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Европейский юг, Урало-Поволжье и Восточный макрорегион России

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?aoa?ao

ia oaio: «Aa?iiaeneee tha, O?aei-Iiaieaeuea e Ainoi/iue iae?i?aaeii
?innee»

AA?IIAENEEE THA

Aa?iiaeneee THa — naiue iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue ?aeii ?innee: caeanue
i?iaeeaatho 42 ia?iaea, aiai?yueo aieaa /ai ia 100 aeeaeaeoao.

Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiinoue — neaaenoaea neiaeiie e aeeeoaeueiie enoi?ee
oi?ie?iaaiey ?aeiia. Caaeieai aei iaoae y?u ii aai ?aaieiai ei/aaaee
neeou. A ?aciua a?aiaia caeanue aeeee a?aee e aoiiu, iiiaieu e iieiaoeu,
aaeuae e aeaiu, oaca?u e iinou. Neaayia, aeeaouea a iniiaiii ia
?aaieiiuo oa??eoi?eyo, iiyaeeenue ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca a IX a. i. y. Iie
iniiaaee caeanue e?oiiue ai?iae Oaiaiue. Iniaaiii iano? iaoeeiiaeueiue
ninoaa a ai?ao, neoaeeaoeo anoanoaaiiui ?oaaaeii iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
yoie/aneeie a?oiiaie.

A i?e?iaeiii ioiioaiee ?aeii aeeth/aao aeaa ?acee/iuo oeia oa??eoi?ee —
?aaieiu aannaeia Aeiia e I?aaeeaaeacuey e nianoaaiii Eaaeac, aai
i?aaeai?ioth e ai?ioth /anoe.

Eaaeac ioiineony e iieiaeui ai?ai yiioe eaeiicieneie neeaae/aoinoe.
I?ioeann ai?iia?aciaaiey caeanue aua i?iaeieaeaaony, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeinoaoi/ii /anoua caieao?ynaiey. A ai?ao aaeeee
caianu aieueo?aiiai-iieeaaeaiiauo ?oae, a ?ac?aaaouaaaiua aeec
Aeaaeeeaaeaca ianoi?iaeaeaiey naeioeiai-oeeieiauo ?oae oaea neeueii
enoiuaiu.

Ia inaaei/iuo ii?iaeao I?aaeeaaeacneiai i?iaeaa ioe?uou ianoi?iaeaeaiey
iaooe e aaca. Iaooyiua i?iiuneu aicieeee a ia/aea XX a. aeec A?iciiai e
Iaeeiia. Aeiau/a aaca (a iniiaiii a Noaa?iiieuea) ia/aeanue a
iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae. Ia oa??eoi?eth ?aeiia caoiaeeo ainoi/iia e?uei
oaieueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee Aeiiaanna aeiaieueii aunieiai ea/anoaa. Oaieue
caeaaaao aeoaiei e oiieeie ieanoaie, iiyoiio aai aeiau/a aei?iaa.
Cia/eoaeueiu aeae?i?ano?nu ai?iuo ?ae e aaioa?iaeueiuo enoi/ieeia.
Nianoaaiiua yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu iaania/eaatho ?aaioo OYN (ia aaca,
iaooai?iaeoeoao, oaea), AYN (ia ai?iuo ?aeao); iino?iaia ?inoianeay AYN.

Eeeiao Eaaeaca /?acau/aeii aeaaii?eyoai aeey naeueneiai e
?ae?aaoeeiiiiai oicyenoaa, a ?aciiia?acea eaiaeoaooia oneeeaaao eo
niaoeeaeecaoeeth. Aieueoay /anoue ?aaieiiie oa??eoi?ee iaoiaeeony a
noaiiie ciia, eioi?ay e ainoieo ia?aoiaeeo a iieoionouie I?eeaniey.
Neeiiu Eaaeacneeo ai? aei auniou 2000 i iie?uou eanaie, a *a?iiii?neia
iiaa?aaeuea aeecei e ?aeiiai noao?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa.

Aeaaiay niaoeeaeecaoeey oicyenoaa ?aeiia — aa?ii?iiuoeaiiue eiiieaen,
aeathuee 50% i?iaeoeoeee aa?iiaeneiai THaa.

Naeueneia oicyenoai aanueia ?aciiia?acii. Iniiao ?anoaieaaiaenoaa
ninoaaeytho ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u: iceiay ioaieoea (Eoaaii-I?eacia-neea
?aaieiu, Noaa?iiieuea, Naeueneea noaie), eoeo?oca ia ca?ii
(Noaa?iiieuea, i?aaeai?iua e ai?iua ?aeiiu), ?en (aeieeiu Eoaaie, Aeiia
e ae?oaeo ?ae).

Naeueneia oicyenoai Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca ciiaeueii: ia caiaaea ?aeiia
au?aueaatho ioaieoeo, eoeo?oco, ?en, naoa?ioth naaeeo, iiaenieia/iee;
caeanue ?acaeoi iyni-iiei/iia neioiaiaenoai e naeiiaiaenoai (ia iooiaeao
naoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa); ia ainoiea Noaa?iiieuey aneaaenoaea aieueoae
nooinoe naeiiaiaenoai caiauaaony iaoeaaiaenoaii; a I?eeaniee ?acaeoi
ianoaeuiia iaoeaaiaenoai; iniaia cia/aiea eiaao oiiei?oiiia
iaoeaaiaenoai (?inoianeay iaeanoue, Noaa?iiieuea, ?aaieiu Aeaaanoaia), a
i?aaeai?iie iieina — naaeiaiaenoai, aeiia?aaea?noai, iaiuaaiaenoai; ia
*a?iiii?neii iiaa?aaeuea — oeeo?oniaua, oaaae, aeiia?aae. E?aniiaea?neee
e?ae — ?aeii /aaaiaenoaa.

Ia aa?iiaeneii THaa anoue ii/oe ana io?anee, ia?a?aaaouaathuea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiia nu?uea: iyniay, ianeiaieiay, ianeiaeaeueiay,
naoa?iay, eiiaeeoa?neay, ieiaeiiaiuaeiina?aiay, ioeiiieueiay,
e?aoiaeiiaoi/iay, aeiiaeaeue/aneay e iiiaea ae?oaea.

A ?aeiia ia iniiaa nianoaaiiie iaoaeeo?ae/aneie aacu (Ainoi/iue
Aeiiaann) ?acaeaathony iaoaeeiaieia iaoeiino?iaiea e oeie/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. A Aieaiaeiinea iino?iai oeaio? ioa/anoaaiiiai aoiiiiai
iaoeiino?iaiey «Aoiiiao», a Iiai/a?eannea auioneaaony aieueoay /anoue
?inneeneeo yeaeo?iaicia. ?acaeoi i?eai?i- e noaieino?iaiea,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiia iaoeiino?iaiea, i?iecaiaenoai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey
ia?a?aaaouaathueo io?aneae ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca
i?iecaiaeeony 80% ca?iioai?i/iuo eiiaaeiia no?aiu (?inoia-ia-Aeiio,
Oaaai?ia), iaoeiu aeey aicaeaeuaaiey aeiia?aaea.

A ai?iuo ?aeiiao Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca iaaeinoaoie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
caiaeue ecaeaaia niinianoaiaae ?acaeoeth ?aciiia?aciuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
i?iiuneia.

Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea aeey ?innee eiatho eo?i?ou Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca:
enoi/ieee Eaaeacneeo Ieia?aeueiuo Aiae (caeanue nin?aaeioi/aii 30%
caiania ea/aaiuo a?ycae e ieia?aeueiuo aiae no?aiu), /a?iiii?neea
ai?iaea Ni/e, Aiaia e Aaeaiaeaeee, ai?iieuaeiua e aeueieienoneea
oo?enoneea ?aeiiu Eaaeacneeo ai?. Nae/an ea/aaiua e eo?i?oiua
o/?aaeaeaiey Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca iiaoo iaeiia?aiaiii i?eiyoue 400 oun.
/ae. Iieiaeia yoiai iioaioeeaea i?eoiaeeony ia E?aniiaea?neee, a o/3 —
ia Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae.

O?AEI-IIAIEAEUeA

A ninoaa ?aaeiia aoiaeyo aeaa yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiia — O?aeueneee e
Iiaieaeneee, iauaaeeiaiiuo ia oieueei aaeeinoaii aaia?aoe/aneiai
iieiaeaiey, ii e oaniuie oicyenoaaiiuie naycyie.

Iauay ieiuaaeue ?aaeiia — 1360 oun. ei2 (8% oa??eoi?ee no?aiu),
ianaeaiea — 37 iei /ae. (25% ianaeaiey ?innee). I?e cia/eoaeueiuo
aioo?aiieo ?acee/eyo yoeo ?aeiiia o ieo anoue e iauea /a?ou,
iauaaeeiythuea aoiaeyuea a ?aaeii oa??eoi?ee: auaiaeiia aaia?aoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea; aiaaonoai, ?aciiia?acea e acaeiiaeiiieiyaiinoue i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia; naiaia?acea e iiuue yeiiiieee; neiaeiinoue nioeeaeueiuo e
yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai.

O?aei-Iiaieaeuea naycuaaao aiaaeeii aeaa /anoe ?innee, iaania/eaay eo
yeiiiie/aneoth oeaeinoiinoue, auiieiyao
o?ainii?oii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeue-ioth ooieoeeth iaaeaeo Caiaaeiui e
Ainoi/iui noa?aaeiiaie. ?aaeii noi?ie?iaaeny aaeieue aeaoo aeaaiuo inae,
auoyioouo n naaa?a ia tha, — ?aee Aieae e O?aeueneeo ai?, i?eaeathueo
aio naiaia?acioth oi?io. O?aei-Iiaieaeuea yaeyaony ianoii niueaiey:
aeaoo /anoae naaoa; ?acee/iuo o/anoeia caiiie ei?u; ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i
?aeueaoa; ianeieueeeo eeeiaoe/aneeo iaeanoae e i?e?iaeiuo cii.

O?aei-Iiaieaeuea ?aniieaaaao ?aciiia?aciuie iieaciuie eneiiaaiuie: a
i?aaeaeao inaaei/iiai /aoea ?onneie ?aaieiu e a I?aaeo?aeue-neii e?aaaii
i?iaeaa — iaooue e aac (aoi?ay ii cia/aieth i?iaeioeey iinea Caiaaeiie
Neae?e), ianoi?iaeaeaiey eaeeeiuo e iiaa?aiiuo nieae (1-a ianoi a
?innee), a O?aeueneeo ai?ao — ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaaeiuo, aeaeaciuo,
oeoaiiauo, aieueo?aiiauo, ieeaea-eiaaeueoiauo, naeioeiai-oeeieiauo ?oae,
aieneoia, anaanoa, a?aoeoa, o?aeueneeo naiioeaaoia (yoia, iaeaoeo,
aiaoeno). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaea ianoi?iaeaeaiey ?oae /a?iuo e
oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia en/a?iaiu. O?aei-Iiaieaeuea aiaaoi aiaeiuie ?ano?naie
(Aieaa, Eaia, Aaeay, Yiaa), ii iie ?ani?aaeaeaiu e?aeia ia?aaiiia?ii e
neeueii caa?yciaiu. O?ae a ioee/ea io Iiaieaeuey aiaao eaniuie
?ano?naie. Aa?ieeeiaoe/aneee iioaioeeae Iiaieaeuey cia/eoaeueii auoa,
/ai O?aea. I?e?iaeiua oneiaey Iiaieaeuey niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth
naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Ia aai aeieth i?eoiaeeony a/5 /anoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee e 1/4 ianoaeu ?innee, ii
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiio i?iecaiaenoao ii caieiaao 2-a ianoi (iinea
Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca).

Aeaaiaea?y iia?aie/iiio iieiaeaieth iaaeaeo aeaoiy /anoyie naaoa
ianaeaiea O?aei-Iiaieaeuey oi?ie?iaaeinue i/aiue naiaia?acii. Naaiaeiy
O?aei-Iiaieaeuea — iaeei ec naiuo iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ?aeiiia ?innee.
Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey a ?aaeiia a 3 ?aca auoa iaua?inneeneie. Iniiaiay
/anoue nin?aaeioi/aia aaeieue Aieae e O?aeueneiai o?aaoa. Caeanue
?aniieiaeaiu e?oiiaeoea ai?iaea, a eioi?uo i?iaeeaaao 74% ianaeaiey
?aaeiia. Iaeaaeay aeinoaoi/ii aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie eaae?aie, ?aaeii
a oi aea a?aiy eniuouaaao iaoaaoeo o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

O?ae — «iii?iue e?ae aea?aeaau», oaea e na?aaeeia XVIII a. caeanue
auieaaeyeinue 2/3 /a?iuo iaoaeeia e 90% iaaee ?innee. O?ae aue
e?oiiaeoei iaoaeeo?ae/aneei ?aeiiii ie?a.

Iiaieaeuea noaei i?iiuoeaiiui ?aeiiii a niaaoneee ia?eiae, nia/aea i?e
ca?iaeaeaiee e ?acaeoee «aoi?iai Aaeo», caoai a aiaeu Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, eiaaea nthaea ia?aaace?iaaeinue aieaa 300
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Auaiaeu YAI ?aaeiia i?eaaee e oiio, /oi caeanue noaee auno?i
?acaeaaoueny io?anee AIE. Ia/eiay n eiioea 40-o aiaeia ia O?aea noaee
aicieeaoue cae?uoua ai?iaea ?acee/iie niaoeeaeecaoeee, i?aaeaea anaai
o/anoaothuea a i?iecaiaenoaa yaea?iiai i?oaeey. ?acaeoea io?aneae AIE
aua aieueoa iaino?eei yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu O?aei-Iiaieaeuey; iaeioi?ua
oa??eoi?ee iiaeaa?aeenue ?aaeeiaeoeaiiio ca?aaeaieth.

O?aeueneee e Iiaieaeneee ?aeiiu ii iauaio i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
caieiatho niioaaonoaaiii 2-a e 3-a ianoa a no?aia. Ia?yaeo n io?aneyie
aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe a ?aaeiia ?acaeou aaaeouea iaaeio?aneaaua
eiiieaenu: iaoeiino?ieoaeueiue, eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia,
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee e aa?ii?iiuoeaiiue.

Iaoeiino?iaiea nin?aaeioi/aii a e?oiiaeoeo i?iiuoeaiiuo oceao —
Aeaoa?eiao?aa, *aeyaeinea, Eacaie, Naia?a, Na?aoiaa. Iiaieaeuea aeaaii e
ii i?aao iacuaatho «aaoiiiaeeueiui oeaoii» no?aiu. Caeanue i?iecaiaeyo
71% eaaeiauo e 17% a?ociauo aaoiiiaeeae ?innee. E?oiiaeoea caaiaeu — AAC
(Oieueyooe), OAC (Oeueyiiane), EAIAC (Iaaa?aaeiua *aeiu). A Yiaaeuena
iaoiaeeony caaiae ii auioneo o?ieeaeaonia. Ia O?aea aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea
?acaeoi a Eaeaanea (EAE), Ieanna, Iiaio?aeuenea (O?ae).

Iiaieaeuea — iaeei ec iniiaiuo ?aeiiia ?innee ii i?iecaiaenoao
ay?ieinie/aneie oaoieee. Naiieaou no?iyo a Eacaie, Naia?a, Na?aoiaa.
Oeaio? aa?oieaoino?iaiey — Eacaiue, aaeeenoe/aneeo ?aeao — Oeueyiiane.
Ia O?aea i?aaenoaaeaiu ana inoaeueiua, e?iia naiieaoino?iaiey, io?anee
AIE: oaieiaue caaiae (Ieaeiee Oaaee), caaiaeu AII (Eo?aai), naiioiaeiuo
a?oeeea?eeneeo onoaiiaie (Aeaoa?eiao?a), no?aeeiaiai i?oaeey (Eaeaane).

A?aaeaeaineia iaoeiino?iaiea O?aei-Iiaieaeuey auioneaao iaoaeeo?ae/aneia
e ai?iia iai?oaeiaaiea, ao?iaua onoaiiaee, iai?oaeiaaiea aeey oeie/aneeo
caaiaeia, oo?aeiu e aaia?aoi?u (O?aeiao, O?aeoeiiao, O?aeyeaeo?ioyaeiao
a Aeaoa?eiao?aa, caaiaeu a Ieaeiai Oaaeea, *aeyaeinea, Aieaia?aaea,
Na?aoiaa, Eacaie). Caeanue oaeaea ?acaeoi o?aeoi?ino?iaiea (Aieaia?aae,
*aeyaeine), noaeino?iaiea (Aieaia?aae), i?iecaiaenoai noaieia e
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Aaaeouoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee eiiieaena eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ea?aao
oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, i?aaenoaaeaiiay anaie io?aneyie. Ia
?aciiia?aciuo ianoiuo e i?eaiciuo ?ano?nao noi?ie?iaaeenue e?oiiua
oeie/aneea eiiieaenu.

Aeey ai?iioeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aaaeaony aeiau/a na?u (Naia?neay
iaeanoue) e nieae (Aaneoi/ae). Ia?a?aaioea ianoiie e caiaaeiineae?neie
iaooe a Ieaeiaeaineii, Naia?neii e ae?oaeo oceao neoaeeo iniiaie aeey
oeiee i?aaie/aneiai neioaca, iieeia?ia, «oiieie oeiee», eao/oea e
iieeyoeeaia, oaeia?aiee e eeiioioiieaiee, ?aceiiauo ecaeaeee e auoiaie
oeiee. Ia aaca Ano?aoaineiai aacieiiaeainaoiiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey
nicaeaaony e?oiiue aacioeie/aneee eiiieaen.

Ia O?aea i?iecaiaeeony 15% i?iaeoeoeee oeie/aneie e 12% eaniie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?aiu. O?ae — iaeei ec iniiaiuo a no?aia iinoaaueeia
ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, i?aaeaea anaai eaeeeiuo (Aa?acieee, Nieeeaine).
A ?aeiia anoue oaeaea i?aaei?eyoey niaeiaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (Aa?acieee,
Noa?eeoaiae), eiena (Aa?acieee, Aoaaoa), iaooa- (Ooa, Naeaaao,
Noa?eeoaiae, Ooeiacu, Ia?iue), aaci- (I?aiao?a) e eanioeiee. A eaniie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?aeiia aaaeouay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiiio i?iecaiaenoao, nin?aaeioi/aiiiio a Ia?ineie
(Nieeeaine, E?aniieaine, Ia?iue, E?aniiaeoa?ne) e Naa?aeeianeie
(Oo?eine, Iiaay Eyey) iaeanoyo.

Noa?aeoay io?aneue O?aeueneiai ?aeiia — iaoaeeo?aey. Iia aicieeea
aeaaiaea?y ia?iiiui caianai ?aciiia?aciuo aunieiea/anoaaiiuo ?oae, eana
(ae?aaaniue oaieue), iaee/eth aiaeu. O?aeueneay iaoaeeo?ae/aneay aaca —
iaeia ec e?oiiaeoeo a ?innee (Iaaieoiai?ne, *aeyaeine, Ieaeiee Oaaee,
Na?ia, Aeaiaaane). Oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey i?aaenoaaeaia aeiau/ae ?oae e
auieaaeie ii/oe anao aeaeia oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, eiathueony a ?innee:
iaaee (E?aniio?aeuene, ?aaaea, Aa?oiyy Iuoia), ieeaey (?aae), oeeiea
(*aeyaeine), aethieiey (E?aniioo?ueine, Eaiaine-O?aeueneee), o?iia,
oeoaia, iaaiey. Ia aeieth iaoaeeo?aee i?eoiaeeony 20% anao i?iiuoeaiiuo
aua?inia a aoiinoa?o e noi/iuo aiae.

Io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?aei-Iiaieaeuey /?acau/aeii yia?aiaiee, e oioy
?aaeii niaoeeaeece?oaony ia i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee, aa ana ?aaii
ia oaaoaao. Nicaeaiea iiuiie yia?ainenoaiu noaei aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y
no?ieoaeuenoao eaneaaea Aieaeneeo AYN (Ieaeiaeaineay, Aieaeneay,
Na?aoianeay, Aieaia?aaeneay), ia ?aeao O?aea (Aioeeineay, Eaineay,
Iaaeianeay). Yia?aaoe/aneea i?iaeaiu ?aaeiia ?aoaeenue oaeaea ca n/ao
nicaeaiey iiuiuo oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeee — A?YN (a iniiaiii ia oaeyo
Eocaanna e Yeeaanoocneiai aannaeia e nianoaaiiuo iaooe e aaca) —
Caeineay, ?aooeineay, E?eeeeineay, Ia?ineay, THaeiio?aeueneay e ae?oaeo;
iino?iaiu AYN (Aaeaeianeay, Aeieo?iaa?aaeneay, Aaeiy?neay).

Aa?ii?iiuoeaiiue eiiieaen Iiaieaeuey eiaao iaua?inneeneia cia/aiea.
Caeanue au?aueaaaony ii/oe 20% ca?ia, o/3 iiieaei?ia, 3/4 a?aocia. ?aeii
caieiaao 1-a ianoi a no?aia ii i?iecaiaenoao iyna, ioee, e?oiu,
iiaa?aiiie niee. Aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?aao e ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
iniaaiii ioeiiieueii-e?oiyiay, nin?aaeioi/aiiay a e?oiiuo o?ainii?oiuo
oceao. A Ieaeiai Iiaieaeuea nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea eiaao ?uaiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue: eia inao?iauo, noaeaea, eaua, nacaia, caaioiaea ee?u.

Iiaieaeuea — iaeei ec iiioey?iuo ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ?aeiiia, iniaaiii
i?eaeaeaoaeueiu e?oecu ii aeaaiie oeeoea ?innee — Aieaa n iinauaieai
eioa?aniaeoeo eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeo oeaio?ia.

AINOI*IUE IAE?I?AAEII

Ainoi/iue iae?i?aaeii — e?oiiaeoay ii ieiuaaee /anoue ?innee, ia aai
aeieth i?eoiaeeony 75% oa??eoi?ee (12,8 iei ei2) no?aiu. E ciia Naaa?a
ioiinyony o/2 Caiaaeiie Neae?e, 2/3 Ainoi/iie Neae?e e 3/4 Aeaeueiaai
Ainoiea, iiyoiio ?aaeii neaai canaeai, caeanue i?iaeeaaao eeoue 22%
ianaeaiey (32 iei /ae.), i?eia?ii noieueei aea, neieueei a
O?aei-Iiaieaeuea.

Ia aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ?aaeiia ieacuaaao aeeyiea e?aeiyy
oaeaeaiiinoue io iniiaiie i?iiuoeaiii inaiaiiie oa??eoi?ee ?innee e
oe?ieea aiaoiea nayce n ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie — Iiiaieeae, Eeoaai, IEN,
ssiiieae e NOA.

Ainoi/iue iae?i?aaeii — eeaaeiaay i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ?innee. A aai
naaa?iie /anoe nin?aaeioi/aiu 80% yia?ai?ano?nia (a oii /enea 85%
aeae?i?ano?nia) e ae?aaaneiu, 75% caiania anao i?aniuo aiae, iniiaiay
aeiau/a aeiacia e cieioa, e?oiiaeoea caianu oeie/aneiai nu?uey, ?oae
/a?iuo e oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia. Ia aeieth Caiaaeiie Neae?e i?eoiaeeony 60%
caiania oi?oa, iia aeaao 70% aeiauaaaiie iaooe e 90% aaca ?innee. A
thaeiie iieina eiathony aeaaii?eyoiua aa?ieeeiaoe/aneea e ii/aaiiua
?ano?nu aeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Ii?y ?aaeiia aiaaou ?uaie e
ii?ai?iaeoeoaie, ?acaeo i?iiunae ii?neiai caa?y, a eanao aeiauaaaony
iooieia. Iiiaea ?aeiiu eiatho ?ae?aaoeeiiiia cia/aiea.

Iniiaiay ianna ianaeaiey nin?aaeioi/aia ia thaa, aaeieue O?ainneae?neie
iaaeno?aee. Caeanue ?aniieiaeaii aieaa 200 ai?iaeia, a oii /enea e
ai?iaea-ieeeeiia?u — Iiaineae?ne (1,4 iei /ae.), Iine (1,2 iei /ae.). Ia
naaa?a iinaeaiey iinyo a iniiaiii i/aaiaue oa?aeoa?.

A oicyenoaaiiii ioiioaiee Ainoi/iue iae?i?aaeii i?eaioe?iaai ia
nu?ueaaua e yia?aiaieea io?anee. Oa??eoi?eaeueiay no?oeoo?a oicyenoaa
oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa e?oiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo e
oeaio?ia eo ia?ae/iie ia?a?aaioee, aaeieue iniiaiuo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo
iaaeno?aeae. Iniiao i?iiuoeaiiiai

i?iecaiaenoaa ninoaaeytho iao/iua oeaio?u e oeaio?u AIE — Iiaineae?ne,
Oiine, E?aniiy?ne, E?eoone, Oaaa?iane, Aeaaeeainoie. Aaaeouoth ?ieue a
oicyenoaa ?aeiia ea?atho e?oiiaeoea oa??eoi?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
eiiieaenu (OIE).

CAIAAeIAss NEAE?Ue

Caiaaeiineae?neee OIE, oi?ie?othueeny n 70-o aiaeia ia iniiaa aeiau/e
iaooe a N?aaeiaianeie /anoe ?aeiia (Naiioei?neia, Oaaei?ianeia,
Onoue-Aaeueneia) e aaca — ia naaa?a (O?aiaie, Caiiey?iia, ssiao?a).
Nenoaia o?oaii?iaiaeia ia?aaeaao iaooue e aac i?aeiouanoaaiii ia caiaae,
a oaeaea ia tha e ainoie. E?oiiaeoea ai?iaea: Iine — o?ainii?oiue ocae,
oeaio? iai?iiiiai e oi/iiai iaoeiino?iaiey, iaooaoeie/aneie e ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe; Oiine — oeaio? oi/iiai iaoeiino?iaiey, iaooaoeie/aneie e
aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe; Othiaiue — i?aaiecaoeeiiiue
oeaio? Caiaaeiineae?neiai OIE.

Eociaoeei-Aeoaeneee OIE niaoeeaeece?oaony ia aeiau/a oaey Eocaanna e
?ac?aaioea ?oae Ai?iie Oi?ee. E?oiiaeoee oeaio? iaoaeeo?aee —
Iiaieociaoee, aaea ?yaeii n Eociaoeeei eiiaeiaoii, iino?iaiiui a 30-a
aiaeu, au?inee Caiaaeiineae?neee caaiae, caaiaeu oa??inieaaia,
aethieieaaue eiiaeiao.

Oeaio?u oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee: Aaeiai (auieaaea oeeiea ec ianoiuo
iieeiaoaeee/aneeo ?oae) e Iiaineae?ne (i?iecaiaenoai ieiaa e nieaaia ia
iniiaa aeaeueiaainoi/iuo eiioeaio?aoia).

*a?iua e oeaaoiua iaoaeeu eniieuecotho a iaoeiino?iaiee. A Eocaanna
iaoaeeiaieia iaoeiino?iaiea auioneaao ai?iia e iaoaeeo?ae/aneia
iai?oaeiaaiea. Noaieino?iaiea, i?eai?ino?iaiea e yia?aaoe/aneia
iaoeiino?iaiea ?acaeoi a Iiaineae?nea, oi/iia — a Oiinea,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiia — a ?oaoeianea, Aa?iaoea e Iiaineae?nea. E?oiiua
iai?iiiua caaiaeu iaoiaeyony a Iinea, Iiaineae?nea, Oiinea.

Ia iniiaa eociaoeeeo oaeae neiaeeeanue iiuiay oaieiaay yia?aaoeea e
oeiey. THaeiieocaanneay OYN (ia oaeyo), No?aooneay A?YN-1 e 2 (ia iaooe)
e Iiaineae?neay AYN iauaaeeiaiu a yia?ainenoaio n yeaeo?inoaioeeyie
Ainoi/iie Neae?e. Ia aaca eienothuaainy oaey a Eocaanna e i?e?iaeiiai
aaca (a Eaia?iai) nicaeaia oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, a Iiaineae?nea
(i?iecaiaenoai ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee), a Aa?iaoea (i?iecaiaenoai
oeie/aneiai aieieia, ?aceiioaoie/aneeo ecaeaeee, oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee). Nicaeathony e?oiiua oeie/aneea i?iecaiaenoaa ia
Oiaieueneii e Oiineii eiiaeiaoao, aacioeie/aneea eiiieaenu a No?aooa e
Iiaii O?aiaia.

E?oiiaeoea oeaio?u eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoe neiaeeeenue ia ia?ana/aiee
aiaeiuo iooae aeaeaciuie aei?iaaie — Oiine, Iine, Aeene. Ai iiiaeo
ai?iaeao ?aeiia aieueoia ?acaeoea iieo/eee eaaeay (oeii/aoiaoiaaeiay,
oa?noyiay, ia/eiii-iaoiaay, eiaeaaaiii-iaoaiay) e ieuaaay (ioeiiieueiay,
iyniay, naoa?iay) i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

AINOI*IAss NEAE?Ue

Aeaaiay io?aneue niaoeeaeecaoeee — oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey: i?iecaiaenoai
aethieiey (ieiei 3/4 iaua?inneeneiai) ia e?oiiaeoeo eiiaeiaoao,
?aniieiaeaiiuo aaeece e?oiiaeoeo AYN — enoi/ieeia aeaoaaie yia?aee
(A?aone, E?aniiy?ne, Nayiiai?ne, Oaeaoia), iaaee e ieeaey (Ii?eeuene,
Oaeieai).

A ?aeiia ?acaeoa iiuiay ai?iiaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue: aeiau/a oaey
(Eainei-A/eineee, E?eoonea-*a?aioianeee, Ooiaonneee aannaeiu,
Ii?eeuene), aeaeaciie ?oaeu (Aiaa?i-Eeeineia ianoi?iaeaeaiea),
?ac?aaioea ieiayiiuo, iieeiaoaeee/aneeo, iieeaaeaiiauo, o?aiiauo e
ae?oaeo ?oae, cieioa e aeiacia.

Oeieei-eaniie eiiieaen i?aaenoaaeai eanicaaioiaeaie, aea?aaiia?aaioeie
(e?oiiaeoea oeaio?u — Eanineae?ne e E?aniiy?ne) e oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiui
i?iecaiaenoaii, i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia aeaoaaoth yia?aeth AYN (A?aone,
Onoue-Eeeine, E?aniiy?ne, Aaeeaeuene, Naeaiaeine). Ia aaca
eniieueciaaiey aeaoaaie yia?aee, i?iaeoeoia iaooaia?a?aaioee,
eaniieeaiey, oaey, iiaa?aiiuo e eaeeeiuo nieae ?acaeoa oeie/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Niaeo? i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee aanueia oe?ie: io
oeie/aneeo aieieii e neioaoe/aneiai eao/oea, oei e ?aceiioaoie/aneeo
ecaeaeee aei oa?iaoeaaoe/aneeo i?aia?aoia. Oeaio?u oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe: E?aniiy?ne, Aiaa?ne, Onieuea-Neae?neia.

Iaoeiino?iaiea ?aeiia i?iecaiaeeo iai?oaeiaaiea aeey ai?iie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, /a?iie e oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee (Aaaeai, E?eoone,
E?aniiy?ne, *a?aioiai), a?ociaua aaaiiu (Aaaeai), ca?iioai?i/iua
eiiaaeiu (E?aniiy?ne), i?eai?u e iiiaia ae?oaia. ?acaeoi iaoeiino?iaiea
e a ninoaaa AIE, e?oiiaeoei oeaio?ii eioi?iai yaeyaony E?aniiy?ne.

Naeueneia oicyenoai Ainoi/iie Neae?e iai?aaeaii ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey ?aeiia, niaoeeaeece?oaony ia ca?iiaii oicyenoaa e
iyni-iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa. A *eoeineie iaeanoe, Ao?yoee e Ooaa ?acaeoi
iaoeaaiaenoai. Ec io?aneae ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aieueoia cia/aiea
eiatho iyni- (Aaaeai) e iiei/ii-eiina?aiay (Eaine, Oooaineia)
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaia eiaeaaaiiuie
(*eoa, Oeai-Oaey), iaoaiuie (E?eoone, E?aniiy?ne, Eucue), iaoiauie
(E?aniiy?ne, Oeai-Oaey, *eoa), oaenoeeueiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie oa?noyiuo
oeaiae (Oeai-Oaey, *a?ii-ai?ae, *eoa, E?aniiy?ne e E?eoone).

AeAEUeIEE AINOIE

Aeaeueiee Ainoie ioee/aaony a i?e?iaeiii ioiioaiee io Neae?e. Aieueoay
ieiuaaeue ?aeiia e aai i?ioyaeaiiinoue n naaa?a ia tha aieaa /ai ia 5
oun. ei iauyniytho nouanoaothuea ?acee/ey i?e?iaeu e yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey aai thaeiie e naaa?iie /anoae. Ia thaa ?aeiia i?ioiaeeo
a?aieoea ?innee n Eeoaai e EIAe?. Ia naaa?a ?aeii iiuaaaony ii?yie
Naaa?iiai Eaaeiaeoiai, a ia ainoiea — Oeoiai ieaaia. Ia oa??eoi?ee
Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea ni/aoathony iaoe?iua ?aaieiu (Caenei-Ao?aeineay,
I?eoaieaeneay, Ieaeiaaio?neay, Eieuineay) e e?oiiaeoea ai?iua nenoaiu e
o?aaou (Neoioy-Aeeiue, Ao?aeineee, N?aaeeiiue, *a?neiai, Aa?oiyineee),
Ei?yeneia e Eieuineia iaai?uey.

Eeeiao ?aaeiia oa?aeoa?ecoaony aieueoeie ?acee/eyie a naaa?iie e a
thaeiie /anoyo. A i?aaeaeao sseooee iaoiaeeony iiethn oieiaea Naaa?iiai
iieooa?ey (Aa?oiyine e Ieiyeii), ia thai-ainoiea — iaeanoe ionniiiiai
eeeiaoa. Aeaeueiee Ainoie ?aniieaaaao aiaaoie aeae?ia?aoe/aneie naoueth,
yoi e?ae ?aciiia?aciuo i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia, i?inoe?athueeny io ciiu
a?eoe/aneeo ionouiue ia naaa?a aei onno?eeneie oaeae ia thaa, aaea a
ninoaaa eania i?aaenoaaeaia oei?a noao?iie/aneiai iiyna (eeiiiiee,
aaiaoe). Nauoa 40% oa??eoi?ee ?aeiia iie?uoi eanaie.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu ?aeiia aaeeee e ?aciiia?aciu. Ia aeieth Aeaeueiaai
Ainoiea i?eoiaeeony iniiaiay /anoue aeiauaaaiuo a no?aia cieioa,
aeiacia, ieiayiiuo ?oae, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aieueo?aia, no?ueiu, a
oaeaea ?oooe, nethaeu-oeiaiieoa, ieaaeeiaiai oiaoa. ?acaaaeaiu aieueoea
caianu eaiaiiuo e ao?uo oaeae, iaooe, aaca, aeaeaciie ?oaeu,
iiiai/eneaiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey a?aoeoa, oinoi?eoia e ae?oaeo iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo. A iaoe?iie oaeueoiaie ciia e?iia iaooe e aaca ?acaaaeaiu
caeaaee aeaeaca, ia?aaioea, iaaiey, oeoaiiiaaiaoeoiauo ianeia.

Ianaeaiea Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea a oeaeii ioee/aaony ioiineoaeueiie
iieiaeinoueth e iaeiaiueoae aeieae noa?oeo aic?anoia. Aieioue aei ia/aea
90-o aiaeia /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey auno?i ?inea, iiyoiio n?aaee iuiaoieo
aeeoaeae ?aeiia aaeeea aeiey ?iaeeaoeony ca aai i?aaeaeaie: io 30— 40% a
thaeiie /anoe aei 60—70% — a naaa?iie. Nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony e
ieioiinoue ianaeaiey naaa?iie e thaeiie /anoae.

THaeiay /anoue Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, ii eioi?ie i?ioiaeeo O?ainneae?neay
iaaeno?aeue, iaeaieaa inaiaia e canaeaia. I?e?iaeiua oneiaey
aeaaii?eyoiu aeey aeecie /aeiaaea. Caeanue nin?aaeioi/aii aieaa 2/3
ianaeaiey ?aeiia n iaeneiaeueiie ieioiinoueth a I?eii?neii e?aa — 14
/ae./ei2, o. a. aeaaea auoa n?aaeia?inneeneie — 7,5 /ae./ei2 .

Naycue naaa?iie /anoe Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea n iniiaiie oa??eoi?eae ?innee
inouanoaeyaony oieueei ii ii?th e ii aicaeooo, aeeoaee n/eoatho naay
aeeaoueie ia ino?iaa. Yoi aaeeinoaaiiue ?aeii ?innee, aaea ai
aioo?e?aeiiiuo ia?aaiceao iniiaioth ?ieue ea?aao ii?neie o?ainii?o.
Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey ii/oe a 100 ?ac iaiueoa, /ai ia thaa. Ioiineoaeueii
ieioii canaeaiu eeoue tha Naoaeeia e ?aeii Iao?iiaaeianea-Eai/ao-neiai.

Aeaaiua io?anee niaoeeaeecaoeee Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea: ai?ii?oaeiay,
oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey, iaoeiino?iaiea e iaoaeeiia?aaioea, io?anee OYE,
ieuaaay e eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

Ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaia aeiau/ae cieioa e aeiacia
(sseooey), oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey — aeiau/ae e iaiaauaieai ?oae oeaaoiuo
iaoaeeia (ieiaa, naeioea, ?oooe, oeeiea, aieueo?aia).

Iniiao ?uaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (aieaa 1/2 ?inneeneiai eiaa e ia?a?aaioee
?uau e ii?ai?iaeoeoia) ninoaaeyao ieaaie/aneia ?uaieianoai, a eioi?ii
caaeaenoaiaai ?uaiia?a?aaaouaathuee e o?ainii?oii-?ao?eaea?aoi?iue oeio.
Nicaeaia iiuiay ?uaiia?a?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue — aacu oeioa,
?uaiua ii?ou, noaei?aiiioiua caaiaeu. Ia?aainoai a eiaea e ia?a?aaioea
?uau i?eiaaeeaaeeo Iaoiaeeeineiio e Iao?iiaaeiane-Eai/aoneiio
eiiieaenai.

Ec io?aneae eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea aieueoia ?acaeoea
iieo/eei eaniieeaiea a Oaaa?ianeii e I?eii?neii e?ayo, Aio?neie e
Naoaeeineie iaeanoyo. Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey eaniiai eiiieaena naycaiu n
nicaeaieai i?iecaiaenoa ii aeoaieie oeieei-iaoaie/aneie ia?a?aaioea
ae?aaaneiu.

E iaeaieaa ?acaeoui io?aneyi iaoeiino?iaiey ioiinyony noaeino?iaiea e
noaei?aiiio, yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneioicyenoaaiiia
iaoeiino?iaiea, i?iecaiaenoai iai?oaeiaaiey e iaoei aeey ai?ii?oaeiie,
eaniia?a?aaaouaathuae e ?uaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iniiaiua oeaio?u:
Oaaa?iane, Eiiniiieuene ia Aio?a, Aeaaeeainoie. A iaoeiino?iaiee
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony eciaieoue niaoeeaeecaoeeth ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee a
niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoyie ?aeiia.

Ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea ?acaeoi naeueneia oicyenoai, i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia
i?iecaiaenoai iyniiiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia, iaiuae, ea?oioaey. Ec ca?iiauo
au?aueaatho iaan, a?a/eoo, ?en. Aeaeueiee Ainoie — iniiaiie ?aeii
i?iecaiaenoaa nie, ieaiaaiaenoaa, caa?iaiaenoaa, ioioie/ueaai i?iiunea.

Aeaaiay caaea/a aeey Ainoi/iiai iae?i?aaeiia — eioaineaiia ?acaeoea
ia?a?aaaouaathueo io?aneae.

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