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Экономическое районирование

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Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea – yoi onoaiiaeaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiie
no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, auyaeaiea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo /anoae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo ieie.

Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth ?aaeiiaeueiie
yeiiiieee, oae eae a ?acoeueoaoa aai i?iaaaeaiey auaeaeythony iauaeou aa
enneaaeiaaiey. A ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie aaia?aoee ?aeiiiia?aciaaiea
i?eiyoi n/eoaoue iauaeoeaiui i?ioeannii. Ii i?ienoiaeeo iiae niaieoiiui
aicaeaenoaeai nenoaiu oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, ?ano?niiai,
nioeeaeueiiai e iieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Yoio i?ioeann oanii naycai n
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiui ono?ienoaii no?aiu, i?iaeaiaie
oaaea?aeecia e ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee.

Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiiiia?aciaaiea – ?acoeueoao oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
(aaia?aoe/aneiai) ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea (O?O), eioi?ia aunooiaao aai
iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiaie. Ioaeaeueiua /anoe no?aiu, eiay naith
i?e?iaeioth, enoi?e/aneoth, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth niaoeeoeeo,
niaoeeaeece?othony ia i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa: Eaaeaeay oa??eoi?ey iaania/eaaao naiae
i?iaeoeoeeae ae?oaea /anoe no?aiu, iieo/ay acaiai iaaeinoathuoth
i?iaeoeoeeth. I?ienoiaeeo iaiai ?acoeueoaoaie o?oaea O?O – yoi
cae?aieaiea niaoeeaeecaoeee oa??eoi?ee ia i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiuo
aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee i?e oneiaee iaiaia eie n ae?oaeie oa??eoi?eyie.
Eeth/aaui a ii?aaeaeaiee O?O yaeyaony iiiyoea niaoeeaeecaoeee.
Niaoeeaeecaoeey oa??eoi?ee – yoi i?aeiouanoaaiii ?acaeaaaiua: ia iae
io?anee iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai cia/aiey. Oneiaey niaoeeaeecaoeee
oa??eoi?ee ia i?iecaiaenoaa eaeie-eeai i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa):

1. Aa i?iecaiaenoai aeaoaaea, /ai a ae?oaeo ?aeiiao no?aiu;

2. Yoa i?iaeoeoeey iiaeao auioneaoueny a cia/eoaeueii aieueoai iauaia,
/ai iaiaoiaeeii aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ianoiuo ioaeae;

3. Auione i?iaeoeoeee iaania/ai oneiaeyie e ?ano?naie;

4. I?iecaiaenoai iaiaoiaeeii no?aia;

5. I?iecaiaenoao yoie i?iaeoeoeee niinianoaoao auaiaeiia YAI, a
o?ainii?oii-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea.

Niaoeeaeecaoeey oa??eoi?ee neeaaeuaaaony enoi?e/anee. Iaeiaei ii ia?a
?acaeoey oicyenoaa niaoeeaeecaoeey iiaeao eciaiyoueny, oi iia
enoi?e/anee ioiineoaeueia.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?aeiiiia?aciaaiey oi?ie?othony yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu. Iiae
yeiiiie/aneeie, ?aeiiaie neaaeoao iiieiaoue /anoe no?aiu, a i?aaeaeao
eioi?uo a oneiaeyo O?O oi?ie?oaony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiia oicyenoai.
Yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu – yoi oa??eoi?eaeueiua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua /anoe
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa n oaniuie aioo?aiieie e aiaoieie naycyie ia iniiaa
iaiaie i?iecaiaeeiuo oiaa?ia, e ae?oaeo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea a i?aeoe/aneii niunea iaiaoiaeeii a oeaeyo
auaeaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eauo aeey eiie?aoiiai yoaia ?acaeoey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee (aaeeieoe),
i?eiaieoaeueii e eioi?ui ?aaeecoao ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa.
Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea yaeyaony iniiaie oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiii oicyenoaii ?innee. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
oicyenoa aeaao aiciiaeiinoue /anoe/ii ono?aieoue aicieeathuea
aeeni?iii?oeee a yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?a ?aaeiiia.
Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea neoaeeo i?aaeiinueeie niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey e ?aaeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie.
Nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia – iniiaa iino?iaiey oa??eoi?eaeueii
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo e ae?oaeo aaeainia aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey oeaeaauo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii. Yeiiiie/aneia
?aeiie?iaaiea ?innee eiaao naith enoi?eth. A aa ?acaeoee iiaeii
auaeaeeoue aeaa ia?eiaea: aei?aaiethoeeiiiue e niaaoneee.

Ia?aua iiiuoee yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey auee i?aaei?eiyou a XVIII a,
AI Oaoeuaaui (aeey aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aeaeaiey ?innee
auei i?aaeeiaeaii 16 aoaa?iee e 62 i?iaeioeee). Aii?inaie yeiiiie/aneiai
?aeiie?iaaiey a ?aciia a?aiy caieiaeenue IA Eiiiiinia (iaoiaeieiaey),
Iaa?aa, A?naiueaa, E?theia, AeE Iaiaeaeaaa e ae?. Oae eae oicyenoaaiiay
aeeciue ?innee a aei?aaiethoeeiiiua aiaeu ii?aaeaeyeanue aeaaiui ia?acii
naeueneei oicyenoaii, ia?aua iiuou yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey auee
?aeiie?iaaieai i?e?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiui e naeueneioicyenoaaiiui. A eiioea
XIX-ia/aea XX aa.. iiyaeeenue ?aaiou, iniiaaiiua ia aaca aeaiiuo
noaoenoeee ianaeaiey, i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa, naeueneiai oicyenoaa.
Iaeaieueoee aeeaae a yoio ia?eiae aiineo II Naiaiia-Oyi-Oaineee. Ii
auaeaeee 19 yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia.

A niaaoneee ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea oneeaiii ?acaeaaaony n
1920-o aiaeia. A 1920 a. aue ?ac?aaioai ieai AIYE-?I – ia?aue iiuo
niaaoneiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey. Any oa??eoi?ey aeaeeeanue ia 8
?aeiiia, eioi?ua i?aaeoniao?eaaee nicaeaiea naieo yeaeo?inoaioeee. N
naiiai ia/aea yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea ?anniao?eaaaony eae iniiaa
?aeiie?iaaiey aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai. Auea iinoaaeaia
caaea/a nicaeaiey iiaie naoee aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
ono?ienoaa (1923-1930 aa.) ?acaeaeaieai ia iaeanoe, ie?oaa e ?aeiiu.

Ia/aaoayny ia ?oaaaea 1920-o-1930-o aiaeia eieeaeoeaecaoeey
naea?aeeaaeanue o?aocaaiiie nenoaiie aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
ono?ienoaa – cao?oaeiyeinue ?oeiaiaenoai aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiuie
iaoiaeaie. Iiyoiio ie?oaa oi?acaeiythony e ia?acoaony nia?aiaiiay
aeaoocaaiiay naoea: iaeanoue-?aeii. A i?aaeaiaiiua aiaeu a oeaeyo
ieaie?iaaiey, cao?oaeiyaoaainy aic?inoei /eneii e?aaa e iaeanoae, aiiaue
aicieeea caaea/a yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey. Auei auaeaeaii 13
iniiaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia. A iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae eiee/anoai
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia aic?anoaao: a 1963 a. aei 18A 1982 a.
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue ?aeii aue ?acaeaeai ia aeaa ?aeiia – Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue e
Naaa?iue. A eoiaa iineaaeiyy naoea yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey NNN?
aeeth/aea 19 yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia, ec ieo 11 ia oa??eoi?ee ?NON?. Yoa
naoea yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey i?eiaiyaony e aeey nia?aiaiiie ?O.

Iao/iay iaoiaeieiaey niaaoneiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey auea
au?aaioaia a 1920-a aiaeu a o?oaeao niaoeeaeueiuo eiiennee i?e Ainieaia
e AOeEE.

Auaeaeythony neaaeothuea iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aeiie?iaaiey:

1. Yeiiiie/aneee, ?anniao?eaathuee ?aeii eae niaoeeaeece?iaaiioth
oa??eoi?eaeueioth /anoue aaeeiiai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa no?aiu n
ii?aaeaeaiiui eiiieaenii aniiiiaaoaeueiuo e ianeoaeeaathueo
i?iecaiaenoa.

2. Iaoeeiiaeueiue i?eioeei, o/eouaathuee iaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey
?aeiia, enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeany iniaaiiinoe aai o?oaea, eoeueoo?u e
auoa e oneiaee eo aeaeueiaeoaai i?aia?aciaaiey.

3. Aaeieieno?aoeaiue, ii?aaeaeythuee aaeeinoai yeiiiie/aneiai
?aeiie?iaaiey e oa??eoi?eaeueii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ono?ienoaa no?aiu,
nicaeathuee oneiaey aeey yooaeoeaiiai naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?aeiiia
e oe?aieaiey eo ?iee a oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea ?innee.

Yoe i?eioeeiu yaeythony iniiaiiieaaathueie e aeey nia?aiaiiie oai?ee e
i?aeoeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey ?innee. Eiioo?u a?aieoe
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia ii?aaeaeythony a?aaeii ?aciauaiey io?aneae
?uii/iie niaoeeaeecaoeee e aaaeiaeoeo aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa, ii
iie, i?iaiaeyony ii a?aieoeai noauaeoia ?O.

N?aaee, i?iecaiaenoa a yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiao oieueei /anoue yaeyaony
io?aneyie niaoeeaeecaoeee. E?iia ieo auaeaeythony io?anee, aeiiieiythuea
oicyenoaaiioth no?oeoo?o:

1) aniiiiaaoaeueiua io?anee, ianeoaeeaathuea iio?aaiinoe io?aneae
niaoeeaeecaoeee ?aeiia;

2) .io?anee, ianeoaeeaathuea iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey ?aeiia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?aiao?u nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu
onoaiaaeeaathony i?eiaieoaeueii e iae?i?aaeiiai (yeiiiie/aneei ciiai) e
yeiiiie/aneei ?aeiiai. A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo ?anniao?eaatho oe?oiiaiiua
yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu.

Iae?i?aaeiiu (yeiiiie/aneea ciiu) ioee/athony iaueie i?e?iaeiuie
oneiaeyie, /a?oaie yeiiiieee, oaiaeaioeeyie aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey.
Aeaaiua i?eioeeiu auaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo cii – o?iaaiue oicyenoaaiiiai
inaiaiey oa??eoi?ee, niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?ano?naie e eo eniieueciaaieai.
Nouanoaoao aeaa ciiu – Caiaaeiay (aa?iiaeneay /anoue no?aiu) e Ainoi/iay
(aceaoneay /anoue no?aiu). Oeaeue auaeaeaiey – no?aoaae/aneee i?iaiic
?acaeoey oicyenoaa no?aiu.

Aeey auiieiaiey aeieain?i/iuo oeaeaauo i?ia?aii, naaeaine?iaaiiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee a?oiiu ?aeiiia a yeiiiie/aneeo
ciiao iauaaeeiythony a iaci?aaeiiu (oe?oiiaiiua ?aeiiu). A Caiaaeiie
iae?iciia auaeaeytho o?e oe?oiiaiiuo ?aeiia – Naaa?, Oeaio? e
O?aei-Iiaieaeuea; a Ainoi/iie – aeaa oe?oiiaiiuo ?aeiia – Neae?ue e
Aeaeueiee Ainoie.

Ia oa??eoi?ee ?O auaeaeytho oaeea yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu.

A Caiaaeiie ciia yoi: Naaa?iue, Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue (Naaa?), Oeaio?aeueiue,
Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue, Aieai-Ayoneee (Oeaio?), Iiaieaeneee,
O?aeueneee (O?aei-Iiaieaeuea), Naaa?i-Eaaeacneee.

A Ainoi/iie ciia: Caiaaeii-Neae?neee, Ainoi/ii-Neae?neee (Neae?ue) e
Aeaeueiaainoi/iue.

Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea auei noi?ie?iaaii a oneiaeyo
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie niaaoneie yeiiiieee
(oeaio?aeeciaaiii-ieaiiaie). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a nayce n e?aoii yoie
nenoaiu e ia?aoiaeii e ?uieo oi?ie?oaony iiaay oa??eoi?eaeueiay
no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee, a oii /enea iiae aicaeaenoaeai noauaeoeaiuo:
oaeoi?ia. ?aeiie?iaaiea aeieaeii io?aaeaoue nouanoaothuoth
oa??eoi?eaeueioth no?oeoo?o yeiiiieee e aa eciaiaiey, iiyoiio naoea
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia aeieaeia niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aeoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea iieo/eea o?ao/eaiiay
oaeniiiiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia. Nia?aiaiiia yeiiiie/aneia
?aeiie?iaaiea ?innee aeeth/aao o?e iniiaiuo caaia: e?oiiua yeiiiie/aneea
?aeiiu; ?aeiiu n?aaeiaai caaia – iaoeeiiaeueiua e aaeieieno?aoeaiua
yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu; ieciaua – aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiua- ?aeiiu,
ai?iaeneea e naeueneea ?aeiiu

Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea: aaciaua oai?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu e ianoi a
nenoaia ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey

Yeiiiie/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea – yoi i?ioeann ?acaeaeaiey no?aiu ia
oeaeinoiua oa??eoi?eaeueiua /anoe ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, eiathuea naith
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth niaoeeoeeo e i?i/iua yeiiiie/aneea nayce. A iniiaa
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey eaaeeo auaeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia.

Eiioeaioeey oa??eoi?eaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai aeaeaiey no?aiu aeieaeia
iniiauaaoueny ia neaaeothueo aaciauo e?eoa?eyo:

· Yeiiiie/aneee e?eoa?ee – ?aeii eae niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay /anoue aaeeiiai
ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena no?aiu n ii?aaeaeaiiui ninoaaii
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo io?aneae. Niaoeeaeecaoeeth ?aeiia aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeyoue
io?anee, a eioi?uo cao?aou o?oaea, n?aaenoa ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee
e ia aeinoaaeo aa iio?aaeoaeth ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ?aeiiaie aoaeoo
iaeiaiueoeie.

· Iaoeeiiaeueiue oaeoi? oa?aeoa?ecoao iaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey.

· Enoi?e/aneee aniaeo oeacuaaao ia iniaaiiinoe ?annaeaiey e inaiaiey
e?ay a ?aieao ?acee/iuo ia?eiaeia.

· Aaeieieno?aoeaiue e?eoa?ee aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue aaeeinoai
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aeaeaiey e yeiiiie/aneiai
?aeiie?iaaiey.

Ii icia/aao neaaeothuaa: a?aieoeu yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia ia aeieaeiu
ia?anaeaoue a?aieoe noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee. “Aaeeinoai
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ono?ienoaa e yeiiiie/aneiai aeaeaiey
no?aiu yaeyaony iaeaieaa iauei i?eioeeiii niaianoiie i?aaiecaoeee
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey, eioaa?aeueiiai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
eiiieaeniia?aciaaiey e oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey…” – ieoao i?io. A.E.
Aoaaaa.

?anniio?ei yoe iieiaeaiey iiae?iaiaa. A iniiaa yeiiiie/aneiai
?aeiie?iaaiey eaaeeo o/ao niaoeeaeecaoeee. ?acee/iua /anoe no?aiu
cia/eoaeueii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa i?e?iaeiuie e yeiiiie/aneeie
oneiaeyie. Niaoeeaeece?oynue ia auionea iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa, eaaeaeay oa??eoi?ey iieo/aao ionoonoaothuea oiaa?u
e oneoae. I?ienoiaeeo iaiai ?acoeueoaoaie o?oaea. Oi?ie?oaony
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie oa??eoi?eyie no?aiu, iacuaaaiia
aaia?aoe/aneei eee oa??eoi?eaeueiui.

Niaoeeaeecaoeey oa??eoi?ee aicieeaao a oii neo/aa, anee:

· noieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie caeanue i?iaeoeoeee ieaea, /ai a ae?oaeo
?aeiiao no?aiu;

· yoa i?iaeoeoeey iiaeao auioneaoueny a aieueoeo iauaiao, /ai
iaiaoiaeeii aeaiiiio ?aeiio;

· auione aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee iaania/ai ?ano?naie;

· auioneaaiay i?iaeoeoeey iaiaoiaeeia ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao no?aiu.

Niaoeeaeecaoeey oa??eoi?ee neeaaeuaaaony enoi?e/anee. Iieacaoaeue
niaoeeaeecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea E=I/I, aaea I – aeiey
i?iaeoeoeee ?aeiia a iauai i?iecaiaenoaa no?aiu; I – aeiey ianaeaiey
?aeiia a ianaeaiee no?aiu. Io?aneue n/eoaaony io?aneueth
niaoeeaeecaoeee, anee eiyooeoeeaio E aieueoa eee ?aaai 1.

N?aaee iiiaiia?acey oneiaee, ii?aaeaeythueo oa??eoi?eaeueioth
i?aaiecaoeeth oicyenoaa no?ai, aaaeiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo nenoaia
iauanoaaiii -iieeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy o?aaeeoeeiiiay
iiceoeey niaaoneeo aaia?aoia caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi aeey
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai iaeaieaa oeie/iuie /a?oaie oa??eoi?eaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaa neaaeoao n/eoaoue noeoeeiinoue,
iai?iaiice?oaiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey i?ino?ainoaaiiuo no?oeoo?,
aeia?eiioeaio?aoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e ianaeaiey ia ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoie oa??eoi?ee, iaee/ea ?aeiiia yeiiiie/aneie aeai?annee e
canoiy.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi nioeeaeenoe/aneee no?ie oa?aeoa?eciaaeny i?aeiouanoaaie
e aeinoieinoaaie, auoaeathueie ec aai i?e?iaeu: iauanoaaiiay
nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, ionoonoaea yenieoaoaoeee
aieueoeinoaa iaiueoeinoaii, ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?iaeoeoia iauanoaaiiiai
o?oaea a eioa?anao anaai iauanoaa, ieaiiia?iinoue ?acaeoey yeiiiieee
iicaieytho ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaoue aaia?aoeth ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa,
iinoiyiii oi?aaeyoue aai oa??eoi?eaeueiui ?acaeoeai, a cia/eo, e
aeiaeoueny aai ?aaiiia?iiai ?acaeoey. Iiyoiio n/eoaeinue, /oi iino?iaiea
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa a Niaaoneii Nithca – ?aoathuee eiiieaeniue
oaeoi?, ii?aaeaeythuee oa?aeoa? oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee no?aiu e
aa ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Ia i?aeoeea auynieeinue, /oi e
nioeeaeenoe/aneay, e eaieoaeenoe/aneay yeiiiieee iaeaaeatho i?eia?ii
iaeeiaeiauie “?iaeeiuie iyoiaie” a iaeanoe ?aciauaiey.

Aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai, aeeythuei ia ?acaeoea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e aai
oa??eoi?eaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth, yaeyaony oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci –
niaieoiiinoue iaoiaeia e oi?i ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui
oicyenoaii. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi oa??eoi?eaeueiia ieaie?iaaiea e
oi?aaeaiea iaania/eaatho naaeaine?iaaiiia ?acaeoea yeaiaioia oicyenoaa a
i?aaeaeao ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee iacaaeneii io eo aaaeiinoaaiiie
iiae/eiaiiinoe, niinianoaotho ?acaeoeth iaaeio?aneaauo e iaae?aeiiiuo
naycae, ?aoeeiiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth ?ano?nia ?aeiiia, ?aoaieth
i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo i?iaeai, o. a. niinianoaotho nicaeaieth ?aoeeiiaeueiie
oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee.

N 1990-1991 aa. a iauanoaaiiia niciaiea aiaae?yeenue noa?aioeiu i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a. Aanue iiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiey e
oi?aaeaiey, any iaoiaeieiaey yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey iiaeaa?aaeanue
aoeueaa?iie e?eoeea. Eae yoi /anoi auaaao, na?ueaciua i?in/aou,
naycaiiua n i?aaiecaoeeae ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey e yeiiiie/aneiai
oi?aaeaiey, iin/eoaee aeinoaoi/iui iniiaaieai aeey ?ac?ooaiey nenoaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aiiaua. Nenoaia oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey ca naiueaeanyo eao naiaai nouanoaiaaiey
“i?eniiniaeea” ?aciauaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e ?annaeaiey iiae naie
o?aaiaaiey. A naith i/a?aaeue, eciaiaiea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ia iiaei ia
noaoue aeiiieieoaeueiui oaeoi?ii ?ac?ooaiey ainoaea?noaa.

Eciaiaiey yeiiiieee, a oii /enea aeoaieea ia?aiaiu iiae aeeyieai
ia?aoiaea e ?uieo, aucuaaee iio?aaiinoue a nouanoaaiiie ia?ano?ieea
oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. A yoeo oneiaeyo aeaaiuie caaea/aie noaiiayony:
niaa?oainoaiaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieee, i?iaaaeaiea
iiaiai eiiieaeniiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey.

A oeaeyo eiiieaeniiai ?aeiie?iaaiey auaeaeythony neaaeothuea oaeoi?u,
aicaeaenoaothuea ia oa??eoi?eaeueioth no?oeoo?o ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa:
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea, aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey, i?e?iaeiua,
enoi?e/aneea, nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, oa??eoi?eaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa – yoi ia oieueei ?aciauaiea aai yeaiaioia, ii eo
acaeiiaeaenoaea, acaeiiaeiiieiaiea, niiiae/eiaiea. Oaeoi?u ?aciauaiey
naycaiu n oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie i?iecaiaenoaa e auai?o
ianoa no?ieoaeuenoaa n eo aiaeiaieinoueth, yia?aiaieinoueth,
o?oaeiaieinoueth, iaiaoiaeeiuie ianooaaaie o?ainii?oiie ?aaiou e o. ae.
Oaeoi?u acaeiiaeaenoaey ii?aaeaeytho yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai naeeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoa, eniieuecothueo iauaa
eiiieaeniia nu?uea, iauoth oa??eoi?eth, o?ainii?o, o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu,
ooeeece?othuea iooiaeu, o. a. ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia oa?aeoa? e
eioaineaiinoue naycae iaaeaeo yeaiaioa ie oicyenoaa.

Aeey ?aciauaiey iiiaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ?aciuo io?aneae
ieacuaathony oaea/iuie iaeie e oa aea ?aeiiu. Ii ?ano?nu iiiaioeaeaaiai
iacia/aiey (aiaeiua, yia?aaoe/aneea, o?oaeiaua e o. ae.) iiaoo eiaoue
ia?aie/aiiua ianooaau, /oi eeieoe?oao aiciiaeiinoue ?aciauaiey a ?aeiia
anao i?iecaiaenoa (Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue e O?aeueneee ?aeiiu a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy). A oi aea a?aiy ioe?uoea iiauo e?oiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee
iiaeao noaoue ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?aciauaiey
i?iecaiaenoa a ?aeiia. Iiyoiio iiaeii aiai?eoue i oaeoi?ao ia?aie/aiey e
oaeoi?ao aeoeaecaoeee ?aciauaiey a caaeneiinoe io ianooaaa ?ano?nia e
oa?aeoa?a oneiaee ?aeiia. Oaeei ia?acii, a eaaeaeii ?aeiia, ia eaaeaeie
eiie?aoiie oa??eoi?ee neeaaeuaathony ii?aaeaeaiiua oneiaey ?aciauaiey
i?iecaiaenoa.

Neaaeoao ioee/aoue oaeoi?u, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai
?aeiie?iaaiey, e i?eioeeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey. I?eioeeiu – yoi
iniiaiua i?aaeea aeieain?i/iie iieeoeee, iaoiaeu oicyenoaiaaiey,
o/eouaathuea caeiiiia?iinoe e oaeoi?u. A ea/anoaa iaueo i?eioeeiia
oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa iaoae no?aiu ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia aa ?acaeoey iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea:

Iauee i?eioeei yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe –
iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa eiia/iiai ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiiai e nioeeaeueiiai
?acoeueoaoa i?e ?aciauaiee yeiiiieee e aa oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
e niaethaeaiea caeiia yeiiiiee a?aiaie e iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea.

N iei naycaiu oaeea i?eioeeiu, eae:

a) i?eioeei ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa n o/aoii aeecinoe enoi/ieeia
nu?uey, yia?aee e iio?aaeoaeae eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee;

a) i?eioeei eiiieaeniinoe, a oii /enea eiiieaeniiai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia i?e o/aoa caaea/ io?aiu e
i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu e ia?ae/iiai inaiaiey iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo
?ano?nia;

a) i?eioeei au?aaieaaiey o?iaiae yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
?aeiiia no?aiu.

I?eioeei o/aoa o?aaiaaiee aiaiiie aaciianiinoe i?e ?aciauaiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. Aai niaea?aeaiea eo/oa anaai ioa?aeoa?eciaaii a
i?eiyoie a 2000 a. Eiioeaioeee iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe ?innee. A
yoii aeieoiaioa iiieii oa?ic no?aoaae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a auaeaeythony e
i?iaeaiu ?aaeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe.

Ia?yaeo n yoeie iaueie i?eioeeiaie a i?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey aeieaeiu
eniieueciaaoueny i?eioeeiu, io?aaeathuea aaciaua iai?aaeaiey
?aeiino?oeoeee oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee. Niauaiea ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa ia ainoie – yoi aaaeiaeoee i?eioeei, aeaenoaothuee eae ieieioi
n ia/aea aaea, ni ciaiaieouo noieuieineeo ia?anaeai/aneeo aeaeaeaiee.
I?eioeei naeaeaa ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia ainoie iaeciaiii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaeny a ?aoaieyo ia?oeeiuo nuacaeia, i?aaeoniao?eaathueo
iinoiyiiia iiauoaiea aeiee i?iecaiaenoaa e ?iee ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa no?aiu. Iaeiaei yoio i?ioeann i?ienoiaeee n
?acee/iie noaiaiueth eioaineaiinoe. A aiaiiua aiaeu ii oae iniaaiii
aeoeaii, caoai ianeieueei caiaaeeeeny. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy naeaea ia
ainoie i?ae?aoeeny e oaeoe/anee yeiiiieea “yaaeoe?oaony” n ainoiea, e
eeoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo e nu?ueaauo
?ano?nia oi?iiceo i?ioeann aeaa?aaeaoeee naaa?iuo e ainoi/iuo
oa??eoi?ee. Aianoa n oai, ia niio?y ia oaaee/aiea aeiee naaa?iuo
oa??eoi?ee a ?innee ii n?aaiaieth n NNN?, aeiey naaa?iuo oa??eoi?ee a
AAI ?innee iinoiyiii oiaiueoaaony.

Ia?yaeo n i?eioeeiaie, io?aaeathueie e?oiiua oa??eoi?eaeueiua naeaeae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, ?ac?aaaouaathony i?eioeeiu ?acaeoey eieaeueiuo, ii
iiiai/eneaiiuo iauaeoia, iai?eia? ai?iaeia ?aciuo oeiia. Oae a
iineaaiaiiua aiaeu aue auaeaeioo i?eioeei aeoeaecaoeee ?acaeoey iaeuo e
n?aaeieo ai?iaeia. Iau/ii aai naycuaatho n ia?aie/aieai e ?aaoee?iaaieai
?inoa aieueoeo ai?iaeia. Iaeiaei i?aaeeueiae auei aiai?eoue i aeaoo
i?eioeeiao: a) ia?aie/aiey e ?aaoee?iaaiey ?inoa aieueoeo ai?iaeia; a)
iiaeuaia e aeoeaecaoeee n?aaeieo e iaeuo ai?iaeia. O eaaeaeiai naie
iniiau e i?e/eiu, oioy yoe i?ioeannu e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu. I?eioeei
aeoeaecaoeee ?acaeoey iaeuo e n?aaeieo ai?iaeia naycai n eaeaae inaiaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie oa??eoi?ee, iaaeiiouaiey aa iionoaiey. Aoi?ia – yoi
ooieoeey iaeuo ai?iaeia ii oi?aaeaieth naeueneie ianoiinoueth, ii aa
eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiio ianeoaeeaaieth. E?iia oiai, neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi a
iaeuo e n?aaeieo ai?iaeao nin?aaeioi/aia cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianaeaiey
no?aiu, iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Iaeiiaoe, iniaia cia/aiea eiatho iaeua e n?aaeiea ai?iaea a
ianeoaeeaaiee o?ainii?oa, iniaaiii aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai, a nayce, a
oi?ie?iaaiee aa?a?ii-i?iiuoeaiiuo e naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiuo eiiieaenia.

I?eioeei ?aaoee?iaaiey ?inoa aieueoeo ai?iaeia naycai, ai-ia?auo, n oai,
/oi yoe ai?iaea eiatho iiauoaiiue aeeciaiiue noaiaea?o, e i?eoie nthaea
ianaeaiey o?aaoao iiauoaiiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a iaiaoa?eaeueioth
noa?o. Ai-aoi?uo, ii naycai n iioeiecaoeeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, auiieiaieai noiee/iuo ooieoeee e o.ae. A-o?aoueeo, ii
aeaenoaeoaeueii ia?aeeeeaaony n i?iaeaiie iaeuo ai?iaeia, oae eae
?anoe?aiea aieueoeo ai?iaeia oneeeaaao iooie ianaeaiey ec iaeuo ai?iaeia
e naeueneie ianoiinoe. Eioa?anii, /oi aeanyoue eao ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i, a,
eacaeinue au, iiauo oneiaeyo, aeieaeiu auee niyoue i?iaeaio
?aaoee?iaaiey ?inoa naa?oe?oiiuo ai?iaeia, iaeiaei e naaiaeiy
ia?aie/eoaeueiua ia?u oaeoe/anee i?eiaiythony a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa e
iniaaiii a Iineaa.

Neaaeoao aiiaue ioiaoeoue aeaa iniaaiiinoe aeaenoaey oeacaiiuo
i?eioeeiia. Yoi enoi?e/aneay eciai/eainoue i?eioeeiia. Iie iaiythony a
nayce n eciaiaieai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie, iieeoe/aneie e
aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneie ianoaiiaee. Aeaeaa, i?eioeeiu – yoi, i?aaeaea
anaai iieeoeea, o. a. a aeaiiii neo/aa au?aaeaiea oeiainiaiai
i?aaeii/oaiey iaeiei i?ia?aiiai e oa??eoi?eyi ia?aae ae?oaeie. Niaaoneia
ainoaea?noai, oi?ie?oy i?eioeeiu oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e i?eaea?aeeaaynue eo, no?aieeinue ?aaeeciaaoue
naie i?ia?aiiiua oeaee, i eioi?uo oaea aiai?eeinue. ?inneeneia
ainoaea?noai i?iaicaeaoaao a iaeanoe ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey ianeieueei
eiua caaea/e, ii e naaiaeiy i?eioeeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny e eae oai?aoe/aneay aaca, iaai? i?eaioe?ia oi?aaeaiey
oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeae iauanoaa.

Iiaeaaaeai eoiae. Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi a no?aia ?aiueoa ionoonoaiaaea
no?aoaaey ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey, ii a oneiaeyo aaaeiinoaaiii
?aciauaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yoi ?acaeoea ca/anooth neeaaeuaaeinue eae noiia
io?aneaauo oneeee. Ii?i/iay i?aeoeea aannenoaiiiai i?eiyoey ana iiauo e
iiauo ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii i?iaeieaeaaony e iiiuia n oie oieueei
?acieoeae, /oi iia inouanoaeyaony a ionoonoaee o ainoaea?noaa naiaiaeiuo
n?aaenoa.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaiaeece?iaaiiiai iaoa?eaea iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?yae
onoie/eauo iniaaiiinoae ?aaeiiaeueiie no?aoaaee NNN?. Ai-ia?auo, yoi
oianeaaeiaaiiue io ?inneeneie eiia?ee eieiiecaoeeiiiue e?ai, iieeoeea
naeaeaa ia Ainoie. I?eioeei aieaa ?aaiiia?iiai ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa
e ?annaeaiey. Ieaiiaua i?aaiu iinoiyiii iuoaeenue ni/aoaoue iani/aoaaiia
– au?aaieaaoue o?iaie ?acaeoey, iiaeieiaoue iaoeeiiaeueiua ie?aeiu e o.
ae., iiauoay yooaeoeaiinoue anaai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, niaa?oay
caaaaeiii aiayeiiiie/aneea aeaenoaey. Auaeaeaaeanue eiioeaioeey
eiiieaeniinoe ?aeiiia, ii aa i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea a aeaea
oa??eoi?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiieaenia, ii nooe, neoaeeei
n?aaenoaii oaea?iiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a iiauo ?ano?niuo a?aaeao.
Ai-aoi?uo, oeaio?aeueiua ieaie?othuea i?aaiu iaoiaeeee aieiaieai
caeiiiia?iua i?ioeannu aoi?e/iie aeaa?aaeaoeee noa?ii?iiuoeaiiuo
?aeiiia. Ec /aou?ao aeaaiuo iauaeoia ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee a
neieueei-ieaoaeue ?acaeouo no?aiao (neaai?acaeoua, aa?a?iua, ieiia?iua,
ia?aa?oaeaiiua noiee/iua e e?eceniua) niaaoneay iieeoeea, oaea/aiiay
no?ieeaie aaea, iaeaieaa ioe?iaaiii eaii?e?iaaea eiaiii iineaaeiee.
A-o?aoueeo, aeiieie?iaae oieoeoee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae e iiaea?iecaoeee
e?aeia ?acii?iaeiuo a i?e?iaeiii e eoeueoo?iii ioiioaiee ?aaeiiia.
Anthaeo i?eiaiyeanue ii nouanoao iaeia e oa aea iiaeaeue
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, oeiiaia i?iaeoe?iaaiea e aaeieieno?e?iaaiea. E
oaia?ue iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ?aaeiiia i?eaeaeaao iiaua, iaeaieaa
i?eaueueiua, io?anee iacaaeneii io aiciiaeiinoae eo aiaae?aiey e
oniaoiie ?aaiou o naay. A-/aoaa?ouo, a ?aaeiiaeueiie, eae e a ethaie
ae?oaie, no?aoaaee i/aaeaeia i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e i?yiui ?u/aaai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey e ainathaeaeaoiie iiaeeecaoeee n?aaenoa.
N?aaenoaa eiaiaiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?ioeaiaeaenoaey iaaeaeaoaeueiui,
ii iiaieth Oeaio?a, i?ino?ainoaaiiui oaiaeaioeeyi (iai?eia?, ?inoo
e?oiiuo ai?iaeia) ia aeaaaee yooaeoa. Iau/iua a i?aeoeea ae?oaeo no?ai
noeioeu eee eiiiaine?othuea ?aaeiiaeueiia ia?aaainoai auieaou
eniieueciaaeenue neaai. Iiyoiio /anoi n/eoatho, /oi eeanne/aneay
?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea a caiaaeiii aa iiieiaiee o ian aiiaua
ionoonoaiaaea.

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