaeai i?aa /aeiaaea, Oeaio? eiaie Eai Oaeueaeoia
ii eco/aieth i?iaeai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, Oeaio? enneaaeiaaiee e
iao/aiey Aeue-Ieoeao, Oeaio? ii eco/aieth aeieoiaioaoeee, yeiiiieee e
i?aaa, Oeaio? ii eco/aieth ?acaeaathueony no?ai i?e Eae?neii
oieaa?neoaoa.

?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiea e eeiaiaoia?ao. Aaeiaoneea n?aaenoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee iieuecothony ia?iiiui aeeyieai e iiioey?iinoueth ai anai
a?aaneii ie?a. A 1950–1960-o aiaeao aaeiaoneay ?aaeeinoaioeey «Aiein
a?aaia» noaea i?iaiaeieeii eaeae Iana?a ia a?aaneii aaeeinoaa e a?aaneii
nioeeaeecia. ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiea i?eiaaeeaaeao ainoaea?noao. A
na?aaeeia 1990-o aiaeia a no?aia aaee ia?aaea/e ie. 60 ?aaeeinoaioeee e
aeaenoaiaaee ie. 50 oaeaaeceiiiuo eaiaeia.

Aaaeouei aaeiaoneei eeii?aaeenna?ii yaeyaony THnoo Oaoei. Aoaeo/e a
ia/aea naiae ea?uea?u noi?iiieeii nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?aaeecia, ii
ye?aiece?iaae iiaanoue Oa?eaoe Caiey, a oeeueia Noaioeey Eae? iieacae
aeeciue ai?iaeneie aaaeiiou, a a oeeueia Aeaeaieey ainiae ai?ueao
aeaee?neiai ia?iaea ca iacaaeneiinoue. Iineaaeiea oeeueiu ianoa?a –
Ioeoeu e I?iuae, Aiiaia?o iaiaa i?yiieeiaeiu. Ecaanoiu ?aaiou oaeeo
eeii?aaeenna?ia, eae Oai?e Aa?aeao, Iooaiiaae Oai, Naeao Aao Naeo e Aoao
Yeue-Oaeea.

Nii?o. Naiue iiioey?iue aeae nii?oa a Aaeioa – oooaie. Iaeaieaa
neeueiuie n/eoathony eae?neea oooaieueiua eiiaiaeu «Aoee» e «Caiaeae».

I?acaeieee. Iniiaiua aaeiaoneea i?acaeieee iinyo ?aeeaeiciue oa?aeoa?.
Eiaaea ianooiaao eae aeue-oeo?, «iaeue i?acaeiee», aaeioyia o?aoaeiaaiui
canoieueai ioia/atho ieii/aiea iinoa a eoiiii ianyoea ?aiaaeai. Eae
aeue-aaeoa, «aieueoie i?acaeiee», ciaiaioaony /aou?aoaeiaaiui canoieueai
ai a?aiy aaeaaiaeiiai oaaeaea ionoeueiai a Iaeeo. E?ani/iua i?ioeannee a
Eae?a i?ioiaeyo ai a?aiy iaoethaea – aeiy ?iaeaeaiey i?i?iea Iooaiiaaea.
E iniiaiui eiioneei i?acaeieeai ioiinyony ?iaeaeanoai (7 yiaa?y),
E?auaiea (19 yiaa?y), Aeaaiaauaiea (23 ia?oa) e Ianoa. Iiioey?iue
aanaiiee i?acaeiee oaii yi-ianei ioia/aaony a ia?aue iiiaaeaeueiee iinea
Ianoe. Ii nio?aieeny aua ni a?aiai oa?aiiia e, aoaeo/e iauei i?acaeieeii
aeey ionoeueiai e eiioia, neiaieece?oao iaoeeiiaeueiia aaeeinoai Aaeioa.
Ioeoeeaeueiua i?acaeieee: 18 ethiy – Aeaiue ?anioaeeee e Aeaiue
iacaaeneiinoe, 23 ethey – Aeaiue ?aaiethoeee (1952, iaoeeiiaeueiue
i?acaeiee), 6 ieoya?y – Aeaiue oi?ne?iaaiey (i?aiaeieaiea Noyoeeiai
eaiaea aaeiaoneeie aieneaie ai a?aiy aieiu a 1973), 23 aeaeaa?y – Aeaiue
iiaaaeu (yaaeoaoeey aiaei-o?aioeocneeo aiene ec ciiu Ii?o-Naeaea a
1956).

AeINOII?EIA*AOAEUeIINOE

Any oa??eoi?ey no?aiu eciaeeoao aanoeaiiui ianeaaeeai Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa.

Ie?aieaeu – aeceoiay ea?oi/ea Aaeioa, eo caeanue aieueoa nioie, naiuo
?aciiia?aciuo oi?i e ?acia?ia. Yoe “/oaeana naaoa” ai a?aiaia oa?aiiia
i?aaenoaaeyee niaie oeaeua eiiieaenu aeaaioneeo o?aiiauo nii?oaeaiee,
iuoii oe?aoaiiuo noaooyie, iaaeeneaie, noeienaie, aa?aeueaoaie e
ianoaiiuie ?inienyie.

Ainaiaeue aaeeeeo ie?aieae Aecu, ninoiyuee ec o?ao naiuo aunieeo a
Aaeioa ie?aieae. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiay e ecaanoiay ec ieo – Ie?aieaea
Oaiina (aa no?ieoaeuenoai caeii/aii ieiei 2590 a. aei i.y.). Aoi?ay ii
aaee/eia ie?aieaea – Oao?aia, iino?iaiiay ia 40 eao iicaea ia?aie.
Aiaoia eaaeaony, /oi iia aeaaea aieueoa, /ai ie?aieaea Oaiina, ii ia
naiii aeaea iia iaiiiai iaiueoa. Caaa?oaao ainaiaeue ie?aieaea Ieea?eia.
?yaeii n ieie ?aniieiaeai eiiieaen ec ianeieueeeo iaeaiueeeo ie?aieae,
aaea iia?aaaiu aeaiu oa?aiiia, a oaeaea a?iaieoeu ae?aoeia e e?oiiuo
/eiiaieeia.

Aieueoie Noeien, au?oaeaiiue, eae e aieueoeinoai eieinnaeueiuo noaooe
Aecu, ec oeaeueiie neaeu. N/eoaaony, /oi noeien aue iino?iai ai a?aiy
no?ieoaeuenoaa ie?aieaeu Oao?aia, a aai eeoei (ii/oe oie/oiaeaiiia
iaietheaie e yae?aie iaiieaiiianeeo a?oeeea?enoia) iineo /a?ou eiaiii
yoiai oa?aiia, a?aoa e ianeaaeieea Oaiina. Eaaeaeue aa/a? o iiaeiiaeey
ie?aieae i?ioiaeeo e?ani/iia naaoiiocueaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea “Caoe e
naao”.

Naeea?a – iae?iiieue Iaioena, ia?aie noieeoeu Aaeioa. Caeanue iaoiaeyony
aeanyoee n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeo a?iaieoe, ie?aieae e o?aiia.
Ciaiaieoui yoi ianoi naeaeaea oieeaeueiay nooiai/aoay ie?aieaea
Aeaeina?a, naiay ae?aaiyy ec aaeiaoneeo ie?aieae. E niaeaeaieth, io
naiiai Iaioena, i?ioeaaoaaoaai o?e ouny/aeaoey, i?aeoe/anee ie/aai ia
inoaeinue. Ii caaoaoue nthaea ana aea noieo. Oioy au aeey oiai, /oiau
iiniio?aoue 20-iao?iaoth noaooth ?aicana II a niaoeeaeueii aeey iaa
iino?iaiiii iaaeeueiia, eee oaeaeaoue ianoiiai noeiena, eaaeouaainy
e?ioioiui ii n?aaiaieth n eieinnii Aecu, eee /oiau i?inoi iiauaaoue a
oii ianoa, ioeoaea ia/aeanue yoa aaeeeay oeeaeeecaoeey.

Eae? – naiue aieueoie ai?iae ao?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa, ai?iae “ouny/e
ieia?aoia”, “Ai?ioa Ainoiea”. A ?aciua ia?eiaeu naiae enoi?ee ai?iae
iinee aeaa a?iieeo eiaie: Yeue-Eaoe?a (Iiaaaeeoaeue) e Oii-yae-Aeoiaeaea
(Iaoue ie?a). N?aaee ae?aaieo aaeioyi aeaaea oiaeeee eaaaiaeu i oii,
aoaeoi eiaiii caeanue i?iecioea aeoaa iaaeaeo a?aoueyie-aiaaie Oi?ii e
Naoii. Nia?aiaiiue Eae? – yoi “ai?iae, eioi?ue ieeiaaea ia nieo”, iaeei
ec naiuo ae?oaeaethaiuo, aaciianiuo e niieieiuo ai?iaeia Ao?eee. E?iia
oiai, yoi ai?iae nioai e nioai a?oeoaeoo?iuo iaiyoieeia, iocaaa e eiuo
aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoae: caeanue iaoiaeyony ciaiaieoay Oeeoaaeaeue
Naeeaaeeia, ?aeii “noa?ue Eae?”, aaeo?iua ieia?aou ia/aoue Iioaiiaaea
Aee eee ia/aoe Noeoaia Eaeaoia, aeaaioneee aeaaaeoe io Ieea e
Oeeoaaeaee, aaoiy Aaeo-aeue-Naiia? e caeaiea noa?aeoaai a?aaneiai
oieaa?neoaoa Aeue-Aca?, oieeaeueiue Aaeiaoneee iocae, aeeceaaeauea o?aiu
Eoeni?a e Ea?iaea.

Aaeiaoneee iocae (ia?aaeei iacuaaaiue iii?inoo Eae?neei iocaai) –
aeaaiia ie?iaia o?aieeeua aaeiaoneeo ae?aaiinoae, aa?iyoii,
aaeeinoaaiiia a ie?a ooaeiaeanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneia nia?aiea, aaea aeaaea
naiua iieiaeua yeniiiaou ian/eouaatho ieiei 2 ouny/ eao.

THaaee?iay e iaie?oniay oaa?eee, Iocae ia?othia?ee n ieeeeiiii /a?othueo
caiaoia, a oaeaea Aeaaano?iaay ia/aoue, eoaea ioe?uo aeinooi aeaaea aeey
ia-ionoeueiai – ioee/iua iauaeou aeey yeneo?nee.

?aianeaiiue aaca? Oai-yeue-Oaeeee – naiue aieueoie aaca? ia Ainoiea,
ieiuaaeueth 5 ei2. Eoieoue caeanue iiaeii i?aeoe/anee ana, aeaaea
iaaieueieoe, ii naiia aeaaiia – caeanue iiaeii n aieiaie iia?oceoueny a
ainoi/ioth yecioeeo n aa iaaiia?aceiie eooa?ueiie e iiiaiia?aceai.

O?aiu a Aao-Neiaaea. ?ainan II i?eeacae nii?oaeeoue caeanue aieueoie
o?ai a iciaiaiiaaiea aai iiaaaeu iaae oaooaie. Auee ecaioiaeaiu /aou?a
ia?iiiua noaooe, a eioi?uo aini?iecaaaeai ii nai, n oeuaeie niio?yuee a
ionouith. Eaaeaeue ec eieinnia aunioie ieiei 20 iao?ia ie?oaeai
iiiai/eneaiiuie iaiueoeie oeao?aie, ecia?aaeathueie /eaiia aai aieueoie
naiuee e aeaoae, eioi?uo o iaai auei aieaa 200.

Eoeni? – iaaieueoie ai?iae ia i?aaii aa?aao Ieea. Eiaaea-oi ia aai ianoa
iaoiaeeeanue ciaiaieoay noieeoea Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa, eioi?oth aaeioyia
iacuaaee Oanao, a?aee – Oeau, a a?aau – aeue-Oeno? (aeai?oeu). A ie?a
iao ae?oaiai ai?iaea, aaea auei au nin?aaeioi/aii oaeia ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai ae?aaieo iaiyoieeia – ii/oe o?aoue anao enoi?e/aneeo
?aeeeaee, anaie?iue oeaio? a?oaieiaee. Ae?aaiea iino?ieee ia i?aaii
aa?aao Ieea iacuaathony “Ai?iaeii aeeauo”, caeanue i?iaeeaaei aai
ianaeaiea, a ia eaaii – “Ai?iaeii ia?oauo”, caeanue iaoiaeeeenue
oea?neay ?aceaeaioeey e ia?iiiue iae?iiieue, iia?aaaeueiua o?aiu e
a?iaieoeu, ?aniieiaeaiiua a aioeoaao?a neae, iaae eioi?uie aicauoaaony
Aeaoaiao – “Caiaaeiay aa?oeia” (nae/an yeue-Eo?i).

Anoaineay ieioeia (Naaeae yeue-Aee). Yoi oieeaeueiia aeaaioneia
nii?oaeaiea aunioie 111 iao?ia, aeeeiie 3,8 ei e oe?eiie 1 ei /anoi
iacuaatho “ie?aieaeie OO aaea”. Ieioeia nicaeaea aeaaioneia
aiaeio?aieeeua, iaeii ec naiuo aieueoeo eneonnoaaiiuo ica? ie?a

Oa?inneee (Aeaenaiae?eeneee) iaye, naao eioi?iai aue aeaeai ia
?annoiyiee aei 30 ieeue io aa?aaa – iaeii ec naie /oaean naaoa aioe/iiai
ie?a. Aue ?ac?ooai a XIV aaea neeueiui caieao?ynaieai. A oii naiii
ianoa, aaea ii eiaaea-oi aicauoaeny, a XV aaea noeoai Ao?ao iino?iee
iiuioth e?aiinoue n e?oaeuie aaoiyie e auoiaeyueie ia ii?a aieieoeaie –
oi?o Eaeo-Aae.

Ae?aaiea eaoaeiiau Eii ao-Oaaeaoa (I-II aaea i.y.) ?aniieiaeaiu a o?e
yoaaea (aeaa ieaeieo caeeou aiaeie), e?oiiaeoaa iiaecaiiia caoi?iiaiea a
Aaeioa, a ieaie?iaea eioi?iai i?ineaaeeaathony yeaiaiou aaeiaoneiai,
a?a/aneiai e ?eineiai noeeae.

Aeieeia ioiee – iae?iiieue, iaeaeaiiue a 1997 aiaeo neo/aeii a iacena
Aaoa?ey a aaeiaoneie Caiaaeiie ionouia. Caeanue iaoiaeeony 11 oi?ioi
nio?aieaoeony ioiee, aic?ano eioi?uo ian/eouaaao ieiei 1800 eao.

Ai?a Neiaeneay (Ai?a Caeiia, Aaaaeue-Iona eee ai?a Iienay) aunioie 2285
iao?ia. Ia aa?oeia ai?u, niaeanii i?aaeaieth, ainiiaeue a?o/ee Iienath
eaiaiiua ne?eaeaee aa?u ni ciaiaieouie aeanyoueth caiiaaaeyie. Ia
aa?oeio aaaeoo aeaa o?iieiee: iaeia ei?ioeay, ii e?ooay, ae?oaay aieaa
iieiaay, ii e aieaa aeeeiiay. Iaiiaeaeaeo io aa?oeiu, aaea noieo /aniaiy
iiianou?y Na. Aeaoa?eiu, iie niaaeeiythony – caeanue ia/eiaaony
au?oaeaiiay iiiaoaie a neaea eanoieoea ec 3400 nooiaiae, eioi?oth
i?eoiaeeony i?aiaeieaaaoue iaeiiieeai (iiaeii yoi naeaeaoue e aa?oii ia
aa?aethaea, ii yoi i?aaei?eyoea ia aeey neaaiia?aiuo). Eaaeaeoth ii/ue
aeanyoee iaeiiieeia ec ?aciuo no?ai ie?a iiaeieiathony io iiianou?y ia
ai?o Iienay, /oiau ano?aoeoue ?annaao.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020