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Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia

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Australia

The course Work of Krim Yulia Group 1 “J” Zarafshan 2010

Australia

Commonwealth of
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Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem:Advance Australia FairN1CapitalCanberraLargest citySydneyOfficial
languagesNoneN2National languageEnglish (de
facto)N2DemonymAustralian,Aussie[1][2] (colloquial)GovernmentFederal
parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, see Government of
Australia-MonarchQueen Elizabeth II-Governor-GeneralQuentin Bryce-Prime
MinisterKevin RuddIndependencefrom the United Kingdom-Constitution1
January 1901-Statute of Westminster11 December 1931-Statute of
Westminster Adoption Act9 October 1942 (with effect from 3 September
1939)-Australia Act3 March
1986Area-Total7,617,930km2(6th)2,941,299sqmiPopulation-2010estimate22,11
5,847[3](51st)-2006census19,855,288[4]-Density2.833/km2(232nd)7.3/sqmiGD
P(PPP)2008estimate-Total$799.054 billion[5](18th)-Per
capita$36,918[5](15th)GDP (nominal)2008estimate-Total$1.013
trillion[5](14th)-Per capita$46,824[5](13th)HDI(2007)?
0.970[6](veryhigh)(2nd)CurrencyAustralian dollar (AUD)Time zonevariousN3
(UTC+8 to +10.5)-Summer(DST)variousN3(UTC+8 to +11.5)Drives on
theleftInternet TLD.auCalling code+61

Australia (pronounced /??stre?lj?/ ?-STRAYL-y? or /??stre?lj?/
o-STRAYL-y?,[7] or more formally as /???stre?li?/ aw-STRAY-lee-?),
officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern
Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent (the
world’s smallest),[8][9] the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller
islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.N4 Neighbouring countries
include Indonesia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea to the north, the
Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia to the north-east, and New
Zealand to the southeast.

For some 40,000 years before European settlement commenced in the late
18th century, the Australian mainland and Tasmania were inhabited by
around 250 individual nations[10] of indigenous Australians.[11] After
sporadic visits by fishermen from the immediate north, and European
discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606,[12] the eastern half of Australia
was claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal
transportation to the colony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January
1788. The population grew steadily in the following years; the continent
was explored, and during the 19th century another five largely
self-governing Crown Colonies were established.

On 1 January 1901, the six colonies became a federation, and the
Commonwealth of Australia was formed. Since Federation, Australia has
maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and remains a
Commonwealth realm. The population is 22 million, with approximately 60%
concentrated in and around the mainland state capitals of Sydney,
Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. The nation’s capital city is
Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory.

Australia is a developed country, with a prosperous multicultural
society and excellent results in many international comparisons of
national performance such as human development, quality of life, health
care, life expectancy, public education, economic freedom, and the
protection of civil liberties and political rights.[13] Australian
cities routinely rank among the world’s highest in terms of cultural
offerings and quality of life. It is a member of the United Nations,
G20, Commonwealth of Nations, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development, ANZUS, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, South Pacific
Forum, and the World Trade Organization.

Etymology

Artist’s rendition of Port Jackson, the site where Sydney was
established, viewed from the South Head. (From A Voyage to Terra
Australis.)

The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning
“southern”. Legends of an “unknown land of the south” (terra australis
incognita) date back to Roman times and were commonplace in medieval
geography but were not based on any documented knowledge of the
continent.

The first recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625, in
“A note of Australia del Espiritu Santo, written by Master Hakluyt”,
published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus.[14] The Dutch
adjectival form Australische was used by Dutch East India Company
officials in Batavia to refer to the newly discovered land to the south
in 1638. Australia was used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de
Jacques Sadeur dans la Decouverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a
1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny under the pen-name Jacques
Sadeur.[15] Alexander Dalrymple then used it in An Historical Collection
of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (1771), to refer
to the entire South Pacific region. In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James
Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which they wrote
of “the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or
New Holland”.[16] It also appeared on a 1799 chart by James Wilson.[17]

The name Australia was popularised by Matthew Flinders, who, as early as
1804, pushed for the name to be formally adopted. When preparing his
manuscript and charts for his 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis, he was
persuaded by his patron Sir Joseph Banks to use the term Terra Australis
as this was the name most familiar to the public. Flinders did so, but
allowed himself the footnote:

“Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would
have been to convert it to Australia; as being more agreeable to the
ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the
earth.”[18]

This is the only occurrence of the word Australia in that text; but in
Appendix III, Robert Brown’s General remarks, geographical and
systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis, Brown makes use of the
adjectival form Australian throughout,[19] this being the first known
use of that form.[20] Despite popular conception, the book was not
instrumental in the adoption of the name: the name came gradually to be
accepted over the following ten years.[21] Lachlan Macquarie, a Governor
of New South Wales, subsequently used the word in his dispatches to
England, and on 12 December 1817 recommended to the Colonial Office that
it be formally adopted.[22] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the
continent should be known officially as Australia.

The word Australia in Australian English is pronounced [??st?ae?lj?,
-li?].[23] Since early in the 20th century, the country has been
sometimes referred to locally and internationally as Oz.N5 Aussie is
common colloquially as an adjective, and as a noun referring to an
Australian.N6

History

Human habitation of Australia is estimated to have begun between 42,000
and 48,000 years ago.[24] These first Australians may have been
ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians; they may have arrived via
land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia.
Most of these people were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture
and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the
Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were
originally horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers.

A replica of Lieutenant Cook’s ship HM Bark Endeavour in Cooktown
Harbour

The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland was made
by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, who sighted the coast of Cape
York Peninsula in 1606. During the 17th century, the Dutch charted the
whole of the western and northern coastlines of what they called New
Holland, but they made no attempt at settlement. In 1770, James Cook
sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New
South Wales and claimed for Great Britain.[25] Cook’s discoveries
prepared the way for establishment of a new penal colony. The British
Crown Colony of New South Wales began a settlement at Port Jackson by
Captain Arthur Phillip on 26 January 1788. This date was later to become
Australia’s national day, Australia Day. Van Diemen’s Land, now known as
Tasmania, was settled in 1803 and became a separate colony in 1825. The
United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Australia in 1829.

Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South
Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The
Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South
Australia. South Australia was founded as a “free province”—that is, it
was never a penal colony. Victoria and Western Australia were also
founded “free” but later accepted transported convicts.[26] The
transportation of convicts to the colony of New South Wales ceased in
1848 after a campaign by the settlers.[27]

Port Arthur, Tasmania was Australia’s largest gaol for transported
convicts.

The Indigenous Australian population, estimated at 350,000 at the time
of European settlement,[28] declined steeply for 150 years following
settlement, mainly because of infectious disease.[29] The “Stolen
Generations” (removal of Aboriginal children from their families), which
historians such as Henry Reynolds have argued could be considered
genocide by some definitions,[30] may have contributed to the decline in
the indigenous population.[31] Such interpretations of Aboriginal
history are disputed by some conservative commentators, such as former
Prime Minister Howard, as being exaggerated or fabricated for political
or ideological reasons. This debate is known within Australia as the
History Wars. Following the 1967 referendum, the Federal government
gained the power to implement policies and make laws with respect to
Aborigines. Traditional ownership of land—native title—was not
recognised until 1992, when the High Court case Mabo v Queensland (No 2)
overturned the notion of Australia as terra nullius (literally “no one’s
land”, effectively “empty land”) at the time of European occupation.

The Last Post is played at an ANZAC Day ceremony in Port Melbourne,
Victoria. Similar ceremonies are held in most suburbs and towns.

A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, and the Eureka
Stockade rebellion against mining licence fees in 1854 was an early
expression of civil disobedience. Between 1855 and 1890, the six
colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of
their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire. The
Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably
foreign affairs, defence, and international shipping. On 1 January 1901,
federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning,
consultation, and voting. The Commonwealth of Australia was born and it
became a dominion of the British Empire in 1907. The Federal Capital
Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed
from a part of New South Wales in 1911 to provide a location for the
proposed new federal capital of Canberra. (Melbourne was the temporary
seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being
constructed.) The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of
the South Australian government to the Commonwealth in 1911.[32] In 1914
Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both
the outgoing Liberal Party and the incoming Labor Party.[33] The
Australians took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western
Front.[34] Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New
Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation—its
first major military action.[35] The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded
by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II.[36]

Britain’s Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the
constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it
in 1942, but backdated it to the beginning of World War II to confirm
the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during
the war. The shock of the UK’s defeat in Asia in 1942 and the threat of
Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new
ally and protector. Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military
ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty. After World War II, Australia
encouraged immigration from Europe; since the 1970s and the abolition of
the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also
encouraged. As a result, Australia’s demography, culture, and self-image
have been transformed. The final constitutional ties between Australia
and the UK were severed with the passing of the Australia Act 1986,
ending any British role in the government of the Australian States, and
ending judicial appeals to the UK Privy Council.[37] At the 1999
referendum, 54% of Australian voters rejected a proposal to become a
republic with a president appointed by two-thirds vote of both houses of
the Australian Parliament. Since the election of the Whitlam Government
in 1972, there has been an increasing focus on the expansion of ties
with other Pacific Rim nations while maintaining close ties with
Australia’s traditional allies and trading partners.

Politics

Parliament House, Canberra was opened in 1988, replacing the provisional
Parliament House building opened in 1927.

The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional democracy based on a
federal division of powers. The form of government used in Australia is
a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government.
Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct
from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen
is represented by the Governor-General at federal level and by the
Governors at state level. Although the Constitution gives extensive
executive powers to the Governor-General, these are normally exercised
only on the advice of the Prime Minister. The most notable exercise of
the Governor-General’s reserve powers outside the Prime Minister’s
direction was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the
constitutional crisis of 1975.[38]

There are three branches of government:

· The legislature: the Commonwealth Parliament, comprising the Queen,
the Senate, and the House of Representatives; the Queen is represented
by the Governor-General, who by convention acts on the advice of his or
her Ministers.[39]

· The executive: the Federal Executive Council (the Governor-General as
advised by the Executive Councillors); in practice, the councillors are
the Prime Minister and Ministers of State.[citation needed]

· The judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts.
Appeals from Australian courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy
Council in the United Kingdom ceased when the Australia Act of 1986 was
passed.[40]

The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate
(the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the
lower house) of 150 members. Members of the lower house are elected from
single-member constituencies, commonly known as “electorates” or
“seats”, allocated to states on the basis of population, with each
original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats. In the Senate, each
state is represented by twelve senators, and each of the territories
(the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory) by two.
Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years,
simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms, since only
half of places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle
is interrupted by a double dissolution. Although the Prime Minister is
appointed by the Governor-General, in practice the party with majority
support in the House of Representatives forms government and its leader
becomes Prime Minister.[41]

There are two major political groups that form government, federally and
in the states: the Australian Labor Party, and the Coalition which is a
formal grouping of two parties: the Liberal Party and its minor partner,
the National Party. Independent members and several minor
parties—including the Greens and the Australian Democrats—have achieved
representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses. The
Labor Party came to office with Kevin Rudd as Prime Minister following
the November 2007 election. Every Australian parliament (federal, state,
and territory) then had a Labor government until September 2008 when the
Liberal Party formed a minority government in association with the
National Party in Western Australia. In the 2004 election, the previous
governing coalition led by John Howard won control of the Senate—the
first time in more than 20 years that a party (or a coalition) has done
so while in government. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens
18 years and over, in each state and territory and at the federal
level.[42] Enrolment to vote is compulsory in all jurisdictions except
South Australia.[43]

States and territories

Australia has six states—New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia,
Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia—and two major mainland
territories—the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory
(ACT). In most respects these two territories function as states, but
the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their
parliaments. By contrast, federal legislation only overrides state
legislation in certain areas that are set out in Section 51 of the
Australian Constitution; state parliaments retain all residual
legislative powers, including powers over education, police, the
judiciary, roads, public transport, and local government as these do not
fall under the provisions listed in Section 51.[44]

Each state and major mainland territory has its own legislature or
parliament: unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT, and
Queensland, and bicameral in the remaining states. The states are
sovereign, though subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as
defined by the Constitution. The lower house is known as the Legislative
Assembly (House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania) and the
upper house is known as the Legislative Council. The head of the
government in each state is the Premier, and in each territory the Chief
Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a Governor; an
Administrator in the Northern Territory, and the Australian
Governor-General in the ACT, have analogous roles.[citation needed]

The federal government directly administers the following territories:

· Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national
capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales

· Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands

· Ashmore and Cartier Islands

· Coral Sea Islands

· Heard Island and McDonald Islands

· Australian Antarctic Territory

Norfolk Island is also technically an external territory; however, under
the Norfolk Island Act 1979 it has been granted more autonomy and is
governed locally by its own legislative assembly. The Queen is
represented by an Administrator, currently Owen Walsh.[45]

Foreign relations and military

The Australian War Memorial

Over recent decades, Australia’s foreign relations have been driven by a
close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by
a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific,
particularly through ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum. In 2005
Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following
its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia.
Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the
Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for
cooperation. Australia has energetically pursued the cause of
international trade liberalisation. It led the formation of the Cairns
Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Australia is a member of
the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World
Trade Organization, and has pursued several major bilateral free trade
agreements, most recently the –Australia – United States Free Trade
Agreement and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand. Australia is
also negotiating a free trade agreement with Japan, with whom Australia
has close economic ties as a trusted partner in the Asia-Pacific
region.[46] Australia, along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom,
Malaysia, and Singapore are party to the Five Power Defence
Arrangements, a regional defence agreement. A founding member country of
the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism
along with its middle power allies Canada and the Nordic countries, and
maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries
receive assistance. The 2005–06 budget provides A$2.5billion for
development assistance;[47] as a percentage of GDP, this contribution is
less than that recommended in the UN Millennium Development Goals.
Australia ranks 7th overall in the Center for Global Development’s 2008
Commitment to Development Index.[48]

Australia’s armed forces—the Australian Defence Force (ADF)—comprise the
Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal
Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 73,000 personnel
(including 53,000 regulars and 20,000 reservists).[49] Australia’s
military is 68th largest in the world, but one of the world’s smallest
in per capita terms. All branches of the ADF have been involved in UN
and regional peacekeeping (most recently in East Timor, the Solomon
Islands, and Sudan), disaster relief, and armed conflict, including the
2003 invasion of Iraq. The government appoints the Chief of the Defence
Force from one of the armed services; the current Chief of the Defence
Force is Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston. In the 2006–07 budget, defence
spending was A$22billion,[50] accounting for less than 1% of global
military spending. Australia was placed 27th on the 2008 Global Peace
Index, primarily due to its presence in –Afghanistan.[51] While the
Governor-General is the Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence
Force, he or she does not play an active part in the ADF’s command
structure as the elected Australian Government controls the ADF.[52]

Geography

Climatic zones in Australia, based on the Koeppen climate classification

Australia’s landmass of 7,617,930square kilometres (2,941,300sqmi)[53]
is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Surrounded by the IndianN4 and Pacific
oceans, Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas.
The world’s smallest continent[9] and sixth largest country by total
area,[8] Australia – owing to its size and isolation – is often dubbed
the ‘island continent'[54] and variably considered the world’s largest
island.[55] Australia has 34,218kilometres (21,262mi) of coastline
(excluding all offshore islands)[56] and claims an extensive Exclusive
Economic Zone of 8,148,250square kilometres (3,146,060sqmi). This
exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic
Territory.

The Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef,[57] lies a short
distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000kilometres
(1,240mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world’s largest
monolith,[58] is located in Western Australia. At 2,228metres (7,310ft),
Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on
the Australian mainland, although Mawson Peak on the remote Australian
territory of Heard Island is taller at 2,745metres (9,006ft).

By far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid lands
commonly known as the outback. Australia is the flattest continent, with
the oldest and least fertile soils, and is the driest inhabited
continent. Only the south-east and south-west corners of the continent
have a temperate climate. The population density, 2.8 inhabitants per
square kilometre, is among the lowest in the world, although a great
proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern
coastline.

The landscapes of the northern part of the country, with a tropical
climate, consist of rainforest, woodland, grassland, mangrove swamps,
and desert. The climate is significantly influenced by ocean currents,
including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation,
which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low
pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia.[59]

Environment

Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse
range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests, and is
recognised as a megadiverse country. Because of the continent’s great
age, its extremely variable weather patterns, and its long-term
geographic isolation, much of Australia’s biota is unique and diverse.
About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds,
and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.[60] Australia has
the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.[61]

Many of Australia’s ecoregions, and the species within those regions,
are threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal
species. The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity
Conservation Act 1999 is a legal framework for the protection of
threatened species. Numerous protected areas have been created under the
national Biodiversity Action Plan to protect and preserve unique
ecosystems; 64 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention, and
15 natural World Heritage Sites have been established.[62] Australia was
ranked 46th of 149 countries in the world on the 2008 Environmental
Performance Index.[63] Australian forests often contain a wide variety
of eucalyptus trees and are mostly located in higher rainfall regions.

Most Australian woody plant species are evergreen and many are adapted
to fire and drought, including many eucalypts and acacias. Australia has
a rich variety of endemic legume species that thrive in nutrient-poor
soils because of their symbiosis with rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal
fungi. Among well-known Australian fauna are the monotremes (the
platypus and the echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo,
the koala, and the wombat; the saltwater and freshwater crocodiles; and
birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. Australia is home to many
dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the
world.[64] The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded
with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[65] Many plant and animal
species became extinct soon after first human settlement,[66] including
the Australian megafauna; others have become extinct since European
settlement, among them the thylacine.[67]

Climate change has become an increasing concern in Australia in recent
years,[68] with many Australians considering protection of the
environment to be the most important issue facing the country.[69] The
first Rudd Ministry has initiated several emission reduction
activities;[70] Rudd’s first official act, on his first day in office,
was to sign the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol.
Nevertheless Australia’s carbon dioxide emissions per capita are one of
the highest in the world, lower than only a few other industrialised
nations including the United States and Canada. Rainfall in Australia
has slightly increased over the past century, both nationwide and for
two quadrants of the nation,[71] while annual mean temperatures
increased significantly over the past decades.[72] Water restrictions
are currently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in
response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and
localised drought.[73]

Economy

The Super Pit in Kalgoorlie, Australia’s largest open cut gold mine

The Australian dollar is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia,
including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island,
as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and
Tuvalu. After the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the
Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange is now the
9th largest in the World.[74]

Australia is one of the most laissez-faire free market economies,
according to indices of economic freedom. Australia’s per capita GDP is
slightly higher than that of the United States, UK, Germany, and France.
The country was ranked second in the United Nations 2009 Human
Development Index, first in Legatum’s 2008 Prosperity Index, and sixth
in The Economist worldwide Quality-of-Life Index for 2005. All of
Australia’s major cities fare well in global comparative liveability
surveys;[75] Melbourne reached 2nd place on The Economist’s 2008 World’s
Most Livable Cities list, followed by Perth at 4th, Adelaide at 7th, and
Sydney at 9th.[76]

An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactures has
underpinned a significant increase in Australia’s terms of trade during
the rise in commodity prices since the start of the century. Australia
has a balance of payments that is more than 7% of GDP negative, and has
had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50
years.[77] Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% for
over 15 years, a period in which the OECD annual average was 2.5%.[77]
Australia did not fall into a technical recession during the late 2000s
recession that affected most other Western countries [78]

Destination and value of Australian exports in 2006

The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially
deregulated the financial system.[79] The Howard Government followed
with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further
privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the
telecommunications industry.[80] The indirect tax system was
substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10% Goods
and Services Tax (GST), which has slightly reduced the reliance on
personal and company income tax that characterises Australia’s tax
system.

In January 2007, there were 10,033,480people employed, with an
unemployment rate of 4.6%.[81] Over the past decade, inflation has
typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%. The service sector
of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services,
accounts for 69% of GDP.[82] Although agriculture and natural resources
account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute
substantially to export performance. Australia’s largest export markets
are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand.[83]

Demography

Historic population[84]YearIndigenous populationpre 1788350,000
approximateYearNon Indigenous
populationIncrease1788900—18005,200477.8%1850405,4007,696.2%YearTotal
populationIncrease19003,765,300—19104,525,10020.2%19205,411,00019.6%1930
6,501,00020.1%19407,078,0008.9%19508,307,00017.4%196010,392,00025.1%1970
12,663,00021.9%198014,726,00016.3%199017,169,00016.6%200019,169,10011.6%
200921,828,70413.6%

The Barossa Valley one of Australia’s wine-producing regions in South
Australia. Fewer than 15% of Australians live in rural areas.

Most of the estimated 22million Australians are descended from
colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants from Europe, with
almost 90% of the population being of European descent. For generations,
the vast majority of both colonial-era settlers and post-Federation
immigrants came almost exclusively from the British Isles, and the
people of Australia are still mainly of British or Irish ethnic origin.
In the 2006 Australian Census, the most commonly nominated ancestry was
Australian (37.13%),[85] followed by English (31.65%), Irish (9.08%),
Scottish (7.56%), Italian (4.29%), German (4.09%), Chinese (3.37%), and
Greek (1.84%).[86]

Australia’s population has quadrupled since the end of World War I,[87]
spurred by an ambitious immigration program. Following World War II and
through to 2000, almost 5.9million of the total population settled in
the country as new immigrants, meaning that nearly two out of every
seven Australians were born overseas.[88] Most immigrants are
skilled,[89] but the immigration quota includes categories for family
members and refugees.[89]

In 2001, the five largest groups of the 23.1% of Australians who were
born overseas were from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam,
and China.[83][90] Following the abolition of the White Australia policy
in 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established to
encourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of
multiculturalism.[91] In 2005–06, more than 131,000people emigrated to
Australia, mainly from Asia and Oceania.[92] The migration target for
2006–07 was 144,000.[93] The total immigration quota for 2008–09 is
around 300,000—its highest level since the Immigration Department was
created after World War II.[94][95]

Nearly three quarters of Australians live in metropolitan cities and
coastal areas. The beach is an integral part of the Australian
identity.[96]

The Indigenous population—mainland Aborigines and Torres Strait
Islanders—was counted at 410,003 (2.2% of the total population) in 2001,
a significant increase from the 1976 census, which counted an indigenous
population of 115,953.[97] A large number of Indigenous people are not
identified in the Census due to undercount and cases where their
Indigenous status is not recorded on the form; after adjusting for these
factors, the ABS estimated the true figure for 2001 to be approximately
460,140 (2.4% of the total population).[98]

Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of
imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life
expectancies for males and females that are 11–17 years lower than those
of non-indigenous Australians.[83][99][100] Some remote Indigenous
communities have been described as having “failed state”-like
conditions.[101][citation needed]

In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing
a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and
fewer people of working age. In 2004, the average age of the civilian
population was 38.8 years.[102] A large number of Australians (759,849
for the period 2002–03)[103] live outside their home country.

Language

English is the national language.[104] Australian English is a major
variety of the language. It has a unique accent and a small number of
peculiar terms, some of which have found their way into other varieties
of English. Australian English has less internal dialectal variation
than British or American English. Grammar and spelling are largely based
on those of British English. According to the 2001 census, English is
the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population.
The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%),
Italian (1.9%), and Greek (1.4%).

A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are
bilingual. It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Indigenous
Australian languages at the time of first European contact. Only about
70 of these languages have survived, and many are only spoken by older
people; only 18 Indigenous languages are still spoken by all age
groups.[105] An indigenous language remains the main language for about
50,000 (0.25%) people. Australia has a sign language known as Auslan,
which is the main language of about 6,500 deaf people.

Religion

Australia has no state religion. In the 2006 census, 64% of Australians
listed themselves as Christian, including 26% as Roman Catholic and 19%
as Anglican. “No religion” (which includes humanism, atheism,
agnosticism, and rationalism) accounted for 19% and is the fastest
growing group (refer difference in census 2006 versus census 2001
results) and a further 12% declined to answer (the question is optional)
or did not give a response adequate for interpretation. The second
largest religion in Australia is Buddhism (2.1%), followed by Islam
(1.7%), Hinduism (0.8%) and Judaism (0.5%). Overall less than 6% of
Australians identify with non-Christian religions.[106] Weekly
attendance at church services in 2004 was about 1.5 million: about 7.5%
of the population,[107] and religion does not play a central role in the
lives of a large portion of the population.[108]

Education

School attendance is compulsory throughout Australia. In most Australian
States at 5–6 years of age all children receive 11 years of compulsory
education, then can move on to complete two more years (Years 11 and
12), contributing to an adult literacy rate that is assumed to be 99%.
In the Programme for International Student Assessment, Australia
regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developped countries
(member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development). Government grants have supported the establishment of
Australia’s 38 universities the majority of universities receive
government funding. There is a state-based system of vocational
training, higher than colleges, known as TAFE Institutes, and many
trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople.
Approximately 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or
tertiary qualifications,[83] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is
the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of international to local
students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD
countries.[109]

Largest cities in Australia (2008 Australian Bureau of Statistics
estimate)[110]RankCity NameStatePop.RankCity
NameStatePop.1SydneyNSW4,399,72211HobartTAS209,2872MelbourneVIC3,892,419
12GeelongVIC172,3003BrisbaneQLD1,945,63913TownsvilleQLD162,7304PerthWA1,
602,55914CairnsQLD142,0015AdelaideSA1,172,10515ToowoombaQLD125,3396Gold
Coast-TweedQLD /
NSW558,88816DarwinNT120,6527NewcastleNSW531,19117LauncestonTAS104,6498Ca
nberra-QueanbeyanACT / NSW395,12618Albury-WodongaNSW /
VIC102,8949WollongongNSW284,16919BallaratVIC91,78710Sunshine
CoastQLD237,56220BendigoVIC88,031

Culture

Since 1788, the primary basis of Australian culture has been
Anglo-Celtic Western culture. Distinctive Australian cultural features
have also arisen from the country’s natural environment and Indigenous
cultures. Since the middle of the 20th century, Australian culture has
been strongly influenced by American popular culture, particularly
through television and cinema. Other cultural influences are from
neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from
non-English-speaking countries.

Australian visual arts are thought to have begun with the cave and bark
paintings of its Indigenous peoples.[111] The traditions of Indigenous
Australians are largely transmitted orally and are tied to ceremony and
the telling of the stories of the Dreamtime. From the time of European
settlement, a theme in Australian art has been the Australian landscape,
seen for example in the works of Albert Namatjira, Arthur Streeton and
others associated with the Heidelberg School, and Arthur Boyd. The
country’s landscape remains sources of inspiration for Australian
modernist artists; it has been depicted in acclaimed works by artists
such as Sidney Nolan, Grace Cossington Smith, Fred Williams, Sydney
Long, and Clifton Pugh. Australian artists influenced by the modern
American and European art include cubist Grace Crowley, surrealist James
Gleeson, abstract expressionist Brett Whitely, and pop artist Martin
Sharp. The National Gallery of Australia and the various state galleries
maintain Australian and overseas collections, from early in the 20th
century until the present,

Many of Australia’s performing arts companies (see Theatre of Australia
and Dance in Australia) receive funding through the federal government’s
Australia Council. There is a symphony orchestra in each of the states’
capital cities, and a national opera company, Opera Australia, which
became prominent through the singer Joan Sutherland. Nellie Melba was
her famous predecessor. Ballet and dance are represented by The
Australian Ballet and various state dance companies. Each state has a
publicly funded theatre company.

Performance of Aboriginal song and dance in the Australian National
Maritime Museum in Sydney

The Australian cinema industry began with the 1906 release of the Story
of the Kelly Gang, which is regarded as being the world’s first
feature-length film.[112] The New Wave of Australian cinema in the 1970s
brought provocative and successful films, some exploring the nation’s
colonial past, such as Picnic at Hanging Rock and Breaker Morant. Later
hits included Mad Max and Gallipoli. More recent successes included
Shine, Rabbit-Proof Fence, and Happy Feet. Australia’s diverse
landscapes and cities have served as primary locations for many other
films, such as The Matrix, Peter Pan, Superman Returns, and Finding
Nemo. Recent well-known Australian actors include Judith Anderson, Errol
Flynn, Nicole Kidman, Hugh Jackman, Heath Ledger, Geoffrey Rush, Toni
Collette, Naomi Watts, and current joint director of the Sydney Theatre
Company, Cate Blanchett.

Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape; the
works of writers such as Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, and Dorothea
Mackellar captured the experience of the Australian bush. The character
of colonial Australia, as represented in early literature, is popular
with modern Australians. In 1973, Patrick White was awarded the Nobel
Prize in Literature, the only Australian to have achieved this. Colleen
McCullough, Thomas Keneally, David Williamson, and David Malouf are also
renowned writers.

Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting
Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service), three
commercial television networks, several pay-TV services, and numerous
public, non-profit television and radio stations (see Television in
Australia and Media of Australia). Each major city has daily newspapers,
and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The
Australian Financial Review. According to Reporters Without Borders in
2008, Australia was in 25th position on a list of 173 countries ranked
by press freedom, behind New Zealand (7th) and the United Kingdom (23rd)
but ahead of the United States (48th). This low ranking is primarily
because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in
Australia;[113] in particular, most Australian print media are under the
control of News Corporation and Fairfax Media.

Australian food traditions have been shaped by those that have settled
in Australia. Throughout the majority of Australian history, Australian
cuisine was based on traditional British food, brought to the country by
the first British settlers. Later, in the 19th and especially 20th
century, food began to reflect the influences of Mediterranean and Asian
cultures, introduced by many immigrants who arrived in Australia during
this period.

Cricket has been an important part of Australia’s sporting culture since
the 19th Century

Approximately 24% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate
in organised sporting activities in Australia.[83] Australia has strong
international teams in cricket, soccer / football, field hockey,
netball, rugby league, rugby union, and performs well in cycling,
rowing, and swimming. Some of Australia’s most successful sportspersons
are swimmers Dawn Fraser, Murray Rose, and Ian Thorpe, sprinter Betty
Cuthbert, tennis players Rod Laver and Margaret Court, and cricketer
Donald Bradman. Nationally, other popular sports include Australian
rules football, horse racing, surfing, football (soccer), and motor
racing. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the
modern era, and every Commonwealth Games. Australia hosted the 1956
Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and
has ranked among the top six medal-takers since 2000.[114] Australia has
also hosted the 1938, 1962, 1982, and 2006 Commonwealth Games. Other
major international events held in Australia include the Grand Slam
Australian Open tennis tournament, international cricket matches, and
the Formula One Australian Grand Prix. The highest-rating television
programs include sports coverage such as the summer Olympic Games, State
of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and
Australian Football League.[115]

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