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Геоэкологическая ситуация Крыма

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AAIYEIEIAE*ANEAss NEOOAOeEss A E?UIO

A nia?aiaiiuo ?aaioao ii ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaea noi?ioee?iaaiu
iieiaeaiey /?acau/aeiie aaaeiinoe, iicaieythuea onoaiiaeoue i?aaeaeueii
aeiionoeiua o?iaie aio?iiiaaiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey aeinoa?u. ?a/ue eaeao i
?aaioao TH. Iaeoia, A. A. Ai?oeiaa, I. O. ?aeia?na e ?yaea ae?oaeo
o/aiuo. A ieo onoaiaaeeaaaony, ai-ia?auo, iioeiaeueiia oa??eoi?eaeueiia
niioiioaiea i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia e ?acee/iuo aeaeia
i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo nenoai (niioaaonoaaiii 60% e 40%), ai-aoi?uo,
ii?aaeaeaii i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiia iio?aaeaiea ia?ae/iie aeieiae/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee ia o?iaia 1%. Yoio o?iaaiue aue i?ieaeai /aeiaa/anoaii aua a
ia/aea aaea, e nae/an iii iio?aaeyao, ii ?aciui ioeaieai, io 10 aei 30%
ia?ae/iie aeieiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, eaeoo aeoeaiua
i?ioeannu ia?ooaiey aeinoa?iuo naycae, e aeiaaioeaiicu ec nenoai,
noaaeeece?othueo yeieiae/aneoth neooaoeeth, i?aa?auathony a nenoaiu,
aeanoaaeeece?othuea aa. Oa??eoi?eaeueiia niioiioaiea eaiaeoaooia ?aciuo
oeiia oaeaea ia?ooaii. Iniaaiii o?aaiaeii iieiaeaiea n eanaie, a
/anoiinoe n o?iie/aneeie. Aeaeueiaeoaa oiaiueoaiea eo ieiuaaee /?aaaoi
iaia?aoeiuie iaaeaaii?eyoiuie eciaiaieyie a nenoaia ie?iaiai aaeaina
naii?aaoeyoeee aeinoa?u.

Ieaiaoa?iay neooaoeey anoue eioaa?aeueiay noiia neooaoeee a ?aaeiiao,
iiyoiio aiaeec i?ioeannia a ?aaeiiao yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
iiieiaiey yaeaiee a aeinoa?a a oeaeii. A yoii niunea i?aaenoaaeyao
eneeth/eoaeueiue eioa?an neooaoeey a E?uio.

I?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea a E?uio ianiaa?oaiii e aiineo naie iaaaoeaiue
aeeaae a aeanoaaeeecaoeeth aeinoa?u. Io?aiyaiua oa??eoi?ee a E?uio
caieiatho 4% oa??eoi?ee, /oi iaiueoa, /ai ?aeiiaiaeoaony niaoeeaeenoaie
– i?eia?ii 10%. E i?e?iaeiui eaiaeoaooai iiaeii ioianoe eeoue 25-30%
oa??eoi?ee, i?e/ai i?aeoe/anee ana iie aoi?e/iua. 10% ec ieo
i?aaenoaaeaiu eanaie (ec ieo eeoue e?aeia iaeay /anoue eiaao ia?ae/iia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea), 13% – noaiiuie, iaaaeiaiiuie ec-ca auiana
niiauanoaaie, e 7% – aaeioeoiuie eoaaie I?eneaaouey, i?aeoe/anee ia
i?eaiaeiuie aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey. Ii/oe 50%
oa??eoi?ee E?uia ?aniaoaii, a anaai naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie oaiaeueyie
caiyoi i?eia?ii 70% ieiuaaeae.

Aiaeec neooaoeee a E?uio ia iiaeao auoue i?iaeoeoeaiui aac aiaeeca
oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo oneiaee ?aaeiia. Aaaeouei iiiaioii i?e yoii
yaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii aieueoay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee,
i?iyaeythuayny ia ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoie ieiuaaee – 27000 ei2.
Aieueoia i?e?iaeiia ?aciiia?acea ?aaeiia naycaii ni iiiaeie i?e/eiaie.

A E?uio neiaeiay iaeaiaaia?aoey (o?aina?annee e ?aa?annee ii?y,
eciaiaiea i/a?oaiee e ieiuaaee ?aaeiia, ai?iia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu,
ieaaeaiaiea, acaeiiaeaenoaea n oei?ie e oaoiie iiiaeo aeiaaia?aoe/aneeo
iaeanoae, eieaaaiey e eciaiaiey eeeiaoa e ae?.).

Iaeiei ec neaaenoaee yoiai yaeyaony aieueoia ?aciiia?acea
aaieiai-aaiii?oieiae/aneeo oneiaee: a i?aaeaeao iieoino?iaa ano?a/athony
ii?iaeu ianeieueeeo aaieiae/aneeo oi?iaoeee, aeanyoee eeoieiae/aneeo
eiiieaenia, iieoi?a aeanyoea oeiia ?aeueaoa, iiiaeanoai
no?aoea?aoe/aneeo eiiieaenia. Nouanoaaiii aeeyiea ia i?e?iaeo ieacuaaao
ea?no (i?aeoe/anee iianaianoii ?ani?ino?aiai a ai?iii E?uio),
oaeoiie/aneay ?acae?iaeaiiinoue ai?iiai nii?oaeaiey.

Iiiaea iniaaiiinoe E?uia auoaeatho ec aai aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey: a
oeaio?a aeiea o?ao iaoa?eeia Acey – Ao?eea – Aa?iia, ie?oaeaiiue ii?yie
e ii/oe ino?ia, ia eiioaeoa oia?aiiiai e noao?iie/aneiai iiynia, i?e
ia?aoiaea io ieaaie/aneiai eeeiaoa e eiioeiaioaeueiiio; oaeoe/anee
aainenoaiu E?uia eiatho oa?aeoa? yeioiiia ?aciiai o?iaiy.

Oe?ioiia iieiaeaiea e iieiaeaiea E?uia a iauae oee?eoeyoeee aoiinoa?u
i?e iaee/ee E?uineeo ai? e naycaiiuo n ieie iiceoeeiiiuo yooaeoia
ii?aaeaeyao iaee/ea o?ao oeiia eeeiaoa: nooiai
oia?aiii-eiioeiaioaeueiiai ?aaieiii-noaiiiai, oia?aiii-aeaaeiiai
i?ioeaaeiiai ai?ii-eaniiai e noan?aaeecaiiiii?neiai oeaeyeiaiai
thaeiiaa?aaeiiai. Ia yoii oiia oa?aeoa? ?aeueaoa (iaciyeniiceoeee,
eioeiaeiiua yooaeou, aunioiay iiyniinoue), acaeiiaeaenoaea ii?y, ai? e
?aaiei, oi?ie?iaaiea ianoiuo oee?eoeyoeee (ai?ii-aeieeiiua aao?u, oai,
ai?iiiaeiaiua iioiee) i?eaiaeyo e oi?ie?iaaieth i?eia?ii 20 oeiia
ianoiiai eeeiaoa. Niaoeeoeea aioo?eaiaeiaiai oiaea iaoai?ieiae/aneeo
yeaiaioia caeeth/aaony a iyaeie ceia aac /aoei au?aaeaiiiai ia?eiaea
io?eoeaoaeueiuo oaiia?aoo? e a iaee/ee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai nooiai
aea?eiai eaoiaai ia?eiaea. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue e aieueooth
iaaeaiaeiaoth eciai/eainoue iiaiaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee.

Aanueia ?aciiia?aciu aeae?ieiae/aneea yeaiaiou: iiaecaiiua aiaeu
ianeieueeeo ai?eciioia, ?aee ianeieueeeo oeiia ii?oieiaee aannaeia e
i?iaeieueiiai i?ioeey, ica?a e i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu *a?iiai e Acianeiai
ii?ae (n ?aciui i?ioeeai aeia e nenoaiaie i?ea?aaeiie oee?eoeyoeee);
iinooieaiea aiae Naaa?i-E?uineiai eaiaea (80% ?ano?nia i?aniuo aiae
?aaeiia) i?eaaei e ea?aeeiaeueiiio eciaiaieth aeae?ieiae/aneiai ?aaeeia
ia 1/5 oa??eoi?ee iieoino?iaa;

Ii/aa, yaeyynue “ca?eaeii eaiaeoaooa”, io?aaeaao anth aaiio ?aciiia?acey
i?e?iaeiuo eiiiiiaioia, /oi au?aaeaaony a iaee/ee 8 oeiia ii/a,
iiiaeanoaa ?iaeia e ?aciiaeaeiinoae (Ae?aaai, 1983).

– eaiaeoaooiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey E?uia (Iiaeai?iaeaoeeee, 1987)
i?iyaeyaony a iaee/ee /aou?ao eaiaeoaooiuo o?iaiae (aeae?iii?oiue,
ieaei?iue, i?aaeai?iue e n?aaeiaai?iue), 8 eaiaeoaooiuo cii (ciia
aeae?iii?oiay ia ae?aie?iaaiiay iieoionouiiuo noaiae, aeae?iii?oiay
ae?aie?iaaiiay, nooinoaiiay, ieaei?iay iaaaeiaiii-?aciio?aaiuo noaiae,
eaninoaiiay, oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania, ai?ii-eoaiaay, oeaeyeiaay
thaeiiaa?aaeiay), 17 eaiaeoaooiue iiynia, 132 a?oii oeiia ianoiinoae. A
niioaaonoaee n oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneei ?aeiie?iaaieai a E?uio a E?uio
auaeaeythony aeaa i?iaeioeee (?aaieiiay noaiiay e ai?iay), 7
oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo iaeanoae e 23 oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo ?aeiia.
I?aeoe/anee ana eaiaeoaooiua nenoaiu i?aia?aciaaiu /aeiaaeii.

A E?uio aeinoaoi/ii yanoaaiii i?iyaeythony iiceoeeiiiua yooaeou:
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ai?iie /anoe n caiaaea ia ainoie, ii eeiee “oeaio?
iieoino?iaa – iiaa?aaeuea”.

Neeueii i?aia?aciaaiu ?aee. Iie ca?aaoee?iaaiu, aneaaenoaea /aai
i?e?iaeiue ?aaeei aainenoai aannaeiiaiai oeia cia/eoaeueii eciaiai, /oi
aea/ao ca niaie ia?ano?ieeo y??iceiiii-aeeoioeyoeaiuo i?ioeannia, a
/anoiinoe i?iyaeaiey iaaiaeeia, naeaiiaeiaiuo iioieia.

Aieueoia ?aciiia?acea eaiaeoaooiuo oneiaee, eae e aeeeoaeueiay e
iiiaiia?aciay iaeaiaaia?aoe/aneay enoi?ey, ia iiaee ia neacaoueny ia
aei?aciiia?acee: aeaeiaii, iiioeyoeeiiiii, oeaiioe/aneii,
oeaiioi?e/aneii. Oei?a ?aaeiia aeeth/aao 34 a?aaeiae/aneeo oeia,
i?iec?anoaao a 14 oeiao aeeciaiiie n?aaeu, ioee/aaony aieueoei
aeiii?oieiae/aneei ?aciiia?aceai (Aeeaeoo, 1992; Ei/eei, 1967; Ieoiaa,
1985, 1986), ?aciiia?aceai yeiii?o, cia/eoaeueiui yiaeaieciii (?oaoeia,
1978).

Aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey ia eaiaeoaoou, i?eaaaey e iioa?a neiaeiinoe
(aa?oeeaeueiie, y?oniie) e aeieiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, a oi aea a?aiy
niinianoaiaaee iiyaeaieth ieiei 1000 iiauo ?anoaiee, aaaaeaiiuo a
eoeueoo?o eee neo/aeii caianaiiuo a ?aaeii (?anioaeeeaineee aeieeaae…,
1996).

Aianoa n oai aeioa ia oieueei io?aaeaao eaiaeoaooioth
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth, ii, yaeyynue aeoeaiui acaeiiaeaenoaothuei
eiiiiiaioii eaiaeoaooa, naia aeeyao ia ana eaiaeoaooiua eiiiiiaiou,
oi?ie?oy ?aceea iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea ?acee/ey, aeeooa?aioee?oy
aeae?ieiae/aneee ?aaeei, ?uoeua ioeiaeaiey. Oai naiui eaiaeoaooiua
eiiieaenu a ia iaiueoae noaiaie i?iaeooee?oaony aeioie, /ai aeioa
ii?aaeaeyaony eaiaeoaooiuie oneiaeyie. Iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue aieueooth
?ieue na?eeiuo oeoioeaiicia, eae au ioia?aaeathueo enoi?eth
acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea e eaiaeoaooia (A?othoaiei, 1970,1978).

Iiiaiia?aciu oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea e yeciaaiiua aaieiae/aneea i?ioeannu
a E?uio. ?a/ue eaeao i ?a/iie y?icee e aeeoioeyoeee, iiieciyo, inuiyo,
iaaaeao, ea?noa e noooicee, aao?iaie y?icee, aa?acee e iiiaeo ae?oaeo.
Caoeene?iaaii aieaa 1000 iiieciae, aa?aceiiiua i?ioeannu i?iyaeythony ia
i?ioyaeaiee i?eia?ii 500 ei. THaeiiaa?aaeuea iiaeaa?aeaii caieao?ynaieyi
neeie 8 aaeeia, i?e/ai ia ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao ec-ca iiaeoiieaiey,
oaeo/anoe a?oioia e ?yaea ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia eioaineaiinoue oaeoiie/aneeo
iiaeaeaeae iiaeao aic?anoaoue ia 1,2 – 2 aaeea.

Eaiaeoaooiia e aeiaaioeaiioe/aneia ?aciiia?acea E?uia a i?aaeaeao 27000
ei2 ioeaieaaaony eae ia eiathuaa aiaeiaia a Aa?iia e i?eeaaathueo
?aaeiiao Acee e Ao?eee, /oi o?aaoao o/aoa i?e ieaie?iaaiee ?aciauaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa, a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa (Aia, 1996).

A oie eee eiie noaiaie ?aciiia?acea i?iyaeeinue a neiaeeaoaeny ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue nenoaia oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey oa??eoi?ee.
Aeey ?aaeiia oa?aeoa?iu iiiaii?ioeeueiia caieaaeaeea (ca?iiaua
eoeueoo?u, ieiaeiaiaenoai, aeiia?aaea?noai, yoe?iianee/iua eoeueoo?u,
oaaae, e ae?.), iyni-iiei/iia aeeaioiiaiaenoai i?aeiouanoaaiii
noieeiaiai niaea?aeaiey (a iaiueoae noaiaie ianoaeuiia), oe?iei ?acaeoia
eiina?ae?iaaiea ieiaeia e iaiuae. Aianoa n oai i?iiuoeaiiinoue a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia aiaiiua ioaeaeu e ia auea
naycaia n ?ano?niui iioaioeeaeii ?aaeiia.

?acaeoea oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia?aiia/aeueii auei naycaii n
iaee/eai nu?uey (?aiu ica? e Neaaoa, ecaanoiyeia), ii caoai noaei
iaoneiaeeaaoueny e yooaeoaie neiy?aecia e ioeueoeieeeaoeee, /oi i?eaaei
e iiyaeaieth i?aaei?eyoee ?aaioathueo ia i?eaiciii nu?uea.

Eieeaeoeaecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa (30-a aiaeu), oe?oiiaiea oicyenoa
a 50-60-a aiaeu e ianooaaiia i?ioaiea a 60-70-a aiaeu iaoaai aaea
ii?aaeaeeee oe?oiiaiea naaiiai?ioiuo ianneaia e iieae, /oi i?eaaei e
iaaeinoaoi/iiio o/aoo eiioo?iinoe e eaiaeoaooiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee.
?acia?u iieae ninoaaeytho 100 e aieaa aaeoa?ia. Yoiio aea niinianoaiaaea
eiioeaio?aoeey e niaoeeaeecaoeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Oaeei ia?acii, aoi?ay iieiaeia OO aaea i?ioea iiae ciaeii oiaiueoaiey
aieiaiey e i?e?iaeiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ?aaeiia, /oi, ianiiiaiii,
io?aceeinue ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe oicyenoaa, aa oiaiueoaiee, oioy ec-ca
eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa iu iaaethaeaee eeoue ?ino o?iaeaeiinoe e
i?i/eo yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oaiaeaioeey e aieaa iieiiio o/aoo eaiaeoaooiiai
?aciiia?acey ?aaeiia i?iyaeyaony n iiaie neeie, /oi naycaii n aeaoiy
a?oiiaie i?e/ei.

1. Iiaua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, oi?ie?othueany a i?ino?ainoaa no?ai
NIA, o?aaotho o/aoa ?uii/iuo e?eoa?eaa. Iineaaeiea iniaaiii neeueii
i?iyaeythony a eciaiaiee oeai ia yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu. A ?acoeueoaoa
io/aoeeai i?iyaeythony oaiaeaioeee auaiaea /anoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
caiaeue ec eniieueciaaiey (?a/ue eaeao a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i
iaeii?iaeoeoeaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeueyo) e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aieaa oiieiai o/aoa i?e?iaeiuo naienoa caiaeueiuo o/anoeia.

2. Oooaeoaiea yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee a ie?iaii ianooaaa e i?eciaiea ia
o?iaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aoiaea e
onoie/eaiio ?acaeoeth (sustainable development) aeaeatho iaiaoiaeeiie
aeaoaeecaoeeth aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeiua eiiieaenu,
o/eouaay eo ?acioth onoie/eainoue, anneieeyoeeiiioth aieinoue. Iiyoiio
neaaeoao aeaoaeece?iaaoue aeicu oaeia?aiee e yaeioeieeaoia, aaee/eio
iieeaia. N yoie oeaeueth neaaeoao auyaeoue ana eaiaeoaooiua eiiieaenu
aieioue aei iaeue/aeoeo – oaoeee. Oiaaea a i?aaeaeao eaaeaeiai
eaiaeoaooiiai eiiieaena neaaeoao oi?ie?iaaoue naith nenoaio
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey.

Enoiaey ec neacaiiiai, neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue iaiaoiaeeiinoue
eniieueciaaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ii?i i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ioeaca io oeiiauo
?aoaiee. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiaeoiae (i?e eniieueciaaiee a iaiaoiaeeiuo
neo/ayo e oeiiaiai) iicaieeo ?acei iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Nouanoaothuaa a E?uio niioiioaiea caiaeueiuo oaiaeee yaeyaony
ia?aoeeiiaeueiui iaeiia?aiaiii n yeieiae/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e
nioeeaeueiuo iiceoeee. Ai-ia?auo, iii ia niioaaonoaoao ii?iai (60% ia
40%), i eioi?uo aiai?eeinue auoa: oai naiui E?ui ia aiineo
niioaaonoaothuaai aeeaaea a yeieiae/aneoth noaaeeecaoeeth aeinoa?u, a
oii /enea e a i?iecaiaenoai eenei?iaea. Yeieiae/aneay noaaeeecaoeey
iaaeinoaoi/ii i?iyaeyaony e ia o?iaia ?aaeiia: ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho o/anoeaoeany a iineaaeiea aiaeu iaoanoaey a?aaeeoaeae
eana e iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aieueoaai eiee/anoaa yaeioeieeaoia
aeey iiaeaaeaiey a?aaeeoaeae naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?. A
?acoeueoaoa aicieeaao oeaiue iineaaenoaee: yaeioeieeaou iiaeaaeytho
a?aaeeoaeae e yoei aeinoeaaaony nethieiooiue yooaeo. Iaeiia?aiaiii
iiaeaaeythony e iiiaea ae?oaea aeaeu i?aaieciia a aeioeaiicao, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth ?aaiiaanee e e iiaui aniuoeai /eneaiiinoe
a?aaeeoaeae.

Aieueoea ieiuaaee aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia ii?aaeaeytho e io/aoeeai
i?iyaeythueany oaiaeaioeee oooaeoaiey ea/anoaa iiaa?oiinoiuo e
iiaecaiiuo aiae ?aaeiia.

Yeiiiie/aneay iaoeaeaniia?aciinoue neiaeeaoaeny no?oeoo?u caiaeueiuo
oaiaeee iaoneiaeaia aieueoeie yia?ai- e o?oaeicao?aoaie ia ia?aaioeo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iieae, ieiuaaeue eioi?uo ninoaaeyao ii/oe iieiaeio
oa??eoi?ee E?uia. Aieueoay ieiuaaeue iaoie i?e iaeie e n?aaeiae
o?iaeaeiinoe yaeyaony yeiiiie/anee iaauaiaeiie, a iiauoaiea o?iaeaeiinoe
ca n/ao i?ioaiey (380000 aa eee 14% oa??eoi?ee ?aaeiia) iio?aaiaaei
aeiiieieoaeueiuo yia?aicao?ao (ia ia?aea/eo aiaeu) e nii?iaiaeaeaaony
iiiaeanoaii io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee (iiaeoiieaiea, aeaaoieoeeaoeey,
aoi?e/iia canieaiea, ieeoecaoeey, inieiioeaaaiea e ae?.).

Yeiiiie/aneea aieaa auaiaeiui yaeyaony nie?auaiea ieiuaaee iaoie i?e
oaaee/aiee o?iaeaeiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? ia inoaaoeony
ieiuaaeyo. A yoii neo/aa nie?auathony ?anoiaeu ai?th/a-niaci/iuo
iaoa?eaeia, oiaiueoaaony aii?oecaoeey iaoaieciia.

Neiaeeaoayny nenoaia caiaeueiuo oaiaeee yaeyaony ia?aoeeiiaeueiie e n
nioeeaeueiuo iiceoeee, eai ii?aaeaeyao iaaeinoaoi/ioth ieiuaaeue
?ae?aaoeeiiiuo oaiaeee (/oi iniaaiii y?ei i?iyaeyaony a ?aaieiiie
/anoe), iaoneiaeeaaao iaaunieia ea/anoai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a
iaaunieea yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee i?eaiaeyo e iaaunieiio aeeciaiiiio
o?iaith ethaeae.

Aanueia ianiaa?oaiiie yaeyaony nenoaia io?aiyaiuo oa??eoi?ee – ?a/ue
eaeao ia oieueei ia eo iaeie ieiuaaee, ii e i iai?iaeoiaiiie
oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?a. Nio?aieaoeany anoanoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou
ia?acotho ino?iaa n?aaee aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia. Caiiaaaeieee oaeaea
ino?iaaie ae?aieaiu a ae?oaea oeiu caiaeue.

Ino?iaiia iieiaeaiea caiiaaaeieeia nicaeaao aieueoea i?iaeaiu. A yoeo
ino?iaao aeeeie i?e?iaeu n?aaee i?aia?aciaaiiie i?e?iaeu i?iyaeythony
caeiiu Oeeueie, Aea?eeiaoiia e ae?. – i?ienoiaeeo oooaeoaiea ea/anoa
yeinenoai, ?aciuaaiea no?oeoo? iiioeyoeee, ?anoaeaiea aaiioiiaea ii
ie?oaeathuei oa??eoi?eyi. Neiaeiua yeinenoaiu caiiaaaeieeia oi?iuathony.

I?aaeeaaaaony ?aoaoue yoo i?iaeaio iooai aeeth/aiey caiiaaaeieeia e
ae?oaeo io?aiyaiuo i?e?iaeiuo oa??eoi?ee (IIO) a i?e?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiua
oa??eoi?eaeueiua nenoaiu. IIO aeieaeiu ia?aciauaaoue a ieo iai?a?uaioth
naoue, a eioi?oth aeieaeiu auoue ae?aieaiu i/aae eioaineaiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo. Oi anoue, a yoii neo/aa i?ienoiaeeo
ia?anoaiiaea: aianoi ino?iaia aeeeie i?e?iaeu n?aaee
aio?iiiaaiece?iaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia aoaeoo ino?iaa oaoiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia
n?aaee anoanoaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeieaeia ainiiaenoaiaaoue oaiaeaioeey nicaeaiey
io?aiyaiuo oa??eoi?ee aia yeieiae/aneie no?aoaaee e oa??eoi?eaeueiie
iioeiecaoeee. Iiiaea io?aiyaiua iauaeou eae au au?aaiu ec oa??eoi?ee,
io?aiythony naie ii naaa aac o/aoa ie?oaeaiey (iaiyoieee i?e?iaeu,
ioaeaeueiua aea?aauey, aiaeiiaaeu, neaeu e ae?.).

A oneiaeyo aic?anoathuaai aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey aiai?eoue ia
io?aia a i?yiii, aoeaaeueiii niunea iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ioaeii ni/aoaoue
io?aio eae nio?aiaiea iao?iiooie i?e?iaeu n io?aiie a oiaea
eniieueciaaiey oa??eoi?ee. A nayce n yoei io?aiie aeieaeia auoue
ioaa/aia any oa??eoi?ey E?uia. Aeey eaaeaeie ooieoeeiiaeueiie ciiu
aeieaeai auoue ii?aaeaeai iniaue ?aaeei i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e io?aiu
i?e?iaeu.

Auai? ?aaeeia aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui i?eioeeiai e
e?eoa?eyi, o/eouaathuei eae eo neooaoeeth, neeaaeuaathuothny
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?aaeaeao ?anniao?eaaaiie oa??eoi?ee, oae e caaea/e
aieaa iauaai ieaia, naycaiiua n ?aaeiiaeueiuie e aeiaaeueiuie ii?iaie e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie niaeaoaieyie:

1) auiieiaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iaycaoaeuenoa ii oiiai, noieo NI2;

2) i?eaioaoeey ia 60% anoanoaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia, 10% caiiaaaeiuo
eaiaeoaooia;

3) i?eaioaoeey ia caeii 1%;

4) auiieiaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo iaycaoaeuenoa ii o?aina?aie/iui ia?aiinai a
aoiinoa?a e aeae?inoa?a;

5) i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo cii: oa??eoi?ey
i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai eiiieaena aeieaeia ia?aciaaoue ia?ac?uaioth nenoaio ni
naiaiaeiie iea?aoeeae aeeaioiuo, ?anoaiee;

6) aeieaeiu auoue auaeaeaiu a iniai io?aiyaiua oa??eoi?ee ana oeie/iua
eaiaeoaoou, yeinenoaiu, aeioeaiicu, oeoioeaiicu (oi?iaoeee, a?oiiu
annioeeaoeee, annioeeaoeee e ae?.).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy niioiioaiea ieiuaaeae anoanoaaiiuo e aio?iiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia a E?uio aeaeaei io iioeiaeueiiai – neeoeii aieueoea ieiuaaee
caieiaao iaoiy. Aicieeaao caaea/a ii?aaeaeaiey, auyaeaiey oao o/anoeia
(aeaaiui ia?acii a ?aaieiiie /anoe E?uia), eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ia?aaanoe
a ae?oaie oei i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey. Iaeaieaa yaiua ia?niaeoeaiua
eciaiaiey:

1) nicaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiai ia?ea;

2) caiiaaaeaiea oeie/iuo eaiaeoaooia, en/acathueo yeinenoai, ?aaeeeo
eaiaeoaooia e ae?.;

3) auaiae ec naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey iaeii?iaeoeoeaiuo
caiaeue (i?eia?ii iieiaeia nouanoaothuae ieiuaaee);

4) aeiaaaeaiea eaiaeoaooia, ?acaeaathueony ia iniiaa anoanoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia (oi anoue nio?aiythueo naienoaa anoanoaaiiie naii?aaoeyoeee)
aei 60%.

No?oeoo?a IIE (i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai eiiieaena) a oeaeii ioia?aaeaao
enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeeny oa?aeoa? eaiaeoaooiiai ?aciiia?acey oa??eoi?ee,
oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey e ?annaeaiey.

?aaeaiaioaoeey i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey n iiiiuueth IIE inouanoaeyaony oae:

1) ii?aaeaeytho niioiioaiey iaaeaeo eioaineaii e yenoaineaii
eniieuecoaiuie oa??eoi?eyie, anoanoaaiiuie eaiaeoaooaie a eaaeaeie
oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneie iaeanoe (?aaieiiue e ai?iue E?ui), a oii /enea ii
noaia Aeieneaaeena, Iaeoia e ae?.;

2) onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie
IIO a niioaaonoaee n i?e?iaeiuie iniaaiiinoyie;

3) ii?aaeaeyaony oa??eoi?eaeueiay no?oeoo?a IIO e ae?oaeo yeaiaioia IOON
(noaia ?iaeiiaia e ae?.).

Iniiaiay oeaeue nicaeaiey oaeie IOON – iaania/eoue yeieiae/aneia
?aaiiaanea oa??eoi?ee, ia iniiaa nio?aiaiey oeiia ianoiiaeoaiey,
?aciiia?acey yeinenoai, aeiaaioeaiicia, eaiaeoaooiuo eiiieaenia,
?aciiia?acey i?aaieciia.

IOON aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue neaaeothueie naienoaaie:

– ooieoeeiiaeueiie ?acaeoinoueth: a iae aeieaeiu auoue ana aeaeu
io?aiyaiuo oa??eoi?ee, io?aiyoueny ana oeiu (aeaeu) i?e?iaeiuo
eaiaeoaooia, yeiiieenu, enoi?e/aneea e a?oaieiae/aneea iaiyoieee, iaai?
i?iiuoeaiiuo, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo, o?ainii?oiuo e ?aa?anneiiiuo
iauaeoia, iaania/eaathueo ii?iaeueioth oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue;

– oa??eoi?eaeueiie acaeiinaycaiiinoueth IIO, iaania/eaathuae ia?aiauaiea
aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea oaeia i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?aniieiaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo e
oicyenoaaiiuo iauaeoia, eioi?ia, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaania/eaaei au
yeiiiie/aneia aeaaiiieo/ea, n ae?oaie ? iicaieyei nio?aiyoue
yeieiae/aneee aaeain;

– oaoiieiae/aneie ?aaioiniiniaiinoueth: iauaeou IOON aeieaeiu caieiaoue
aeinoaoi/ii aieueooth ieiuaaeue e a ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ino?ainoaaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, /oi iaania/eo auiieiaiea niioaaonoaothueo caaea/;
neaaeoao o/eouaaoue yooaeou ninaaenoaa, iea?aoeeiiiua iioiee, a?aaeu
aicaeaenoaey;

– ioe?uoinoueth: iiyoaiiia oi?ie?iaaiea n iinoaiaiiui oneiaeiaieai.

Eaiaeoaooiia e aeieiae/aneia ?aciiia?acea E?uia iiaeaa?aaaony
aicaeaenoaeth oaoiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia, aneaaenoaea /aai eiaao ianoi aai
oiaiueoaiea (Eiaa/eineay e ae?., 1994). Aii?in noieo ia oieueei ia
oa?ica en/aciiaaiey aeaeia ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, ii e ia en/aciiaaiee
iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee yeinenoai. A oneiaeyo E?uia iaeaieaa
/oanoaeoaeueiuie e aio?iiiaaiiui aicaeaenoaeyi ieacuaathony neaaeothuea
yeinenoaiu:

1) yeinenoaiu, nouanoaothuea a oneiaeyo aeaoeoeeoa aeaae. A E?uio
aieueoay /anoue yeinenoai iaoiaeeony a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoea aeaae,
iiyoiio oaeea aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey, eae auoaiouaaiea, auian neioa,
iiaea?u niinianoaotho iauae oaiaeaioeee aeaa?aaeaoeee yeinenoai,
naycaiiuo n aeaoeoeeoii aeaae;

2) yeinenoaiu a ?aeiiao e?oiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiieaenia e ai?iaeia.
Oaeea ai?iaea, eae Neioa?iiieue e Naaanoiiieue, oi?ie?otho aie?oa naay
iiea aicaeaenoaey ?aaeeonii 10-15 ei, a i?aaeaeao eioi?iai eiaao ianoi
aeaa?aaeaoeey e oi?iuaiea eaiaeoaooia. N oiaiueoaieai ?acia?a ai?iaea
?aaeeon aeaenoaey oiaiueoaaony;

3) yeinenoaiu yeioiiia, o.a. ia?aoiaeiuo iiein ?aciiai ?aiaa. E?ui
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae neiaeiue iiiaio?iaaiiue yeioii a nenoaiao
oia?aiiue iiyn – noao?iie/aneee iiyn, nooa – ii?a, ai?u – ?aaieia, a
oaeaea ia eiioaeoao ?aciuo eeoieiae/aneeo eiiieaenia, oaoie/aneeo nenoai
n i?e?iaeiuie nenoaiaie;

4) iaeeieiioo?iua yeinenoaiu n ino?iaiui ?ani?ino?aiaieai (aeeth/ay
yeinenoaiu ino?iaia). Ii ioiioaieth e yeinenoaiai ino?iaia Oeeueie e
Aea?eeiaoii noi?ioee?iaaee ?yae caeiiia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo ia
oooaeoaiee a i?aaeaeao ino?iaia oneiaee aeey i?aaieciia. Ia ino?iaao
eiaao ianoi oiaiueoaiea /enea aeaeia oaoiu e oei?u, oiaiueoaiea ?acia?ia
yecaiiey?ia iniaae e o.ae. Cia/eoaeueiua aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey ia
eaiaeoaoou E?uia i?eaaee e ae?iaeaieth i?e?iaeiuo eiioo?ia ia
aeinoaoi/ii iaeeea eiiieaenu. Yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeaaea aeey aieueoeinoaa
?aaieiiuo yeinenoai, aaea yeinenoaiu ?annaeathony aaoiiiaeeueiuie
aei?iaaie, ianaeaiiuie ioieoaie, o/anoeaie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oaiaeee. Iaaeaeo ino?iaiuie yeinenoaiaie cao?oaeiai iaiai, a ieo eaaei
aiaae?ythony aeaeu ec ae?oaeo yeinenoai, a oii /enea caaacaiiua;

5) yeinenoaiu ?a/iuo aeieei, aaeie e neeiiia. A oaeeo ianoiiaeoaieyo
aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho o?aiceo e aeeoioeyoeey aauanoaa, a i?ioeannu a
iaeieo yeinenoaiao oaeeo eaoai iaecaaaeii aeeytho ia ae?oaea yeinenoaiu.
Ia?aaeei a oaeeo nenoaiao neeueiia aicaeaenoaea ieacuaatho aiaeiua
iioiee, ii?ie iinyuea ?ac?ooeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Iauaeoaie io?aiu a oaeeo
neo/ayo aeieaeiu aunooiaoue ia ioaeaeueiua yeinenoaiu, a oeaeua a?oiiu
yeinenoai, ia?acothueo eaoaiu;

6) yeinenoaiu, a ninoaaa aeiou eioi?uo aeiieie?otho eee i?eieiatho
cia/eoaeueiia o/anoea ?aeeeoiaua e yiaeaie/iua i?aaenoaaeoaee oei?u e
oaoiu. I?aaiecaoeey aeiaaioeaiicia a ieo ia iieiinoueth niioaaonoaoao
nia?aiaiiui oneiaeyi, iineieueeo io?aaeaao a aieueoae noaiaie oo
neooaoeeth, eioi?ay eiaea ianoi i?e aieaa oe?ieii o/anoee ?aeeeoiauo
aeaeia. A E?uio aeiaieueii aunieee o?iaaiue yiaeaiecia (o ?anoaiee 10%,
o aeeaioiuo 8%), /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe ?aaeiia e
en/aciiaaieth ?yaea a?oii yeinenoai.

En/acathueie yeinenoaiaie, caneoaeeaathueie nio?aiaiey, iiaoo auoue e
i?e?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiua eiiieaenu, a oii /enea e aa?ieaiaeoaoou,
eoeueoo?iua eaiaeoaoou. A.E. Oaaan noaaeo aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nicaeaiey aa?ieaiaeoaooiuo caiiaaaeieeia, ooieoeee eioi?uo caeeth/aeenue
au eae a nio?aiaiee i?e?iaeiuo eiiieaenia, oae e a ?aoeeiiaeueiii
inaiaiee caiaeueiuo ?ano?nia e nio?aiaiee enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeony oi?i
aaaeaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa, o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oi?i aeayoaeueiinoe
ianaeaiey, i?iiuneia, yeieiae/anee ?aoeeiiaeueiuo oeiia aicaeaeuaaiey
caiaeue. Iaeiia?aiaiii a oaeeo caiiaaaeieeao aeieaeiu ?ac?aaaouaaoueny
iiaua oi?iu aaaeaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa, nicaeaaaoueny iocae,
aiaae?youeny iiaaoeee, i?ioeaiy?iceiiiua nenoaiu, nenoaiu aac
eniieueciaaiey yaeioeieeaoia e ae?.

Aeey ninoaaeaiey eaaeano?a en/acathueo yeinenoai iaiaoiaeeia, ai-ia?auo,
eeanneoeeaoeey yeinenoai (Ceioei, Oeoeia, 1996). Aeey E?uia iiaeii ca
iniiao i?eiyoue eeanneoeeaoeeth eaiaeoaooia A.A. A?eoaieiaa, eioi?ue
auaeaeyao ciiu, iiyna, a?oiiu oeiia ianoiinoae. A E?uio auaeaeythony
neaaeothuea eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneea ciiu.

1. Ieciaiiuo aeae?iii?oiuo ?aaiei n nieii/aeiauie eoaaie e
iieuiii-aea?iiaeiii-ceaeiauie noaiyie (naaa?iua iieoionouie).

2. Ieaei?iay ciia oeie/iuo eiaueueii-oei/aeiauo e aeaaeii-?aciio?aaiuo
eiaueueii-oei/aeiauo noaiae a eiiieaena n eonoa?ieeiauie e iao?ioeoiuie
noaiyie.

3. Ciia i?aaeai?iuo aicauoaiiinoae n ?aciio?aaiuie noaiyie,
eonoa?ieeiauie ca?ineyie, eaninoaiueth e iecei?ineuie aeoaiauie eanaie.

4. N?aaeiaai?iay ciia naaa?iiai iae?ineeiia ai?, aoeiauo, niaoaiiuo
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo aeoaiauo e niniiauo eania.

5. N?aaeiaai?iay ciia yeeeineeo ieaoi, ai?iuo eoaia e ai?iie eaninoaie.

6. N?aaeiaai?iay ciia thaeiiai iae?ineeiia ai?, aeoaiauo, aoeiauo,
niniiauo e niaoaiiuo oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania.

7. Ieceiai?iay ciia thaeiiai iae?ineeiia ai?, aeoaiauo,
oenoaoeiai-aeoaiauo e iiaeaeaaaeiai-niniiauo eania e eonoa?ieeiauo
ca?ineae oeia oeaeye.

A i?aaeaeao cii auaeaeaiu iiyna – 20, a a eo i?aaeaeao 135 a?oii oeiia
eaiaeoaooiuo ianoiinoae.

Iioeiaeueiay oa??eoi?eaeueiay no?oeoo?a E?uia aeieaeia auaeyaeaoue
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1. Io?aiyaiua oa??eoi?ee: oaaee/aiea ieiuaaee aei 10%, oi anoue 270000
aa. 7% aoaeao ?aniieiaeaii a ai?iie /anoe, 3% – a ?aaieiiie.

2. Anoanoaaiiua e eaaceanoanoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou: oaaee/aiea ieiuaaee aei
50-60%; 20% – a ai?iie /anoe (i?eia?ii 500000 aa) e 30% – a ?aaieiiie
/anoe (i?eia?ii 750000 aa). Iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi ca n/ao auaiaea
/anoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue ec iai?ioa, caiauaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee eoaiauie, noaiiuie, eonoa?ieeiauie e
eaniuie oeoioeaiicaie, auiieiythueie n?aaeiio?aiythuea ooieoeee.

3. Ec inoaaoeony 40-50% 22-25% caeioo naeueneioicyenoaaiiua caiee, 6-7%
– naeeoaaiua o/anoee (a oii /enea yeiiieenu e ?ae?aaoeeiiiua eiiieaenu),
o?ainii?oiua oa??eoi?ee – 4%, i?iiuoeaiiua ciiu (a oii /enea ea?uea?u,
ai?iua ?ac?aaioee) – 4%, ae?oaea – 4-8%.

4. Anoanoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou aeieaeiu ia?aciaaoue caeiiiia?ioth
oa??eoi?eaeueioth no?oeoo?o. Ana /anoe anoanoaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia aeieaeiu
auoue niaaeeiaiu aeioe/aneeie ei?eaei?aie.

5. N?aaee iiauo io?aiyaiuo oa??eoi?ee iniiaiia ianoi aeieaeiu caiyoue:

– o/anoee, i?aaenoaaeythuea ana oeie/iua eaiaeoaoou e yeinenoaiu
?aaeiia;

– iaeii?iaeoeoeaiua e iaeiieiaei?iaeiua o/anoee, o?oaeiiia?aaaouaaaiua
o/anoee (aa?i?ano?niue iiaeoiae);

– o/anoee n aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai yeioiiia (n aieueoei iioaioeeaeueiui
?aciiia?aceai, iineieueeo iiiaea ec ieo iaoiaeyony a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii iai?ioa e iiaeaa?aeenue ?aniaoea eee ae?oaei
i?ioeaaeo?ai, a oiaea eioi?uo i?iecioei ieaaee?iaaiea ?acee/ee).

?aciiia?acea yeioiiia iicaieyao n aieueoei oniaoii aeinoeaaoue
nio?aiaiey aei?aciiia?acey. AEeaioiua i?e iaee/ee iiiaeanoaa ?yaeii
?aniieiaeaiiuo eiio?anoiuo ianoiiieiaeaiee (ii aunioa, yeniiceoeee,
ioe?uoua e cae?uoua neeiiu, n ?aciie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth e o.ae.)
iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue iaoiaeeoue iiaeoiaeyuaa ianoiiieiaeaiea i?e
niaia iiaiaeiuo e naciiiuo oneiaee. Yoi oi?ioi iieacae Ieeueeia:

– o/anoee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aeioe/aneeie ei?eaei?aie;

– o/anoee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?aeoeueoeae?iaaiu n iaiueoeie cao?aoaie.

Auaeaeyaiua o/anoee aeieaeiu ia?aciaaoue aianoa n oaea nouanoaothueie
naaeaine?iaaiioth oa??eoi?eaeueioth acaeiinaycaiioth nenoaio

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