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Геодезические работы

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Nienie aii?inia e oai?aoe/aneie /anoe eiio?ieueiie ?2

I. Oaiaeieeo. Ono?ienoai oaiaeieeoa.

II. ?aeueao ianoiinoe e aai ecia?aaeaiea ia ea?oao e ieaiao. Oneiaiua
iaicia/aiey

III. Iieeaiiiiao?ey – iaoiae iino?iaiey aaiaeace/aneeo naoae

IV. Auiin ieeaoa ia e?eaoth

V. Iino?iaiea ai?eciioaeueiuo oaeia ia ianoiinoe (niinia ioeiaeaiee e
?aaeooee?iaaiey).

VI. ?acaeai/iua ?aaiou i?e iiioaaea aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eieiii.

VII. Iaaethaeaiea ca inaaeeaie nii?oaeaiee

I. Oaiaeieeo. Ono?ienoai oaiaeieeoa

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oaeiia?iui eino?oiaioii
yaeyaony oaiaeieeo, iieo/eaoee oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea e i?e eaniuo nuaieao.
Nia?aiaiiua oaiaeieeou niaaaeaiu aa?oeeaeueiuie e?oaaie n o?iaiai i?e
aai aeeaeaaea e ieoyiui aeaeueiiia?ii; eo iacuaatho,
oaiaeieeoaie-oaoaiiao?aie Iie iicaieytho i?iecaiaeeoue ecia?aiey:

1) ai?eciioaeueiuo i?iaeoeee oaeia,

2) aa?oeeaeueiuo oaeia (ninoaaeyaiuo eeieyie ianoiinoe n ai?eciioii),

3) ?annoiyiee e

4) ii?aaeaeeoue iai?aaeaiey iaaieoiiai ia?eaeeaia ii no?aeea aonniee.

Oeiu oaiaeieeoia. Oaiaeieeou auaatho i?inoua e iiaoi?eoaeueiua.

O i?inouo oaiaeieeoia ai?eciioaeueiue eeia iaaeooi ne?aieai n
iiaenoaaeie eino?oiaioa e iiyoiio ii ia eiaao naiaiaeiiai a?auaiey a
ai?eciioaeueiie ieineinoe. O iiaoi?eoaeueiuo oaiaeieeoia ai?eciioaeueiue
eeia, iacaaeneii io a?auaiey aeeaeaaeu, a?auaaony a ai?eciioaeueiie
ieineinoe ia naiae aa?oeeaeueiie ine.

Nia?aiaiiua oaiaeieeou ?acee/athony ii oi/iinoe e iaoa?eaeai, ec eioi?uo
naeaeaiu eo iniiaiua /anoe, ii eiino?oeoeee e iacia/aieth.

Ono?ienoai oaiaeieeoia. Iiaoi?eoaeueiue oaiaeieeo „Aaioeceea” o?aiy
iiaeuaiiuie aeioaie onoaiaaeeaaaony ia iaoaeee/aneoth iiaeeeaaeeo,
eaaeauoth ia aea?aayiiie aieiaea ooaoeaa. Oaiaeieeo oe?aieyaony ia
ooaoeaa noaiiaui aeioii, aieiaea eioi?iai aoiaeeo ai aooeeo. Oae eae
yoio oaiaeieeo iiaoi?eoaeueiue, oi o iaai aa?oeeaeueiay inue aeeaeaaeu
aoiaeeo ai aooeeo aa?oeeaeueiie ine eeiaa.

I?e iiiiue o?ao iiaeuaiiuo aeioia ieineinoue eeiaa i?eaiaeyo a
ai?eciioaeueiia iieiaeaiea, iieuecoynue oeeeeiae?e/aneei o?iaiai. A?auay
aeeaeaaeo, iiaeii o?iaie iinoaaeoue oae, /oi inue iaeiiai ec ieo aoaeao
ia?aeeaeueia eeiee, niaaeeiythuae oeaio?u aeaoo iiaeuaiiuo aeioia.

Eeia oaiaeieeoa eiaao cae?aieoaeueiue aeio, i?e iiiiue eioi?iai ii
iaiiaeaeaeii cae?aieyaony ia ine. Iee?iiao?aiiui aeioii iiaeii niiaueoue
eeiao iaaeeaiiia a?auaiea. Iee?iiao?aiiue aeio eeiaa, eae e ae?oaea
aeiou, ieacuaaao aeaenoaea oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea cae?aieoaeueiue aeio
caaei/ai.

Ia eeiaa yoiai oaiaeieeoa, iaeiaiueoaa aeaeaiea eioi?iai ?aaii 30 eee
20′, eiaaony au?acaiiia oaeoaeaiea, a eioi?ii a?auaaony iaaeaoay naa?oo
aeeaeaaea, oanii i?eeaaay e eeiao. Ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo eiioeao aeeaiao?a
aeeaeaaeu iaoiaeyony aeaa aa?iuea?a, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo i?iecaiaeyo
ion/aou ii ai?eciioaeueiiio e?oao. Aeeaeaaea eiaao cae?aieoaeueiue e
iaaiaeyuee (iee?iiao?aiiue) aeio aeey ia?aaea/e ae iaaeeaiiiai a?auaiey.
Eeia e aeeaeaaea naa?oo iae?uou eiaeooii, i?ee?aieaiiui aeioaie e
aeeaeaaea. A eiaeooa a ianoao aa?iuea?ia naeaeaiu ioaa?noey, a eioi?ua
anoaaeaiu i?inoua noaeea. Iaae yoeie ioaa?noeyie iiiauathony eoiu, /a?ac
eioi?ua iiaeii aeaeaoue aeaeaiey eeiaa e aa?iuea?ia. Aeey eo/oae
aeaeeiinoe aeaeaiee ieiei noaeeyiiuo ieioae iiiauaiu aaeua iaoiaua
noaeea — eeethieiaoi?u. Ia eiaeooa iinoaaeaiu e oe?aieaiu ia aeeaeaaea
aeaa iiaenoaaee aeey c?eoaeueiie o?oau. Aa?oiyy /anoue iiaenoaaie
eii/aaony au?acaie, a eioi?uo iiiauaiu eiioeu ai?eciioaeueiie ine
a?auaiey o?oau. Iiaenoaaee naa?oo iae?uou e?uoeaie, i?eaei/aiiuie e iei
aeaoiy aeioaie. Iaeia iiaenoaaea eiaao aeieaaie ?ac?ac e aeaa aeioa, i?e
iiiiue eioi?uo iiaeii eciaiyoue aeeaiao? ioaa?noey yoie iiaenoaaee e oai
naiui iioneaoue eee iiaeieiaoue iaeei eiiaoe ai?eciioaeueiie ine. N
iaeiie noi?iiu ai?eciioaeueiie ine eiathony cae?aieoaeueiue e iaaiaeyuee
(iee?iiao?aiiue) aeiou o?oau. Ia ae?oaii eiioea yoie ine iiiauaaony
aa?oeeaeueii iinoaaeaiiue eeia, ii ie?oaeiinoe eioi?iai iaianaiu
a?aaeoniua aeaeaiey. Yoio eeia ia?aiauaaony a aa?oeeaeueiie ieineinoe
aianoa n c?eoaeueiie o?oaie. Ia yoii aea eiioea ai?eciioaeueiie ine
iaaeaoa aeeaeaaea aa?oeeaeueiiai e?oaa, eiathuay ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
eiioeao aeaa aa?iuea?a. E aeeaeaaea aa?oeeaeueiiai e?oaa i?ee?aieai
eiaeoo, iae?uaathuee aa?oeeaeueiue e?oa. A yoii eiaeooa i?ioea
aa?iuea?ia naeaeaiu i?i?ace, a eioi?ua anoaaeaiu i?inoua noaeea, e /a?ac
ieo a eoiu aeaeiu aeaeaiey aa?iuea?ia e eeiaa. Naa?oo ia eiaeooa
i?ee?aieai oeeeeiae?e/aneee o?iaaiue, iaae ioaa?noeai ii?aau eioi?iai
iiiauaaony ca?eaei. Ia ieaeiae /anoe eiaeooa eiaaony aiaeeeueoea,
eioi?ia iaoiaeeony iaaeaeo iee?iiao?aiiui aeioii e i?oaeeiiui oii?ii.
I?e iiiiue aeioa iiaeii ia?aiauaoue a aa?oeeaeueiie ieineinoe aeeaeaaeo
aa?oeeaeueiiai e?oaa, a aianoa n iae e inue o?iaiy. E iaeiiaoe, ia
ai?eciioaeueiie ine iaaeaoa c?eoaeueiay o?oaa, eiathuay iauaeoea,
ieoey?, aeeao?aaio n naoeie ieoae e aioo?aiithth oieone?othuoth eeico.

C?eoaeueiay o?oaa oaiaeieeoa iiaeao ia?aaiaeeoueny /a?ac caieo (ia
ai?eciioaeueiie ine) eae iauaeoeaiui, oae e ieoey?iui eiioeii. Iaaeaeo
iiaenoaaeaie c?eoaeueiie o?oau iiiauaaony ei?iaea aonniee. I?e iiiiue
cae?aieoaeueiiai aeioa iaaieoiay no?aeea i?eaeeiaaony e noaeeo,
iae?uaathuaio naa?oo ei?iaeo aonniee.

I?e o?ainii?oe?iaea oaiaeieeo oeeaaeuaatho a niaoeeaeueiue aea?aayiiue
yuee, oai aea o?aiyo caianiua /anoe e /aoie, eioi?ui a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iae?uaatho eino?oiaio ia ooaoeaa.

Iiaoi?eoaeueiue oaiaeieeo „Aaiaeacee”, eiaao ano?iiiie/aneoth o?oao n
aeaeueiiia?iie naoeie ieoae e n aiaoiae oieone?iaeie. Iaeei ec o?iaiae,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey i?eaaaeaiey aa?oeeaeueiie ine eino?oiaioa a
ioaaniia iieiaeaiea, iaoiaeeony ia eiaeooa, i?ee?uaathuai aeeaeaaeo e
eeia ai?eciioaeueiiai e?oaa, a ae?oaie i?ee?aieai e iiaenoaaea
c?eoaeueiie o?oau. Ine yoeo o?iaiae ?aniieiaeaiu acaeiii
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii.

Iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuei aeey eaniuo nuaiie yaeyaony iiaoi?eoaeueiue
iaeiaaaa?eoiue oaiaeieeo, auioneaaiue iiae ia?eie OI-1. Ii iniaaiii
oaeiaai a yeniaaeeoeeiiiuo oneiaeyo e i?e ecuneaoaeueneeo ?aaioao. O
oaiaeieeoa OI-1 c?eoaeueiay o?oaa eiaao iauaeoea, ninoiyuee ec iyoe
eeic, ec eioi?uo aeaa i?e iiiiue e?aiaeuea?u ia?aiauathony aaeieue ine
aioo?e ei?iona o?oau aeey oieone?iaee i?e aece?iaaiee ia ?acii
oaeaeaiiua io eino?oiaioa i?aaeiaou. Eeicu iauaeoeaa iaiiaeaeaeii
oe?aieaiu a ii?aaa, eioi?ay aaei/eaaaony a ei?ion o?oau. Ecia?aaeaiea
i?aaeiaoa, ?anniao?eaaaiia /a?ac eeicu ieoey?a, iieo/aaony a ieineinoe
oo?eoia naoee, eiathuae, e?iia oeaio?aeueiiai ia?ae?anoey, /a?ac eioi?ia
i?ioiaeeo aece?iay inue, aeaa ai?eciioaeueiuo aeaeueiiia?iuo oo?eoa.
Aeey oaeianoaa aece?iaaiey c?eoaeueiie o?oaie i?e aieueoeo oaeao iaeeiia
oaiaeieeo niaaaeaaony ianaaeeie, eioi?ay iaaei/eaaaony ia aaeeo ieoey?a,
aeey /aai i?aaeaa?eoaeueii o ieoey?iiai eiioea o?oau ioaei/eaaaony
ia?oaeiia eieueoei. Ieoey?iay ianaaeea ninoieo ec ii?aau, a eioi?ie
iiiauaaony i?ecia, e ioeeaeiiai naaoioeeueo?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey
iaaethaeaiey Nieioea. Ii?aaa i?eciu naiaiaeii a?auaaony aianoa n oaeaie
aie?oa aaiiao?e/aneie ine aooeee. I?e iiiiue yoie ianaaeee eciaiyaony
iai?aaeaiea aece?iie ine ca ieoey?ii c?eoaeueiie o?oau ia 80°.

Oaiaeieeo OI-1 eiaao iaeeaaeioth aonnieue, eioi?ay aeaoiy aeioaie
oe?aieyaony ia eiaeooa aa?oeeaeueiiai e?oaa. Oiaeiai/iue oooey? aeey
o?ainii?oe?iaee oaiaeieeoa ninoieo ec iaoaeee/aneiai iniiaaiey e
eieiaea; ii oeeaaeuaaaony a /aoie, eiathuee iea/aaua ?aiie aeey
ia?aiinee eino?oiaioa.

II. ?aeueao ianoiinoe e aai ecia?aaeaiea ia ea?oao e ieaiao. Oneiaiua
iaicia/aiey

Aunioie oi/ee iaae o?iaiai ii?y (aeueoeooaeie) iacuaaaony ?annoiyiea ii
ioaaniiio iai?aaeaieth io yoie oi/ee aei o?iaaiiie iiaa?oiinoe.

Aeueoeooaeaie oi/ae A, A e N yaeythony ?annoiyiey Aa, AUe, Nn. Iie eia/a
iacuaathony aaniethoiuie ioiaoeaie eee aaniethoiuie aunioaie e
iaicia/athony /a?ac I.

Anee auniou oi/ae ii?aaeaeaiu io ethaie oneiaiie, a ia io iniiaiie
o?iaaiiie iiaa?oiinoe, oi yoe auniou iacuaathony oneiaiuie ioiaoeaie eee
ioiineoaeueiuie aunioaie e iaicia/athony /a?ac I’. Aeey oi/ae A, A e N
oneiaiuie ioiaoeaie yaeythony ?annoiyiey Aa’, AUe’ e Nn’. Aeueoeooaeu Ia
e In n/eoathony iieiaeeoaeueiuie, anee oi/ee A e N ?aniieiaeaiu auoa
o?iaaiiie iiaa?oiinoe. Anee oi/ee ianoiinoe ?aniieiaeaiu ieaea o?iaaiiie
iiaa?oiinoe, oi aeueoeooaeu eo aoaeoo io?eoeaoaeueiuie, iai?eia?
aeueoeooaea Iue.

?aciinoue iaaeaeo ioiaoeaie aeaoo oi/ae iacuaaaony i?aauoaieai iaeiie
oi/ee iaae ae?oaie e iaicia/aaony /a?ac A, iai?eia?, aeey oi/ee N
i?aauoaiea

In = In —Ia = Nn” eee Hc = Ha + hc.

Eoae, iieiaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo oi/ae ii aunioa ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe
oa?aeoa?ecoaony eo aaniethoiuie eee ioiineoaeueiuie aunioaie. A
caaeneiinoe io aaniethoiiai cia/aiey aeueoeooae oi/ae e eo acaeiiiai
?aniieiaeaiey ?acee/atho ?aaieiioth, oieienooth e ai?ioth ianoiinoe. Ia
?aaieiiie ianoiinoe e?ooecia neaoa iaei caiaoia, ionoonoaotho ?acei
au?aaeaiiua ia?iaiinoe, a ioaeaeueiua oi/ee aa eiatho iaaieueoea
ioiineoaeueiua auniou. Ia oieienoie ianoiinoe aeueoeooaeu ioaeaeueiuo
aicauoaiiinoae aeinoeaatho 200 i, a ?acee/iua ni/aoaiey eo n aeieeiaie,
aaeeaie e ia?aaaie oa?aeoa?iu aeey ianoiinoe ia?ana/aiiie. Ai?iay
ianoiinoue oa?aeoa?ia iaee/eai aicauoaiiinoae n ioiineoaeueiuie aunioaie
aieaa 200 i e ?acei au?aaeaiiuie e?oouie neeiiaie. A caaeneiinoe io
aaniethoiuo aunio oi/ae ?acee/atho ai?u ieceea n aeueoeooaeaie iaiaa 800
i, n?aaeiae auniou n aeueoeooaeaie 800—2000 i e aunieea, eiaaea
aeueoeooaeu i?aauoatho 2000 i,

Niiniau ecia?aaeaiey ?aeueaoa. Niiniau ecia?aaeaiey ?aeueaoa ia ieaiao e
ea?oao iaiaeiie?aoii i?eaeaeaee aieiaiea niaoeeaeenoia. Aua ia
n?aaeiaaaeiauo ea?oao aeey ecia?aaeaiey aicauoaiiinoae oaea i?eiaiyee
?acee/iua e?anee. Yoi auee ia?aua iiiuoee iieacaoue oneiaiuie ciaeaie
?aeueao ianoiinoe ia ea?oao.

Aeey iieiiai e ananoi?iiiaai eniieueciaaiey ieaiia n ?aeueaoii io
oneiaiuo ciaeia, ecia?aaeathueo ?aeueao ia ieaia e ea?oa, o?aaoaony
oi/iinoue ia?aaea/e ?aeueaoa, iicaieythuay ii?aaeaeyoue auniou
ioaeaeueiuo oi/ae ianoiinoe; iaaeyaeiinoue ecia?aaeaiey, iicaieythuay
aiciiaeii yniaa i?aaenoaaeoue aeaenoaeoaeueiue eaiaeoaoo ianoiinoe,
iai?aaeaiea neeiiia e eo e?ooecio; eaaeinoue auiieiaiey aeaiiiai
oneiaiiai ciaea e iauaeoeaiinoue i?e aai ecia?aaeaiee.

Aeey ecia?aaeaiey ?aeueaoa ia ieaiao e ea?oao iieuecothony ?aciuie
niiniaaie: aunioiuie ioiaoeaie, eiaaea ia ieaiao o niioaaonoaothueo
oi/ae ianoiinoe /eneii ioia/atho eo aeueoeooaeu aeiniiao?e/aneie eee
iineieiie ie?aneie, ?aniieaaay e?aneo ii i?eioeeio, „/ai auoa, oai
oaiiaa”, oo?eoaie, ioiuaeie, oi/eaie, ai?eciioaeyie e eiiaeie?iaaiiui
niiniaii.

Ia nia?aiaiiuo oiiia?aoe/aneeo ea?oao e ieaiao ?aeueao ecia?aaeatho
ai?eciioaeyie, eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeathony /eneiauie ioiaoeaie. Yoio
niinia ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie eiaao aieueoea i?aeiouanoaa. Ii
n?aaieoaeueii iauaeoeaai, i?ino aeey eniieiaiey, iicaieyao aaiiao?e/anee
oi/ii ia?aaeaoue oi?io ?aeueaoa e io?aceoue aai iniaaiiinoe.

Ai?eciioaee. Ai?eciioaee – yoi eeiee, niaaeeiythuea ia caiiie
iiaa?oiinoe oi/ee n iaeeiaeiauie ioiaoeaie. A NNN? auee i?eiyou ?aciua
ianooaau aeey ?aciuo ?acia?ia na/aiee.

Iaeiaei na/aiea iaaeaeo ai?eciioaeyie caaeneo ia oieueei io ianooaaa
nuaiee, ii e io oa?aeoa?a ?aeueaoa ianoiinoe. Iiyoiio eiiaaea
iieuecothony ai?eciioaeyie n i?iecaieueiui na/aieai, /oi a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oi/iaa io?aceoue ia ieaia oa?aeoa?iua
iniaaiiinoe ?aeueaoa o/anoea.

*oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue niaaeeieoue iaaeaeo niaie ioaeaeueiua
oiiia?aoe/aneea ea?ou eee ieaiu, iaiaoiaeeii n/ao ai?eciioaeae aanoe io
iniiaiie o?iaaiiie iiaa?oiinoe.

Aeey iino?iaiey ia ieaia naieo ai?eciioaeae ianoa auoiaea naeoueo
ieineinoae ia?oaeo ia?aiinyo ia ai?eciioaeueioth ieineinoue iaoiaeii
i?oiaiiaeueiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Oae iino?iaiu ai?eciioaee. Aeey
ai?eciioaeai, iieacuaaaiuo ia oiiia?aoe/aneeo ea?oao e ieaiao,
ninoaaeyaiuo a iaoae no?aia, ia/aeueiay o?iaaiiay iiaa?oiinoue i?ioiaeeo
/a?ac ioeue E?iiooaaeoneiai oooooiea.

Ai?eciioaee eiiaaea iacuaatho eciaeinaie, /oi a ia?aaiaea icia/aao
„eeiey iaeeiaeiauo aunio”. Ia oiiia?aoe/aneeo ieaiao e ea?oao i?eiyoi
ai?eciioaee au/a?/eaaoue ei?e/iaaie eee e?anii-ei?e/iaaie oooueth.

I?e iiiiue ai?eciioaeae iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue e ?aeueao aeia ?acee/iuo
aiaeiuo aannaeiia. Aeey iaaeyaeiiai ecia?aaeaiey aeoaei aiaeiuo
aannaeiia iieuecothony eciaaoaie – eeieyie, niaaeeiythueie oi/ee ?aaiuo
aeoaei iie i?iaiaeyony ii ieaiai ?ae, ica? /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?iiaaeooee ii aeoaeia. Iino?iaiea eciaao ia ieaiao aiaeiuo aannaeiia
i?iecaiaeeony oae aea, eae e iino?iaiea ai?eciioaeae ia oiiia?aoe/aneeo
ieaiao ianoiinoe.

Aeey ecia?aaeaiey ia ieaiao e ea?oao iiae?iaiinoae neooaoeee (ianaeaiiua
ioieou, aei?iaeiay naoue, ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia, aiaeiaiu e o. ae.)
iieuecothony oneiaiuie ciaeaie. Oneiaiua ciaee aeaeyony ia o?e a?oiiu:
eiioo?iua eee ianooaaiua, aiaianooaaiua e iiynieoaeueiua. Eiioo?iua
oneiaiua ciaee neoaeao aeey ecia?aaeaiey oaeeo ianoiuo i?aaeiaoia,
eioi?ua iiaeii au?aceoue a ianooaaa ieaia eee ea?ou.

Ia e?oiiiianooaaiie ea?oa eiioo?u oaeeo i?aaeiaoia ecia?aaeathony
iiaeiaiuie oeao?aie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i ?acia?ao i?aaeiaoa iiaeii
noaeeoue ii oneiaiiio ciaeo. Eiioo?iuie oneiaiuie ciaeaie ecia?aaeathony
eana, eoaa, iaoie, ii?y, ica?a e o. i. A?aieoeu yoeo Eiioo?ia
au/a?/eaathony oi/a/iui ioieoe?ii, a ieiuaaeue aioo?e eiioo?a
caiieiyaony iaeiiia?aciuie cia/eaie, eioi?ua e yaeythony eiioo?iuie
oneiaiuie ciaeaie.

Ianoiua i?aaeiaou, eioi?ua ia au?aaeathony ia ieaia eee ea?oa a
ianooaaa, ecia?aaeathony aiaianooaaiuie oneiaiuie ciaeaie n nio?aiaieai
oi/iiai iieiaeaiey ine eee oeaio?a i?aaeiaoa. Iai?eia?, aei?iao
ecia?aaeatho oae, /oi i?iaeoeey aa ine nio?aiyao naia ianoi, ii
i?aoaaee/eaaaony aa oe?eia. Aiaianooaaiuie oneiaiuie ciaeaie
ecia?aaeathony aeaeaciua e oinnaeiua aei?iae e eo yeaiaiou (eeeiiao?iaua
noieau, oeacaoaee e o. ae.), eieiaeoeu, iaeioi?ua i?aaei?eyoey,
?oaeieee, aaiaeace/aneea ioieou e ae?. Iiynieoaeueiua oneiaiua ciaee
neoaeao aeiiieiaieai e eiioo?iui e ianooaaiui oneiaiui iaicia/aieyi,
iai?eia? ciaee aea?aaueaa, iiiauaiiua aioo?e eiioo?ia eania, no?aeee,
iai?aaeaiea oa/aiey ?aee, e ae?.

Ii naiaio ia/a?oaieth oneiaiua ciaee aeey anao ianooaaia ii/oe
iaeeiaeiau e ioee/athony oieueei ii aaee/eia.

Niioonoaothueie yeaiaioaie oneiaiuo ciaeia e aeiiieiythueie eo yaeythony
iaaeiene, iacaaiey ianaeaiiuo ioieoia, ?ae, ai?iuo o?aaoia, ioiaoee
aa?oei, ?ane?anea ieaiia e ea?o e o. ae. Iai?eia?, aicauoaiiue ?aeueao
ecia?aaeaaony ei?e/iaaui oeaaoii, aiaeiaiu – aeaaeii-neiei, eaniua
ianneau — caeaiui e o. ae.

Aeey ninoaaeaiey no?ieoaeueiuo e ?acaeai/iuo /a?oaaeae e aaia?aeueiuo
ieaiia «No?ieoaeueiuie ii?iaie e i?aaeeaie» (NIeI) i?aaeoniao?eaathony
iniaua oneiaiua ciaee, eioi?ua iaycaoaeueiu aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee e
aaaeiinoa.

III. Iieeaiiiiao?ey – iaoiae iino?iaiey aaiaeace/aneeo naoae

Iieeaiiiiao?ey. Nouiinoue iieeaiiiiao?e/aneiai niiniaa caeeth/aaony a
i?ieiaeaiee ia ianoiinoe nenoaiu eiiaiuo eeiee, ninoaaeythueo
iieeaiiiiao?e/aneee oiae, eii?aeeiaou aa?oei eioi?iai ii?aaeaeythony
iooai ecia?aiey n aunieie noaiaiueth oi/iinoe anao noi?ii e oaeia
iiai?ioa aeaiiiai oiaea. Oeaeueth iieeaiiiiao?ee, eae e o?eaiaoeyoeee,
yaeyaony nicaeaiiua ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe aaiaeace/aneie naoe iii?iuo
ioieoia, aeey eioi?uo cia/aiey eii?aeeiao ii?aaeaeythony a
iauaainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaia.

Iieeaiiiiao?e/aneea oiaeu iau/ii i?ieeaaeuaatho eee iaaeaeo
o?eaiaoeyoeeiiiuie ioieoaie, eee caieiooui iieeaiiii, iie?athueiny ia
o?eaiaoeyoeeiiiue ioieo. Niaieoiiinoue iieeaiiiiao?e/aneeo oiaeia
ninoaaeyao iieeaiiiiao?e/aneoth naoue.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeaiiiiao?e/aneay naoue ii oi/iinoe iieo/aaiuo
?acoeueoaoia aeaeeony, eae e o?eaiaoeyoeey, ia eeannu; ioieou
iieeaiiiiao?ee oaeaea cae?aieythony ia ianoiinoe i?i/iuie ciaeaie. A
iieeaiiiiao?e/aneeo oiaeao noi?iiu ecia?ythony eee iaiin?aaenoaaiii, eee
i?e iiiiue aeaeueiiia?ia, eee ii?aaeaeythony ec au/eneaiee ia iniiaa
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ecia?aiee.

Iaoiae aaiaeace/aneeo cana/ae. Yoio iaoiae aaaaeai a i?iecaiaenoai a
iineaaeiea aiaeu i?io. A. E. Aeo?iaaui. Aeiionoei, o?aaoaony
ii?aaeaeeoue aaiaeace/aneea eii?aeeiaou ioieoia I, N, ?, …. A yoii
neo/aa auae?atho eo ia ianoiinoe oae, /oiau n eaaeaeiai ec ieo auea
iaania/aia acaeiiay aeaeeiinoue aeey ecia?aiey oaeia (iai?aaeaiee) ia
niaaeiua ioieou. Caoai ii iaa noi?iiu ia?o?ooa AA iaia/atho i?aaeiaou V1
e V2, R1 e R2, L1 e L2, iicaieythuea i?iecaiaeeoue ia ieo aece?iaaiea n
oi/ae ia?o?ooa. Oaeeie i?aaeiaoaie ia ianoiinoe iiaoo auoue niaoeeaeueii
ono?aeaaaiua iiiciaaaoaeueiua ciaee eee nouanoaothuea: oieee caeaiee,
caaiaeneea o?oau, ?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiua o?eaiaoeyoeeiiiua neaiaeu e
ie?aieaeu e ae?oaea i?aaeiaou. Eii?aeeiaou ia/aeueiiai ioieoa A e aeeeia
e aceioo eee aee?aeoeeiiiue oaie enoiaeiie noi?iiu AI aeieaeiu auoue
ii?aaeaeaiu ?aiaa. Ecia?ea a ioieoao A e I ai?eciioaeueiua oaeu A, e I,
e A2 e I2, iiaeii ec o?aoaieueieeia AV1I e AV2I aeaaaeaeu ii?aaeaeeoue
eii?aeeiaou ioieoa I e aee?aeoeeiiiua oaeu e aeeeiu noi?ii IV1 e IV2,
eioi?ua aoaeoo enoiaeiuie aeey neaaeothueo o?aoaieueieeia: IV1N e IV2N.
Ecia?yy ai?eciioaeueiua oaeu i?e oi/eao I e N a o?aoaieueieeao IV1N e
IV2N, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eii?aeeiaou ioieoa N. Oae iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
eii?aeeiaou anao ioieoia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ii ia?o?ooo AA. Iiiooii iiaoo
auoue ii?aaeaeaiu e eii?aeeiaou aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ioieoia V1, V2, R1 R2.
Enoiaeiui aianoi ioieoa A iiaeao auoue, iai?eia?, ioieo V1; a yoii
neo/aa aeieaeia auoue ecaanoia aeeeia noi?iiu AV1 e aa aceioo eee
aee?aeoeeiiiue oaie. Oaeie iaoiae nicaeaiey iii?iie aaiaeace/aneie naoe
eiaao aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea e iniaaiii i?e nicaeaiee iii?iuo
naoae aeey nuaiie, auiieiyaiuo ?acee/iuie aaaeiinoaaie aeey eiaeaia?iuo
e aiaiiuo oeaeae.

III. Auiin ieeaoa ia e?eaoth

Auiin ieeaoia. Aeaeaeaiea ia aei?iaao i?ienoiaeeo ia ii oaiaainai, a ii
e?eaui, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii e n/ao ieeaoia aanoe ia ii oaiaainai, a ii
e?eaui. Ii?aaeaeaiea iieiaeaiey ieeaoia ia e?eaie iacuaaaony auiinii
ieeaoia ia e?eaoth. N yoie oeaeueth i?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeytho ieeaoiia
iaicia/aiea ia/aea e?eaie. Aeey yoiai io ieeaoiiai iaicia/aiey oaea
iiai?ioa ioieiatho oaiaain e?eaie e iieo/atho ieeaoiia iaicia/aiea
ia/aea e?eaie. I?eaaaea e ieeaoiiio iaicia/aieth iieiaeio aeoae e?eaie,
iieo/atho ieeaoiia iaicia/aiea na?aaeeiu e?eaie. Anee e ia/aeo e?eaie
i?eaaaeoue anth aeeeio aa, oi iieo/eony ieeaoiia iaicia/aiea eiioea
e?eaie. Ieeaoiia iaicia/aiea eiioea e?eaie iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, anee e
ieeaoiiio iaicia/aieth ia/aea e?eaie i?eaaaeoue aeaa oaiaaina e ioiyoue
aeiia? Ae. Eceiaeaiiia caeanue ?anniio?ei ia i?eia?a, i?iecaaaey
au/eneaiey /a?ac aeeeio e?eaie E e /a?ac aeiia? Ae ii neaaeothuae noaia:

IEOI . . . _ 21 + 17,50 IEOI . . . .- 21 + 17,50

O. . . 5 + 36,63 O. . . + 5 + 36,63

IE IE. . . ,15 + 80,87 OI + O. . . 26 + 54,13

E. . . ^ 9 + 31,58 Ae. . . 1+41,68

IE EE . . . 25 + 12,45 IE EE . . . 25 + 12,45

Ieeao NE=IE ss/A+ 0,5ss= 1580,87 + 465,79 = 2046,66 = = E/A-20 +46,66
ae.

Aeey iieo/aiey IE 26 iaiaoiaeeii ia i?iaeieaeaiee oaiaainia AN
ioeiaeeoue io oi/ee N eaioie io?acie 87,55 i, eioi?ue iieo/aaony eae
?aciinoue: 100—12,45 = 87,55 i. Oaia?ue inoaaony ii?aaeaeeoue ia e?eaie
ieeaou 16, 17, …, 25. IE16 aoaeao eaaeaoue ia e?eaie a 19,13 i, n/eoay
ii aeoaa io ia/aea e?eaie (100—80,87 = 19,13); aeoaa io ia/aea e?eaie
aei 17-ai ieeaoa aeey iaoaai i?eia?a aoaeao ?aaia 119,13 i, a aeey 18-ai
ieeaoa— 219,13 i e o. ae. Ianoiiieiaeaiey yoeo ieeaoia ia e?eaie iiaoo
auoue ii?aaeaeaiu, anee aeey eaaeaeiai ec ieo au/eneeoue i?yiioaieueiua
eii?aeeiaou X’ e Y ii oi?ioeai, aeey /aai, ciay aeeeiu aeoa io ia/aea
e?eaie aei yoeo ieeaoia, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ii?aaeaeytho oaie 3„ ii
oi?ioea.

V. Iino?iaiea ai?eciioaeueiuo oaeia ia ianoiinoe (niinia ioeiaeaiee e
?aaeooee?iaaiey)

Iino?iaiea ia ianoiinoe i?yiuo oaeia i?e iiiiue yeea?a

I?e iiiiue yeea?a ia ianoiinoe iiaeii:

a) ainnoaiiaeoue ia?iaiaeeeoey? e aeaiiie i?yiie ec aeaiiie ia iaoi/ee;

a) ec oi/ee, aeaiiie aia i?yiie, iionoeoue ia?iaiaeeeoey? ia aeaiioth
i?yioth.

Iaiaoiaeeii aeiaaaeoue, /oi i?e ?acaeai/iuo ?aaioao iaaieueoie oi/iinoe
iino?iaiea oaeia yeea?ii i?eiaiyaony /anoi.

Yeea? iaania/eaaao aeinoaoi/ioth oi/iinoue i?e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
?acaeaeao aeey caieyiuo ?aaio (eioeiaaiia, ianuiae, auaiie), i?e
?acaeaea iiia?a/ieeia aeey ieaaee?iaaiey iaaieueoeo iiaa?oiinoae e,
iaeiiaoe, i?e ?acaeaeao aeey iaaieueoeo a?aiaiiuo nii?oaeaiee: neeaaeia,
iaaania e ae?oaeo aniiiiaaoaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee no?ieaai ieaia.

2. Iino?iaiea ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia ?oeaoeie eee eaioie

a) Iino?iaiea i?yiiai oaea e eeiee

I?aaeiieiaeei, o?aaoaony iino?ieoue i?yiie oaie e eeiee AA (?en. II, a).
I?e ionoonoaee yeea?a yoo caaea/o iiaeii ?aoeoue i?e iiiiue eaiou eee
?oeaoee. Ioia?yai ia eeiee io?acie AN. ?aaiue 8 i. Caoai i?iaiaeei ia
ianoiinoe oieeueeie aeaa aeoae: aeoao aUe ?aaeeonii 6 ae e aeoao nA
?aaeeonii 10 i, cae?aieyy eiiaoe eaiou niioaaonoaaiii a oi/eao A e N. A
ia?ana/aiee aeoa iieo/ei oi/eo Ae. Oi/eo Ae iiaeii iieo/eoue ia i?iaiaey
aeoa, anee a oi/ea A aea?aeaoue ioeaaie eiiaoe eaiou (?oeaoee), a a
oi/ea N — oi ianoi ia?iiai i?eai?a, eioi?ia ioeeo?iaaii 16 i, oiaaea
ianoi n ioeeo?iaeie 6 oeaaeao oi/eo Ae.

Yoio niinia iacuaaaony niiniaii «aaeiaoneiai o?aoaieueieea». Eca?aiiua
Oeeo?u iiaoo auoue e ae?oaeie, iai?eia? 3, 4 e 5 eee 12. 16 e 20.

Iioneaiea ec oi/ee ia?iaiaeeeoey?a ia i?yioth

I?aaeiieiaeei, oi/ea A iaoiaeeony io eeiee AN ia ?annoiyiee, iaiueoai
aeeeiu ?oeaoee eee eaiou. I?eeiaeea iaeei eiiaoe ia?iiai i?eai?a e oi/ea
E, ae?oaei aai eiioeii naeaeaai ia eeiee AN cana/ee a aeaoo ianoao — Ue
e n. Ecia?ea e ?acaeaeea io?acie iiiieai, iieo/ei oi/eo Ae. AAe yaeyaony
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e AN.

3. Ia?aianaiea i?iaeoiuo oaeia a iaoo?o

Ai?eciioaeueiue oaie ia?aiinyo ia ianoiinoue neaaeothuei iooai.
Aeiionoei, /oi a oi/ea E o?aaoaony iino?ieoue oaie AAN. Ionoue i?e
iieiaeaiee EI iu iieo/eee oaie AAN1 e i?e EE oaie AAN2, ?acaeaeea
?annoiyiea N1N2 iiiieai, iieo/ei oi/eo N. Oaie AAN aoaeao naiaiaeai io
aeeyiey eieeeiaoeeiiiie ioeaee. Anee o?aaoaony iino?ieoue oaie,
niaea?aeauee aeiee ieioou eee naeoiaeu, iai?eia? 42011/18//, oi
iinooiatho neaaeothuei ia?acii, No?iyo a oi/ea A oaeu 42° 11/ e 42 12′
(i?e iaee/ee iaeiiieiooiiai oaiaeieeoa) eee 42°11’00e42°11″CI” (i?e
iaee/ee o?eaeoeaoenaeoiaeiiai oaiaeieeoa).

Iieo/ea oi/ee N1 eN2, iaoiaeyo oi/eo N iooai eioa?iieyoeee io?acea N1N2
aeey aaee/eiu oaea 42° 11′ 18″. Iai?eia?, anee io?acie N1N2 ?aaai 48 ii
e oaie iino?iai iaeiiieiooiui oaiaeieeoii, oi N1N2
=picscalex100010009000003ef00000003001c000000000005000000090200000000050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 = 14 ii.

Anee o?aaoaony iino?ieoue oaie oi/iinoueth, i?aauoathuae oi/iinoue
ion/aoa, iinooiatho neaaeothuei ia?acii. Iai?eia?, o?aaoaony iino?ieoue
oio aea oaie 42°11’18”. Ia ianoiinoe i?eaeeaeaiii i?e iaeiii iieiaeaiee
e?oaa no?iyo oaie aeeceee caaeaiiiio, iai?eia? 42°11’18//. Caoai yoio
oaie iaia?ytho i?e aeaoo iieiaeaieyo e?oaa o?aiy /aou?ueiy i?eaiaie e
aa?oo ec ?acoeueoaoia n?aaeiaa a?eoiaoe/aneia. Aeiionoei, n?aaeiyy
aaee/eia oaea ieaaeaony ?aaiie 42° 11 ’38//. Eae aeaeii, iino?iaiiue
oaie AAN aieueoa caaeaiiie aaee/eiu ia 42°11’38” – 42°11/18″ = 20″.

*oiau iieo/eoue ia ianoiinoe caaeaiiue oaie, ecia?ytho ?annoiyiea AN1
eaioie, ainnoaiaaeeaatho a oi/ea N1 ia?iaiaeeeoey? e aaee/eio iii?aaee
N1N2, niioaaonoaothuoth 20″, ioia?ytho ?oeaoeie.

Aaee/eio io?acea N1N2 ii?aaeaeytho ec i?yiioaieueiiai o?aoaieueieea
AN1N2, a eioi?ii oaie N1AN2 — 20″

Ionoue ?annoiyiea AN1 = 150 i, oiaaea

N1N2= AN1tg20// = 150 o 0,000097 = 0,0145 i = 14,5 ii.

Ioeiaeea ii ia?iaiaeeeoey?o iooi/ee N1 io?acie 14,5 ii, iieo/ei oi/eo
N2. Oaie AAN2 aoaeao ?aaai eneiiie aaee/eia 42°11/18″.

Ia ieaiao ai?eciioaee iiaeii no?ieoue a?aoe/aneei eee aiaeeoe/aneei
niiniaii.

A?aoe/aneee niinia. Ionoue o?aaoaony iino?ieoue ai?eciioaee /a?ac 10i ii
aunioa iaaeaeo oi/eaie I e N n aeueoeooaeaie a 123 e a 166 i. Aeey yoiai
aicueiai iieineo aoiaae e ia iae i?iaaaeai ia i?iecaieueiuo, ii ?aaiuo
iaaeaeo niaie ?annoiyieyo ?yae ia?aeeaeueiuo eeiee: aUe, cd, oi e o.ae.
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo yoeie eeieyie, eioi?ua eae au caiaiytho niaie naeouea
ieineinoe, i?eieiatho ?aaiui na/aieth iaaeaeo ai?eciioaeyie; aeey iaoaai
i?eia?a h = 10 i. Aeiionoei, /oi ieaeiyy eeiey eiaao aeueoeooaeo,
?aaioth 120 i, oiaaea i?e na/aiee a 10 i eaaeaeay iineaaeothuay eeiey
aoaeao eiaoue aeueoeooaeu 130 i, 140 i e o. ae.

Ia yoie aoiaaeiie iieinea aicueiai eeiee XX e OO ia ?annoiyiee, ?aaiii
?annoiyieth iaaeaeo oi/eaie I e N, e ia ieo iaiaoei a niioaaonoaothueo
ianoao oi/ee I e N (niaeanii eo aeueoeooaeai) e niaaeeiei eo i?yiie.
Iaeeiiiay eeiey IN ia?ana/ao ai?eciioaeueiua eeiee a oi/eao A, A, N e D
eioi?ua yaeythony ianoaie auoiaea naeoueo ieineinoae ia?oaeo. Oaia?ue
inoaaony yoe oi/ee ia?aianoe ia eeieth IN. Aeey yoiai i?eeeaaeuaaai
iieineo aoiaae e eeiee IN oae, /oiau eeiey XX i?ioiaeeea /a?ac oi/eo I,
a eeiey OO /a?ac oi/eo N, e i?oiaiiaeueii i?iaeoe?oai oi/ee A, A, N e D
ia eeieth IN. Caeanue io?acee A’A’, A’N/ e o.ae. yaeythony ?annoiyieyie
ia ieaia iaaeaeo ninaaeieie ai?eciioaeyie. Aeey oaeiai niiniaa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey oi/ae oaeiaii iieueciaaoueny i?ioeeueiie (ieeeeiao?iaie)
aoiaaie, oae eae eiathueany ia iae ai?eciioaeueiua e aa?oeeaeueiua
eeiee, i?iaaaeaiiua /a?ac eaaeaeue ieeeeiao?, iicaieytho aieaa oi/ii
ioeeaaeuaaoue ?annoiyiee ie eeieyo XX e YY, e n oaeie aoiaae oaeiaiaa
i?iaeoe?iaaoue oi/ee A, A, N; eiiaaea oaeea iieinee ia?acatho ec
aineiaee.

Iaoiaeaeaiea ia eeiee IN oi/ae, /a?ac eioi?ua i?ieaeoo ai?eciioaee,
iacuaaaony eioa?iiee?iaaieai. Aeey iino?iaiey ai?eciioaeae ia ieaiao
i?iecaiaeyo eioa?iiee?iaaiea iaaeaeo niioaaonoaothueie ia?aie oi/ae n
ecaanoiuie aeueoeooaeaie e niaaeeiytho iieo/aiiua eioa?iiee?iaaieai
oi/ee, eiathuea iaeeiaeiaua aeueoeooaeu. Ai?eciioaee iaiaoiaeeii
i?iaiaeeoue ieaaiuie e?eauie eeieyie a niioaaonoaee n ecaeaaie
ecia?aaeaaiie ia ieaia oa??eoi?ee. ?aceea eceiiu ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe
iiaeii ano?aoeoue oieueei a ai?iuo oneiaeyo eee a ianoao, ?aciuaaaiuo
i?ioi/iuie aiaeaie. Aiaeeoe/aneee niinia. Eae i?e a?aoe/aneii, oae e i?e
aiaeeoe/aneii niiniaa i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi ii eeiee iaaeaeo oi/eaie I e
N iiaa?oiinoue caiee ia eiaao ia?aaeaia e eceiiia. Enoiaey ec yoiai
oneiaey, iiaeii i?e iiiiue aanueia i?inouo ?an/aoia ii?aaeaeeoue ianoa
ia ieaia, /a?ac eioi?ua i?ieaeoo ai?eciioaee.

*oiau iieo/eoue aiaeeoe/aneei niiniaii ioaeiua ia ieaia ?annoiyiey IA”,
IA”, . . ., iinooiatho oae. Aeey i?ioeey eeiee IN, iino?iaiiiai ii
aeueoeooaeai aa eiia/iuo oi/ae, aaaaeai iaicia/aiey: Nb’ = h— i?aauoaiea
oi/ee N iaae oi/eie I; Ib’ = L—?annoiyiea ia ieaia iaaeaeo oi/eaie I e
N; AA”,AA”, NN” =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 IA”, IA”, MN”
= Ii,-eneiiua ?annoiyiey, eioi?ua iiaeii ii?aaeaeyoue ec
niioaaonoaothueo iiaeiaiuo o?aoaieueieeia. Iai?eia?, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
?annoiyiey IA” = aA’ ec iiaeiaey o?aoaieueieeia Ib’N e IA”A neaaeoao
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ioeoaea
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Ii oi?ioea 2 iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ?annoiyiea L aei eneiiie ai?eciioaee io
oie ec aeaoo oi/ae, eioi?ay eiaao iaeiaiueooth aeueoeooaeo. Caeanue L e
h aeey anae eeiee IN inoathony iinoiyiiuie aaee/eiaie, a eciaiyaony
oieueei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, eioi?ay
eaaeaeue ?ac ii?aaeaeyaony, eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo aeueoeooaeie oi/ee,
/a?ac eioi?oth aeieaeia i?ieoe aeaiiay ai?eciioaeue, e iaeiaiueoae
aeueoeooaeie oie ec aeaoo oi/ae, iaaeaeo eioi?uie i?iecaiaeyo
eioa?iiee?iaaiea. Au/eneaiiua ?annoiyiey Li,- ioeeaaeuaathony ia eeiee
io oi/ee n iaeiaiueoae aeueoeooaeie. Oae iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu ia ieaia
ana oi/ee, /a?ac eioi?ua aeieaeiu i?ieoe eneiiua ai?eciioaee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iienaiiua niiniau iino?iaiey ai?eciioaeae
i?eiaiythony i?e i?iaaaeaiee ai?eciioaeae ia iaeaieaa oi/iuo ieaiao, o.
a., eiaaea ioiaoee oi/ae ii?aaeaeaiu n?aaieoaeueii oi/iuie niiniaaie.
I?e iau/iie oiiia?aoe/aneie nuaiea iiuoiua oiiia?aou i?iecaiaeyo
eioa?iiee?iaaiea ii ioiaoeai, iiaeienaiiui ia ieaia ia aeac, aeinoeaay
i?e yoii aeinoaoi/iie oi/iinoe e au?aceoaeueiinoe ecia?aaeaiey ?aeueaoa.

V? ?acaeai/iua ?aaiou i?e iiioaaea aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eieiii

?acaeaea inae eioeiaaia aeey iiioaaea nai?iuo aeaeaciaaoiiiuo
ooiaeaiaioia e noai iiaeaaeia aeeeuo e ae?oaeo a?aaeaeaineeo caeaiee
i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa iaiinee, ono?aeaaaiie ii ia?eiao?o caeaiey.
Iaeiaei ?acaeaea iiaeao auoue auiieiaia e aac iiiiue iaiinee.

Ia?oaeiua e aioo?aiiea a?aie ooiaeaiaioia oeene?otho iaoyioouie oio?aie
eee oiieie i?iaieieie. Ii yoiio oio?o iaia/atho i?iaeoiia iieiaeaiea
eaaeaeiai aeiea e caoai ia/eiatho iiioaae n oaea caeaiey. Cano?iiiaaiiue
aeie iiaeieiatho e?aiii, iiai?ioii no?aeu ia?aiauatho e ianoo onoaiiaee
e iioneatho aai ia iniiaaiea. Caoai aac ?ano?iiiaee aeiea i?iaa?ytho
o?iaiai ai?eciioaeueiia, a ioaanii aa?oeeaeueiia iieiaeaiey aeiea ii
ine. Oi/ioth iaaiaeeo aeiea a i?iaeoiia iieiaeaiea ?aaoee?otho eiieeii,
iinea /aai no?iiu nieiatho, e oeeaaeea neaaeothueo aeieia ?yaea
i?iaeieaeaaony ii oio?o e oieeueeai.

I?eiaiyaony e ae?oaie niinia onoaiiaee ooiaeaiaioiuo aeieia, i?e eioi?ii
nia/aea onoaiaaeeaatho oaeiaua aeiee ?aaea, caoai i?eia?ii /a?ac
eaaeaeua 20 i oeeaaeuaatho iay/iua aeiee e ii oio?o-i?e/aeea, iaoyiooie
ia ?annoiyiee 5 ii io oi?oeia aeieia, ?aciauatho aan i?iiaaeooi/iua
aeiee. I?e yoii niiniaa inaaay i?iaieiea iinea iiioaaea oaeiauo e
iay/iuo aeieia nieiaaony.

Aunioiia iieiaeaiea iiaeaioiaee iiae ooiaeaiaiou i?iaa?yaony ii
ieaaee?o. I?e iaee/ee aeoaieeo eioeiaaiia iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
i?iecaanoe ia?aaea/o ioiaoee ia aeii eioeiaaia. Ia?aae oeeaaeeie
ooiaeaiaioiuo aeieia i?iecaiaeeony i?iaa?ea ieaaee?ii ioiaoie caeiaeaiey
ooiaeaiaioia iiae ia?oaeiua e aioo?aiiea noaiu a oi/eao ia?aeiia
i?iaeieueiiai i?ioeey iniiaaiey.

VII. Iaaethaeaiea ca inaaeeaie nii?oaeaiee

Oaoie/aneea oneiaey ia i?iecaiaenoai e i?eaieo iauano?ieoaeueiuo e
niaoeeaeueiuo ?aaio o?aaotho o/aoa inaaeee eaieoaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee. I?e
aicaaaeaiee oaeeo nii?oaeaiee aaiaeace/aneea iaaethaeaiey aeieaeiu
niioonoaiaaoue i?ioeanno iino?ieee e i?iaeieaeaoueny a ia?eiae eo
yenieoaoaoeee aieioue aei noaaeeecaoeee inaaeie. ?acee/atho inaaeeo
?aaiiia?ioth e ia?aaiiia?ioth. A ia?aii neo/aa nii?oaeaiea ia?aiauaaony
aa?oeeaeueii, a ai aoi?ii — e?aieony a iaeio noi?iio. Anee ?aaiiia?iay
inaaeea nouanoaaiii ia aeeyao ia onoie/eainoue, oi ia?aaiiia?iay inaaeea
aea/ao ca niaie aai aeaoi?iaoeee. Iiyoiio aaiaeace/aneea iaaethaeaiey
i?iecaiaeyony aeey iaia?oaeaiey ia?aaiiia?iie inaaeee. Aeey yoiai
caeeaaeuaathony ieaaee?iua ciaee: enoiaeiua ioieou (aeoaeiiua
iaiiaeaeaeiua ?aia?u) e ia?ee, iaaethaeay iieiaeaiea eioi?uo
ii?aaeaeytho aaee/eio inaaeee. Nouiinoue iaaethaeaiee caeeth/aaony a
nenoaiaoe/aneii ecia?aiee i?aauoaiee iaaeaeo ?aia?aie e ia?eaie.

Oae eae aaee/eia e oa?aeoa? inaaeie ooiaeaiaioia nii?oaeaiee caaenyo ia
oieueei io i?inaaei/iinoe a?oioa e iaa?ocee ia iniiaaiea, ii e io
eiino?oeoeee ooiaeaiaioia, aaaeii i?aaeeueii ?acianoeoue ieaaee?iua
ia?ee ia ianoueo eiino?oeoeeyo nii?oaeaiey. ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ia?eaie
ninoaaeyao 10—15 i. Ia?aue oeeee iaaethaeaiee aeaao enoiaeiua ioiaoee
ia?ie, iiyoiio aaaeaony n aunieie oi/iinoueth. Aoi?ie oeeee i?iaiaeeony
iinea aicaaaeaiey ooiaeaiaioa, a iineaaeothuea oeeeeu ia?eiaee/anee
/a?ac 10—30 aeiae aei aeinoeaeaiey iieiie iaa?ocee ia iniiaaiea.

A aeaeueiaeoai iaaethaeaiey i?iaiaeyony ana ?aaea: 3 ?aca, 2 ?aca e,
iaeiiaoe, 1 ?ac a aiae.

I?e iiyaeaiee a nii?oaeaiee caiaoiuo aeaoi?iaoeee (o?auei, naeaeaia e
ae?.) iaaethaeaiey aaaeoo nenoaiaoe/anee.

Aeaoi?iaoeee oioia?aoe?othony eee ca?eniauaathony. Ecia?aiea ?ane?uoey
o?auei aaaeaony ii ?acaeaeaeiui iayeai, ninoiyuei ec aeaoo iaoaeee/aneeo
ieanoeiie, i?ee?aieyaiuo ii ?aciua noi?iiu o?auei.

Ieaaee?iaaiea auiieiyaony oi/iuie iaoiaeaie (II eee III eeanna) ni
no?iaei niaethaeaieai ?aaainoaa ?annoiyiee io eino?oiaioa aei ?aae n
aeeeiie aece?iiai eo/a ia aieaa 25 i.

A ?acoeueoaoa eaaeaeiai oeeeea iaaethaeaiee ninoaaeythony eaoaeiae
ioiaoie ia?ie e oaaeeoea inaaeie, ii aeaiiui eioi?ie no?ieony a?aoee.
Iaiouaieaiie /anoueth aaiaeace/aneeo iaaethaeaiee ca inaaeeie aunieeo
nii?oaeaiee (o?oa, aaoai e ae?.) yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea e?aia
nii?oaeaiee, oae eae i?e/eiie e?aia yaeyaony ia?aaiiia?iay inaaeea
ooiaeaiaioa. Aaee/eio e?aia nii?oaeaiee aiciiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iooai
aaiaeace/aneeo iaaethaeaiee i?e iiiiue oaiaeieeoa eee niaoeeaeueiuie
i?eai?aie.

Ii?aaeaeaiea e?aia nii?oaeaiey oaiaeieeoii. Aeey i?iaa?ee
aa?oeeaeueiinoe aunieeo caaiaeneeo ee?ie/iuo e aeaeaciaaoiiiuo o?oa eee
aaoai iinooiatho neaaeothuei ia?acii. Onoaiaaeeaatho oi?ioi auaa?aiiue
oaiaeieeo iineaaeiaaoaeueii a aeaoo acaeiiiia?iaiaeeeoey?iuo oi/eao,
?aniieiaeaiiuo i?eia?ii ia iieooi?iii ?annoiyiee io iaaethaeaaiie o?oau.
Ia eaaeaeie noaioeee i?e aeaoo iieiaeaieyo e?oaa (EI e EE) aeaeatho
/aou?a ion/aoa;

1) aa?oiee i?aaue e?ae o?oau;

2) aa?oiee eaaue e?ae o?oau;

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Aanna? ss.?., I?ineo?ei A.I., Iiioaae naiaeiuo aeaeaciaaoiiiuo
eiino?oeoeee, O?oae?aca?aecaeao, 1985a.

2. Aeaeoaa I.A., ?aeeoiaAe.E., e ae.?., Iniiau aaiaeace/aneeo
?acaeai/iuo ?aaio, Ainno?ieecaeao ONN?, 1960a.

3. A?iiooaei A.N., A?a/eoeei A.O., ?acaeaea aaiaeace/aneie no?ieoaeueiie
naoee, Aaiaeacecaeao, 1960a.

4. Oa?aia?oo I.E., Aaiaeacey a no?ieoaeuenoaa., Ainno?ieecaeao, 1961a.

5. Aieeia I.I., I?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu ea?oiiao?ee, Ecae. AI NNN?, 1950a.

6. Aeo?iaa A.E., Iiaua nenoaiu iino?iaiey aaiaeace/aneeo naoae,
Aaiaeacecaeao, 1952a.

7. O?aiia E.N. Aaiaeacey, Ai?eanaoiecaeao., 1955a.

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