.

Экономическая геграфия

Язык: русский
Формат: книжка
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 3643
Скачать документ

Aeeao ? 1

1. Nia?aiaiiay iieeoe/aneay ea?oa ie?a: iiiaiia?acea no?ai

nia?aiaiiiai ie?a, eo iniiaiua oeiu.

2. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey: oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou e

ninoaaiua /anoe.

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aciauaiey oicyenoaa iaeiie ec no?ai ie?a (ii

auai?o o/eoaey).

1. Iieeoe/aneay ea?oa ie?a — aaia?aoe/aneay ea?oa, ia eioi?ie iieacaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiua a?aieoeu anao no?ai ie?a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ie?a
ian/eouaaaony aieaa 200 ainoaea?noa. Oeacaoue oi/iia eiee/anoai no?ai
neiaeii, o. e. iieeoe/aneay ea?oa ie?a iinoiyiii eciaiyaony. Ca
iineaaeiea aeanyoue eao oaeea ainoaea?noaa, eae NNN? e NO?TH,
ia?anoaee nouanoaiaaoue, ?anioaeeee, aoiaeeaoea a eo ninoaa, i?eia?aee
noaoon iacaaeneiuo ainoaea?noa; aeaa no?aiu — Aa?iaineay
Aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?anioaeeea e Oaaea?aoeaiay ?anioaeeea Aa?iaiey
iauaaeeieeenue a iaeii ainoaea?noai O?A e o. ae. Anoue no?aiu,
i?iaicaeaneaoea naay iacaaeneiuie, ii ia i?eciaiiua oaeiauie ie?iaui
niiauanoaii (Iaeaaeiiey). Anoue no?aiu, oa??eoi?ey eee /anoue oa??eoi?ee
eioi?uo ieeoie?iaaia ae?oaei ainoaea?noaii (Iaeanoeia — Ec?aeeai,
Ainoi/iue Oeii? — Eiaeiiaceae).

No?aiu ie?a ?aciiia?aciu. Iie ?acee/athony:

1) ii ?acia?ai oa??eoi?ee: iaeaieaa e?oiiia — ?inney (17,1 iei ei );
iaeaiueeia — Aaoeeai (0,44 ei2);

2) ii /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey: e?oiiia— Eeoae (1,2 ie?ae /ae.);
iaaieueoia— Aaoeeai (ieiei 1 oun. /ae.);

3) ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio ninoaao ianaeaiey: iaeiiiaoeeiiaeueiua, aaea
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo e iaeiie
iaoeeiiaeueiinoe (ssiiiey); e iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiua (Eeoae, ?inney, NOA);

4) ii aaia?aoe/aneiio iieiaeaieth: no?aiu, ia eiathuea auoiaea e ii?th
(*aae, Iiiaieey); i?eii?neea (Eiaeey, Eieoiaey); ino?iaiua (ssiiiey,
Eoaa);

5) ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio no?ith: iiia?oee, aaea aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
iiia?oo e ia?aaeaaony ii ianeaaenoao (A?oiae, IAY, Aaeeeia?eoaiey); e
?anioaeeee, aaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?eaiaioo, a
eniieieoaeueiay — i?aaeoaeuenoao (NOA, O?A);

6) ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio ono?ienoao: oieoa?iua (O?aioeey, Aaia?ey) e
oaaea?aoeaiua (Eiaeey, ?inney, NOA). A oieoa?iii ainoaea?noaa nouanoaoao
aaeeiay eiinoeoooeey, aaeeiay eniieieoaeueiay e caeiiiaeaoaeueiay
aeanoue, a aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiua aaeeieoeu iaaeaeaiu
iacia/eoaeueiuie iieiiii/eyie. A oaaea?aoeaiii ainoaea?noaa ia?yaeo n
aaeeiie eiinoeoooeeae eiatho ianoi oaeaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe, eioi?ua ia i?ioeai?a/ao
aaeeiie eiinoeoooeee.

A oeiieiaee no?ai, iniiaaiiie ia o/aoa nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
i?eciaeia, auaeaeythony no?aiu nioeeaeenoe/aneea (Eoaa, Eeoae, EIAe? e
ae?.), eaieoaeenoe/aneea (NOA, O?A e ae?.), ?acaeaathueany (A?aceeey,
Yoeiiey, Iaeaecey e ae?.). Yoa oeiieiaey iniiauaaaony ia nouanoaiaaiee a
ie?a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo e nioeeaeenoe/aneeo iauanoa e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
n/eoaaony onoa?aaoae.

A oeiieiaee no?ai ii o?iaith nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
auaeaeythony ?acaeoua e ?acaeaathueany no?aiu. E?eoa?ee aeaiiie
oeiieiaee — o?iaaiue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, yeiiiie/aneee

iioaioeeae, aeiey no?aiu a ie?iaii i?iecaiaenoaa, no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee,
o/anoea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii aaia?aoe/aneii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea.
Iaiauathuee iieacaoaeue — aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (AAI) eee aaeiaie
iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (AII) ia aeooo ianaeaiey. A aeaiiie oeiieiaee
auaeaeythony yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoua no?aiu (aaea iniai ?anniao?eaathony
no?aiu «aieueoie ainueia?ee») e ?acaeaathueany no?aiu. ?acaeaathueany
no?aiu iaiaeii?iaeiu e oiaea aanueia ?aciiia?aciu: no?aiu
n?aaeia?acae-oiai eaieoaeecia (A?aceeey, Iaeneea, Aaianoyea e ae?.);
iiaua eiaeono?eaeueiua no?aiu (?anioaeeea Ei?ay, Oaeaaiue); no?aiu —
yenii?oa?u iaooe (Naoaeianeay A?aaey, Eoaaeo e ae?.); no?aiu, ionoathuea
a naiai ?acaeoee (Aoaaienoai, Eaiey, Iaiae).

Ianoi ethaie no?aiu a oeiieiaee ia iinoiyiii e iiaeao eciaiyoueny ni
a?aiaiai.

2. IO? — ei?aiiie ea/anoaaiiue ia?aai?io a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo neeao
/aeiaa/anoaa, iniiaaiiue ia i?aa?auaiee iaoee a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo iauanoaa, a aaaeouee oaeoi? ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou IO?:

— oieaa?naeueiinoue,

— /?acau/aeiia onei?aiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee,

— ei?aiiia eciaiaiea ?iee /aeiaaea a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa,

— i?eaioaoeey ia eniieueciaaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee a
aiaiiuo oeaeyo.

Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou IO? i?iyaeythony ai anao aa ninoaaiuo /anoyo.

1) A iaoea — i?aa?auaiea iaoee a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth
neeo, ?ino iaoeiaieeo i?iecaiaenoa.

2) A oaoieea e oaoiieiaee — i?aiaeaaeaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiiai iooe
?acaeoey, «iee?iyeaeo?iiiay ?aaiethoeey».

3) A i?iecaiaenoaa — ?acaeoea ii oanoe aeaaiui iai?aaeaieyi —
yeaeo?iiecaoeey, eiiieaeniay aaoiiaoecaoeey, ia?ano?ieea yia?aaoe/aneiai
oicyenoaa, i?iecaiaenoai iiauo iaoa?eaeia, onei?aiiia ?acaeoea
aeioaoiieiaee, eco/aiea e eniieueciaaiea einiina.

4) A oi?aaeaiee — iiyaeaiea eeaa?iaoeee (iaoee ia oi?aaeaiee e
eioi?iaoeee), * eioi?iaoeeiiiue ac?ua», nicaeaiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo
nenoai oi?aaeaiey, au/eneeoaeueiuo oeaio?ia.

3. , Ii?aaeaeeoue ii ea?oai iniiaiua oeaio?u ?aciauaiey io?aneae
oicyenoaa e iauynieoue eo, eniieuecoy ciaiey i oaeoi?ao ?aciauaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeeao ? 2

1. Iniiaiua oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaeaiey e ainoaea?noaaiii-

oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ono?ienoaa no?ai.

2. Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a ie?iaiai oicyenoaa, eo eciaiaiey a yiioo

IO?.

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iieiaic?anoiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey iaeiie ec

no?ai ie?a. Oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaeaiey.

1. 1. Iiia?oee — ainoaea?noaa, aaea aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiiio
/aeiaaeo e ia?aaeaaony ii ianeaaenoao: a) aaniethoiua iiia?oee — aeanoue
iiia?oa ie/ai ia ia?aie/aia (Aooai, Iiai, Eoaaeo e Ae?.); a)
oaie?aoe/aneea iiia?oee — aeaaa ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii aai
?aeeaeiciie aeaaie (Aaoeeai);

a) eiinoeoooeeiiiua (ia?eaiaioneea) iiia?oee — aeanoue iiia?oa
ia?aie/aia ia?eaiaioii, «iiia?o oea?noaoao, ii ia i?aaeo»
(Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Ii?aaaey, ssiiiey e ae?.).

I?eia?u no?ai n iiia?oe/aneeie oi?iaie i?aaeaiey: Eeooaiooaei
(eiyaeanoai — eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey), Eniaiey (ei?ieaanoai —
eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey), Ethenaiao?a (aaeeeia aa?oeianoai —
eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey), Aao?aei (yie?ao — aaniethoiay iiia?oey),
ssiiiey (eiia?ey — eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey).

2. ?anioaeeee — ainoaea?noaa, aaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue iau/ii
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?eaiaioo, a eniieieoaeueiay — i?aaeoaeuenoao; aunoae
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth yaeyaony auai?iue i?aaenoaaeoaeueiue i?aai,
aeaaa ainoaea?noaa oaeaea ecae?aaony: a) i?aceaeaioneea ?anioaeeee —
i?aceaeaio eiaao aieueoea iieiiii/ey, aicaeaaeyao i?aaeoaeuenoai (NOA,
A?aceeey, A?aaioeia e ae?.); a) ia?eaiaioa?iay ?anioaeeea —
i?aaeoaeuenoai aicaeaaeyao i?aiuea?-ieieno?, i?aceaeaio iaeaaeaao
iaiueoeie iieiiii/eyie, /ai a i?aceaeaioneie ?anioaeeea (Eoaeey, O?A,
Eiaeey e ae?.).

Aieueoeinoai ainoaea?noa a ie?a — ?anioaeeee. Oi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?aaeaiey ia ii?aaeaeyao o?iaaiue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu.

Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia ono?ienoai no?ai.

1. Oieoa?iua — aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiua aaeeieoeu iiae/eiythony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii oeaio?aeueiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao (O?aioeey,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Ec?aeeue, Ia?o e ae?.). Aieueoeinoai no?ai a ie?a —
oieoa?iua.

2. Oaaea?aoeaiua — ia?yaeo n oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie e i?aaiaie aeanoe
nouanoaotho ae?oaea ainoaea?noaaiiua ia?aciaaiey (?anioaeeee, ooaou,
i?iaeioeee, eaioiiu e ae?.), eiathuea ii?aaeaeaiioth iieeoe/aneoth e
yeiiiie/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue (Aano?ey, Aaeueaey, Oaaea?aoeaiay
?anioaeeea Ieaa?ey, Oaaeoea?neay Eiioaaea?aoeey e ae?.).

Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia ono?ienoai no?aiu iau/ii yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaey yeiiiie/aneeo, enoi?e/aneeo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo,
eoeueoo?iuo e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.

2, Ie?iaia oicyenoai — enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoayny niaieoiiinoue
iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa anao no?ai ie?a, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie
anaie?iuie yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie. A iniiaa anaie?iuo yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee eaaeeo ie?iaie ?uiie, iaania/eaathuee iaiai oiaa?aie iaaeaeo
no?aiaie. Nouanoaiaaiea ?uiea ii?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
aaia?aoe/aneei ?acaeaeaieai o?oaea (IA?O), eioi?ia au?aaeaaony a
niaoeeaeecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo no?ai ia i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
oiaa?ia e oneoa. I?eia?u io?aneae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee:

ssiiiey — aaoiiiaeee. Naoaeianeay A?aaey — iaooue, Eaiaaea — ca?ii.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ie?iaiai oicyenoaa — i?ioeann enoi?e/aneee. No?oeoo?a
ie?iaiai oicyenoaa eciaiyaony ai a?aiaie. Aei 1917 a. iii auei
eaieoaeenoe/aneei, caoai, iinea ia?aciaaiey ie?iaie nioeeaeenoe/aneie
nenoaiu, i?eia?aei aeaoaaeeioth no?oeoo?o (ie?iaay eaieoaeenoe/aneay e
ie?iaay nioeeaeenoe/aneay nenoaiu oicyenoaa). Nae/an ie?iaia oicyenoai
?anniao?eaaaony eae aaeeiia, ioaaouaathuaa ana no?aiu ie?a aia
caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey eee iieeoe/aneiai no?iy.
Ie?iaia oicyenoai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue n oi/ee c?aiey io?aneaaie
no?oeoo?u. Oiaaea a iai aoaeoo auaeaeyoueny no?oeoo?iua aaeeieoeu:
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneia oicyenoai, o?ainii?o, oi?aiaey.

IO? iiaeeyea ia ie?iaia oicyenoai. Yoi au?aaeaaony: 1) a onei?aiee
oaiiia ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa; 2) a eciaiaiee io?aneaaie
no?oeoo?u: a) aic?anoaao ?ieue iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u, a)
oaaee/eaaaony ?ieue i?iiuoeaiiinoe (a naiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?anoao
cia/aiea ia?aaaouaathuae), a) iiyaeythony ana iiaua io?anee e
iiaeio?anee (a o. /. iiaaeoea e iaoeiaieea), a) nicaeathony
iaaeio?aneaaua eiiieaenu; 3) a eciaiaiee oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u: a)
iiyaeythony iiaua oaeoi?u ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, a) noa?ua oaeoi?u
ia?aoatho iiaia niaea?aeaiea.

3. Ii?aaeaeeoue ioiineoaeueioth /eneaiiinoue eeoe ?aciuo aic?anoiuo
a?oii (i?aiaeaaeaiea eeoe ii?aaeaeaiiiai aic?anoa). Ii?aaeaeeoue
niioiioaiea ioae/ei e aeaiuei, naeaeaoue auaiaeu i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
no?aiu e ii?aaeaeaiiiio oeio aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey.

Aeeao ? 3

1. Aaia?aoe/aneay n?aaea e aa ?ieue a aeecie iauanoaa.

2. Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?aciauaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, e eo

eciaiaiea a yiioo IO?.

4. Ii?aaeaeaiea ii iieiaic?anoiie ie?aieaea oeia aini?iecaiaenoaa

ianaeaiey no?aiu.

1. Aaia?aoe/aneay n?aaea — yoi oa /anoue caiiie i?e?iaeu, n eioi?ie
/aeiaa/anoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii acaeiiaeaenoaoao a naiae aeecie e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iia ea?aao ia?iiioth ?ieue a aeecie
/aeiaa/anoaa: neoaeeo n?aaeie aai iaeoaiey, yaeyaony enoi/ieeii
?ano?nia, aeeyao ia caei?iauea e iano?iaiea, ia aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o.
*ai ?aciiia?aciaa aaia?aoe/aneay n?aaea, oai, eae i?aaeei, eo/oa oneiaey
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

Enoi?ey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa — enoi?ey acaeiiaeaenoaey aai n
i?e?iaeie, aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeie. Yoe ioiioaiey i?ioeai?a/eau. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, /aeiaae eciaiyao i?e?iaeo, eniieuecoao aa, i?eniinaaeeaaao aeey
naieo ioaeae. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aaia?aoe/aneay n?aaea ieacuaaao
cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea iauanoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea i?e?iaea iaiineony a?aae, eiiaaea iaiii?aaeiue. Eciaiyaony
n?aaea iaeoaiey /aeiaaea e anoaao aii?in i caei?iauea e auaeeaaiee anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa. A XX a. «aeaaeaiea» /aeiaaea ia i?e?iaeo ?acei aic?inei.
60% oa??eoi?ee nooe caieiatho aio?iiiaai-iua eaiaeoaoou. Iauanoai
eniieuecoao ana aieueoa ?ano?nia, iaeiia?aiaiii oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai
iooiaeia, iiiaaeathueo a aaia?aoe/aneoth n?aaeo. Aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu
enoiuaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
Iaiaoiaeeii iauaaeeiyoue oneeey anao no?ai.

2. 1) Oaeoi? oa??eoi?ee;

2) oaeoi? YAI (?aciiaeaeiinoe YAI — oeaio?aeueiia, aeoaeiiia,
ninaaeneia, i?eii?neia);

3) i?e?iaeii-?ano?niue oaeoi? (a aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe naeaea a
?aeiiu iiaiai inaiaiey — naaa?iua ?aeiiu, oaeueoiaua ciiu);

4) o?ainii?oiue;

5) oaeoi? o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia (cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao ea/anoai o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia);

6) oaeoi? oa??eoi?eaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee;

7) oaeoi? iaoeiaieinoe (i?eia?aoaao ana aieueoaa cia/aiea);

8) yeieiae/aneee oaeoi? (i?eia?aoaao ana aieueoaa cia/aiea).

Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea aic?anoiua a?oiiu i?aiaeaaeatho, ?anniio?aoue
niioiioaiea eeoe iiaeeeiai e aeaoneiai aic?anoa n ethaeueie n?aaeiaai
aic?anoa. Naeaeaoue auaiaeu i ?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe. ?anniio?aoue
niioiioaiea ioae/ei e aeaiuei, i?iaiaeece?iaaoue iauoth oi?io ie?aieaeu,
niioianoe eioi?iaoeeth i iieiaic?anoiii ninoaaa ianaeaiey no?aiu n
i?eciaeaie oeiia aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey e naeaeaoue auaiae.

Aeeao .? 4

1. I?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea. I?eia?u ?aoeeiiaeueiiai e ia?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea e n?aaiaiea n?aaeiae ieioiinoe ianaeaiey aeaoo no?ai (ii
auai?o o/eoaey) e iauyniaiea i?e/ei ?acee/ee.

1. *aeiaa/anoai n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai eniieueciaaei i?e?iaeo a
oicyenoaaiiuo oeaeyo (ioioa, niae?aoaeuenoai, ?uaieianoai). Ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee i?ienoiaeeei ?anoe?aiea naycae a nenoaia
i?e?iaea — /aeiaae. A noa?o /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeeth/aeenue ana
iiaua aeaeu i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. ?inea /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey,
oaaee/eaaeenue ianooaau i?iecaiaenoaa, i?ienoiaeeei eciaiaiea
anoanoaaiiie i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu a ?acoeueoaoa /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeoeaiay ?ieue /aeiaaea a
eniieueciaaiee i?e?iaeu iaoea naia io?aaeaiea a i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiee eae
iniaie noa?a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea —
niaieoiiinoue ia?, i?aaei?eieiaaiuo iauanoaii n oeaeueth eco/aiey,
io?aiu, inaiaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea — oaeie oei acaeiiioiioaiey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie, i?e eioi?ii iauanoai
oi?aaeyao naieie ioiioaieyie n i?e?iaeie, i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao
iaaeaeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey naiae aeayoaeueiinoe. I?eia?ii iiaeao
neoaeeo nicaeaiea eoeueoo?iuo eaiaeoaooia; i?eiaiaiea oaoiieiaee,
iicaieythueo aieaa iieii ia?a?aaaouaaoue nu?uea; iiaoi?iia
eniieueciaaiea iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa, io?aia aeaeia aeeaioiuo e
?anoaiee, nicaeaiea caiiaaaeieeia e o. i.

Ia?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea — oei acaeiiioiioaiey n i?e?iaeie,
i?e eioi?ii ia o/eouaathony o?aaiaaiey io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, aa
oeo/oaiey (iio?aaeoaeueneia ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea). I?eia?u oaeiai
ioiioaiey — yoi iaoia?aiiue auian neioa, iiaena/ii-iaiaaia caieaaeaeea,
eno?aaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, ?aaeeiaeoeaiia,
oaieiaia caa?yciaiey n?aaeu.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoeinoai no?ai i?iaiaeeo iieeoeeo ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey, nicaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, ?ac?aaaouaathony i?e?iaeiio?aiiua i?ia?aiiu e caeiiu. Aaaeia
niaianoiay aeayoaeueiinoue no?ai ii io?aia i?e?iaeu, nicaeaiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?iaeoia. Nio?aiaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu — aaaeiaeoay
iaua/aeiaa/aneay i?iaeaia. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey — iaeia ec iniiaiuo caaea/ nia?aiaiiinoe.

2. Caiaaeiay Aa?iia — yoi aieaa 20 ainoaea?noa, ioee/athueony
enoi?e/aneei, yoie/aneei, i?e?iaeiui, yeiiiie/aneei, nioeeaeueiui e
eoeueoo?iui naiaia?aceai. Caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneee ?aaeii — iaeei ec iiuiuo
oeaio?ia ie?iaie yeiiiieee a nia?aiaiiii ie?a.

YAI ii?aaeaeyaony i?eii?neei iieiaeaieai aieueoeinoaa no?ai, oaeaea
iieiaeaieai ia aeaaiuo ie?iauo ii?neeo iooyo, aaaeoueo ec Aa?iiu a
Aia?eeo, ninaaeneei eiiiaeoiui iieiaeaieai no?ai ii ioiioaieth .ae?oa e
ae?oao; aeecinoue ei iiiaei ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai icia/aao aeecinoue e
enoi/ieeai nu?uey. No?aiu Ao?eee e Acee iinoaaeytho a Caiaaeioth Aa?iio
aeaoaaoth ?aai/oth neeo.

No?aiu ?aaeiia ?aniieiaeaiu a aeaaii?eyoiuo i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo: oi?ioaa
ni/aoaiea ?aaieiiuo e ai?iuo oi?i ?aeueaoa, oia?aiiue eeeiao,
ieiaei?iaeiua ii/au. Iaania/aiiinoue no?ai ieia?aeueiuie ?ano?naie
iaiaeii?iaeia. I?iiuoeaiiua caianu iaooe eiathony a Ieaea?eaiaeao, ai
O?aioeee; oaey — a O?A (?o?neee aannaei), Aaeeeia?eoaiee (Oyeueneee
aannaei, Iuieaneneee aannaei); aeaeaciie ?oaeu — ai O?aioeee
(Eioa?eiaey), Oaaoeee; ?oae oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia — a O?A, Eniaiee, Eoaeee;
eaeeeiuo nieae — a O?A, ai O?aioeee e ae?. Ii aaeaeo oiai, /oi no?aiu
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu aeaaii anoaee ia iooue i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey, iiiaea
ianoi?iaeaeaiey aeecee e enoiuaieth. A ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao ino?i noieo
i?iaeaia ia?ae/iuo yia?ai?ano?nia. Caiaaeiay Aa?iia iaania/aia
ieia?aeueiui nu?ueai ooaea, /ai Naaa?iay Aia?eea, /oi oneeeaaao aa
caaeneiinoue io eiii?oa nu?uey. Naaa?iua e caiaaeiua /anoe Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu iaieioi iaania/aiu ?ano?naie i?aniuo aiae. E?oiiua ?a/iua a?oa?ee
— Aeoiae. ?aei, Eoa?a. A Ii?aaaee 3/4 anae yeaeo?iyia?aee aeatho
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee. Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ?aaeiia yaeyaony i?aeoe/anee
iieiia ionoonoaea anoanoaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia.

Aeey ianaeaiey no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu oa?aeoa?ai i?ioeann «noa?aiey»,
/oi iauyniyaony nieaeaieai anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa e oaaee/aieai n?aaeiae
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie. Ia aeaiia?aoe/aneeo iieacaoaeyo
neacuaathony iineaaenoaey aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Ec-ca yoiai aicieeatho
i?iaeaiu a noa?a o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a iaeanoe nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey
iiaeeeuo ethaeae.

Caiaaeiay Aa?iia — iaeei ec naiuo o?aaiece?iaaiiuo ?aaeiiia ie?a.
Eiiaeiineay e Ia?eaeneay aaeiia?aoeee i?eiaaeeaaeao e /eneo naiuo
e?oiiuo a ie?a.

Caiaaeiay Aa?iia — iaeei ec yeiiiie/aneeo oeaio?ia ie?a; yaeyaony
aaaeiui oeiainiaui oeaio?ii (Eiiaeii e Oeth?eo — oeiainiaua noieeoeu).
Ii oaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaeii a iineaaeiea aiaeu noae
ionoaaaoue io NOA e ssiiiee. Ionoaaaiea iaia?oaeeeinue i?aaeaea anaai a
iaoeiaieeo io?aneyo — iee?iyeaeo?iieea, aeioaoiieiaee e ae?.

Yia?aaoeea. Aace?oaony eae ia nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nao (iaooue e aac oaeueoa
Naaa?iiai ii?y, aac Ie-aea?eaiaeia, oaieue O?A e Aaeeeia?eoaiee), oae e
ia i?eaiciuo. A no?aiao Naaa?iie e THaeiie Aa?iiu aieueoia cia/aiea
eiatho aeae?i?ano?nu. Eneaiaeey eniieuecoao a ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia
yia?aee auoiaeu oa?iaeueiuo aiae. ?aaeii eeaee?oao a ie?a ii ?acaeoeth
aoiiiie yia?aaoeee.

*a?iay iaoaeeo?aey. Noa?ua iaoaeeo?ae/aneea ?aeiiu: ?o? a O?A,
Eioa?eiaey ai O?aioeee. I?eaioaoeey ia eiii?o aeaeaciie ?oaeu i?eaaea e
naeaeao i?aaei?eyoee /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee e ii?th — Oa?aioi a Eoaeee,
Aethiea?e ai O?aioeee, A?aiai a O?A. .

Oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey eniieuecoao eiioeaio?aou ?oae ec Ao?eee e Acee. Aa
oa??eoi?eaeueiay no?oeoo?a iaiyaony iaaeeaiiaa, /ai a /a?iie
iaoaeeo?aee.

Iaoeiino?iaiea ii?aaeaeyao eiaeono?eaeueiia eeoei Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.
E?oiiaeoee a ie?a i?iecaiaeeoaeue e yenii?oa? iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey,
noaieia, eocia/ii-i?anniaiai iai?oaeiaaiey, iioeee. Aaeeei cia/aiea
o?ainii?oiiai iaoeiino?iaiey, iniaaiii aaoiiiaeeano?iaiey: oe?iu
«Oieueenaaaai» (O?A), «?aii» (O?aioeey), «Oeao» (Eoaeey), «Aieueai»
(Oaaoeey). Iaoeiino?iaiea i?aaenoaaeaii i?aeoe/anee a eaaeaeii e?oiiii
ai?iaea.

Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. O?A i?iecaiaeeo e?aneoaee e ieanoiannu,
O?aioeey — neioaoe/aneee eao/oe, Aaeueaey — oeie/aneea oaeia?aiey e
niaeo, a Oaaoeee e Ii?aaaee ?acaeoa eanioeiey, a Oaaeoea?ee —
oa?iaoeaaoeea.

Eciaiaiey a aaia?aoee i?iiuoeaiiinoe Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu naycaiu n
oi?ie?iaaieai e?oiiuo ii?-oiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiieaenia (?iooa?aeai a
Ieaea?eaiaeao, Ia?naeue ai O?aioeee e ae?.), inaiaieai iaooaaaciiiniuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee Naaa?iiai ii?y, eiaeono?eaeecaoeeae iaiaa ?acaeouo
no?ai, aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Naeueneia oicyenoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony /?acau/aeii aunieie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth. Aaicyony eeoue oiaa?u o?iie/aneiai caieaaeaeey
e oo?aaeiia ca?ii. Iniiaiie oei naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey —
oa?ia. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai i?aiaeaaeaao aeeaioiiaiaenoai. A Caiaaeiie
Aa?iia niae?atho naiua aunieea a ie?a o?iaeae ioaieoeu. Au?aueaatho
y/iaiue e eoeo?oco, ea?oioaeue; ec oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo? — naoa?ioth
naaeeo (O?aioeey, O?A, Eoa-

eey). A THaeiie Aa?iia ?acaeoi aeiia?aaea?noai, au?aueaaiea ianeei,
ieiaeaey, a?aiaoa. Eoaeey — ia?aay no?aia a ie?a ii i?iecaiaenoao aei e
nai?o aeiia?aaea, Eniaiey—ii nai?o ianeei.

O?ainii?o auniei?acaeo. Eiaaony aonoay naoue aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia.
Aaeeea ?ieue ii?neiai o?ainii?oa (?iooa?aeai, Ia?naeue, Aaa?, Aioaa?iai,
Aaiao?a — e?oiiaeoea ii?ou). ?anoao cia/aiea o?oaii?iaiaeiiai e
aicaeooiiai o?ainii?oa. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oiiiaeue iiae Ea-Iaioai.

Aaaeoueie no?aiaie Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu yaeythony no?aiu — /eaiu «aieueoie
naia?ee» — O?A, O?aioeey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Eoaeey.

Aeey ?aaeiia oa?aeoa?ai aunieee o?iaaiue ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie
eioaa?aoeee, iauaaeeiaiea no?ai a Aa?iiaeneee nithc; ioe?uoea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?aieoe a ?aieao Aaeeiiai aa?iiaeneiai yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa.

3. Ii ea?oa ieioiinoe ianaeaiey ii?aaeaeeoa n?aaeithth ieioiinoue
ianaeaiey oeacaiiuo no?ai, iauynieoa ?acee/ey n o/aoii oiai, /oi ia
n?aaeithth ieioiinoue ianaeaiey aeeytho i?e?iaeiua’, enoi?e/aneea,
yeiiiie/aneea e aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?e/eiu. Iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea
ia ia?aie/aiiinoue i?eiaiaiey iieacaoaey n?aaeiae ieioiinoe ianaeaiey.

Aeeao ? 5

1. Aeaeu i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. -?ano?niiaania/aiiinoue. Ioeaiea

?ano?niiaania/aiiinoe no?aiu.

2. Cia/aiea o?ainii?oa a ie?iaii oicyenoaa. Aeaeu o?ainii?oa e

eo iniaaiiinoe. O?ainii?o e ie?oaeathuay n?aaea.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea e n?aaiaiea iieacaoaeae i?e?inoa ianaeaiey a

?aciuo no?aiao (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

1. I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu — eiiiiiaiou i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua ia aeaiiii o?iaia
?acaeoey iauanoaa eniieuecothony eee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a
ea/anoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu — eaoaai?ey enoi?e/aneay, naycaiiay n eciaiaieai
iio?aaiinoae e aiciiaeiinoae iauanoaa, ?acaeoeai iaoee e oaoieee ia
?aciuo enoi?e/aneeo yoaiao. Iai?eia?, a yiioo IO? ?acei aic?inei
cia/aiea ?oae oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia. Nouanoaotho
?aciua iiaeoiaeu e eeanneoeeaoeee i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth auaeaeythony ieia?aeueiua, aiaeiua, ?ano?nu Ie?iaiai
ieaaia, caiaeueiua, aeieiae/aneea, eeeiaoe/aneea, einie/aneea ?ano?nu.
Ii en/a?iaaiinoe auaeaeythony en/a?iaaiua e iaen/a?iaaiua. E ia?aui
ioiinyony aiciaiiaeiua (aeieiae/aneea, caiaeueiua, aiaeiua) e
iaaiciaiiaeiua (ieia?aeueiua). Ei aoi?ui ioiinyony eeeiaoe/aneea,
yia?aey oaeo/ae aiaeu, nieioea, aao?a.

Ii niiniao eniieueciaaiey: aa?ieeeiaoe/aneea, yia?aaoe/aneea,
?ae?aaoeeiiiua e o. i. ?ano?niiaania/aiiinoue — yoi niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
aaee/eiie i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e ?acia?aie eo eniieueciaaiey. Iia
au?aaeaaony caianaie ec ?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey eee eiee/anoaii eao.
ia eioi?ua aeieaeii oaaoeoue aeaiiiai ?ano?na i?e nia?aiaiiuo oaiiao
aeiau/e eee eniieueciaaiey. Ioeaieoue iaania/aiiinoue no?aiu
ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaeii i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia iiaeii aeaoiy niiniaaie.
Ia?aue: ?acaeaeeoue ?acia?u caiania aeaiiiai ?ano?na ia nia?aiaiiue
iauai aeiau/e a aiae e iieo/eoue eiee/anoai eao, ia eioi?ua aeaiiiai
?ano?na aeieaeii oaaoeoue. Aoi?ie: ?acaeaeeoue eiee/anoai caiania
aeaiiiai ?ano?na ia /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey no?aiu e ociaoue, eaeia
eiee/anoai aeaiiiai ?ano?na i?eoiaeeony ia aeooo ianaeaiey.
Eiee/anoaaiii ioeaiea ?ano?niiaania/aiiinoue no?aiu, iaiaoiaeeii
naeaeaoue auaiaeu i noaiaie aa iaania/aiiinoe aeaiiui ?ano?nii.

2. O?ainii?o — o?aouey aaaeouay io?aneue iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
ii ninoaaeyao iaoa?eaeueioth iniiao iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea, aicaeaenoaoao ia ?aciauaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, niinianoaoao
?acaeoeth niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?e?iaaiey, a oaeaea ?acaeoeth
eioaa?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia,

Ana iooe niiauaiey, o?ainii?oiua i?aaei?eyoey e o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa a
niaieoiiinoe ia?acotho ie?iaoth o?ainii?oioth nenoaio. IO? einioeanue
anao aeaeia o?ainii?oa: oaaee/eeenue nei?inoe, au?inea
a?ociiiaeuaiiinoue, oiiiaeeeny iiaeaeaeiie ninoaa. Iiyaeaiea
eiioaeia?ia, iiaeaiaeiuo oiiiaeae cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eei aiciiaeiinoe
o?ainii?oe?iaee ?acee/iuo a?ocia. Nooiiooiue o?ainii?o.
AEaeaciiaei?iaeiue: a yiioo IO? aai ?ieue nieceeanue, ii inoaaony
aaaeiie a ia?aaicea ianniauo i?iiuoeaiiuo e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
a?ocia. Ieiei 1/2 iauae aeeeiu aeaeaciuo aei?ia i?eoiaeeony ia 10 no?ai
(NOA, ?inneth, Eiaeeth, Eaiaaeo, Eeoae e ae?.). Ii aonoioa
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie naoe auaeaeyaony Aa?iia.

Aaoiiiaeeueiue: eeaee?oao ai aioo?eai?iaeneeo e i?eai?iaeiuo
iannaaee?iia?aaiceao, aaeeei cia/aiea a iaaeaeoai?iaeiuo e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ia?aaiceao. Ii aeeeia aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia
auaeaeythony NOA, ?inney, Eiaeey; ii aonoioa — Aa?iia e ssiiiey.

O?oaii?iaiaeiue: iieo/ee auno?ia ?acaeoea ec-ca ?inoa aeiau/e iaooe e
aaca (NOA, ?inney, Eaiaaea).

Aiaeiue o?ainii?o. Ii?neie: ianeoaeeaaao 4/5 anae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee, ia?aaiceo iaeeaiua, iaaaei/iua, ianuiiua a?ocu, a eiioaeia?ao
aioiaua ecaeaeey e iieooaa?eeaou. Iaeaieueoee oiiiaae ii?neiai oi?aiaiai
oeioa o ssiiiee, NOA, A?aoeee, ?innee e ae?oaeo no?ai. Iaee/ea aieueoiai
oeioa o Iaiaiu e Eeaa?ee iauyniyaony oai, /oi iiae oeaaaie yoeo no?ai
ieaaatho noaea ae?oaeo e?oiiuo aea?aeaa. Nouanoaoao ieiei 30 ie?iauo
ii?oia (?iooa?aeai, Aaiao?a, Ein-Aiaeaeaean e ae?.). Ii ?acia?ai ii?neeo
ia?aaicie auaeaeyaony Aoeaioe/aneee ieaai. Ia?iiiia cia/aiea eiatho
Noyoeeee e Iaiaineee eaiaeu.

Aioo?aiiee aiaeiue: ii a?ociiai?ioo auaeaeythony NOA, ?inney, Eaiaaea,
O?A, Eeoae e Ieaea?eaiaeu. A yoeo aea no?aiao iaoiaeeony aieueoeinoai
noaeioiaeiuo eaiaeia (Aa?aaiaie a NOA, Aaeeeee eaiae a Eeoaa,
Aaeiii?nei-Aaeoeeneee a ?innee). Aeaaiue ?aeii ica?iiai noaeioiaenoaa —
aaeeeea ica?a NOA e Eaiaaea.

Aicaeooiue o?ainii?o — naiue iieiaeie e aeeiaie/iue. Caieiaao ia?aia
ianoi a iaaeeiioeiaioaeueiuo ia?aaiceao. E?oiiua aaeaoeeiiiua aea?aeaau
NOA, ?inney, ssiiiey, O?aioeey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey e ae?. E?oiiua ay?iii?ou
ie?a «0’Oa?a» (*eeaai), a Aeaeeana, «Oeo?io» (Eiiaeii), «Oaiaaea»
(Oieei) e ae?.

O?ainii?o a ianoiyuaa a?aiy noae iaiaa caaenei io i?e?iaeu. I?e?iaeiua
i?aiyonoaey (aiaeiua i?ino?ainoaa, ai?u e o. i.) ia?anoaee auoue
iai?aiaeieeiuie. I?iaeaathony oiiiaee a neaeao, i?ieeaaeuaathony
iiaeaiaeiua oiiiaee, nii?oaeathony eneonnoaaiiua aiaeiua iooe. Ii
iaeiia?aiaiii ?anoao io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea o?ainii?oa ia i?e?iaeo
(oaieiaia, ooiiaia, oeie/aneia e ae?oaea aeaeu caa?yciaiee). Iiiaea
no?aiu i?eiei^eio ia?u ii caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io iaaaoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey o?ainii?oa.

3. Ii noaoenoe/aneei aeaiiui ii?aaeaeeoa anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino aeey
oeacaiiuo no?ai. Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino yaeyaony ?acieoeae iaaeaeo
?iaeaeaaiinoueth e nia?oiinoueth. N?aaieoa anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino
oeacaiiuo no?ai. Naeaeaeoa auaiaeu, o/eouaay, /oi ia anoanoaaiiue
i?e?ino aeeeao nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee oaeoi? e o?iaaiue aeecie
ianaeaiey. Iaeuecy caauaaoue i iaoaie/aneii i?e?inoa ianaeaiey
(iea?aoeeyo), eioi?ue a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue,

Aeeao .? 6

1. Caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciauaiey eeia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia e no?aiu,

auaeaeythueany ii eo caianai. I?iaeaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
?ano?nia.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeiie ec

no?ai Caiaaeiie Ae?iiu (ii auai?o o/auaainy).

3. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea o?ainii?oiuo nenoai aeaoo

no?ai (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

1. Ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu— yoi i?e?iaeiua aauanoaa ieia?aeueiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eniieuecoaiua aeey iieo/aiey yia?aee, nu?uey, :
iaoa?eaeia e neoaeauea ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacie oicyenoaa. Aeey
ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia oa?aeoa?iu: ?aceay ia?aaiiia?iinoue ?aciauaiey,
iaaiciaiiaeyaiinoue eiie?aoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee, aiciiae ainoue
ainiieiaiey iooai ?acaaaeee e inaiaiey iiauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecoaone aieaa 200 aeaeia ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia.
Caianu ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ia iaeeiaeiau. Iinoiyiii ?anooo ?acia?u
aeiau/e e ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaua ianoi?iaeaeaiey.

Caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciauaiey ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia. ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia iiae/eiyaony aaieiae/aneei caeiiiia?iinoyi.
Iieaciua eneiiaaiua inaaei/iia i?ienoiaeaeaiey ano?a/athony a i?aaeaeao
inaaei/iiai /aoea ieaooi?i, a i?aaeai?iuo e e?aaauo I]thaeaao.
Iaaiaoe/aneea iieaciua eneiiaaiua — a neeaae/aouo iaeanoyo, ianoao
auoiaea ia iiaa?oiinoue (eee aeeceiai caeaaaiey e iiaa?oiinoe)
e?enoaeee/aneiai ooiaeaiaioa ae?aaieo, ieaooi?i. Oiieeaiua eiatho
inaaei/iia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, iacacotho oaieueiua e iaooaaaciiiniua
aannaeiu (/aeie ae?aaieo ieaooi?i, eo aioo?aiiea e e?aaaua i?iaeau).
E?oiiaeoea oaieueiua aannaeiu ?an aeieiaeaiu ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee, NOA.
O?A e ae?oaeo no?ai. Iaooue e aac eioaineaii aeiauaathony a Ia?neaeneii
caeeaa, Iaeneeaineii caeeaa, Caiaaeiie Neae?e.

E ?oaeiui ioiinyony ?oaeu iaoaeeia, iie i?eo?i/aiu e ooiaeaiaioai e
ueoai ae?aaieo ieaooi?i, anoue e a neeaae/aouo iaeanoyo. No?aiu,
auaeaeythueany ii caianai aeaeaciie ?oaeu, — ?inney, A?aceeey, Eaiaaea,
NOA, Aano?aeey e ae?. *anoi iaee/ea ?oaeiuo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo
ii?aaeaeyao niaoeeaeecaoeeth ?aeiiia e no?ai.

Ia?oaeiua iieaciua eneiiaaiua eiatho oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. E iei
ioiinyony: aiaoeou, na?a, eaeeeiua niee, ecaanoiyee, aeieiieou e ae?.

Aeey oicyenoaaiiiai inaiaiey iaeaieaa auaiaeiu oa??eoi?eaeueiua
ni/aoaiey iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, eioi?ua iaeaa/atho eiiieaenioth
ia?a?aaioeo nu?uey, oi?ie?iaaiea e?oiiuo oa??eoi?eaeueii-
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiieaenia. Aaaeii ?aoeeiiaeueaia eniieueciaaiea
?ano?nia — ecaea/aiea iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiai eiee/anoaa ?ano?nia,
aieaa iieaay ia?a?aaioea, eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey e o. i.

Niaaeeiaiiia Ei?ieaanoai Aaeeeia?eoaiee e Naaa?iie E?eaiaeee ninoieo ec
/aou?ao e?oiiuo oa??eoi?ee: Aiaeee, Oioeaiaeee, Oyeuena, Naaa?iie
E?eaiaeee. Aeieaia a?aiy (aei eiioea XIX a.) Aaeeeia?eoaiey
ainiiaenoaiaaea a ie?iaii oicyenoaa, o. e. caeanue ?aiueoa, /ai a
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao, i?iecioea i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey. No?aia
aeaaeaea ia?iiiuie eieiieyie, /oi aeaaaei i?aeiouanoaa aeey ?acaeoey
oicyenoaa; oceiaia iieiaeaiea ia ia?ae?anoea aaaeiaeoeo ii?neeo
o?ainii?oiuo iaaeno?aeae iaania/eaaei ae oe?ieea nayce ni anaie ?aeiiaie
caiiiai oa?a. Aaaeia ?ieue e aeaaii?eyoiiai ni/aoaiey i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee
e ?ano?nia (eaiaiiiai oaey, aeaeaciie ?oaeu, iieii: aiaeiuo ?ae).

Nae/an Aaeeeia?eoaiey inoaaony iaeiie ec aaaeoueo aea?aeaa ie?a.
Aunieieiaeono?eaeueiay ae’?aeaaa, e?oiiue yenii?oa? eaieoaea,
nicaeaoaeue e eic?aeeia-oi? Niae?oaeanoaa (i?aaeiaa iacaaiea A?eoaineia
Niae?oaeanoai iaoeee) — naiaia?aciie oi?iu annioeeaoeee iaaeaeo
Aaeeeia?eoaieae e aa auaoeie eieiieyie .

No?oeoo?a a?eoaineie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oeie/ia aeey iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?ai
ie?a. Aaaeouay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo neiaeiiio e iiiaiia?aciiio
iaoeiino?iaieth (Eiiaeii, Eiaaio?e, Ae?ieiaai, Eeaeae-naeae e aei).
Oi?ioi ?acaeoua /a?iay e oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aee ?aaioatho a iniiaiii ia
eiii?oiii nu?uea (Oaooeeae e ai?iaea iiaa?aaeuey). Iinea ioe?uoey ia
oaeueoa Naaa?iiai ii?y ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe e aaca, iiaue eiioeuen
?acaeoey iieo/eea oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

Naeueneia oicyenoai aunieii?iaeoeoeaiia, aaaeouay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
aeeaioiiaiaenoao (?acaaaeaiea e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa, iaoeaaiaenoai,
naeiiaiaenoai e ioeoeaaiaenoai). I?aiaeaaeatho oicyenoaa,
niaoeeaeece?othueany ia iiei/iii aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Iniiaiia io?aaeaiea
?anoaieaaiaenoaa — iaania/aiea neioa ei?iaie, 2/3 iinaaiie ieiuaaee
caiyoi iiae ei?iiaua eoeueoo?u. Caiaoioth ?ieue ea?aao ?uaieianoai. ina
iaiua ?uaieiaiua ii?ou ?aniieiaeaiu ia ainoi/iii iiaa?aaeuea.

O?ainii?o. Iniiaiie a?ociiai?io ai aioo?aiieo ia?aaiceao i?eoiaeeony ia
aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o. Iniiaiua o?ainii?oiua iaaeno?aee noiaeyony e
Eiiaeiio, Ae?ieiaaio, Iai/anoa?o e ae?oaei i?iiuoeaiiui ai?iaeai.
Aaeeeia?eoaiey eiaao e?oiiue ii?neie e iannaaee?neee oeio. ?acaeo
aaeaoeeiiiue o?ainii?o. Cia/aiea aiaeiiai e aicaeooiiai aeaeia
o?ainii?oa i/aiue aaeeei, o/eouaay ino?iaiia iieiaeaaea no?aiu.

A i?aaeaeao Aaeeeia?eoaiee iiaeii auaeaeeoue iyoue iniiaiuo ?aeiiia. A
thaeiie /anoe iaoiaeeony noieeoea — Eiiaeii, eioi?ay iaeiia?aiaiii
yaeyaony iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo ii?oia a ie?a. Aeoeaiay ii?neay oi?aiaey e
noiee/iay ?ieue — «eeoei» thaeiie /anoe no?aiu. THai-ainoie — aeaaiay
ciia ca?iiauo e oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo?. ?acaeoi aeeaioiiaiaenoai. Ia
iiaa?aaeuea — ii?ou, aiaiiua aacu, eo?i?ou. Naooaaiioii — naiue aieueoie
iannaaee?neee ii?o Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Oeaio?aeueiay /anoue ainoaea?noaa —
?iaeeia oaieueiie e oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ie?a
(iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae, oaenoeeueiie). Nae/an yoi
ii/oe iai?a?uaiay iieina i?iiuoeaiiuo ai?iaeia ni noa?uie, iiauie e
iiaaeoeie io?aneyie. A Oyeuena i?aiaeaaeatho noa?ua io?anee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A Oioeaiaeee — noaeino?iaiea, nae/an auno?i ?acaeaaaony
oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue a ?acoeueoaoa ?ac?aaioee ianoi?iaeaeaiee
iaooe e aaca Naaa?iiai ii?y. A ai?iie /anoe Oioeaiaeee ?acaeoi
iaoeaaiaenoai, a ainoi/iie e i?ea?aaeiie — iiei/iia aeeaioiiaiaenoai e
?uaieianoai. Ieuenoa? — yeiiiie/anee iaeaieaa ionoaeay /anoue no?aiu.
Iniiao yeiiiieee oai ninoaaeyao naeueneia oicyenoai.

Caaea/e ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee — iiaeuai aeai?anneaiuo noa?ii?iiuoeaiiuo
?aeiiia e naeaaeeaaiea aeeni?iii?oeee iaaeaeo ieie e auniei?acaeouie
?aeiiaie; eiaeono?eaeecaoeey e iauaa ?acaeoea iaeaieaa ionoaeuo ?aeiiia;
ia?aie/aiea ?inoa e «?aca?ocea» iaeioi?uo e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeia e
ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeee.

3. Aeey aiaeeca iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue iooe niiauaiey, o?ainii?oiua
i?aaei?eyoey e o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa no?ai, oae eae o?ainii?oiay
nenoaia neeaaeuaaaony ec yoeo yeaiaioia. Aeey no?ai n ?aciui o?iaiai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey naienoaaiiu ?aciua eiioeao?aoeee o?ainii?oiuo
nenoai e ?aciia ?acaeoea ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia o?ainii?oa. O?ainii?oiay
nenoaia ?acaeaathueony no?ai ia?aaeei eiaao ae?aaiaeaeioth oi?io,
«oi/eie ?inoa» eioi?ie neoaeeo e?oiiue ii?neie ii?o, yoi naycaii n
enoi?eae inaiaiey e eieiiecaoeee oa??eoi?ee. A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao,
eae i?aaeei, i?aiaeaaeaao iaeei-aeaa aeaea o?ainii?oa. I?e iauyniaiee
/a?o noiaenoaa e ?acee/ey o?ainii?oiuo nenoai neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi
ia ieo aeeytho ?aciua oaeoi?u — i?e?iaeiue, enoi?e/aneee, yeiiiie/aneee,
iieeoe/aneee e o. i.

Aeeao .? 7

1. Caiaeueiua ?ano?nu. Aaia?aoe/aneea ?acee/ey a iaania/aiiinoe.

I?iaeaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey.

2. Oiieeaei-yia?aaoe/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ninoaa, cia/aiea a

oicyenoaa, iniaaiiinoe ?aciauaiey. Yia?aaoe/aneay i?iaeaia /aeiaa/anoaa
e iooe aa ?aoaiey. I?iaeaiu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ii ea?oai YAI no?aiu (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

1. Caiaeueiua ?ano?nu — aeae i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia;

iiaa?oiinoue Caiee, ia eioi?ie iiaoo ?aciauaoueny ?acee/iua iauaeou
oicyenoaa, ai?iaea e ae?oaea ianaeaiiua ioieou. Yoi a aieueoae noaiaie
oa??eoi?eaeueiua ?ano?nu. Ii i?e ioeaiea oa??eoi?ee n oi/ee c?aiey
aiciiaeiinoae ?acaeoey naeueneiai e eaniiai oicyenoaa aaaeii
?anniio?aoue e ea/anoai caiaeue — eo ieiaei?iaeea, oae eae caiey a
aeaiiii neo/aa yaeyaony aeaaiui n?aaenoaii i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaania/aiiinoue /aeiaa/anoaa caiaeueiuie ?ano?naie ii?aaeaeyaony ie?iaui
caiaeueiui oiiaeii, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao 13,4 ie?ae aa. Ec ioaeaeueiuo
e?oiiuo ?aaeiiia iaeaieueoei caiaeueiui oiiaeii iaeaaeatho Ao?eea (30
iei ei2) e ca?oaaaeiay Acey (27,7 iei ei2), a naiui iaeaiueeei —
ca?oaaaeiay Aa?iia (5,1 iei ei2) e Aano?aeey n Ieaaieae (8,5 iei ei2).
Iaeiaei anee ?anniao?eaaoue iaania/aiiinoue ?aaeiiia caiaeueiuie
?ano?naie ec ?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey, oi ?acoeueoao aoaeao
i?ioeaiiieiaeiui: ia eaaeaeiai aeeoaey iaeiianaeaiiie Aano?aeee
i?eoiaeeony 37 aa caiee (iaeneiaeueiue iieacaoaeue), a ia aeeoaey
ca?oaaaeiie Acee — oieueei 1,1 aa, i?eaeeceoaeueii noieueei aea e a
ca?oaaaeiie Aa?iia.

No?oeoo?a caiaeueiiai oiiaea iieacuaaao, eaeei ia?acii eniieuecothony
caiaeueiua ?ano?nu. A iae auaeaeythony naeueneioicyenoaaiiua caiee
(ia?aaaouaaaiua — iaoiy, naaeu, canayiiua eoaa e anoanoaaiiua eoaa e
ianoaeua), eaniua caiee, caiee, caiyoua ianaeaiiuie ioieoaie,
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e o?ainii?oii, iaeii?iaeoeoeaiua e iai?iaeoeoeaiua
caiee.

Iaeaieaa oeaiiua ia?aaaouaaaiua caiee caieiatho anaai 11% ie?iaiai
caiaeueiiai oiiaea. Oaeie aea iieacaoaeue oa?aeoa?ai aeey NIA, Ao?eee,
Naaa?iie Aia?eee. Aeey ca?oaaaeiie Aa?iiu yoio iieacaoaeue aieaa aunie
(29%), a aeey Aano?aeee e THaeiie Aia?eee— iaiaa aunie (5% e 7%). No?aiu
ie?a n iaeaieueoeie ?acia?aie ia?aaaouaaaiuo caiaeue — NOA, Eiaeey,
?inney, Eeoae, Eaiaaea. Ia?aaaouaaaiua caiee nin?aaeioi/aiu a iniiaiii a
eaniuo, eaninoaiiuo e noaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo ciiao. Anoanoaaiiua eoaa e
ianoaeua i?aiaeaaeatho iaae ia?aaaouaaaiuie caieyie aacaea (a Aano?aeee
aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac), e?iia ca?oaaaeiie Aa?iiu. Ai anai ie?a a n?aaeiai
23% caiee eniieuecoaony iiae ianoaeua.

No?oeoo?a caiaeueiiai oiiaea ieaiaou iinoiyiii eciaiyaony iiae aeeyieai
aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo i?ioeannia. Iaeei — ai?ueaa /aeiaa/anoaa ca
?anoe?aiea caiaeue, i?eaiaeiuo aeey iaeoaiey e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey; ae?oaie — oooaeoaiea caiaeue, ecuyoea eo ec
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa a ?acoeueoaoa y?icee, iionouieaaiey,
i?iiuoeaiiie e o?ainii?oiie cano?ieee, ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioee iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo. Aoi?ie i?ioeann eaeao aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie. Iiyoiio
aeaaiay i?iaeaia ie?iaiai caiaeueiiai oiiaea — aeaa?aaeaoeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo
caiaoiia nie?auaiea ia?aaaouaaaiuo caiaeue, i?eoiaeyueony ia aeooo
ianaeaiey, a «iaa?ocea» ia ieo ana a?aiy aic?anoaao. No?aiu n
iaeiaiueoae iaania/aiiinoueth iaoiae ia aeooo ianaeaiey — Eeoae (0,09
aa), Aaeiao (0,05 aa). Ai iiiaeo no?aiao i?aaei?eieiathony oneeey ii
nio?aiaieth caiaeueiiai oiiaea e oeo/oaieth aai no?oeoo?u. A
?aaeiiaeueiii e aeiaaeueiii aniaeoa iie ana aieaa eii?aeeie?othony
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie i?aaiaie III — THIANEI, AI (I?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay
e naeueneioicyenoaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey III) e ae?.

2. Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ninoieo ec oiieeaiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e yia?aaoeee. Oiieeaiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue — eiiieaen
io?aneae, caieiathueony aeiau/ae e ia?a?aaioea e
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai nu?uey. Aeeth/aao oaieueioth, aaciaoth,
iaooyioth, oi?oyioth, neaioeaaoth e o?aiiaeiauaathuoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue.
A oneiaeyo IO? ?ieue oiieeaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoue aic?anoaao a nayce n
?acaeoeai yeaeo?eoeeaoeee e oaieioeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoa, iaoneiaeeaathueo
eioaineaiue ?ino iio?aaeaiey yia?aee.

Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?ioea a naiai ?acaeoee
ianeieueei yoaiia: oaieueiue (aei na?aaeeiu XX a.), iaooyiie e aaciaue
(aei 80-o aa. XX a.); a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ie?iaay yia?aaoeea anooieea a
ia?aoiaeiue yoai — yoai iinoaiaiiiai ia?aoiaea io eniieueciaaiey
ieia?aeueiiai oiieeaa e aiciaiiaeiui e iaen/a?iaaiui yia?ai?ano?nai.

Iaooyiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Iaooue aeiauaatho i?eia?ii a 80 no?aiao, ii
aaia?aoeth yoie io?anee ii?aaeaeytho no?aiu «ia?aie aeanyoee». Iniiaiay
iniaaiiinoue — aieaa 4/5 caiania e ieiei 1/2 aeiau/e iaooe i?eoiaeeony
ia ?acaeaathueany: no?aiu, eioi?ua e yaeythony aeaaiuie yenii?oa?aie
iaooe, iniaaiii no?aiu IIAE. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaeny ia?iiiue
oa??eoi?eaeueiue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo iniiaiuie ?aeiiaie aeiau/e iaooe e
?aeiiaie aa iio?aaeaiey. E?oiiaeoeie yenii?oa?aie iaooe yaeythony no?aiu
Ia?neaeneiai caeea a. Aieueoeie caianaie iaeaaeatho ?inney, NOA, Eeoae,
E?ai e ae?.

Aaciaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. E?oiiaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaee — ?inney, NOA,
Eaiaaea, Ieaea?eaiaeu. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy aeiau/a aaca ?anoao a
iaeioi?uo ?acaeaathueony no?aiao. Aeaee?, Iaeaecey, Eiaeiiacey, IAY
i?iaeatho naeeaeaiiue i?e?iaeiue aac a no?aiu Aa?iiu e ssiiieth.

Oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Oaieue aeiauaatho i?eia?ii a 60 no?aiao ie?a,
ii aaia?aoeth io?anee, eae e o iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ii?aaeaeytho
no?aiu ^ia?aie aeanyoee». Eeoae, NOA, ?inney aeatho aieueoa iieiaeiu
anae ie?iaie aeiau/e. Oaieue aeiauaatho a iniiaiii a yeiiiie/anee
?acaeouo no?aiao: O?A, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Iieueoa, Aano?aeey, THA? e ae?.

Yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea. A no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee
i?aiaeaaeatho oaieiaua yeaeo?inoaioeee (63% anae au?aaioee), caoai
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee (20%) e aoiiiua (17%). Yoe aeaiiua oa?aeoa?iu aeey
ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?aciuo ?aaeiiao e no?aiao yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea
eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe: a THA? ii/oe any yeaeo?iyia?aey au?aaaouaaaony
ia OYN, a Ii?aaaee — ia AYN, ai O?aioeee — aieueoeinoai yia?aee aeatho
AYN (76%). O?aioeey, ssiiiey, ?anioaeeea Ei?ay i?iaeieaeatho, a ioee/ea
io iiiaeo ae?oaeo no?ai, ia?aueaaoue iiuiinoe aoiiiie yia?aaoeee e iinea
*a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou. No?aiaie, auaeaeythueieny ii eiee/anoao
i?iecaiaeeiie yeaeo?iyia?aee, yaeythony NOA, ?inney, ssiiiey, O?A,
Eaiaaea. ?anoao eioa?an e eniieueciaaieth iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia aeey
au?aaioee yeaeo?iyia?aee: aaioa?iaeueiay yia?aaoeea, nii?oaeaiea
i?eeeaiuo, nieia/iuo yeaeo?inoaioeee, eniieueciaaiea yia?aee aao?a.

Yia?aaoe/aneay i?iaeaia naycaia n nu?ueaaie. Yoi i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey
/aeiaa/anoaa oiieeaii e nu?ueai. ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu caeeth/aaony a
eniieueciaaiee aeinoeaeaiee IO? aeey oiaiueoaiey iioa?e oiieeaa e
nu?uey, eniieueciaaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee, aiaea/aiea a
yenieoaoaoeeth iiauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee.

Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo: i?e aeiau/a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo ia?ooaaony
ii/aaiiue iie?ia, «nuaaeathony» oeaeua i?e?iaeiua eaiaeoaoou, i?e
aeiau/a e o?ainii?oe?iaea iaooe e aaca i?ienoiaeeo caa?yciaiea Ie?iaiai
ieaaia e o.. i. Ie?iaay oaieiaay yia?aaoeea aua?anuaaao a ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo a?aaeiua aauanoaa, eciaiyaony ninoaa aoiinoa?u, i?ienoiaeeo aa
oaieiaia caa?yciaiea. I?e no?ieoaeuenoaa AYN eciaiyaony iee?ieeeiao
oa??eoi?ee, aa aeae?ieiae/aneee ?aaeei e o. i. Aoiiiay yia?aaoeea
ii?iaeeea i?iaeaio caoi?iiaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia (ia aiai?y i
*a?iiauea). Iooe ?aoaiey yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, — nicaeaiea i/enoiuo
nii?oaeaiee, aiaae?aiea iaeiiooiaeiuo e aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee,
i?iaeoiaiiia ?aciauaiea i?iecaiaenoa.

3. Yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea no?aiu ioeaieaaaony ii aa
iieiaeaieth ia ea?oa ie?a ii ioiioaieth e iniiaiui ?aeiiai e oeaio?ai
yeiiiieee. Iae?io?iaaiue — ioeaiea iieiaeaiey no?aiu ii ioiioaieth e
aeaaiui oeaio?ai ie?iaie iieeoeee, yeiiiieee, oi?aiaee; iacio?iaaiue —
ii ioiioaieth e e?oiiui ?aaeiiai ie?a, a?oiiai no?ai; iee?io?iaaiue —
ioeaiea a?aieoe, ioiioaiee n iia?aie/iuie no?aiaie, o?ainii?oiua iooe,
ia?anaeathuea a?aieoeu.

Aeeao ? 8

1. Aiaeiua ?ano?nu nooe, eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia ieaiaoa. I?iaeaia

aiaeiiaania/aiey e aiciiaeiua iooe aa ?aoaiey.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea no?ai

Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea ii noaoenoe/aneei iaoa?eaeai oaiaeaioeee

eciaiaiey io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u oicyenoaa no?aiu (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

1. Aiaeiua ?ano?nu nooe — aiaeu, i?eaiaeiua aeey eniieueciaaiey a
oicyenoaa: ?aee, ica?a, eaiaeu, aiaeio?aieeeua, iiaecaiiua aiaeu,
ii/aaiiay aeaaa, aiaea eaaeieeia. *aeiaa/anoao iaiaoiaeeia i?aniay
aiaea, a iia ninoaaeyao oieueei 2,5% iauaai iauaia anae aeae?inoa?u,
i?e/ai iniiaiay /anoue yoie i?aniie aiaeu nin?aaeioi/aia a iie?iaiuo
eaaeieeao Aioa?eoeaeu, A?aieaiaeee; eueaeao A?eoeee.

Aeaaiue enoi/iee i?aniie aiaeu — ?aee. Ec anao ?a/iuo aiae ieaiaou (47
oun. ei3) ?aaeueii iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oieueei iieiaeio.

Iio?aaeaiea i?aniie aiaeu iinoiyiii ?anoao, a ?ano?nu ?a/iiai noiea
inoathony iaeciaiiuie. Yoi nicaeaao oa?ico aeaoeoeeoa i?aniie aiaeu.
Aeaaiue iio?aaeoaeue i?aniie aiaeu — naeueneia oicyenoai, a eioi?ii
aaeee aa aacaica?aoiue ?anoiae (iniaaiii ia i?ioaiea). Aeey ?aoaiey
i?iaeaiu aiaeiiaania/aiey eniieuecothony i?iaeou yeiiiiiiai ?anoiaea
aiaeu, no?ieoaeuenoai aiaeio?aieeeu, ii?aniaiea ii?neie aiaeu,
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ?a/iiai noiea; ?ac?aaaouaathony i?iaeou
o?ainii?oe?iaee aenaa?aia. No?aiu ii-?aciiio iaania/aiu aiaeiuie
?ano?naie. Ieiei 1/3 oa??eoi?ee nooe caieiaao a?eaeiue iiyn, a eioi?ii
i?iaeeaaao 850 iei /ae. E no?aiai n iaaeinoaoi/iie iaania/aiiinoueth
aiaeiuie ?ano?naie iiaeii ioianoe Aaeiao, Naoaeianeoth A?aaeth, O?A; ni
n?aaeiae iaania/aiiinoueth — Iaeneeo, NOA; n aeinoaoi/iie e ecauoi/iie
iaania/aiiinoueth — Eaiaaeo, ?inneth, Eiiai.

?a/iie noie eniieuecoaony e aeey iieo/aiey yeaeo?iyia?aee. Iaeaieueoei
aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneei iioaioeeaeii iaeaaeatho Eeoae, ?inney, NOA, Cae?,
Eaiaaea, A?aceeey. Noaiaiue eniieueciaaiey aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneiai
iioaioeeaea caaeneo io o?iaiy ?acaeoey no?aiu.

2. Ainoi/iay Aa?iia eae enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/an-eee ?aaeii aeeth/aao
Iieueoo, *aoeth. Neiaaeeth. Aaia?eth, ?oiuieth, Aieaa?eth, Aeaaieth,
THaineaaeth, Oi?aaoeth, Neiaaieth, Iaeaaeiieth, Ainieth e Aa?oeaaiaeio.
?aaeii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeiue oa??eoi?eaeueiue iannea, no?aiu
niaaeeiaiu iaaeaeo niaie aeaeaciuie, aaoiiiaeeueiuie aei?iaaie, eeieyie
yeaeo?iia?aaea/. Ana eiatho o?aiceoiia iieiaeaiea.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaia no?aiu iauaaeeiyea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
nioeeaeenoe/aneie nenoaia oicyenoaa e iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaiaaee
onoie/eaua e ?aciiia?aciua yeiiiie/aneea nayce, eo oicyenoaa auee oanii
naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii e n NNN?. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoe nayce ineaaee,
iaeioi?ua nianai i?ae?aoeeenue. Ana no?aiu no?aiyony e nio?oaeie/anoao n
caiaaeiuie ia?oia?aie. Oicyenoai no?ai, ?aiaa auaoeo ?anioaeeeaie NO?TH,
a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iino?aaeaei io aiaiiuo aeaenoaee, eioi?ua
caeii/eeenue nianai iaaeaaii.

No?aiu ii-?aciiio iaania/aiu iieaciuie eneiiaaiuie: iniiaiua caianu
eaiaiiiai oaey iaoiaeyony a Iieueoa e *aoe a, iaooe e aaca — a ?oiuiee,
aeae?i?ano?nia — a Aaeeaineeo no?aiao, aeaeaciie ?oaeu — a ?oiuiee e
Neiaaeee, iaaee — a Iieueoa, ?oiuiee, Aieaa?ee, aieneoia — a Aaia?ee,
na?u e eaeeeiuo nieae — a Iieueoa e ?oiuiee. *eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey e
iaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa no?ai ?acee/iu. Naiui aunieei anoanoaaiiui
i?e?inoii ioee/aaony Aeaaiey. Iaeaieaa o?aaiece?iaaiiay no?aia — *aoey.

Oicyenoai no?ai ?aciiia?acii. Eiaeono?eaeueiua i/aae aa?iiaeneiai
ianooaaa — Aa?oiyy Neeacey a Iieueoa, Ino?aanei-Ea?aeineee aannaei a
*aoee.

Yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu i?eaioe?iaaia ia oaieue. Aaeeei
cia/aiea aeae?iyia?aaoeee. Oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey iieo/eea ?acaeoea a
Iieueoa, Aieaa?ee, Aaia?ee. Iaoeiino?iaiea eiaao ?acioth
niaoeeaeecaoeeth: *aoey — noaiee, auoiaua i?eai?u, Iieueoa e ?oiuiey —
iai?oaeiaaiea aeey oyaeaeie eiaeono?ee, iaoaeeiaieia iaoeiino?iaiea,
Aaia?ey e Aieaa?ey — yeaeo?ioaoieea. Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
?acaeaaaony a Iieueoa, Aaia?ee, aaea iaooaoeiey i?eoea ia niaio
oaeaoe-iee. Aaia?ey — e?oiiaeoee i?iecaiaeeoaeue
oeieei-oa?iaoeaaoe/aneeo oiaa?ia.

Naeueneia oicyenoai eioaineaiia. A Iieueoa aieueoia ianoi a iinaaiuo
caieiatho ?iaeue e ioaieoea, a Aaia?ee, ?oiuiee, Aieaa?ee cia/eoaeueiua
ieiuaaee caiyou naaeaie e aeiia?aaeieeaie, aaeeee iinaau eoeo?ocu.
Aieaa?ey caieiaao ia?aia ianoi a ie?a ii i?iecaiaenoao ?iciaiai ianea,
iieo/aaiiai ec au?aueaaaiie a no?aia ianee/iie ?icu.

Naaa?iua e oeaio?aeueiua no?aiu Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu niaoeeaeece?othony ia
iiei/iii e iyni-iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa, naeiiaiaenoaa, a thaeiua — ia
ai?-ii-ianoaeuiii aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. A no?aiao, aaea anoue oa??eoi?ee ni
n?aaeecaiiiii?neei eeeiaoii, au?aueaathony eoeueoo?u noao?iie/aneiai
caieaaeaeey — ianeeiu, eiaee?, oeeo?oniaua.

Iniiao o?ainii?oa ninoaaeytho aeaeaciua aei?iae. Auno?uie oaiiaie
?acaeaaaony aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o. Naiay aaaeiay aiaeiay iaaeno?aeue
— Aeoiae.

?ae?aaoeeiiiia oicyenoai i?aaenoaaeaii eo?i?oaie: Ea?eiau Aa?u (*aoey),
Caeiiaii (Iieueoa), Cieioua Ianee (Aieaa?ey), Aaeaoii (Aaia?ey), eo?i?ou
ia Aae?eaoeea.

No?aiu Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu eiatho iiiai iauaai e cia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey.
Oneiaii eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu — naaa?ioth e thaeioth.
Yeiiiieea naaa?iuo no?ai iineo y?ei au?aaeaiiue eiaeono?eaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, /aai iaeuecy neacaoue i no?aiao thaeiie a?oiiu.

3. Io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a oicyenoaa eciaiyaony ai a?aiaie. I?e aiaeeca
noaoenoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue, eaeei ia?acii iieacaii
a?aiy, ca eioi?ia aeathony aeaiiua ia io?aneaaie no?oeoo?a oicyenoaa; e
niinia io?aaeaiey naiie io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u (a aaniethoiuo oeeo?iauo
iieacaoaeyo eee i?ioeaioao). Caoai auyaeoue io?anee, eiathuea onoie/eaua
oaiaeaioeee e oaaee/aieth eee oiaiueoaieth naiae ?iee a iauae no?oeoo?a
oicyenoaa. Iauynieoue iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou, iie?aynue ia ciaiey ia
yeiiiieea aeaiiie eiie?aoiie no?aiu e aeeyiee IO? ia io?aneaaoth
no?oeoo?o oicyenoaa.

Aeeao ? 9

1.Eaniua ?ano?nu ie?a, eo cia/aiea aeey aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe

/aeiaa/anoaa.. I?iaeaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey.

3. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeiie ec

no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu (ii auai?o o/auaainy).

4. Ii?aaeaeaiea e n?aaiaiea niioiioaiey ai?iaeneiai e naeueneiai

ianaeaiey a ?aciuo ?aaeiiao ie?a (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

Eaniua ?ano?nu — iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia aeieiae/aneeo ?ano?nia.
Ie?iaua eaniua ?ano?nu oa?aeoa?ecothony aeaoiy aaaeiuie iieacaoaeyie:

?acia?aie eaniie ieioaee (4 ie?ae aa) e caianaie ae?aaaneiu ia ei?ith.
Eaniua ?ano?nu ioiinyony e aiciaiiaeiui. Ii iineieueeo eana naiaeyony
iiae iaoie, no?ieoaeuenoai, ae?aaaneio eniieuecotho a ea/anoaa ae?ia,
eae nu?uea aeey aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae e ae?oaeo aeaeia i?iiuoeaiiinoe
(i?iecaiaenoai aoiaae, iaaaee e i?.), i?iaeaia nie?auaiey eaniuo
?ano?nia e iaaceaneaaiey oa??eoi?ee noieo aeinoaoi/ii ino?i. Aeey
?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey eaniuo ?ano?nia iaiaoiaeeii eiiieaenii
ia?a?aaaouaaoue nu?uea, ia au?oaaoue eana a iauaia, i?aauoathuai eo
i?e?ino, i?iaiaeeoue eaniainnoaiiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou.

Eana ie?a ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia?aaiiia?ii. Iie ia?acotho aeaa
i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaiuo ii ieiuaaee e caianai ae?aaaneiu eaniuo iiyna —
naaa?iue e thaeiue. Naaa?iue — a ciia oia?aiiiai e io/anoe
noao?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa. Naiua iiiaieaniua no?aiu naaa?iiai iiyna —
?inney, NOA, Eaiaaea, Oeieyiaeey, Oaaoeey. THaeiue iiyn — a ciia
o?iie/aneiai e yeaaoi?eaeueiiai eeeiaoia. Iniiaiua eaniua ?aeiiu
thaeiiai iiyna — Aiaciiey, aannaei Eiiai, THai-Ainoi/iay Acey, no?aiu —
Eiiai, A?aceeey, Aaianoyea.

Eaniua ?ano?nu (eana) iacuaatho «eaaeeie» ieaiaou, iie ea?atho ia?iiioth
?ieue a aeecie anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. Iie ainnoaiaaeeaatho eenei?iae a
aoiinoa?a, nio?aiytho a?oioiaua aiaeu, i?aaeioa?auatho ?ac?ooaiea ii/au.
Naaaeaiea o?iie/aneeo eania Aiaciiee i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth «eaaeeo»
ieaiaou. Nio?aiaiea eania iaiaoiaeeii a oii /enea e aeey caei?iauey
/aeiaa/anoaa.

2. Iieueoa. Iniiaiua /a?ou YAI — iieiaeaiea ia ia?ae?anoea o?aiceoiuo
iooae oe?ioiiai e ia?eaeeiiaeueiiai iai?aaeaiee, auoiae e ii?th.
Ianaeaiea iaeiiiaoeeiiaeueii; neeueii aeeyiea eaoiee/aneie oea?eae;
oa?aeoa?ai aoi?ie oei aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey, aeinoaoi/ii aunieea
o?iaie e oaiiu o?aaiecaoeee, iaee/ea iiiaeanoaa iaeaiueeeo, ai?iaeia.
Iieueoa eiaao naioth aieueooth /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey n?aaee no?ai
Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. Ia aic?anoiie e iieiaie no?oeoo?ao ianaeaiey aei neo
ii? neacuaathony iineaaenoaey aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Iaeiie ec i?iaeai
yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiue ecauoie. o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, /oi aucuaaao
aac?aaioeoeo.

N?aaee no?ai Aa?iiu Iieueoa auaeaeyaony iiauoaiiie aeieae
ai?iiaeiauaathueo io?aneae. Ii caianai iaaeiie ?oaeu, naii?iaeiie na?u e
eaiaiiiai oaey caieiaao iaeii ec ia?auo iano a ie?a; ii caianai ao?iai
oaey, iieeiaoaeeia, no?ieoaeueiiai nu?uey — ia?aia ianoi a Aa?iia.
Ianoi?iaeaeaiey iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo a thaeiie /anoe no?aiu (Aa?oiae e
Ieaeiae Neeacee, I?aaeea?iaouea) iaoneiaeee i/aiue neeueioth
oa??eoi?eaeueioth eiioeaio?aoeeth i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aieueoay /anoue
eioi?ie nin?aaeioi/aia a thaeiuo aiaaiaenoaao. Aa?oiyy Neeacey yaeyaony
eiaeono?eaeueiui i/aaii iauaaa?iiaeneiai ianooaaa, yae?i eioi?iai —
Aa?oianeeacneee oaieueiue aannaei yaeyaony noa?ui i?iiuoeaiiui ?aeiiii,
aaea ?acaeoa eae aeiauaathuay, oae e ia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.
Ii/oe any yeaeo?iyia?aey Iieueoe au?aaaouaaaony ia OYN.

*a?iay iaoaeeo?aey Iieueoe eniieuecoao i?eaicioth aeaeacioth ?oaeo.
Oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey aace?oaony ia ioa/anoaaiiuo ?oaeao iieeiaoaeeia a
Aa?oiae Neeacee e iaaeiuo ?oaeao a Ieaeiae Neeacee. Nu?uea aeey
aethieieaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iinooiaao ec Aaia?ee. Iaoeiino?iaiea
ioee/aaony iiauoaiiie iaoaeeiaieinoueth: iaoeiu aeey oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia?iaua eioeu, noaiee, naeueneioicyenoaaiiia e
o?ainii?oiia iaoeiino?iaiea. Aai oeaio?u: Aa?oaaa, Iiciath», Aaeaiuene.
A oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?acaeaaaony iaooaoeiey, i?eoaaeoay ia niaio
oaeaoeiee. Yoi i?eaaei e naeaeao a ?aciauaiee io?anee e ainoieo e naaa?o
(Ieioee, Ioeaau). Eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaia oaenoeeueiie
(Eiaecue). Naeueneia oicyenoai eioaineaiia, aeiey aeeaioiiaiae/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee i?aauoaao aeieth caieaaeaeue/aneie. ?anoaieaaiaenoai: ?iaeue
e ea?oioaeue, ioaieoea, naaeiaiaenoai e iaiuaaiaenoai. AEeaioiiaiaenoai:
iiei/iia e iyniiiei/iia neioiaiaenoai, naeiiaiaenoai. ?acaeoi ii?neia
?uaieianoai a aiaeao Aaeoeeneiai, Naaa?iiai ii?ae, a Aoeaioeea. Iniiaiie
aeae o?ainii?oa — aeaeaciua aei?iae. Ai aiaoiaoi?aiauo naycyo aaeeei
cia/aiea ii?neiai o?ainii?oa. ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea iai?aaeaia ia
?acaeoea naaa?iie e ainoi/iie /anoae Iieueoe.

Ii?aaeaeeoue ii ea?oai, noaoenoe/aneei oaaeeoeai eee aeeaa?aiiai
niioiioaiea ai?iaeneiai e naeueneiai ianaeaiey a ?aaeiiao, auyaeoue
/a?ou noiaenoaa e ?acee/ey e iauynieoue eo, enoiaey ec ciaiee ia
o?aaiecaoeee, aa aaia?aoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoyo a ?aciuo ?aaeiiao.
Aieueoeinoai neaaio?aaiece?iaaiiuo no?ai (aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey
ieaea 20%) ?aniieiaeaii a Ao?eea, iiiaea no?aiu Acee —
n?aae-iao?aaiece?iaaiiua (aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey io 20% aei 50%),
Eaiaaea, NOA, Aano?aeey, ssiiiey. i?aeoe/anee ana no?aiu Aa?iiu (e?iia
Ii?ooaaeee), aieueoeinoai no?ai Eaoeineie Aia?eee, THA? —
aunieio?aaiece?iaaiiua (aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey auoa 50%).

Neaaeoao iiiieoue i oii, /oi aunieay aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey a
no?aiao «o?aoueaai ie?a» ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iieacaoaeai aunieiai o?iaiy
eo eiaeono?eaeecaoeee. Aeey yoiai oeia no?ai oa?aeoa?ia ianniaay oyaa
e?anoueyi a aieueoea ai?iaea, aaea iie euoo ecaaaeaiey io ieuaou.

Aeeao ? 10

1. ?ano?nu Ie?iaiai ieaaia: aiaeiua, ieia?aeueiua, yia?aaoe/aneea»

aeieiae/aneea. I?iaeaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia Ie?iaiai
ieaaia.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea NOA.

3. Iauyniaiea ii ea?oai iai?aaeaiee iniiaiuo a?ociiioieia

aeaeaciie ?oaeu.

1. ?ano?nu Ie?iaiai ieaaia — i?e?iaeiua yeaiaiou, aauanoaa e aeaeu
yia?aee, eioi?ua aeiauaathony eee iiaoo auoue aeiauou iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ec aiae, i?ea?aaeiie nooe, aeia eee iaae? ieaaiia.

Ie?iaie ieaai — ia?iiiay eeaaeiaay i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Aeieiae/aneea
?ano?nu — ?uaa,, iieethnee, ?aeiia?aciua, eeoiia?aciua, aiaei?inee.
Ieiei 90% aeiauaaaiuo i?iiuneiauo iauaeoia — ?uaa. Ia oaeueoiaoth ciio
i?eoiaeeony aieaa 90% iauaie?iaiai oeiaa ?uau e ia?uaiuo iauaeoia.
Iaeaieueoay /anoue ie?iaiai oeiaa aeiauaaaony a aiaeao oia?aiiuo e
aunieeo oe?io Naaa?iiai iieooa?ey. Ec ieaaiia naiue aieueoie oeia aeaao
Oeoee ieaai. Ec ii?ae Ie?iaiai ieaaia naiuie i?iaeoeoeaiuie yaeythony
Ii?aaaeneia, Aa?eiaiai, Ioioneia, ssiiineia.

Ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu Ie?iaiai ieaaia — yoi oaa?aeua, aeeaeeea e
aaciia?aciua iieaciua eneiiaaiua. A i?ea?aaeii-ii?neeo ?innuiyo
niaea?aeaony oee?eiiee, cieioi, ieaoeia, aeiacu. Iaae?a oaeue-oiaie ciiu
aiaaou iaooueth e aacii. Iniiaiua ?aeiiu iaooaaeiau/e — Ia?neaeneee,
Iaeneeaineee, Aaeiaeneee caeeau, aa?aaa Aaianoyeu, Naaa?iia ii?a.
Oaeueoiaua iaooaaaciiiniua ?aeiiu anoue a Aa?eiaiaii, Ioioneii ii?yo. Ec
iiaeaiaeiuo iaae? aeiauaatho aeaeacioth ?oaeo (o aa?aaia ino?iaa Ethnth,
•a Aoaeciiiaii caeeaa), eaiaiiue oaieue (ssiiiey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey), na?o
(NOA). Aeaaiia aiaaonoai aeoaieiaiaeiiai eiaea ieaaia —
aeaeaciia?aaioeaaua eiie?aoeee.

Ii?neay aiaea oaeaea yaeyaony ?ano?nii Ie?iaiai ieaaia. Iia niaea?aeeo
ieiei 75 oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia. Ec aiae ii?ae ecaeaeatho ieiei 1/3
aeiauaaaiie a ie?a iiaa?aiiie niee, 60% iaaiey, 90% a?iia e eaeey. Aiaeu
ii?ae a ?yaea no?ai eniieuecothony aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai ii?aniaiey.
E?oiiaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaee i?aniie aiaeu — Eoaaeo, NOA, ssiiiey.

Yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu — i?eioeeieaeueii aeinooiiay iaoaie/aneay e
oaieiaay yia?aey Ie?iaiai ieaaia, ec eioi?ie eniieuecoaony aeaaiui
ia?acii i?eeeaiay yia?aey. I?eeeaiua yeaeo?inoaioeee eiathony ai
O?aioeee a onouea ?aee ?aia, a ?innee — Eeneiaoaneay IYN ia Eieueneii
iieoino?iaa. ?ac?aaaouaathony e /anoe/ii ?aaeecothony i?iaeou
eniieueciaaiey yia?aee aiei e oa/aiee.

I?e eioaineaiii eniieueciaaiee ?ano?nia Ie?iaiai ieaaia i?ienoiaeeo aai
caa?yciaiea a ?acoeueoaoa na?ina a ?aee e ii?y i?iiuoeaiiuo,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo, auoiauo e ae?oaeo iooiaeia, noaeioiaenoaa,
aeiau/e iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Iniaoth oa?ico i?aaenoaaeyao iaooyiia
caa?yciaiea e caoi?iiaiea a aeoaieiaiaeiuo /anoyo ieaaia oiene/iuo
aauanoa e ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia. I?iaeaiu Ie?iaiai ieaaia o?aaotho
niaeaniaaiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ia? ii eii?aeeiaoeee eniieueciaaiey aai
?ano?nia e i?aaeioa?auaieth aeaeueiaeoaai caa?yciaiey.

2. NOA — e?oiiaeoaa ainoaea?noai, ?aniieiaeaiiia a Naaa?iie Aia?eea.
Oa??eoi?ey — 9,4 iei ei2 (4-a ianoi a ie?a). Ninoaa oa??eoi?ee: iniiaiay
oa??eoi?ey, Aeynea, Aaaaeneea ino?iaa a Oeoii ieaaia. YAI auaiaeiia
aneaaenoaea iaee/ey oe?ieiai o?iioa ii?neeo a?aieoe, iieiaeaiey iaaeaeo
aeaoiy ieaaiaie. I?e?iaeiay e yeiiiie/aneay «i?ic?a/iinoue» nooiiooiuo
a?aieoe n Eaiaaeie e Iaeneeie niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth
oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneeo naycae.

NOA — oaaea?aoeaiay ?anioaeeea, noieeoea — Aaoeiaoii.

Ianaeaiea. Caieiaao o?aouea ianoi a ie?a iinea Eeoay e Eiaeee.
Oa?aeoa?ai aoi?ie oei aini?iecaiaenoaa. Eiiea?aoeey ieacuaaea e
ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea aia?eeaineie iaoeee. O?e
aeaaiua yoie/aneea a?oiiu: aia?eeaioeu NOA (3/4 anaai ianaeaiey),
ia?aoiaeiua eiiea?aioneea a?oiiu (auoiaeoeu ec Eaoeineie Aia?eee e Acee,
iniaaiii oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu ia Caiaaea), aeeoaee-aai?eaaiu (eiaeaeoeu,
yneeiinu). Iniaoth a?oiio ninoaaeytho ao?iaia?eeaioeu (12% anaai
ianaeaiey). Ianaeaiea ?aciauaii ia?aaiiia?ii: ieioiinoue a i?eii?neeo e
i?eica?iuo ooaoao — 350— 4001 /ae./ei2, a ai?iuo — 2—3 /ae./ei2. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy oa?aeoa?iu aioo?aiiea iea?aoeee ec ooaoia Naaa?a a ooaou
THaa. ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai aaia?aoeae
ai?iaeia. Aeaaiua iaaaiieenu: Naaa?i-Ainoi/iue (Ainoii— Aaoeiaoii),
I?eica?iue (*eeaai—Ieonao?a), Eaeeoi?ieeneee
(Nai-O?aioeenei—Ein-Aiaeaeaean). Naeueneia ianaeaiea aeeaao ia oa?iao e
a eiiiaeoiuo iinaeaieyo. Oicyenoai. NOA ia?aainoaotho ai iiiaeo noa?uo,
iiauo, iniaaiii iiaaeoeo io?aneyo (aaeaoaoieea, ?aeaoii-einie/aneay,
yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea). A i?iiuoeaiiinoe
i?aaenoaaeaiu ana io?anee e iiaeio?anee. A IA?O iniai auaeaeythony
aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea, yeaeo?iieea, aaea?aeao-ii-einie/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, aaeeei cia/aiea iaooyiie. Naeueneia oicyenoai —
iiiaiio?aneaaia. Niaa?oai ia?aoiae e aa?iaeciano. Iniiaiie oei
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee — aunieiniaoeea-eece?iaaiiua oa?iu.
NOA aeatho 50% ie?iaiai yenii?oa ca?ia. NOA caieiatho ia?aia ianoi a
ie?a ii ?acaeoeth anao aeaeia o?ainii?oa. Aianoa n Eaiaaeie ia?acotho
iniaue naaa?iaia?eeaineee oei o?ainii?oiie nenoaiu. Aaoiiiaeeue yaeyaony
ianniaui n?aaenoaii ia?aaeaeaeaiey. I/aiue 6’ieueoia ?acaeoea iieo/eea
noa?a iaiaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e oneoa (2/3 anao caiyouo), /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i anooieaiee no?aiu a noaaeeth iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai
?acaeoey.

Aeey oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u oicyenoaa oa?aeoa?ia eiioeaio?aoeey
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie a i?eieaaineeo e i?eica?iuo ?aeiiao. ?aaeiiaeueiay
iieeoeea iai?aaeaia ia niya/aiea oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aeeni?iii?oeee.

Caaeneiinoue yeiiiieee NOA io aiaoiae oi?aiaee iaiueoa, /ai caaeneiinoue
ca?oaaaeiie Aa?iiu, ii iia aic?anoaao. Aieueoay /anoue oi?aiaee
i?eoiaeeony ia Eaiaaeo e ssiiieth, no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, 1/3 — ia
?acaeaathueany no?aiu.

Iae?i?aeiiu NOA. Naaa?i-Ainoie — naiue iaeaiueeee ii ieiuaaee. Ea?ae e
ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie no?aiu. Ionthaea ia/aeanue aa?iiaeneay
eieiiecaoeey no?aiu, caeanue noi?ie?iaaeny aeaaiue i?iiuoeaiiue iiyn
NOA. Aaia?aoe/aneee ?enoiie oicyenoaa e ?annaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony
Naaa?iainoi/iui iaaaeiiieenii. Caeanue iaoiaeyony ai?iaea Aaoeiaoii e
Iueth-Ei?e, e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u — Ainoii, Oeeaaeaeueoey,
Ieonao?a e ae?. Iaeia ec aeaaiuo oaieueii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo aac no?aiu
?aniieiaeaia a ?aeiia Ieonao?aa. N?aaeiee Caiaae — ?aniieiaeai e thao io
Aaeeeeo ica?. I?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u — *eeaai, Aeao?ieo. ?acaeoa /a?iay
iaoaeeo?aey, aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. I?eica?iue
iaaaeiiieen. Yoi aeeoieoea no?aiu. Caeanue iaoiaeyony «iiei/iue iiyn»,
«eoeo?ociue iiyn», «iiyn y?iaie ioaieoeu», «iiyn iceiie ioaieoeu». THa—
cia/eoaeueiia a?aiy ?acaeaaeny iaaeeaiiaa Naaa?i-Ainoiea e N?aaeiaai
Caiaaea ec-ca i?aiaeaaeaiey ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai ieaioaoeeiiiiai
oicyenoaa. Nae/an — ia?aia ianoi a no?aia ii aeiau/e iaooe (Oaoan,
Iaeneeaineee caeea), oaey, oinoi?eoia (Oei?eaea). «Oeiieiaue iiyn»
nie?aoeeny a ?acia?ao, naeueneia oicyenoai noaei iiiaiio?aneaaui e
eioaineaiui. Oei?eaea — oeaio? oo?ecia. Caiaae — naiue iieiaeie ii
a?aiaie inaiaiey. Eaeeoi?iey — aeaaiue iao/iue e aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiue
a?naiae NOA, aeaaiue naeueneioicyenoaaiiue ooao. Ein-Aiaeaeaean — oeaio?
aeiau/e iaooe, cieioa, ?acaeoey eeiaiaoia?aoee e iaeiia?aiaiii oeaio?
io?aneae yeieo?iiii-ay?ieinie/aneie i?eaioaoeee.

3. Ii?aaeaeea ii ea?oai iniiaiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae aeaeaciie ?oaeu —
?inney, A?aceeey, Eeoae, Aano?aeey, Eiaeey e o. ae., iaiaoiaeeii
onoaiiaeoue e iai?aaeaiea iniiaiuo a?ociiioieia — Aa?iia, ssiiiey, NOA.
Naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi ?acaeoui no?aiai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy auaiaeiaa
eniieueciaaoue ia naith, a i?eaicioth aeaeacioth ?oaeo aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa noaee, /oi ii?aaeaeyao oyaioaiea /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee ai
iiiaeo no?aiao e ii?neei ii?oai.

Aeeao ?11

1. ?ae?aaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu e eo ?aciauaiea ia ieaiaoa. I?iaeaiu

?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea ssiiiee.

3. Iauyniaiea ii ea?oa iai?aaeaiee iniiaiuo a?ociiioieia iaooe.

E ?ae?aaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai ioiinyony iauaeou e yaeaiey i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a oeaeyo ioaeuoa, oo?ecia e ea/aiey, a oaeaea
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoe.

A ia?aoth a?oiio aoiaeyo ii?neea iiaa?aaeuey n aeaaii?eyoiui eeeiaoii,
aa?aaa ?ae e ica?, ai?u, eaniua ianneau, ieia?aeueiua enoi/ieee,
ea/aaiua a?yce. A ?aeiiao n oaeeie ?ae?aaoeeiiiuie ?ano?naie nicaeathony
eo?i?oiua ciiu, ciiu ioaeuoa, caiiaaaeieee, iaoeeiiaeueiua ia?ee. Ei
aoi?ie a?oiia ioiinyony iaiyoieee enoi?ee, a?oaieiaee, a?oeoaeoo?u e
eneonnoaa. Eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeie aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoyie aiaaoi
aieueoeinoai ae?aaieo ai?iaeia Aa?iiu e ?innee, anaie?ioth ecaanoiinoue
eiatho aaeiaoneea oee?aieaeu e o?aiu Eoeni?a, iaacieae Oaaeae-Iaoae a
Eiaeee, inoaoee ae?aaieo ai?iaeia iaey e aoeoaeia a Eaoeineie Aia?eea.

Iaeaieaa aiaaouie ?ae?aaoeeiiiuie ?ano?naie iaeaaeatho no?aiu, aaea
aeaaii?eyoiua i?e?iaeiua oneiaey ni/aoathony n eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeie
aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoyie. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi no?aiu
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey — Eoaeey, Eniaiey, A?aoeey, Oo?oeey, Ec?aeeue, Aaeiao,
Ooien, oaeea aa?iiaeneea no?aiu, eae O?aioeey, Oaaeoea?ey, Aano?ey,
*aoneay ?anioaeeea, a oaeaea Iaeneea, Eiaeey, Oaeeaiae.

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia iiae?acoiaaaao a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io?aio oao naienoa i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia, eioi?ua e
iicaieytho eniieueciaaoue eo a oeaeyo ioaeuoa, oo?ecia e ea/aiey.

2. ssiiiey — ino?iaiia ainoaea?noai n iauae ieiuaaeueth 372 oun. ei2,
?aniieiaeaiiia o ainoi/iuo aa?aaia Aa?acee. YAI oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iieiaeaieai ia ia?ae?anoea ii?neeo iooae Aceaonei-Oeoiiea-aineiai
?aaeiia, ninaaenoaii n e?oiiaeoeie no?aiaie ie?a. Yoi ioe?uaaao aieueoea
aiciiaeiinoe aeey o/anoey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii aaia?aoe/aneii ?acaeaeaiee
o?oaea.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey no?aiu aieaa 125 iei /ae., iia aoiaeeo a ia?aoth
aeanyoeo e?oiiaeoeo ii /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey no?ai. A iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey a no?aia onoaiiaeeny ia?aue oei aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey
e anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ninoaaeyao 3 /ae. ia 1000 /ae. a aiae.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey iaeii?iaeiue — 99% ianaeaiey ninoaaeytho
yiiioeu; N?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey iaeia ec naiuo aunieeo a ie?a —
330 /ae./ei2. Ii/oe ana ianaeaiea nin?aaeioi/aii ia i?eii?neeo
ieciaiiinoyo e a aeieeiao ?ae, oai ieioiinoue ianaeaiey ai?acaei auoa.

O?iaaiue o?aaiecaoeee — 77% , iaeei ec naiuo aunieeo a ie?a. E?oiiaeoea
ai?iaea — Oieei, Inaea e Iaaiy. Noi?ie?iaaaoeany aie?oa ieo aaeiia?aoeee
aianoa ia?acotho e?oiiaeoee iaaaeiiieen Oieaeaei ni n?aaeiae
ieioiinoueth ianaeaiey 800— 1000 /ae./ei2.

ssiiiey — aoi?ay no?aia ie?a ii o?iaith ?acaeoey oicyenoaa. Ieia?aeueiua
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu aeey ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?aeoe/anee
ionoonoaotho. No?aia eiaao a oeaeii aeaaii?eyoiua i?e?iaeiua oneiaey e
?ano?nu aeey ?acaeoey naeueneiai oicyenoaa, oi?ioi iaania/aia aiaeiuie
?ano?naie, eiaao aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey ii?neiai
o?ainii?oa, ?uaieianoaa.

Aeaaiua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe — nia?aiaiiia iaoeiino?iaiea,
yia?aaoeea, iaoaeeo?aey, oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Aaaeouay
io?aneue iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee — iaoeiino?iaiea, a
iniaaiiinoe yeaeo?iieea, ?iaioioaoieea, aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea. Ia iaai
i?eoiaeeony aieaa 50% anaai yenii?oa no?aiu. Iniiaiay /anoue anaai
i?iiuoeaiiiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu ?aciauaia a Oeoiieaaineii iiyna,
i?ioyioaoainy oceie (15—65 ei) iieinie ii i?ea?aaeiui ieciaiiinoyi.

Naeueneia oicyenoai iaania/eaaao iniiaioth /anoue iio?aaiinoae no?aiu a
i?iaeiaieuenoaee. Aeaaiay aai io?aneue — ?anoaieaaiaenoai, a aeaaiay
eoeueoo?a — ?en. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy aieueoia ?acaeoea iieo/eee e
iniiaiua io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Aaaeiay io?aneue oicyenoaa —
?uaieianoai. ssiiiey caieiaao 1-a ianoi a ie?a ii oeiao ?uau.

A no?aia ?acaeou ana aeaeu o?ainii?oa, e?iia ?a/iiai e o?oaii?iaiaeiiai,
iia eiaao e?oiiaeoee a ie?a e naiue nia?aiaiiue ii?neie oi?aiaue oeio.

No?aia iaoiaeeony ia 2-i ianoa a ie?a ii iauaio aiaoiae oi?aiaee,
yaeyaony iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo yenii?oa?ia eaieoaea.

I?eia?ii iieiaeia anae iaooe, aeiauaaaiie a ie?a, auaiceony ec ?aeiiia
aeiau/e a ae?oaea no?aiu, a iniiaiii ii?neei iooai. Iiyoiio iniiaiua
a?ociiioiee iaooe eaeoo io aeaaiuo ?aeiiia aa aeiau/e e aeaaiui ?aeiiai
aa iio?aaeaiey — NOA, Aa?iia e ssiiiee. Ia ea?oa iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ie?a iiaeii oaeaeaoue, /oi ia ec anao e?oiiuo ?aeiiia aeiau/e iaooue
auaiceony. NOA, Caiaaeiay Aa?iia, Eeoae oioy e aeiauaatho aieueoia
eiee/anoai iaooe, ia iie?uaatho iieiinoueth naieo iio?aaiinoae a iae e
auioaeaeaiu aaiceoue iaooue. Naiua iiuiua a?ociiioiee iaooe
eaeoo io aeaaiiai ?aaeiia aa aeiau/e — ?aaeiia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. Iie
iai?aaeaiu a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a ssiiieth, no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e
NOA. A NOA iiiai iaooe aaiceony oaeaea ec no?ai Ea?eaneiai ?aaeiia —
Iaeneee e Aaianoyeu. A ssiiieth oaeaea eaeoo a?ociiioiee iaooe ec
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, a a Aa?iio — ec Caiaaeiie e Naaa?iie Ao?eee.

Aeeao ? 12

1. Caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu

/aeiaa/anoaa. Aeaeu caa?yciaiee e eo ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Iooe ?aoaiey
yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai /aeiaa/anoaa.

2. Naeueneia oicyenoai. Ninoaa, iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey a ?acaeouo e

?acaeaathueony no?aiao. Naeueneia oicyenoai e ie?oaeathuay n?aaea.

3. Ninoaaeaiea n?aaieoaeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaoo

i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiia (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

1. Caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu — yoi iaaeaeaoaeueiia eciaiaiea aa
naienoa, eioi?ia i?eaiaeeo eee iiaeao i?eaanoe e a?aaeiiio aicaeaenoaeth
ia /aeiaaea eee i?e?iaeiua eiiieaenu. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiue aeae
caa?yciaiey — oeie/aneia (iinooieaiea a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo a?aaeiuo
aauanoa e niaaeeiaiee), ii ia iaiueooth iioaioeeaeueioth oa?ico ianoo e
oaeea aeaeu caa?yciaiee, eae ?aaeeiaeoeaiia, oaieiaia (iaeiio?iee?oaiue
aua?in oaiea a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeiaaeueiui
eciaiaieyi eeeiaoa i?e?iaeu), ooiiaia. A iniiaiii caa?yciaiea
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu naycaii n oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
/aeiaaea (aio?iiiaaiiia caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu), iaeiaei
aiciiaeii caa?yciaiea a ?acoeueoaoa i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee, iai?eia?
ecaa?aeaiee aoeeaiia, caieao?ynaiee, iaaeaiey iaoai?eoia e ae?.
Caa?yciaieth iiaeaa?aathony ana iaiei/ee Caiee.

Eeoinoa?a (a oaeaea ii/aaiiue iie?ia) caa?yciyaony a ?acoeueoaoa
iinooieaiey a iaa niaaeeiaiee oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, oaeia?aiee,
yaeioeieeaoia. Oieueei ioni?a ec aieueoeo ai?iaeia aaeaaiaeii auaiceony
aei 12 ie?ae o. Ai?iua ?ac?aaioee i?eaiaeyo e oie/oiaeaieth
anoanoaaiiiai ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa ia ia?iiiuo ieiuaaeyo.

Aeae?inoa?a caa?yciyaony noieaie i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (iniaaiii
oeie/aneeo e iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo), noieaie n iieae e aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo
eiiieaenia, auoiauie noieaie ai?iaeia. Iniaaiii iianii iaooyiia
caa?yciaiea — a aiaeu Ie?iaiai ieaaia aaeaaiaeii iiiaaeaao aei 15 iei o
iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia.

Aoiinoa?a caa?yciyaony aeaaiui ia?acii a ?acoeueoaoa aaeaaiaeiiai
naeeaaiey ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa ieia?aeueiiai oiieeaa, aua?inia
iaoaeeo?ae/aneie e oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aeaaiua caa?yciythuea
aauanoaa — oaeaeeneue aac, ieeneu na?u, acioa, ?aaeeiaeoeaiua
niaaeeiaiey.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?anoouaai caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aicieeaao iiiai
yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai, eae ia eieaeueiii e ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaiyo (a
e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiao e ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeeyo), oae e ia
aeiaaeueiii (aeiaaeueiia iioaieaiea eeeiaoa, oiaiueoaiea iciiiaiai neiy
aoiinoa?u, enoiuaiea caiania i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia).

Iniiaiuie iooyie ?aoaiey yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai iiaoo auoue ia oieueei
no?ieoaeuenoai ?aciiia?aciuo i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee e ono?ienoa, ii e
aiaae?aiea iiauo iaeiiooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee, ia?ai?ioeee?iaaiea
i?iecaiaenoa, ia?aiin eo ia iiaia ianoi n oeaeueth nieaeaiey
«eiioeaio?aoeee» aeaaeaiey ia i?e?iaeo.

2. Naeueneia oicyenoai — aoi?ay ii cia/aieth io?aneue iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi ia oieueei ae?aaiaeoay, ii e iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiay io?aneue iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Naeueneia
oicyenoai aeeth/aao a naay aeaa io?anee — ?anoaieaaiaenoai e
aeeaioiiaiaenoai.

Aeaaiay io?aneue ?anoaieaaiaenoaa — ca?iiaia oicyenoai, aaaeiaeoea
ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u — ioaieoea, ?en e eoeo?oca. Ae?oaay aaaeiaeoay
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay eoeueoo?a — ea?oioaeue. E oaoie/aneei eoeueoo?ai
ioiinyo oa, eioi?ua eniieuecothony eae nu?uea aeey eaaeie e ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aeaaiua oaoie/aneea eoeueoo?u: ianee/iua (niy, a?aoen,
ieeau, iiaenieia/iee); naoa?iiiniua (naoa?iue o?inoiee e naoa?iay
naaeea); oiiece?othuea (/ae, eioa e eaeai); enoi/iee iaoo?aeueiiai
eao/oea (aaaay); aieieienoua eoeueoo?u (oeii/aoiee e eai).

Aeaaiua io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa — neioiaiaenoai (au?aueaaiea e?oiiiai
?iaaoiai neioa), naeiiaiaenoai, iaoeaaiaenoai e ioeoeaaiaenoai.

A ?acaeouo no?aiao ?acei i?aiaeaaeaao aunieieioaineaiia oiaa?iia
naeueneia oicyenoai, eniieuecothuaa aanue iioaioeeae ia oieueei
iaoaiecaoeee e oeiecaoeee, ii e aaoiiaoecaoeee, iiaaeoeo aeinoeaeaiee
naeaeoeee, aaiaoeee, aeioaoiieiaee.

A aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai i?aiaeaaeaao o?aaeeoeeiiiia
iio?aaeoaeueneia naeueneia oicyenoai, i/aiue neeueii ionoathuaa ii
o?iaith eioaineoeeaoeee.

Naeueneia oicyenoai neeueii aeeyao ia i?e?iaeo. Eniieueciaaiea oyaeaeie
oaoieee oooaeoaao no?oeoo?o ii/a, iai?aaeeueiay ?aniaoea aucuaaao
y?iceth caiaeue, eniieueciaaiea ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee e yaeioeieeaoia
aeey ai?ueau n naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie a?aaeeoaeyie i?eaiaeeo e
oeie/aneiio caa?yciaieth ii/a, a noi/iua aiaeu n e?oiiuo oa?i aucuaatho
caa?yciaiea aiaeiaiia.

3. I?e auiieiaiee yoiai caaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
neaaeothuaai ieaia.

1. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ?aeiiia, iacaaoue
aoiaeyuea a eo ninoaa i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u.

2. Onoaiiaeoue aaaeouea io?anee oicyenoaa eaaeaeiai ec i?iiuoeaiiuo
?aeiiia.

3. Auaeaeeoue io?anee, iieo/eaoea ?acaeoea a iaieo ?aeiiao, e io?anee,
i?enoonoaothuea oieueei a iaeiii ec ieo.

4. Ii i?aiaeaaeathuei i?iecaiaenoaai ii?aaeaeeoue, e eaeie a?oiia
ioiineony eaaeaeue ec ?aeiiia. Aeai?anneaiua — yoi ?aeiiu n
i?aiaeaaeaieai «noa?uo» io?aneae (oaieueiie, iaoaeeo?ae/aneie,
oaenoeeueiie, iniiaiie oeiee); auniei?acaeoua — yoi ?aeiiu, aaea
i?aiaeaaeatho io?anee «aaaiaa?aeiie o?ieee» (iiaua io?anee
iaoeiino?iaiey, oeiee i?aaie/aneiai neioaca, yia?aaoeea).

5. *a?ou noiaenoaa e ?acee/ey iauyniythony oae-. oi?aie, ieacaaoeie
aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea ?aeiiia: i?e?iaeii-?ano?niui oaeoi?ii, enoi?eae
?acaeoey, noiee/iui eee ia?eoa?eeiui iieiaeaieai, iniaaiiinoyie
o?ainii?oiiai iieiaeaiey.

Aeeao ? 13

1. *eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ie?a e aa eciaiaiey. Anoanoaaiiue

i?e?ino ianaeaiey e oaeoi?u, aeeythuea aa aai eciaiaiea. Aeaa oeia
aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey e eo ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ?aciuo no?aiao.

2. ?anoaieaaiaenoai: a?aieoeu ?aciauaiey, iniiaiua eoeueoo?u e

?aeiiu eo aicaeaeuaaiey, no?aiu-yenii?oa?u.

3. N?aaiaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee iaeiie ec ?acaeouo e

iaeiie ec ?acaeaathueony no?ai, iauyniaiea ?acee/ee.

1. *eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ie?a e oaiiu aai i?e?inoa noaee auno?i
aic?anoaoue a XX a. E eiioeo aaea /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey Caiee
aaeaaiaeii oaaee/eaaeanue ia 90 iei /ae. e i?aauneea 5,5 ie?ae /ae.
Aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey (anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino) — yoi niaieoiiinoue
i?ioeannia ?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe. ?iaeaeaaiinoue, nia?oiinoue
ecia?ythony /eneii ?iaeeaoeony e oia?oeo ia eaaeaeoth ouny/o aeeoaeae.
Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino — yoi eo ?aciinoue, ii iiaeao auoue eae
iieiaeeoaeueiui, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiui. Ia aaee/eio anoanoaaiiiai
i?e?inoa ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia e ie?a a oeaeii aeeyao o?iaaiue ?acaeoey
cae?aaiio?aiaiey, o?iaaiue aeaaininoiyiey e eoeueoo?u, noaiaiue o/anoey
aeaiuei a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoeeiiaeueiua e ?aeeaeiciua
o?aaeeoeee. Aeey ie?a a oeaeii a eiioea aaea anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino
ninoaaeye 17 /ae. ia 1000, iaeiaei a ?aciuo ?aaeiiao ie?a aai iieacaoaee
neeueii ?acee/athony.

Ia?aue oei aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiai a No?aiao Aa?iiu,
Naaa?iie Aia?eee, ssiiiee, Aano?aeee, o. a. no?aiao, iaeaaeathueo
iaeaieaa aunieei o?iaiai ?acaeoey. Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?iu n?aaieoaeueii
iaaunieea iieacaoaee ?iaeaeaaiinoe, nia?oiinoe e anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa.
Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino a yoeo no?aiao ia i?aauoaao 12 /ae. ia 1000, a a
ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao (Aeaiey, Oaaoeey, Aaeeei a?eoaiey) a ioaeaeueiua
aiaeu ?aaai 0.

Aoi?ie oei aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieei (nauoa 12
/ae. ia 1000 aeeoaeae) anoanoaaiiui i?e?inoii ca n/ao aunieie
?iaeaeaaiinoe i?e n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieeo iieacaoaeyo nia?oiinoe. Ii
?ani?ino?aiai a no?aiao Ao?eee, aaea anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ninoaaeyao a
n?aaeiai 29 /ae. ia 1000, Eaoeineie Aia?eee (24 /ae. ia 1000) e Acee (19
/ae. ia 1000).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoeinoai no?ai no?aiyony oi?aaeyoue
aini?iecaiaenoaii ianaeaiey, i?iaiaey ainoaea?noaaiioth
aeaiia?aoe/aneoth iieeoeeo — eiiieaen ia? (yeiiiie/aneeo,
i?iiaaaiaeenoneeo e ae?.), iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?aaoee?iaaiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe n
oeaeueth oaaee/aiey e nie?auaiey anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey.

2. ?anoaieaaiaenoai ?acaeoi i?aeoe/anee ai anao i?e?iaeiuo ciiao ie?a,
e?iia cii ooiae?u e eaaeyiuo ionouiue.

Aeaaiay io?aneue ?anoaieaaiaenoaa — ca?iiaia oicyenoai, a aaaeiaeoay
ca?iiaay eoeueoo?a — ioaieoea. Aeaaiua aa i?iecaiaeeoaee — Eeoae, NOA,
Eaiaaea, Eiaeey, O?aioeey, a oaeaea ?inney e Oe?aeia. ?en au?aueaaaony
aeaaiui ia?acii a no?aiao THaeiie e THai-Ainoi/iie Acee. E?oiiaeoea aai
i?iecaiaeeoaee — Eeoae e Eiaeey. Aeaaiue ?aeii au?aueaaiey eoeo?ocu —
oa??eoi?ey e thao io Aaeeeeo ica? a NOA, eioi?ua yaeythony aeaaiui
i?iecaiaeeoaeai e yenii?oa?ii yoie eoeueoo?u.

Aeaaiua i?iecaiaeeoaee naoa?iiai o?inoieea — Eiaeey, A?aceeey e Eoaa;
naoa?iie naaeeu — Oe?aeia, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey, ?inney, NOA; nie — NOA;
a?aoena — Eiaeey; /ay — Eiaeey, O?e-Eaiea e Eeoae; eioa e eaeai —
A?aceeey.

E oaoie/aneei eoeueoo?ai ioiinyo oa, eioi?ua eniieuecothony eae nu?uea
aeey eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iniiaiua aieieienoua eoeueoo?u — oeii/aoiee e eai. Aeaaiua ?aeiiu
au?aueaaiey oeii/aoieea ?aniieiaeaiu a Eeoaa, NOA, Eiaeee, Ocaaeenoaia.
Ii/oe 3/4 anaai eueia au?aueaaaony a ?innee.

Iaoo?aeueiue eao/oe aeatho Iaeaecey, Eiaeiiacey e Oaeeaiae(85%).

3. Aeey ?acaeouo no?ai oa?aeoa?iuie io?aneyie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
niaoeeaeecaoeee yaeythony iiaaeoea io?anee ia?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe: iaoeiino?iaiea (iniaaiii yeaeo?iieea), i?eai?ino?iaiea,
aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay io?aneue, i?iaeoeoeey oeiee i?aaie/aneiai
neioaca, iee?iaeieiae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Aeey ?acaeaathueony no?ai iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iu oaeea io?anee
niaoeeaeecaoeee, eae ai?ii?oaeiay e oiieeaiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
iaoaeeo?aey, eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneia oicyenoai.

E?iia oiai, iaai? io?aneae niaoeeaeecaoeee a eaaeaeie ioaeaeueii acyoie
?acaeaathuaeny no?aia iau/ii ai?acaei oaea.

*a?ou noiaenoaa e ?acee/ey iauyniythony i?e?iae -ii-?ano?niui oaeoi?ii,
ii aeaaiui yaeyaony oaeoi? yeiiiie/aneee. ?acaeaathueany no?aiu i?inoi
ia eiatho n?aaenoa aeey ?acaeoey iiaaeoeo io?aneae, ia oaaoaao
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ec-ca iooiea eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia a ?acaeoua no?aiu. E?iia oiai, oa eee eiua io?anee
niaoeeaeecaoeee i?inoi «iaaycuaathony» ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai, iooai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey n?aaenoa ia ?acaeoea eiaiii oao io?aneae, a iieo/aiee
i?iaeoeoeee eioi?uo caeioa?aniaaiu ?acaeoua no?aiu, ii eioi?ua ii
?acee/iui i?e/eiai auaiaeiaa ia?aiineoue a no?aiu «o?aoueaai ie?a».
Iniaaiii yoi caiaoii ia i?eia?a ia?aiina a ?acaeaathueany no?aiu
yeieiae/anee «a?yciuo» io?aneae oeiee, iaoaeeo?aee,
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Aeeao .?14

1.«Aeaiia?aoe/aneee ac?ua». I?iaeaia /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey e aa

iniaaiiinoe a ?aciuo no?aiao. Aeaiia?aoe/aneay iieeoeea.

2.Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue: ninoaa, cia/aiea, iniaaiiinoe

?aciauaiey. Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue e i?iaeaiu io?aiu

ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

3.Ioeaiea ii ea?oai e noaoenoe/aneei iaoa?eaeai

?ano?niiaania/aiiinoe iaeiie ec no?ai (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XX a. oaiiu i?e?inoa ianaeaiey ie?a ?acei aic?inee ca
n/ao oniaoia a iaeanoe cae?aaiio?aiaiey e nieaeaiey nia?oiinoe.
*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ie?a e eiioeo aaea aaeaaiaeii oaaee/eaaaony aieaa
/ai ia 90 iei /ae. Oaeia ?aceia oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey
iieo/eei iacaaiea «aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ac?uaa». Iaeiaei «aeaiia?aoe/aneee
ac?ua» i?iecioae a iniiaiii a no?aiao Acee, Ao?eee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee,
aeey eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ai aoi?ie oei aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey — ia eo
aeieth i?eoiaeeony 90% anaai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey ie?a.

Auno?ue ?ino /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey a yoeo no?aiao ii?iaeee ino?ua
i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iaania/aiey ethaeae ?aaioie,
aeeeueai, iaaeeoeeineei ianeoaeeaaieai e o. ae.

A no?aiao n ieceei i?e?inoii ianaeaiey (iai?eia?, O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee)
aicieeatho i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua ni «noa?aieai iaoeee» — iiauoaieai aeiee
iiaeeeuo ethaeae a aic?anoiie no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey.

Iiyoiio a iaoe aeie iiiaea no?aiu ie?a i?iaiaeyo oeaeaiai?aaeaiioth
aeaiia?aoe/aneoth iieeoeeo — eiiieaen ia? (yeiiiie/aneeo,
i?iiaaaiaeenoneeo e ae?.), iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?aaoee?iaaiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe n
oeaeueth oaaee/aiey eee nie?auaiey anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey.

Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue yaeyaony iaeiie ec io?aneae «aaaiaa?aeiie
o?ieee», iaania/eaathueo ?acaeoea oicyenoaa a yiioo IO?. Yoi iaeia ec
iaeaieaa aeeiaie/iuo io?aneae nia?aiaiiie eiaeono?ee. Io ?acaeoey oeiee
ai iiiaii caaeneo ?acaeoea anao io?aneae yeiiiieee, oeiey iaania/eaaao
i?iiuoeaiiinoue e no?ieoaeuenoai iiauie yooaeoeaiuie iaoa?eaeaie,
niaaaeaao naeueneia oicyenoai ieia?aeueiuie oaeia?aieyie e n?aaenoaaie
caueou ?anoaiee, niinianoaoao aai eioaineoeeaoeee.

Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue eiaao neiaeiue io?aneaaie ninoaa. Iia
aeeth/aao ai?iioeie/aneoth (aeiau/a nu?uey — aiaoeoia, oinoi?eoia, na?u,
eaiaiiuo nieae e ae?.), iniiaioth oeieth (i?iecaiaenoai nieae, eeneio,
uaei/ae, ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee), oeieth i?aaie/aneiai neioaca
(i?iecaiaenoai iieeia?ia) e ia?a?aaioeo iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia
(i?iecaiaenoai oei, ecaeaeee ec ieanoiann e o. ae.), iee?iaeieiae/aneoth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

A ie?iaie oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe neiaeeeenue 4 aeaaiuo ?aaeiia: NOA,
ca?oaaaeiay Aa?iia, NIA e ssiiiey. A eaaeaeii ec ieo iieo/eee ?acaeoea
ana io?anee oeiee, ii a iniaaiiinoe oeiey i?aaie/aneiai neioaca e
iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie oeiey auea i?aaenoaaeaia
a iniiaiii ai?iioeie/a-neie io?aneueth. Iaeiaei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy oeiey
i?aaie/aneiai neioaca noaea auno?i ?acaeaaoueny e a no?aiao, eioi?ua
iaeaaeatho nianoaaiiuie caianaie iaooe e aaca (a no?aiao Ia?neaeneiai
caeeaa. Naaa?iie Ao?eee, a Iaeneea e Aaianoyea).

3. Auiieiyoue yoi caaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii ii ieaio.

1. Ii ea?oa eee oaaeeoea ii?aaeaeeoa ia?a/aiue e aaee/eio caiania
ieia?aeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

2. Ii?aaeaeeoa ?acia?u aiaeiaie aeiau/e (iio?aaeaiey) eaaeaeiai aeaea
?ano?nia.

3. ?acaeaeeoa iieacaoaee caiania ia niioaaonoaothuea iieacaoaee aeiau/e
(iio?aaeaiey). ?acoeueoaou aeaeaiey iieaaeoo /enei eao, ia eioi?ua
oaaoeo eaaeaeiai aeaea ?ano?nia i?e nia?aiaiiii o?iaia aai iio?aaeaiey.

4. Naeaeaeoa auaiae i ?ano?niiaania/aiiinoe (/ai aieueoa n?ie, ia
eioi?ue oaaoeo caiania ?ano?nia, oai auoa ?ano?niiaania/aiiinoue).

Aeeao ? 15

1. Aic?anoiie e iieiaie ninoaa ianaeaiey ie?a. Aaia?aoe/aneea

?acee/ey. Iieiaic?anoiua ie?aie-

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea no?ai

Eaoeineie Aia?eee.

3. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea ii ea?oa iaania/aiiinoe

ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia e no?ai iaoioiuie caieyie.

1. Iniaaiiinoe aic?anoiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo no?ai naycaiu n
oeiaie aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey ieo. A no?aiao n
ia?aui oeiii aini?iecaiaenoaa, aaea ?iaeaeaaiinoue e nia?oiinoue
n?aaieoaeueii iaauniee, aeiey aeaoae (I—14 eao) ai anai ianaeaiee
ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 25%, n?aaeieo aic?anoia (15—64 aiaea) — 60%, a
ethaeae noa?oa 65 eao — 15%. Aeey no?ai ni aoi?ui oeiii
aini?iecaiaenoaa, a eioi?uo ?iaeaeaaiinoue auoa, yoe iieacaoaee
ninoaaeytho niioaaonoaaiii 42%, 56% e 2%.

Iieiaie ninoaa ianaeaiey ie?a oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?aiaeaaeaieai ioae/ei. A
ie?a aaeaaiaeii iaeue/eeia ?iaeaeaaony ianeieueei aieueoa, /ai aeaai/ae,
ii a aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a ioae/ei iaiueoa, /ai aeaiuei. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie aeaiuei
iau/ii ia 5—8 eao auoa, /ai o ioae/ei. Iaeiaei a e?oiiaeoeo ii
ianaeaieth no?aiao ie?a — Eeoaa e Eiaeee, a oaeaea ia-‘ eioi?uo ae?oaeo
no?aiao Acee /eneaiiinoue ioae/ei auoa, /ai aeaiuei, e eiaiii ca n/ao
yoeo no?ai ioae/ei a ie?a i?eia?ii ia 25 iei aieueoa, /ai aeaiuei.

Aic?anoiie e iieiaie ninoaa ianaeaiey ie?a e ioaeaeueiuo no?ai
a?aoe/anee ecia?aaeatho i?e iiiiue iieiaic?anoiuo ie?aieae — noieaeeiauo
aeeaa?aii, iieacuaathueo /enei ioae/ei e aeaiuei ?acee/iuo aic?anoia a
ninoaaa ianaeaiey. Ciay aaia?aoe/aneea ?acee/ey iieiaiai e aic?anoiiai
ninoaaa ianaeaiey ie?a, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, e eaeiio oeio
aini?iecaiaenoaa ioiineony no?aia, aeey eioi?ie ninoaaeaia ie?aieaea,
naeaeaoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, a eaeii ?aaeiia ie?a iia ?aniieiaeaia.

2. Eaoeineay Aia?eea — yoi ?aaeii, aeeth/athuee 46 no?ai, ?aniieiaeaiiuo
a Aia?eea thaeiaa NOA. Oa??eoi?ey ?aaeiia i?ioyaeaaaony n naaa?a ia tha
ia 13 oun. ei, a n caiaaea ia ainoie — aei 5 oun. ei. Iauay ieiuaaeue
?aaeiia 21 iei ei2.

Aeaaiay /a?oa YAI —”ninaaenoai n NOA i?e oaeaeaiiinoe io ae?oaeo
?aaeiiia ie?a. Ana, ainoaea?noaa, e?iia Aieeaee e Ia?aaaay, eiatho
auoiae e ii?th.

?aaeii a oeaeii oi?ioi iaania/ai anaie aeaeaie i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.
Caeanue eiathony e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey i?aeoe/anee anao ?oae /a?iuo e
oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, cieioa e na?aa?a. A ?aaeiia Ea?eaneiai ii?y
?aniieiaeai iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia ie?a. Ii
iaania/aiiinoe aiaeiuie ?ano?naie Eaoeineay Aia?eea caieiaao n?aaee
e?oiiuo ?aaeiiia ie?a ia?aia ianoi. Aiaaou eaniua ?ano?nu.
Aa?ieeeiaoe/aneea ?ano?nu iaania/eaatho aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeoey anao
iniiaiuo io?aneae naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Ianaeaiea ?aaeiia ninoaaeyao aieaa 450 iei /ae. Aeey Eaoeineie Aia?eee
oa?aeoa?ai aoi?ie oei aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey. E oioy a iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey oaiiu i?e?inoa ianaeaiey nieceeenue, iie e nae/an a
aieueoeinoaa no?ai ninoaaeytho 2—3% a aiae. Nia?aiaiiue yoie/aneee
ninoaa ianaeaiey ?aaeiia neiaeai. Aieaa iieiaeiu ianaeaiey ninoaaeytho
iaoenu, ioeaou e e?aieu — iioiiee niaoaiiuo a?aeia ei?aiiuo aeeoaeae
?aaeiia (eiaeaeoeaa), aa?iiaeneeo ia?anaeaioeaa e ao?eeaioeaa, eioi?uo a
i?ioeii aaiceee aeey ?aaiou ia ieaioaoeeyo.

N?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey ?aaeiia iaaunieay — 20 /ae./ei2. Ii
?aciauaii iii e?aeia ia?aaiiia?ii, eiioeaio?e?oynue aie?oa noieeoe
ainoaea?noa e a i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao.

A ?aaeiia aunieee (72%) n?aaeiee o?iaaiue o?aaiecaoeee, a iai ieiei 30
ai?iaeia-ieeeeiia?ia, a oii /enea e?oiiaeoee ai?iae ie?a — Iaoeei.
Caeanue i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaiue i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey ai?iaeneeo
aaeiia?aoeee, /aou?a ec eioi?uo i?eiaaeeaaeao e /eneo e?oiiaeoeo. Yoi
aaeiia?aoeee Iaoeei a Iaeneea, Nai-Iaoeo e ?ei-aea-AEaiae?i a A?aceeee e
Aoyiin-Ae?an a A?aaioeia. A oi aea a?aiy aeey no?ai Eaoeineie Aia?eee
oa?aeoa?ia «eiaeiay o?aaiecaoeey», i?e eioi?ie aeiey ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey a oeaeii iaiiiai i?aauoaao aeieth ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey,
caiyoiai a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a. Yoi naycaii n
i?eoieii a ai?iaea iaeiouaai naeueneiai ianaeaiey, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
«o?ouiaiie o?aaiecaoeee». Aei 50% ianaeaiey e?oiiuo ai?iaeia i?iaeeaatho
a ?aeiiao ieuaou, yoe /a?ou oa?aeoa?ecotho eaoeiiaia?eeaineee oei
ai?iaea.

Ii o?iaith ?acaeoey oicyenoaa Eaoeineay Aia?eea noieo ia ia?aii ianoa
n?aaee ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia ?acaeaathuaainy ie?a, aeaaay iieiaeio anae aai
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Caeanue oi?ioi ?acaeoa ia oieueei
aeiauaathuay, ii e ia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue: iaoaeeo?aey,
iaooaoeiey, iaoeiino?iaiea.

A?aceeey, Iaeneea e A?aaioeia — iaeaieaa ?acaeoua no?aiu Eaoeineie
Aia?eee — aeatho 4/5 i?iaeoeoeee ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?aaeiia.
Caeanue iieo/eee ?acaeoea iiaaeoea io?anee — iee?iyeaeo?iieea,
ay?ieinie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, yeaeo?iieea, i?eai?ino?iaiea,
i?iecaiaenoai aaoiiiaeeae.

A no?oeoo?a naeueneiai oicyenoaa i?aiaeaaeaao ?anoaieaaiaenoai,
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee eioi?iai nin?aaeioi/aii ia e?oiiuo nia?aiaiiuo
ieaioaoeeyo. Aeaaiua yenii?oiua eoeueoo?u ?aaeiia — aaiaiu, eioa, eaeai,
ioaieoea, ?en, niy, naoa?iue o?inoiee. Iaeioi?ua no?aiu noaee
e?oiiaeoeie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie iiiieoeueoo?. AEeaioiiaiaenoai i?aiaeaaeaao
a O?oaaaa e A?aaioeia e eiaao iyniia iai?aaeaiea, 3/4 anaai iiaieiauey
i?eoiaeeony ia e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio. Ie?iaia cia/aiea eiaao ?uaieianoai
(auaeaeythony *eee e Ia?o). •

O?ainii?oiua nenoaiu aieueoeinoaa no?ai ?aaeiia iaaeinoaoi/ii
noi?ie?iaaiiua. Ai aiaoiaoi?aiauo ia?aaiceao i?aiaeaaeaao ii?neie
o?ainii?o. A ?aaeiia iiiai e?oiiuo oieaa?naeueiuo e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
ii?neeo ii?oia. Ai aioo?aiieo — aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o. Ianiio?y ia
aieueooth i?ioyaeaiiinoue aei?ia, oaoie/aneay iniauaiiinoue eo
aeiaieueii ieceay.

Aeaaiui oi?aiaui ia?oia?ii no?ai ?aaeiia yaeythony NOA, a oaeaea ssiiiey
e no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. A yenii?oa i?aiaeaaeaao nu?uea, oiieeai (80%)
e i?iaeoeoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Eioaineaiia ?acaeoea oicyenoaa ii?iaeaeaao a ?aaeiia yeieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu. Iaeaieaa caiaoiu iie ia i?eia?a Aiaciiee, aaea au?oaea eania,
i?ieeaaeea aei?ia a?iceo iaa?iooueny oyaeaeuie iineaaenoaeyie ia oieueei
aeey no?ai ?aaeiia, ii e aeey anaai ie?a.

3. A ie?iaii caiaeueiii oiiaea iaeaieueooth oeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho
ia?aaaouaaaiua caiee (i?aaeaea anaai iaoiy), eioi?ua aeatho 88%
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey. Iie nin?aaeioi/aiu a iniiaiii a eaniie, eaninoaiiie
e noaiiie ciiao Caiee.

Ia ea?oa «Caiaeueiua ?ano?nu» aeaeii, /oi a n?aaeiai a ie?a ia aeooo
ianaeaiey i?eoiaeeony 0,25 aa iaoie. Cia/eoaeueii auoa n?aaeiaai yoio
iieacaoaeue a Aano?aeee (3,0 aa). Eaiaaea (1,8 aa), NOA, A?aaioeia e
?innee. Cia/eoaeueii ieaea n?aaeiaai yoio iieacaoaeue a no?aiao
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, Eeoaa (0,1 aa). A iaeiaiueoay iaania/aiiinoue
iaoioiuie caieyie a oaeeo no?aiao, eae Aaeiao e ssiiiey, — 0,05 aa e
0,04 aa niioaaonoaaiii.

Aeeao ? 16

1. Iaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey ie?a. Aai eciaiaiey e

aaia?aoe/aneea ?acee/ey. E?oiiaeoea ia?iaeu ie?a.

2. Iaoeiino?iaiea — aaaeouay io?aneue nia?aiaiiie

i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ninoaa, iniaaiiinoe ?aciauaiey. No?aiu, auaeaeythueany
ii o?iaith ?acae-. oey iaoeiino?iaiey.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiuo noaoae yenii?oa e eiii?oa iaeiie ec

no?ai ie?a (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

1. A ie?a ian/eouaaaony ieiei 3 oun. ia?iaeia. N?aaee ieo iiiaeanoai
iaaieueoeo ii /eneaiiinoe ia?iaeia, a 57% ianaeaiey Caiee i?eoiaeeony ia
aeieth aieueoeo ia?iaeia, /eneaiiinoue eioi?uo ninoaaeyao aieaa 50 iei
eaaeaeue. E?oiiaeoeie ia?iaeaie ie?a n /eneaiiinoueth nauoa 100 iei /ae.
yaeythony eeoaeoeu, oeiaeonoaioeu, aia?eeaioeu NOA, aaiaaeueoeu,
?onneea, a?aceeueoeu e yiiioeu.

Ia?iaeu eeanneoeoee?othony ii ycueiaiio i?eciaeo. ?iaenoaaiiua ycuee
iauaaeeiythony a a?oiiu ycueia, a a?oiiu iauaaeeiythony a ycueiaua
naiuee. Naiay iiiai/eneaiiay ycueiaay naiuey — eiaeiaa?iiaeneay, ia
ycueao eioi?ie aiai?yo 150 ia?iaeia Aa?iiu, Acee, Aia?eee e Aano?aeee
/eneaiiinoueth aieaa 2 ie?ae /ae. E yoie naiuea ioiinyony oaeea e?oiiua
a?oiiu ycueia, eae neaayineay, ?iiaineay, aa?iaineay e eiaeia?eeneay.
Nauoa 1 ie?ae /ae. aiai?eo ia ycueao eeoaenei-oeaaoneie naiuee. A oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea yoie/aneea a?aieoeu niaiaaeatho n ainoaea?noaaiiuie,
ia?acothony iaeiiiaoeeiiaeueiua ainoaea?noaa. A oii aea neo/aa, eiaaea a
i?aaeaeao ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?aieoe i?iaeeaaao ianeieueei yoiinia,
nicaeaaony iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiia ainoaea?noai.

A ie?a i?aiaeaaeatho iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiua no?aiu, iai?eia? Eiaeey,
?inney, Eeoae, NOA, Eiaeiiacey. I?eia?aie iaeiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo no?ai
yaeythony Iieueoa, Aa?iaiey, A?aaioeia, Aano?aeey, ssiiiey.

2. Iaoeiino?iaiea yaeyaony iaeiie ec naiuo noa?uo io?aneae, iii eiaao
ia?iiiia cia/aiea a oicyenoaa. Iaoeiino?iaiea iaania/eaaao ?acee/iui
iai?oaeiaaieai e iaoeiaie ana io?anee yeiiiieee, i?iecaiaeeo iiiaea
i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey (/anu, oieiaeeeueieee e ae?oaoth, auoiaoth
oaoieeo). A iaoe aeie iaoeiino?iaiea caieiaao n?aaee anao io?aneae
ie?iaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia?aia ianoi eae ii /eneo caiyouo, oae e ii
noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Ii o?iaith ?acaeoey iaoeiino?iaiey noaeyo ia
o?iaia ?acaeoey ethaie no?aiu.

Io?aneaaie ninoaa iaoeiino?iaiey i/aiue neiaeai. Iii ninoieo aieaa /ai
ec 70 io?aneae. Aeaaiuie aai io?aneyie yaeythony yeaeo?iieea,
yeaeo?ioaoieea, au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea, ?iaioioaoieea, i?eai?ino?iaiea,
oi/iia iaoeiino?iaiea, naeueneioicyenoaaiiia iaoeiino?iaiea e
o?aeoi?ino?iaiea, o?ainii?oiia, noaieino?iaiea, aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea,
eieiiioeaino?iaiea, aaaiiino?iaiea, naiieaoino?iaiea, noaeino?iaiea.

I?iecaiaenoai iiiaeo aeaeia nia?aiaiiie iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee
o?aaoao aieuoeeo o?oaeiauo cao?ao, aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/eo.
Iniaaiii o?oaeiaiee i?eai?ino?iaiea, i?iecaiaenoai YAI e ae?oaea
iiaaeoea io?anee. Yoe io?anee oaeaea o?aaotho iinoiyiiiai aiaae?aiey
iineaaeieo aeinoeaeaiee iaoee, o. a. yaeythony iaoeiaieeie. ?aciauathony
oaeea i?iecaiaenoaa a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao eee ?yaeii n ieie, oai, aaea
eiaaony iiiai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo e eiaeaia?ia, ?aniieaaathony
oeaio?u iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, eiaaony ?acaeoay eio?ano?oeoo?a. Caoi
i?eaioaoeey iaoeiino?iaiey ia enoi/ieee iaoaeea a yiioo IO? cia/eoaeueii
nieceeanue. Iaoeiino?iaiea ana aieueoa noaiiaeony io?aneueth
iianaianoiiai ?aciauaiey.

Ia yeiiiie/aneie ea?oa ie?a iiaeii auaeaeeoue 4 iniiaiuo
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo ?aaeiia. Ia?aue ?aaeii — Naaa?iay Aia?eea, aaea
i?iecaiaeyony i?aeoe/anee ana aeaeu iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee.
Aoi?ie ?aaeii — ca?oaaaeiay Aa?iia, eioi?ay i?iecaiaeeo aeaaiui ia?acii
ianniaoth iaoeiino?ieoaeueioth i?iaeoeoeeth, ii oaeaea caieiaao aaaeiia
ianoi a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee iaeioi?uo iiaaeoeo io?aneae. O?aoee
?aaeii — Ainoi/iay e THai-Ainoi/iay Acey, — a eioi?ii eeaee?oao ssiiiey,
ni/aoathuay i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee ianniaiai iacia/aiey n
eeaee?othueie iiceoeeyie ai iiiaeo iiaaeoeo io?aneyo, aeathueo ecaeaeey
naiie aunieie oaoiieiaee. Ioiineoaeueii aunieiai o?iaiy iaoeiino?iaiea
aeinoeaei a iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao.

*aoaa?oue ?aaeii iauaaeeiyao ?inneth, Oe?aeio e Aaei?onneth.

A noaoenoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeao iieacaia a noieiinoiii eee i?ioeaioiii
ioiioaiee aeiey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia oiaa?ia a yenii?oa eee eiii?oa
no?aiu. Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue io?anee oicyenoaa, i?iaeoeoeey eioi?uo
eiaao iaeaieueoee aan a iauai iauaia yenii?oa. Naeaeaoue auaiae ia
io?anee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee no?aiu e iieacaoue oaeoi?u, n
aaoae oi/ee c?aiey, iauyniythuea oaeoth niaoeeaeecaoeeth eee
ii?aaeaeythuea oaeoth caaeneiinoue no?aiu io eiii?oa. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
i?eaaaeai noaouee yenii?oa-eiii?oa ssiiiee. Aeaaiuie noaoueyie eiii?oa
caeanue yaeythony: oiieeai — 49%; ?oaeiia e i?i/aa nu?uea — 13%;
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u — 11%. Aeaaiuie noaoueyie yenii?oa yaeythony:
iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea — 41,5%; aaoiiiaeee — 14,5%; i?iaeoeoeey /a?iie
iaoaeeo?aee — 12%; i?i/ay i?iaeoeoeey ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe —
22%.

Aeeao ? 17

1. ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey ii oa??eoi?ee Caiee. Oaeoi?u,

aeeythuea ia ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey. Iaeaieaa aonoiianaeaiiua ?aeiiu ie?a.

2. Yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea: cia/aiea, no?aiu, auaeaeythueany ii

aaniethoiui e aeooaaui iieacaoaeyi i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea ii noaoenoe/aneei iaoa?eaeai iniiaiuo

yenii?oa?ia ca?ia.

1. Ianaeaiea Caiee ?aciauaii i/aiue ia?aaiiia?ii: ia 7% oa??eoi?ee nooe
nin?aaeioi/aii 70% ianaeaiey. Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey a yoeo ?aeiiao
ninoaaeyao ianeieueei nioai /aeiaae ia 1 ei2. A oi aea a?aiy ia aieueoae
/anoe iaeoaaiie nooe ieioiinoue ianaeaiey ia i?aauoaao 5 /ae./ei2, a 15%
nooe aiiaua ia canaeaii.

Oaeia ia?aaiiia?iia ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey aucaaii ?yaeii acaeiinaycaiiuo
oaeoi?ia: i?e?iaeiuie, enoi?e/aneeie, aeaiia?aoe/aneeie e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie. Ethaee aua a ae?aaiinoe naeeeenue a ?aeiiao
n aeaaii?eyoiuie oneiaeyie aeey aeecie /aeiaaea. Iaeiaei ii ia?a
?acaeoey oicyenoaa aai ?aciauaiea noaei ieacuaaoue ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia
?aciauaiea ianaeaiey. Ethaee naeyony a ?aeiiao n ?acaeoie
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, naeueneei oicyenoaii, aaeieue o?ainii?oiuo
iaaeno?aeae. Oaeaea aunieee eee ieceee anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino caiaoii
aeeyao ia ieioiinoue ?annaeaiey ethaeae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iieiaeia
/aeiaa/anoaa i?iaeeaaao a 200-eeeiiao?iaie i?eii?neie iieina. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiuie aonoiianaeaiiuie ?aeiiaie ie?a a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony
THaeiay e THai-Ainoi/iay Acey, Aa?iia e Naaa?i-Ainoie NOA, a oaeaea
Caiaaeiiao?eeaineee ?aaeii (Ieaa?ey, Aaiei, Aaia). A oi aea a?aiy
eiathony ia?iiiua oa??eoi?ee (a Naaa?iie Aia?eea, ia naaa?a Acee, a
Aano?aeee, ia naaa?a Ao?eee), aaea n?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey iaiaa
10 /ae./ei2.

2. Yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeoueo io?aneae yiioe IO?.
Aa ?acaeoea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao o?iaaiue ?acaeoey oicyenoaa a oeaeii.

Aieueoay /anoue yia?aee a ie?a i?iecaiaeeony oaieiauie
yeaeo?inoaioeeyie. Aoi?ia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo AYN, ia o?aoueai ianoa —
aoiiiay yia?aaoeea, iaeiaei a ?aciuo no?aiao aeiee ?aciuo oeiia
yeaeo?inoaioeee neeueii ioee/athony. Oae, a Iieueoa ii/oe any
yeaeo?iyia?aey i?iecaiaeeony ia OYN, a Ii?aaaee — ia AYN, a ai O?aioeee
yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea ia 3/4 aace?oaony ia AYN. A oneiaeyo aeaoeoeeoa
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ia i?ae?auathony iienee iiauo enoi/ieeia
yia?aee. A NOA, Iaeneea, Eoaeee, ssiiiee, Iiaie Caeaiaeee e ?innee
iino?iaiu ia?aua aaioa?iaeue-iua yeaeo?inoaioeee, eniieuecothuea
aioo?aiiaa oaiei Caiee. I?eeeaiua yeaeo?inoaioeee ?aaioatho ai O?aioeee,
NOA, Eaiaaea, ?innee e Eeoaa, ai iiiaeo no?aiao oniaoii aeaenoaotho
aao?iaua e nieia/iua yeaeo?inoaioeee. Yeaeo?iyia?aey i?iecaiaeeony ai
anao no?aiao ie?a, ii aiaeiaoth aa au?aaioeo a ?acia?a aieaa 200 ie?ae
eAo • / eiatho oieueei 11 no?ai: NOA, ?inney, ssiiiey, Oe?aeia, Eoaeey,
A?aceeey, Eaiaaea, Eeoae, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey e Eiaeey. Aaaeiui
iieacaoaeai iaania/aiiinoe no?aiu yeaeo?iyia?aeae yaeyaony aaee/eia aa
i?iecaiaenoaa a ?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey. Yoio iieacaoaeue iaeaieaa
aunie a oaeeo no?aiao, eae Ii?aaaey (26 oun. eAo’/), Eaiaaea (17 oun.
eAo-/), Oaaoeey (26 oun. eAo • /), NOA (11 oun. eAo • /).

3. Aeaaiay io?aneue ?anoaieaaiaenoaa — ca?iiaia oicyenoai, a aaaeiaeoay
ca?iiaay eoeueoo?a — ioaieoea. Aeaaiuie aa yenii?oa?aie yaeythony NOA,
Eaiaaea, A?aaioeia, Aano?aeey e Oe?aeia.

?en au?aueaaaony aeaaiui ia?acii a no?aiao THaeiie e THai-Ainoi/iie
Acee, NOA e Eaoeineie Aia?eea. E?oiiaeoea aai yenii?oa?u NOA, Iueyi-ia,
Oaeeaiae e Eiaeey.

Aeaaiua yenii?oa?u eoeo?ocu a ie?a — NOA, Eaiaaea, A?aaioeia, Aano?aeey
e O?aioeey.

Aeeao .?18

1. Iea?aoeee ianaeaiey e eo i?e/eiu. Aeeyiea iea?aoeee ia

eciaiaiea ia?iaeiianaeaiey. I?eia?u aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo iea?aoeee.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea Eeoay.

3. Iauyniaiea ii ea?oa iai?aaeaiee iniiaiuo ie?iauo

a?ociiioieia oaey.

1. Aieueoia aicaeaenoaea ia ?aciauaiea, /eneaiiinoue e ninoaa ianaeaiey
ieacuaatho iea?aoeee, o. a. ia?anaeaiea ethaeae ec iaeiiai ianoa
i?iaeeaaiey a ae?oaia. I?e/eiu iea?aoeee iiaoo auoue auioaeaeaiiuie,
yeiiiie/aneeie, iieeoe/aneeie, iaoeeiiaeueiuie, ?aeeaeiciuie. Auacae
ethaeae ec naiae no?aiu ia iinoiyiiia ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa iacuaaaony
yiea?aoeeae, a auacae a ae?oaoth no?aio — eiiea?aoeeae.

Aiaoiea iea?aoeee ianaeaiey aicieeee a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe e
i?iaeieaeaeenue a n?aaeiea aaea. I/aaii ianniaie yiea?aoeee noae Noa?ue
Naao. N ia/aea XIX a. aei aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu ec Aa?iiu auaoaei ieiei
60 iei /ae. a nayce n aic?anoathuae^ oai aac?aaioeoeae. Aieueoay /anoue
inaea oai, aaea ?acaeaaeinue oicyenoai e auee naiaiaeiua caiee, — a NOA,
Eaiaaea, Aano?aeee e Iiaie Caeaiaeee, a no?aiao THaeiie Aia?eee e THA?.

Iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu Oeaio?aeueiay Aa?iia i?aa?aoeeanue a i/aa
eiiea?aoeee, a ianoi i?eoyaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu ec no?ai THaeiie Aa?iiu,
Naaa?iie Ao?eee, Oo?oeee, Eiaeee, Iaeenoaia. Oaeei ia?acii, oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea o?oaeiaay iea?aoeey. Iaooaaeiauaathuea no?aiu
Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea oaeaea noaee oeaio?ii i?eoiea ?aai/ae neeu ec Aaeioa,
Eaiaia, Ei?aeaiee, Ne?ee e ae?. Aaaeiui oeaio?ii o?oaeiaie eiiea?aoeee
inoathony NOA, eoaea i?eacaeaao ?aai/ay neea ec no?ai Eaoeineie Aia?eee,
Acee.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XX a. iiyaeeanue iiaay oi?ia aiaoieo iea?aoeee,
eioi?ay iieo/eea iaeia iiaaiea «ooa/ea oiia». Nouiinoue aa caeeth/aaony
a ia?aiaieaaiee aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiino?aiiuo o/aiuo e
niaoeeaeenoia. Ia/aeanue iia n iooiea ec no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a NOA,
ii caoai iniiaiuie iinoaaueeaie oaeeo eiiea?aioia noaee ?acaeaathueany
no?aiu. A eiioea 80-o — ia/aea 90-o aa. a nayce n iieeoe/aneei e
yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii oneeeeanue «ooa/ea oiia» ec ?innee, Oe?aeiu.

E aioo?aiiei iea?aoeeyi ioiineony ia?aiauaiea ianaeaiey ec naeueneie
ianoiinoe a ai?iaea, eioi?ia ai iiiaeo no?aiao neoaeeo enoi/ieeii
auno?iai ?inoa ai?iaeia, iniaaiii yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?acaeaathueony
no?ai. Aeey e?oiiuo ainoaea?noa n aieueoeie eiio?anoaie a ieioiinoe
ianaeaiey oeie/ia iea?aoeey, naycaiiay n inaiaieai iiauo oa??eoi?ee
(NOA, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeey, ?inney, A?aceeey, Eeoae).

A iineaaeiea aiaeu ia?anoatho iea?aoeeiiiua iioiee aaaeaioeaa. Iie
oa?aeoa?iu aeey ?aeiiia iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo eiioeeeoia, aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee.

2. Eeoae — aaeeeia ae?aaiaa ainoaea?noai, aicieeoaa caaeieai aei iiaie
y?u. Iii aianei ia?iiiue aeeaae a iaoa?eaeueioth e aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o
/aeiaa/anoaa.

YAI. Eeoaeneay Ia?iaeiay ?anioaeeea — o?aouea ii ?acia?ai oa??eoi?ee
ainoaea?noai ie?a, i?ioyioaoaany a oeaio?aeueiie e ainoi/iie /anoyo Acee
n ainoiea ia caiaae ia 5,7 oun. ei, a n naaa?a ia tha — ia 3,7 oun. ei.
A?aieoeu i?ioiaeyo eae ii aunieiai?iui oa??eoi?eyi, oae e a iaaeai?iuo
aeieeiao. A?aieoeu n Iiiaieeae e ?inneae ia aieueoii i?ioyaeaiee eiatho
?aaieiiue oa?aeoa?. *?acau/aeii auaiaeii i?eii?neia iieiaeaiea no?aiu.
I?aeoe/anee iacaia?cathuea ii?y ioe?uaatho oe?ieee auoiae a Oeoee ieaai
e ia?iiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey aiaoieo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu Eeoay aaeeee e ?aciiia?aciu. Ia naaa?a no?aiu
?aniieiaeaiu ia?iiiua ianneau aeaeueiaainoi/iuo eania, ia thaa
i?ino?ainoaa caiyou o?iie/aneeie eanaie. No?aia caieiaao iaeii ec ia?auo
iano a ie?a ii caianai eaiaiiiai oaey, aeaeaciie e ia?aaioeaaie ?oae,
aieneoia e oeeiea, ieiaa, aieueo?aia, iieeaaeaia e ae?oaeo aeaeia
ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey. Ia?iiiua aiaeiua ?ano?nu o?aiyo a naaa e?oiiua
caianu aeae?iyia?aee.

Eeoae — naiay iiiaiianaeaiiay no?aia a ie?a. Niaeanii ia?aiene 1990 a.
/eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey Eeoay ninoaaeea 1 ie?ae 134 iei /ae. Oioy a Eeoaa
e i?iaiaeeony aeoeaiay aeaiia?aoe/aneay iieeoeea ii nieaeaieth oaiiia
?inoa ianaeaiey, e 2000 aiaeo iii ninoaaeo 1,3 ie?ae /ae. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, , oaeia aieueoia ianaeaiea i?aaeii?aaeaeyao ia?iiiua o?oaeiaua
?ano?nu (ieiei 700 iei /ae.), n ae?oaie — iaino?yao aeeeeuioth e
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiioth i?iaeaiu. EI? — no?aia iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiay, oioy
aieaa 90% aa aeeoaeae — eeoaeoeu. Aieueoay /anoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iaiueoeinoa i?iaeeaaao ai aioo?aiieo ?aeiiao no?aiu. Aeey Eeoay
oa?aeoa?iu aieueoea eiio?anou ?annaeaiey: ii/oe 90% aeeoaeae
nin?aaeioi/aiu ia 1/3 oa??eoi?ee no?aiu ia ainoiea. Eeoae neaai
o?aaiece?iaaiiay no?aia, eeoue eaaeaeue o?aoee aeeoaeue no?aiu —
ai?iaeaiei. I?e yoii ie a iaeiii ae?oaii ainoaea?noaa ie?a iao oaeiai
eiee/anoaa ai?iaeia-ieeeeiia?ia (ieiei 40).

Ca iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey Eeoae, oicyenoai eioi?iai iniiauaaaony ia
iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, i?aa?aoeeny a e?oiiia eiaeono?eaeueiia
ainoaea?noai n naiuie aunieeie oaiiaie ?acaeoey. Iniiao
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena Eeoay ia?acoao oaieueiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Aeiau/a oaey ?ann?aaeioi/aia ii iiiaei aannaeiai
Naaa?iiai e Ainoi/iiai Eeoay. ?anoao aeiau/a iaooe e aaca. I?iecaiaenoai
yeaeo?iyia?aee aace?oaony ia OYN (3/4 yeaeo?iyia?aee). A Eeoaa
inouanoaeyaony i?ia?aiia ?acaeoey aeae?iyia?aaoeee: aeaaiua eaneaaeu AYN
nii?oaeathony a aa?oiaueyo ssioecu e Ooaioy.

Iniiao iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena ninoaaeytho e?oiiua eiiaeiaou iieiiai
oeeeea, i?eaioe?othueany ia ianoi?iaeaeaiey eaiaiiiai oaey e aeaeaciie
?oaeu (Aiuiaiue, Iaeei).

A iaoeiino?ieoaeueiii eiiieaena i?aiaeaaeatho ia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua, a
oieaa?naeueiua i?aaei?eyoey. Iie oyaioatho e e?oiiui ai?iaeai, e ii?neei
ii?oai e iaoaeeo?ae/aneei aacai. A iineaaeiea aiaeu EI? aeiaeeanue
caiaoiuo oniaoia a i?iecaiaenoaa auoiaie yeaeo?iaiia?aoo?u, i?eai?ia,
YAI. Aeaaiua oeaio?u iaoeiino?iaiey – Oaioae, Oa?aei, Iaeei, Eiyi e ae?.

Oeie/aneee eiiieaen iie?aaony ia i?iaeoeou eieni- e iaooaoeiee,
ai?iioeie/aneia e ?anoeoaeueiia nu?uea. Auaeaeytho aeaa a?oiiu
i?iecaiaenoa: 1) ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee; 2) auoiaie oeiee e
oa?iaoeaaoeee.

Noieeoeae oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe yaeyaony Oaioae. Ii i?iecaiaenoao
oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo oeaiae EI? caieiaao iaeii ec aaaeoueo iano a ie?a.

A naeueneii oicyenoaa Eeoay caiyoi 400 iei /ae. A ?anoaieaaiaenoaa ?acei
i?aiaeaaeatho ca?iiaua — 80% anao iinaaia. Aeaaiie aicaeaeuaaaiie
eoeueoo?ie inoaaony ?en. Ii au?aueaaaony ia i?ioaaiuo caieyo, ia thaa
no?aiu e a aeieeia ssioecu. Iniiaiua iinaau ioaieoeu nin?aaeioi/aiu ia
Aaeeeie Eeoaeneie ?aaieia, a aannaeia Ooaioy. Oaeaea au?aueaathony
eoeo?oca, /ae, ea?oioaeue. N?aaee oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo? i?aiaeaaeaao
oeii/aoiee, iniiaiua iinaau eioi?iai nin?aaeioi/aiu a aannaeiao ?ae
Ooaioy e ssioecu. Ia naaa?i-caiaaea Eeoay i?aiaeaaeaao eioaineaiia
ei/aaia eee iieoei/aaia neioiaiaenoai. ?acaiaeyo ?aai/ee neio: eioaaeae,
aueia, aieia.

I?eia?ii iieiaeia a?ociiai?ioa e iannaaee-?iiai?ioa i?eoiaeeony ia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue o?ainii?o. Iaeiaei ?anoao aeiey aaoiiiaeeueiiai,
ii?neiai e o?oaii?iaiaeiiai o?ainii?oa,

, Aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oaey ia ie?iaii ?uiea ea?aao
aai naaanoieiinoue. Iia caaeneo io aiciiaeiinoe ioe?uoie aeiau/e,
aeoaeiu caeaaaiey e iiuiinoe ieanoia. Yenii?oa?aie oaey yaeythony
no?aiu, aaea iaeeo/oea oneiaey aeey aai aeiau/e. Aiaeec ie?iauo
a?ociiioieia oaey iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi aeaaiuie
no?aiaie-yenii?oa?aie yaeythony NOA (iinoaaeytho oaieue a no?aiu
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, A?aceeeth, ssiiieth), Aa?iaiey (a no?aiu Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu), Aano?aeey (a ssiiieth e Caiaaeioth Aa?iio), THA? (a ssiiieth).
66

Aeeao ? 19

1 Ai?iaeneia e naeueneia ianaeaiea. O?aaiecaoeey. E?oiiaeoea ai?iaea

e ai?iaeneea aaeiia?aoeee. I?iaeaiu e iineaaenoaey o?aaiecaoeee a

nia?aiaiiii ie?a.

2. AEeaioiiaiaenoai. ?ani?ino?aiaiea, iniiaiua io- ?anee,

iniaaiiinoe ?aciauaiey, no?aiu-yenii?oa?u.

3.. Iauyniaiea ii ea?oa iniiaiuo ie?iauo a?ociiioieia

i?e?iaeiiai aaca.

1. Iniiaiie oi?iie ?annaeaiey ethaeae ana a aieueoae noaiaie noaiiayony
ai?iaea. Iie ieacuaatho aic?anoathuaa aeeyiea ia anth ie?oaeathuoth eo
ianoiinoue. E /eneo aaaeiaeoeo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia
ioiineony o?aaiecaoeey — i?ioeann ?inoa ai?iaeia e ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey, oneeaiea eo ?iee, oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai?iaeneiai ia?aca
aeecie. O?aaiece?iaaiiua oa??eoi?ee caieiatho /ooue aieaa 1% oa??eoi?ee
nooe, ii ia ieo nin?aaeioi/aii 45% anaai ianaeaiey ie?a.
Nia?aiaiiue i?ioeann o?aaiecaoeee, ia/aaoeeny ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XX
a., oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?aiy /a?oaie:

1) auno?uie oaiiaie ?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, iniaaiii a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao; 2) ?aniiecaieai ai?iaeia, oi?ie?iaaieai
ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeee e iaaaeiiieenia, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie
neiieaiea aaeiia?aoeee e ai?iaeia, neeaoeony ae?oa n ae?oaii;

3) eiioeaio?aoeeae ianaeaiey e oicyenoaai iniiaiii a aieueoeo ai?iaeao e
eo iaeaieaa auno?ui ?inoii.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ieiei 50% ianaeaiey aeeaao a ai?iaeao. Iniai
auaeaeythony ai?iaea-ieeeeiia?u, /enei eioi?uo i?aauneei 300. Aeecei
?aniieiaeaiiua ai?iaea ca/anooth neeaathony, ia?acoy aaeiia?aoeee.
ssae?aie e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeee noaiiayony noieeoeu,
iaeaieaa aaaeiua i?iiuoeaiiua e ii?oiaua oeaio?u. I?eia?ii ai?iaeneeo
aaeiia?aoeee iiaoo neoaeeoue Iaoeei, Nai-Iaoeo, Oieei, Iueth-Ei?e,
Iineaa.

Iauei aeey ie?iaiai i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony aai noeoeeiia
oa/aiea. Iauea /a?ou ia eneeth/atho na?ueaciuo ?acee/ee a no?aiao
?aciiai oeia. Yoi «aic?ano» o?aaiecaoeee, aa o?iaaiue e oaiiu. A
aieueoeinoaa yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai, aeinoeaoeo aunieiai o?iaiy
o?aaiecaoeee, aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ?anoao iaaeeaiiaa. *enei
aeeoaeae a noieeoeao e ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ai?iaeao aeaaea oiaiueoaaony.
Iiiaea ai?iaeaia oaia?ue i?aaeii/eoatho aeeoue ia a oeaio?ao aieueoeo
ai?iaeia, a a i?eai?iaeao e naeueneie ianoiinoe. Yoi iauyniyaony
o?ainii?oiuie i?iaeaiaie, oooaeoaieai yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee a nayce n
eiioeaio?aoeeae ^i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
o?aaiecaoeey i?eiyea no?aieoaeueiue, iaoi?aaeyaiue oa?aeoa?. Auoa
anaai aeiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey a Eaoeineie Aia?eea — 2/3%, a Ao?eea —
30% , a ca?oaaaeiie Acee — 27%. Aaccaiaeuea e ionoonoaea oainia
iieo/eoue ?aaioo «auoaeeeaaao» ieeeeiiu ethaeae a ai?iae. A ?acoeueoaoa
aicieeatho o?ouiaiua ?aeiiu n aioenaieoa?iuie oneiaeyie i?iaeeaaiey,
oae iacuaaaiay «eiaeiay o?aaiecaoeey».

Ianiio?y ia auno?ue ?ino ai?iaeia, iieiaeia ianaeaiey ie?a i?iaeeaaao a
naeueneie ianoiinoe. Nouanoaoao aeaa 4th?iu ?annaeaiey naeueneiai
ianaeaiey — a?oiiiaia e ?annayiiia. A?oiiiaay oa?aeoa?ia aeey ?innee,
Aa?iiu, Eeoay, ssiiiee, ?acaeaathueony no?ai. ?annayiiay (oa?iu) — aeey
NOA, Eaiaaeu, Aano?aeee.

2. Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo ninoaaiuo naeueneiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony
aeeaioiiaiaenoai. A .?acaeouo no?aiao aeeaioiiaiaenoai iineo eioaineaiue
oa?aeoa?, a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao iii iaeii?iaeoeoeaii e iineo
yenoaineaiue oa?aeoa?. Iauaa iiaieiauea neioa a ie?a ninoaaeyao 4 ie?ae
aieia.

E?oiiue ?iaaoue neio (1,3 ie?ae aieia) aeaao ii/oe ana iieiei e 35%
iyna. Eeaea?aie a i?iecaiaenoaa yaeythony Eiaeey, A?aceeey, NOA,
Eaiaaea, A?aaioeia, Aano?aeey. Eioaineaiia iiei/iia e iyni-iiei/iia
neioiaiaenoai ?ani?ino?aiaii a eaniie e eaninoaiiie ciia a Aa?iia e
Naaa?iie Aia?eea. Iyniie neio ?acaiaeyo a canooeeauo ?aeiiao, aaea
-i?aiaeaaeaao yenoaineaiia neioiaiaenoai, a THaeiie Aia?eea, Aano?aeee.

Naeiiaiaenoai (0,8 ie?ae aieia) aeaao 40%. iyniie i?iaeoeoeee. Iii
oyaioaao e aonoiianaeaiiui ?aeiiai, e e?oiiui i?iiuoeaiiui oeaio?ai.
Eeaea?ii a i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony Eeoae.

Iaoeaaiaenoai (1,2 ie?ae aieia) aeaao iyni e oa?noue. Iii oa?aeoa?ii
aeey ?aeiiia n aeinoaoi/iui oaeaaeiaieai e ioiineoaeueii iyaeei
eeeiaoii. E?oiiaeoeie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie oa?noe yaeythony Aano?aeey,
Eeoae, Iiaay Caeaiaeey. Ii i?iecaiaenoao iyna ia ia?aii ianoa noiyo NOA,
aeaeaa neaaeoao Eeoae e ?inney.

Aeaaiuie yenii?oa?aie aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee yaeythony ?acaeoua
no?aiu.

3. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii aaeaina auniei?acaeouo
no?ai aeiey aaca oaaee/eaaaony. Ia ?inneth e NOA i?eoiaeeony i?eia?ii
iieiaeia ie?iaie aeiau/e aaca. Aiaeec ie?iauo a?ociiioieia aaca aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue ?inneth eae aeaaiiai yenii?oa?a aaca a
ca?oaaaeioth Aa?iio. E no?aiai-eiii?oa?ai ioiineony ssiiiey (eiii?o ec
no?ai Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, NOA, Aano?aeee

Aeeao ? 20

1. Ie?iaia oicyenoai. Nouiinoue e iniiaiua yoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aaia?aoe/aneia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea e aai i?eia?u.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeiie ec

no?ai Eaoeineie Aia?eee (ii auai?o o/auaainy).

3. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaania/aiiinoe io- aeaeueiuo

?aaeiiia e no?ai ie?a aiaeiuie ?ano?naie.

1. Ie?iaia oicyenoai — yoi enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoayny niaieoiiinoue
iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa anao no?ai ie?a, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie
anaie?iuie yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ie?iaiai oicyenoaa i?ienoiaeeei ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa. Ia ?oaaaea XV—XVI a. a ?acoeueoaoa aaeeeeo aaia?aoe/aneeo
ioe?uoee oi?aiaey iaaeaeo no?aiaie ioaaoeea i?aeoe/anee aanue ie?, /oi
i?eaaei e ca?iaeaeaieth ie?iaiai ?uiea. Neaaeothuei yoaiii yaeeanue
i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey XVIII—XIX a., eioi?ay i?eaaea e nea/eo a
?acaeoee o?ainii?oa e iaoeiiie eiaeono?ee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaia?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue ie?iaiai oicyenoaa eiaao
iieeoeaio?e/aneee oa?aeoa?, i?aiaeaaeatho o?e aeaaiuo oeaio?a: Aa?iia
(28% AAI), NOA (26% AAI), ssiiiey (10% AAI).

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aaia?aoe/aneia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea (IA?O) — aaaeiaeoaa
iiiyoea yeiiiie/aneie aaia?aoee, iii au?aaeaaony a niaoeeaeecaoeee
oicyenoaa ioaeaeueiuo no?ai ia i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa e a iineaaeothuai iaiaia iaaeaeo ieie.
?acoeueoaoii aaia?aoe/aneiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea yaeyaony io?aneue
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee aeey aeaiiie no?aiu. Aeey aa
aicieeiiaaiey iaiaoiaeeiu ii?aaeaeaiiua oneiaey:

1) no?aia aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aeiouanoaaie, iai?eia?
?ano?niuie, e nio?aiyoue eo aeieaia a?aiy; 2) aeieaeiu noooeanoaiaaoue
no?aiu, eniuouaathuea iio?aaiinoue a aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee; 3) cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai e aeinoaaeo i?iaeoeoeee iio?aaeoaeth aeieaeiu auoue ieaea,
/ai o ae?oaeo no?ai; 4) no?aia aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoue aeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee aieueoa, /ai iaiaoiaeeii ae naiie. I?eia?aie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee yaeythony:

ssiiiey, caieiathuay ia?aia ianoi a ie?a ii i?iecaiaenoao aaoiiiaeeae;
Eaiaaea caieiaao iyoia ianoi a ie?a ii nai?o e aoi?ia ianoi ii yenii?oo
ca?iiauo eoeueoo?.

2. A?aceeey — yoi e?oiiaeoaa ainoaea?noai Eaoeineie Aia?eee.
?aniieiaeaia a oeaio?aeueiie e ainoi/iie /anoe iaoa?eea, ia ieiuaaee 8,5
iei ei . A?aceeey — iaeia ec iaeaieaa aiaaouo i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie
no?ai ie?a. Iia ?aniieaaaao ia?iiiuie oa??eoi?eaeueiuie e
aiaeiuie ?ano?naie, ieiaei?iaeiuie e iaoioiuie caieyie e oeaiiuie
ianoaeuaie. A?aceeey eiaao aiaaooth ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaoth aaco. Caeanue
aeiauaatho ieiei 50 aeaeia ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, iniaaiii ?oaeiiai
(aeaeaciua e ia?aaioeaaua ?oaeu, aieneou e ae?.). A?aceeeth iacuaatho
o?iie/aneei aeaaioii, o. e. aeaaeiua yeaaoi?eaeueiua eana Aiaciineie
ieciaiiinoe caieiatho ieiei 2/3 oa??eoi?ee no?aiu e i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
ia?iiiue ?aca?a aeey ?acaeoey eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A?aceeey aoiaeeo a ia?aoth iyoa?eo no?ai ie?a ii /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey,
eioi?ia aaeaaiaeii aic?anoaao ia 3 iei /ae. N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi
aeaaii?eyonoaoao yeiiiie/aneiio ?acaeoeth, n ae?oaie aea noi?iiu,
iaino?yao i?iaeaio caiyoinoe ianaeaiey e «eiaeiie o?aaiecaoeee». A
no?aia eaeao aeoeaiue i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey aaeiia?aoeee, iaeaieaa
e?oiiua ec eioi?uo — Nai-Iaoeo e ?ei-aea-AEaiae?i. Yoie/aneee ninoaa
ianaeaiey aanueia iano?. Ii noi?ie?iaaeny iiae aeeyieai o?ao oaeoi?ia:
ianoiuo eiaeaeneeo ieaiai, aa?iiaeneeo ia?anaeaioeaa ec Eniaiee e
Ii?ooaaeee e ao?eeaioeaa, caaacaiiuo nthaea eieiiecaoi?aie. Aieueooth
aeieth ianaeaiey a no?aia ninoaaeytho iaoenu.

A?aceeey — iaeia ec eeth/aauo no?ai ?acaeaathuaainy ie?a. Aaaeiaeoae e
aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathuaeny io?aneueth yeiiiieee A?aceeee yaeyaony
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, oaeea aa io?anee, eae iaoeiino?iaiea (a aiae
auioneaaony aei 1 iei aaoiiiaeeae), iaooaoeiey, /a?iay iaoaeeo?aey. Ii
auioneo eiiiuethoa?ia A?aceeey onooiaao oieueei NOA, ssiiiee e O?A.
Nicaeaia e?oiiay aiaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iino?iai eaneaae iiuiuo AYN.
Yeiiiie/aneia na?aeoea no?aiu ?aniieiaeaii a o?aoaieueieea Nai-Iaoeo —
?ei-aea-AEaiae?i — Aaeo-I?eciioe.

Naeueneia oicyenoai A?aceeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony e?oiiui caieaaeaaeaieai. A
aai no?oeoo?a i?aiaeaaeaao ?anoaieaaiaenoai, niaoeeaeece?othuaany ia
au?aueaaiee o?iie/aneeo eoeueoo? aeey aiaoiaai ?uiea (eioa, eaeai,
naoa?iue o?inoiee, necaeue, niy, aiaeueneiu, aaiaiu).

Ii noaoenoe/aneei aeaiiui ii?aaeaeeoa iaeaieaa e iaeiaiaa iaania/aiiua
no?aiu e ?aaeiiu (iaania/aiiinoue au?aaeaaony a oun. i’ a aiae ia aeooo
ianaeaiey). I?eia?u iiiaiaiaeiuo no?ai — Iiaay Caeaiaeey, Eiiai,
Eaiaaea, Ii?aaaey, A?aceeey, aceaoneay /anoue ?innee. Iaeiaiaeiuie
no?aiaie yaeythony Naoaeianeay A?aaey, Aaeiao, Eeoae.

Aeeao ? 21

1. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey. Yeiiiie/aneea

a?oiie?iaee no?ai nia?aiaiiiai ie?a.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea no?ai

Ao?eee.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea ii noaoenoe/aneei iaoa?eaeai iniiaiuo

yenii?oa?ia oeiiea.

1. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aaia?aoe/aneia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ia noieueei ?anoe?yaony, neieueei oaeoaeyaony, i?eia?aoay iiaua oi?iu.
Oaeoaeaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee e iaiaia i?eaaei e
n?aueaaieth ioaeaeueiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa. Oae aicieeea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey — aunoay noaiaiue
IA?O, oi?ia eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, i?ioeann
ia?aieaoaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa e i?iaaaeaiey niaeaniaaiiie
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee eae iaaeaeo naieie no?aiaie,
oae e ii ioiioaieth e o?aoueei no?aiai. Auaeaeythony
?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey e io?aneaaay.

E iaeaieaa e?oiiui ?aaeiiaeueiui a?oiie?iaeai ioiineony Aa?iiaeneee
nithc (AN), iauaaeeiythuee 15 no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu n ianaeaieai ii/oe
370 iei /ae.: Aaeueaeth, Ieaea?eaiaeu, Ethenaiao?a, Aeaieth,
Aaeeeia?eoaieth, O?aioeeth, Aa?iaieth, Eoaeeth, Eniaieth, Ii?ooaaeeth,
A?aoeeth, E?eaiaeeth, Oeieyiaeeth, Oaaoeeth, Aano?eth.

Ae?oaay e?oiiay eioaa?aoeeiiiay a?oiie?iaea, iauaaeeiythuay 370 iei
/ae., — yoi Naaa?iaia?eeaineia niaeaoaiea i naiaiaeiie oi?aiaea (IAOOA),
eoaea aioee NOA, Eaiaaea e Iaeneea.

?acaeaathueany no?aiu oaeaea nicaeatho naie eioaa?aoeeiiiua a?oiie?iaee.
Annioeeaoeey ainoaea?noa THai-Ainoi/iie Acee (ANAAI) iauaaeeiyao
Eiaeiiaceth, Iaeaeceth, Neiaaio?, Oaeeaiae, Oeeeiieiu,

A?oiae. Yoe no?aiu iauyaeee i nicaeaiee ciiu naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee.
Eaoeiiaia?eeaineay annioeeaoeey eioaa?aoeee aeeth/aao 11 no?ai.
Ea?eaneia niae?oaeanoai e iauee ?uiie (EA?EEAI) i?aneaaeoao oeaeue
nicaeaoue iauee ?uiie a Ea?eaneii ?aaeiia e iauaaeeiyao 13 ainoaea?noa.

A 1991 a. auei noi?ie?iaaii Niae?oaeanoai Iacaaeneiuo Ainoaea?noa (NIA),
eoaea aioee ana auaoea niaaoneea ?anioaeeee, e?iia Ynoiiee, Eaoaee,
Eeoau, n oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiey oo?a/aiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae.

Naiie e?oiiie io?aneaaie yeiiiie/aneie a?oiie?iaeie yaeyaony
I?aaiecaoeey no?ai — yenii?oa?ia iaooe (IIAE), iauaaeeiythuay 12 no?ai:
Aeaee?, Aaaii, Eiaeiiaceth, E?ai, E?ae, Eoaaeo, Naoaeianeoth A?aaeth,
Eeaeth, Ieaa?eth, Eaoa?, IAY, Aaianoyeo.

Ao?eea caieiaao ieiuaaeue 29,2 iei ei2. I?ioyaeaiiinoue n naaa?a ia tha
— 8 oun. ei, n caiaaea ia ainoie a naaa?iie /anoe — 7,5 oun. ei.
Iniaaiiinoueth YAI iiiaeo no?ai ?aaeiia yaeyaony ionoonoaea auoiaea e
ii?th. A oi aea a?aiy a no?aiao, auoiaeyueo e ieaaio, aa?aaiaay eeiey
ec?acaia neaai, /oi iaaeaaii?eyoii aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa e?oiiuo ii?oia.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Ao?eee ?aniieiaeaii 55 ainoaea?noa, ec ieo o?e iiia?oee,
iaeia (Ieaa?ey) — oaaea?aoeaiay ?anioaeeea, inoaeueiua — ?anioaeeee. Ana
no?aiu, ca eneeth/aieai THA?, ?acaeaathueany, aieueoeinoai ec ieo
aaaeiaeoea a ie?a (70% ianaeaiey aeeaao ca /a?oie aaaeiinoe).

Ao?eea eneeth/eoaeueii aiaaoa i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie. Iniaaiii
aaeeee caianu ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey — ?oae ia?aaioea, o?iieoia, aieneoia
e ae?. A iiieaeaieyo e i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao eiaaony oiieeaiia nu?uea.
Iaooue e aac aeiauaathony a Naaa?iie e Caiaaeiie Ao?eea (Ieaa?ey,
Aeaee?, Aaeiao, Eeaey). Eieinnaeueiua caianu eiaaeueoiauo e iaaeiuo ?oae
nin?aaeioi/aiu a Caiaee e Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeea Eiiai; ia?aaioeaaua ?oaeu
aeiauaathony a THA? e Ceiaaaaa; ieaoeia, aeaeaciua ?oaeu e cieioi — a
THA?; aeiacu — a Eiiai, Aionaaia, THA?, Iaieaee, Aiaiea, Aaia; oinoi?eou
— a Ia?ieei, Ooiena; o?ai — a Ieaa?a, Iaieaee.

A Ao?eea aeiaieueii aieueoea caiaeueiua ?ano?nu, iaeiaei y?icey ii/a
i?eiyea eaoano?ioe/aneee oa?aeoa? ec-ca iai?aaeeueiie aa ia?aaioee.
Aiaeiua ?ano?nu ii oa??eoi?ee Ao?eee ?ani?aaeaeaiu e?aeia ia?aaiiia?ii.
Eana caieiatho ieiei 10% oa??eoi?ee, ii a ?acoeueoaoa oeuie/aneiai
oie/oiaeaiey eo ieiuaaeue auno?i nie?auaaony.

A Ao?eea naiua aunieea oaiiu anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey.
Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ai iiiaeo no?aiao i?aauoaao 30 /aeiaae ia 1000
aeeoaeae a aiae. Nio?aiyaony aunieay aeiey aeaoneeo aic?anoia (50%) e
iaaieueoay aeiey ethaeae noa?oaai iieieaiey (ieiei 5%). Yoie/aneee
ninoaa ianaeaiey aanueia neiaeai. Iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiui ia?iaeii
yaeythony a?aau Naaa?iie Ao?eee. A Ao?eeaineii ?aaeiia ian/eouaaaony
aieaa 200 ia?iaeia. Ai a?aiy eieiieaeueiiai inaiaiey iaoa?eea iiiaea
ainoaea?noaaiiua a?aieoeu i?iaiaeeeenue aac o/aoa yoie/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae, /oi aei neo ii? i?eaiaeeo e iaaeyoie/aneei eiioeeeoai.
N?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey Ao?eee ninoaaeyao 22 /ae./ei2 — yoi
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai a Aa?iia e Acee. Ii o?iaith o?aaiecaoeee
Ao?eea ionoaao io ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia

— iaiaa 30%, iaeiaei oaiiu o?aaiecaoeee caeanue naiua aunieea a ie?a.

Ao?eeaineei no?aiai iiea ia oaeaeinue eciaieoue eieiieaeueiue oei
io?aneaaie e oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee, oioy oaiiu
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa ianeieueei onei?eeenue. Eieiieaeueiue oei
io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u oicyenoaa ioee/aaony i?aiaeaaeaieai iaeioiaa?iiai,
iio?aaeoaeueneiai naeueneiai oicyenoaa, neaaui ?acaeoeai
ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ionoaaaieai ?acaeoey o?ainii?oa.
Iaeaieueoeo oniaoia aeinoeaee no?aiu Ao?eee a ai?iiaeiauaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ii aeiau/a iiiaeo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo Ao?eea
i?eiaaeeaaeeo eeaee?othuaa, e eiiaaea iiiiiieueiia ianoi a ie?a (ii
aeiau/a cieioa, aeiacia, ieaoeiieaeia e Ae?.). Ia?aaaouaathuay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaia eaaeie e ieuaaie, ae?oaea io?anee
ionoonoaotho, ca eneeth/aieai ?yaea ?aeiiia aaeece iaee/ey nu?uey e ia
iiaa?aaeuea (Aaeiao, Aeaee?,, Ia?ieei, Ieaa?ey, Caiaey,Cae?).

Aoi?ay io?aneue yeiiiieee, ii?aaeaeythuay ianoi Ao?eee a ie?iaii
oicyenoaa, — o?iie/aneia e noa-‘ o?iie/aneia caieaaeaeea. I?iaeoeoeey
caieaaeaeey ninoaaeyao 60—80% AAI. Iniiaiuie oiaa?iuie eoeueoo?aie
yaeythony eioa, eaeai-aiau, a?aoen, oeieee, /ae, iaoo?aeueiue eao/oe,
ni?ai, i?yiinoe. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy noaee au?aueaaoue ca?iiaua
eoeueoo?u: eoeo?oco, ?en, ioaieoeo. AEeaioiiaiaenoai ea?aao
iiae/eiaiioth ?ieue, ca eneeth/aieai no?ai n canooeeaui eeeiaoii.
I?aiaeaaeaao yenoaineaiia neioiaiaenoai, oa?aeoa?ecothuaany ia?iiiui
iiaieiaueai neioa, ii iaeie i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth e ieceie oiaa?iinoueth.
Eiioeiaio ia iaania/eaaao naay naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae.

O?ainii?o oaeaea nio?aiyao eieiieaeueiue oei:

aeaeaciua aei?iae eaeoo io ?aeiiia aeiau/e nu?uey e ii?oo aai auaica.
Ioiineoaeueii ?acaeou aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue e ii?neie aeaeu o?ainii?oa. A
iineaaeiea aiaeu iieo/eee ?acaeoea e ae?oaea aeaeu o?ainii?oa —
aaoiiiaeeueiue (i?ieiaeaia aei?iaa /a?ac Naoa?o), aicaeooiue,
o?oaii?iaiaeiue.

N iiiiuueth oneiaiuo ciaeia ii ea?oa naeueneiai oicyenoaa ii?aaeaeeoa
?aeiiu i?iecaiaenoaa oeiiea e aeaaiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua a?ociiioiee
oeiiea-nu?oea. A ia?a/aiue no?ai — yenii?oa?ia oeiiea aeieaeiu aieoe
NOA, Eeoae, Iaeenoai, A?aceeey, Ocaaeenoai.

Aeeao ? 22

1. Oiieeaiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ninoaa, ?aciauaiea aeaaiuo

?aeiiia aeiau/e oiieeaa. Aaaeiaeoea no?aiu-i?iecaiaeeoaee e yenii?oa?u.
Aeaaiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua a?ociiioiee oiieeaa.

2. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey: oi?iu e

aaia?aoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea ii noaoenoe/aneei iaoa?eaeai iniiaiuo

yenii?oa?ia naoa?a. _____

1. Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaieoiiinoue io?aneae oiieeaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, yeaeo?iyia?aaoeee,
n?aaenoa aeinoaaee oiieeaa i aia?aee. Ca iineaaeiea aeaa noieaoey
ie?iaay oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?ioea a naiai ?acaeoee
aeaa aeaaiuo ioaia. Ia?aue yoai (XIX — ia?aay iieiaeia XX a.) aue
oaieueiui, eiaaea a no?oeoo?a ie?iaiai oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai aaeaina
?acei i?aiaeaaeaei oaieueiia oiieeai. Aoi?ui yoaiii yaeeny iaooaaaciaue.
Iaooue e aac ieacaeenue aieaa yooaeoeaiuie yia?aiiineoaeyie, /ai
oaa?aeia oiieeai. A 80-o aa. ie?iaay yia?aaoeea anooieea a o?aoee
(ia?aoiaeiue) yoai naiaai ?acaeoey, aaea i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae io
eniieueciaaiey i?aeiouanoaaiii en/a?iaaiuo ?ano?nia ieia?aeueiiai
oiieeaa e iaen/a?iaaiui ?ano?nai.

Iaooyiay, aaciaay, oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue yaeythony iniiaie ie?iaie
yia?aaoeee. Iaooue aeiauaatho a 80 no?aiao ie?a, ii aeaaioth ?ieue
ea?atho Naoaeianeay A?aaey, NOA, ?inney, E?ai, Iaeneea, EI?, Aaianoyea,
IAY, Ii?aaaey, Eaiaaea, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Ieaa?ey. A iaaeaeoia?iaeioth
oi?aiaeth iinooiaao 40% anae aeiauaaaiie iaooe. A ie?iaii oicyenoaa
ia?aciaaeny ia?iiiue oa??eoi?eaeueiue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo ?aeiiaie aa aeiau/e
e iio?aaeaiey, /oi niinianoaiaaei aicieeiiaaieth iiuiuo a?ociiioieia.
Aeaaiuie ?aeiiaie aeiau/e iaooe yaeythony aannaeiu Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa,
Caiaaeii-Neae?neee, Ea?eaneiai ii?y. Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa.

I?e?iaeiue aac — naiia aeaoaaia e yeieiae/anee /enoia oiieeai. Eeaea?ii
a -ie?iaie aeiau/a aaca yaeyaony ?inney, aaea ?aniieiaeai ia?iiiaeoee
aannaei – – Caiaaeiay Neae?ue. E?oiiaeoae aaciaei-auaathuae no?aiie
yaeythony NOA, aeaeaa Eaiaaea, Oo?eiaiey, Ieaea?eaiaeu, Aaeeeia?eoaiey.
A ioee/ea io iaooaaeiauaathueo, aeaaiuie aaciaeiauaath-ueie no?aiaie
yaeythony ?acaeoua no?aiu Aa?iiu e Naaa?iie Aia?eee. Ii caianai
i?e?iaeiiai aaca auaeaeythony aeaa ?aeiia: NIA (Caiaaeiay Neae?ue,
Oo?eiaiey, Ocaaeenoai) e Aeeaeiee Ainoie (E?ai). Aeaaiuie yenii?oa?aie
aaca yaeythony ?inney, iinoaaeythuay aac a Ainoi/ioth e Caiaaeioth
Aa?iio;

Eaiaaea e Iaeneea, iinoaaeythuea aac a NOA; Ieaea?eaiaeu e Ii?aaaey,
niaaaeathuea aacii Caiaaeioth Aa?iio; Aeaee?, iaania/eaathuee aacii
Caiaaeioth Aa?iio e NOA; Eiaeiiacey, no?aiu Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea,
Aano?aeey, yenii?oe?othuea aac a ssiiieth. O?ainii?oe?iaea aaca
iaania/eaaaony aeaoiy niiniaaie: ii iaaeno?aeueiui aacii?iaiaeai e n
iiiiuueth oaiea?ia-aaciaicia i?e ia?aaicea naeeaeaiiiai aaca.

?acaeoea oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a yiioo aeaoaaie iaooe caiaaeeeeinue,
ii iinea e?ecena 70-o aa. niiaa ianooieei onei?aiea. Aeaaiuie
oaeaaeiauaathueie no?aiaie yaeythony ?acaeoua no?aiu:

EI?, NOA, Aa?iaiey, ?inney, Iieueoa, Aano?aeey, Eiaeey, THA?. A ?innee a
iineaaeiea aiaeu aeiau/a oaey ?acei iaaeaao, a oi a?aiy eae a EI? e NOA
oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ?acaeaaaony aeeiaie/ii. Ii ?acaaaeaiiui
caianai oaey eeaee?otho a iniiaiii oaeaea ?acaeoua no?aiu: NOA, NIA
(?inney, Oe?aeia, Eacaonoai), caoai EI?, Aa?iaiey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey,
Aano?aeey, THA?. A aieueoeinoaa naiai oaieue iio?aaeyaony a oao aea
no?aiao, aaea aaaeaony aai aeiau/a, iiyoiio ia ie?iaie ?uiie iiiaaeaao
eeoue 8% . Ii a no?oeoo?a oi?aiaee i?iecioee eciaiaiey — iaaeaao ni?in
ia eienothueeny oaieue a nayce n caiaaeeaieai ?acaeoey iaoaeeo?aee,
?anoao ni?in ia yia?aaoe/aneee oaieue. Aeaaiua yenii?oa?u oaey – NOA,
Aano?aeey, a iaiueoae noaiaie THA?, ?inney, Iieueoa, Eaiaaea. Aeaaiua
eiii?oa?u oaey — ssiiiey, ?anioaeeea Ei?ay e ?yae aa?iiaeneeo no?ai.

2. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ea?atho
iniaaiii aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie /aeiaaea. Iiuo aiai?eo i oii, /oi
ieeaeea caieiooua ia?aciaaiey, ?aaeiiaeueiua eioaa?aoeeiiiua a?oiie?iaee
ia iiaoo caiaieoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee.

?acaeoua no?aiu caieiatho eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea a yoeo naycyo.
Aieueoeinoai ec ieo, iieo/athueo

iniiaioth /anoue naiaai aeioiaea aeaaiaea?y yenii?oo oiaa?ia e oneoa,
iacuaathony no?aiaie n ioe?uoie yeiiiieeie.

Aoi?ia ianoi a nenoaia anaie?iuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee caieiatho
?acaeaathueany no?aiu. Iie caaenyo io yenii?oa nu?uey, oiieeaa,
i?iaeiaieuenoaey. A ?acoeueoaoa eo oeiainiaay caaeieaeaiiinoue ?acaeoui
no?aiai aeinoeaea 1,5 o?ei aeiee.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey iaeiei ec y?eeo i?iyaeaiee ioe?uoie yeiiiieee
yaeeenue naiaiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ciiu (NYC), /a?ac eioi?ua i?ioiaeeo
10% oiaa?iiai?ioa. NYC — yoi ia?aie/aiiay oa??eoi?ey no?aiu, eiathuay
auaiaeiia yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea, a eioi?ie onoaiaaeeaaaony
eueaioiue ?aaeei aaica e auaica oiaa?ia, ii?aaeaeaiiay iainiaeaiiinoue a
oi?aiaii e aaethoii-oeiainiaii ioiioaiee io inoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey — noa?aeoay oi?ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee,
eioi?ay a yiioo IO? i?eia?aea «aoi?ia aeuoaiea». Iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iai?ioii, oiaa?iie no?oeoo?ie e aaia?aoe/aneei ?ani?aaeaeaieai. Oaiiu
?inoa aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeatho oaiiu ?inoa
i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oaeoaeaiee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaia?aoe/aneiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Aeey oiaa?iie
no?oeoo?u oa?aeoa?ii nieaeaiea aeiee oiieeaa, nu?uey, i?iaeiaieuenoaey n
55% a 1960 a. aei 25%| a 90-o aa. Niioaaonoaaiii iiauneeanue aeiey
aioiauo ecaeaeee, iniaaiii iaoeiaieeo.

Aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ie?iaie oi?aiaee ioee/aaony neeueiie
ia?aaiiia?iinoueth: 77% ie?iaiai yenii?oa i?eoiaeeony ia ?acaeoua
no?aiu. Aoi?ia ianoi a ie?iaii oiaa?iiai?ioa i?eiaaeeaaeeo no?aiai Acee,
aaea aaconeiaiui eeaea?ii yaeyaony ssiiiey, iiaua eiaeono?eaeueiua
no?aiu e iaooaaeiauaathuea no?aiu Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. O?aouea ianoi
caieiaao Naaa?iay Aia?eea, aaea ia?auie yaeythony NOA.

Aoi?ie oi?iie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee yaeyaony e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay,
au?aaeathuayny a i?aaeinoaaeaiee caeiia e e?aaeeoia, a yenii?oa e
eiii?oa eaieoaea. Aeaaiuie yenii?oa?aie eaieoaea yaeythony NOA,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aa?iaiey, Ieaea?eaiaeu, ssiiiey. 80% eaieoaea eaeao a
?acaeoua no?aiu.

Aieueoia ?acaeoea iieo/eei iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?iecaiaenoaaiiia
nio?oaeie/anoai, caeeth/athuaany a niaoeeaeecaoeee e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
eiiia?e?iaaiee i?aaei?eyoee.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea nayce — aaaeiay oi?ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee, au?aaeathuayny a iaiaia iaoaioaie, eeoeaiceyie, i?iaaaeaiee
niaianoiuo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio.

I?aaeinoaaeaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oneoa, i?aaeaea anaai o?ainii?oiuo,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci oaeaea yaeythony oi?iaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Aeaaiue oo?enoe/aneee ?aaeii ie?a — Caiaaeiay
Aa?iia. Oioy iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci auno?i ?anoao a NOA e ai iiiaeo
?acaeaathueony no?aiao, ?aniieaaathueo oi?ioeie i?e?iaeiuie oneiaeyie
aeey ioaeuoa: Eei?, Aaaaiu, Naeoaeu, no?aiu THai-Ainoi/iie Acee.

3. Iieuecoynue nai?ieeii noaoenoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia («No?oeoo?a
yenii?oa ii ioaeaeueiui no?aiai ie?a»), ii?aaeaeytho no?aiu — yenii?oa?u
naoa?a. Eie yaeythony: A?aceeey, Eoaa, Aano?aeey, Eiaeey, Iaeneea,
Oe?aeia.

Aeeao ? 23

1. Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue: ninoaa, iniaaiiinoe

?aciauaiey. Aeaaiua no?aiu-i?iecaiaeeoaee e yenii?oa?u. Iaoaeeo?aey e
i?iaeaiu _ io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeiie ec

no?ai Ao?eee (ii auai?o o/auaainy).

3. Ninoaaeaiea n?aaieoaeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaoo

naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aeiiia (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

1. Iaoaeeo?aey yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaciauo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e .
iaania/eaaao /aeiaa/anoai eiino?oeoeeiiiuie iaoa?eaeaie, /a?iuie e
oeaaoiuie iaoaeeaie.

Aaia?aoey /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee neeaaeuaaaony iiae aeeyieai
oiieeaii-?ano?niuo oaeoi?ia — eaiaiiioaieueiuo e aeaeaci?oaeiuo
aannaeiia. Iaeaieaa aiaaou aeaeaciie ?oaeie EI?, A?aceeey, Aano?aeey,
Oe?aeia, Eiaeey, NOA, ?inney, Eaiaaea, no?aiu Naaa?iie Ao?eee. A
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey aeiau/a aeaeaciie ?oaeu a ?acaeouo no?aiao
Aa?iiu e NOA noaaeeece?iaaeanue eee aeaaea oiaiueoeeanue ec-ca
ineoaeaiey ?yaea ianoi?iaeaeaiee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaaiua no?aiu —
yenii?oa?u aeaeaciie ?oaeu — A?aceeey, Aano?aeey, Eiaeey, Eaiaaea.

A yiioo IO? /a?iay iaoaeeo?aey i?eaioe?oaony ia a?ociiioiee aeaeaciie
?oaeu e eienothuaainy oaey, A ?acoeueoaoa a ?acaeouo no?aiao i?iecioae
naeaea io?anee e ii?neei ii?oai — a NOA, ssiiiee, no?aiao Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/aao i?eaioaoeey ia
iio?aaeoaey, /oi iauyniyaony ia?aoiaeii io nii?oaeaiey
eiiaeiaoia-aeaaioia e nicaeaieth ieie-caaiaeia, eiathueo aieaa
naiaiaeiia ?aciauaiea.

Aaaeoueie no?aiaie a i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeea yaeythony ssiiiey, NOA, EI?,
?inney, Aa?iaiey, Oe?aeia. A oi a?aiy eae a ?acaeouo no?aiao auieaaea
noaee eeai nieaeaaony, eeai inoaaony noaaeeueiie, a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao iia oaaee/eaaaony. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai eanaaony Aaiaeaaeao,
?anioaeeee Ei?ae, Eiaeee, Iaeneee.

Oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey ii iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa onooiaao /a?iie a 20 ?ac.
Aeey ?oae oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia oeie/ii ieceia niaea?aeaiea naiiai iaoaeea.
Iiyoiio iaoaeeo?aey oyaeaeuo oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia eiaao nu?ueaaoth
i?eaioaoeeth a ?aciauaiee i?aaei?eyoee. Oae, a NOA, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeee,
?innee, Eniaiee, Iieueoa, *eee, Caiaee, Ia?o iiaeiaiay i?eaioaoeey
i?eaaea e oiio, /oi aeaaiua oeaio?u auieaaee iaaee noi?ie?iaaeenue a
ianoao aeiau/e iaaeiie ?oaeu. A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao neiaeeeenue
ia/aeueiua noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa — aeiau/a ?oaeu, i?iecaiaenoai
eiioeaio?aoa e /a?iiaie iaaee. Eiia/iua noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa
nin?aaeioi/aiu a oao no?aiao, aaea iao nianoaaiiuo caiania iaaeiie
?oaeu.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 70-o aa. aue acyo eo?n ia ?a-no?ninaa?aaeaiea e
io?aio ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, auieaaea oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia a ?acaeouo
no?aiao noaea nie?auaoueny, a a ?acaeaathueony — iaiai?io,
oaaee/eaaoueny. Caeanue noaee inaaeaaoueny ia oieueei ia/aeueiua, ii e
eiia/iua noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, iaeaaeeaaaony auione
?aoeie?iaaiiie iaaee. A ?acoeueoaoa iaaethaeaaony oa??eoi?eaeueiue
?ac?ua iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii e iio?aaeaieai oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia. Aeaaiua
yenii?oa?u ?aoeie?iaaiiie iaaee — *eee, Caiaey, Ia?iaeiay ?anioaeeea
Eiiai, Ia?o, Oeeeiieiu, a aeaaiua eiii?oa?u — NOA, Aa?iaiey, O?aioeey,
Eoaeey, ssiiiey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey.

?oaeu eaaeeo iaoaeeia, i?aaeaea anaai aethieiey, ii niaea?aeaieth
iieaciiai eiiiiiaioa — aeeiicaia iaiiieiatho aeaeacioth ?oaeo (40—60%) e
iiyoiio aiieia o?ainii?oaaaeueiu.

Iniiaiua caianu aieneoia nin?aaeioi/aiu a Aano?aeee, Aaeiaa, A?aceeee,
EI?, Eiaeee, No?eiaia. Auieaaea aea aethieiey e ae?oaeo eaaeeo iaoaeeia
i/aiue yia?aiaieee i?ioeann, eioi?ue iiaoo naaa iicaieeoue ?acaeoua
no?aiu, aaea eiathony e?oiiua enoi/ieee yeaeo?iyia?aee. Iiyoiio
aethieieaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony neeueiui oa??eoi?eaeueiui
?ac?uaii iaaeaeo aeiau/ae nu?uey e aai ia?a?aaioeie e iio?aaeaieai.
NEOA, ssiiiey, Aa?iaiey iaania/eaatho 80% anae auieaaee aethieiey e
iio?aaeytho 70% aethieiey. Eaiaaea, Ii?aaaey, Eneaiaeey, Aano?aeey,
Oaaeoea?ey, Aao?aei, aaniethoii ia eiathuea aethieieaaiai nu?uey,
auieaaeytho aethieiee, eniieuecoy aeaoaaoth yeaeo?iyia?aeth, e
iieiinoueth aai yenii?oe?otho.

2. THaeii-Ao?eeaineay ?anioaeeea ?aniieiaeaia ia thaa Ao?eee. Noieeoea
I?aoi?ey. Ieiuaaeue — 1,2 iei ei2 n ianaeaieai ieiei 36 iei /ae.
Ianaeaiea THA? aanueia ?aciiia?acii. A aai ninoaa aoiaeyo ao?eeaioeu
(72%), auoiaeoeu ec Aa?iiu (ao?eeaia-?u, 16%)), auoiaeoeu ec Acee
(eiaeeeoeu).

I?e?iaeii-?ano?niue iioaioeeae no?aiu aaeee. Ie?iaia cia/aiea eiatho
caianu o?aia, eaiaiiiai oaey, ?oaeu /a?iuo e oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia (aeaeaca,
o?iia, ieeaey). Aaeeee aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu.

THaeii-Ao?eeaineay ?anioaeeea — aaeeinoaaiiay yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoay
no?aia Ao?eee. Ia aa aeieth i?eoiaeeony 6% ianaeaiey iaoa?eea, ii iia
i?iecaiaeeo 40%i i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Aa oicyenoaaiiue iaeee
ii?aaeaeyao i?aaeaea anaai ai?iiaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue (iaeii ec
ia?auo iano a ie?a ii aeiau/a cieioa, aeiacia, o?aiiaiai eiioeaio?aoa).
Auniei ?acaeoi iaoeiino?iaiea, iaoaeeo?aey. E?oiiaeoei i?iiuoeaiiui
oeaio?ii no?aiu yaeyaony Eioaiianao?a.

Iniiaa naeueneiai oicyenoaa THA? — aeeaioiiaiaenoai. ?anoaieaaiaenoai
niaoeeaeece?oaony ia au?aueaaiee oaeeo eoeueoo?, eae ioaieoea, eoeo?oca,
oeiiie. Ainoaea?noai niaoeeaeece?oaony ia i?iecaiaenoaa e. auaica oa?noe
e ea?aeoeaauo oeo?ie, aeeaiai neioa, eiae.

Ii aeaeaei ia ana ?aeiiu THA? aeinoeaee aunieiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey. A
oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?a- iaie aa?iiaeneia ianaeaiea yoie no?aiu
i?iaiaeeei iieeoeeo aia?oaeaea. Iieeoeea i?aaeoniao?eaaea ?aniaoth
aeene?eieiaoeeth iaa?eoyineiai ianaeaiey. Eeoue a iineaaeiaa a?aiy
iaiaoeeny iooiae io iieeoeee aia?oaeaea e iia auea cai?auaia
th?eaee/anee.

THaeii-Ao?eeaineoth ?anioaeeeo iiaeii iacaaoue no?aiie n aeaienoaaiiie
yeiiiieeie. Ae i?enoue /a?ou yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoie no?aiu e
?acaeaathuaeny no?aiu.

. *a?ou noiaenoaa e ?acee/ey neaaeoao iauyniyoue:

1. Yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneei iieiaeaieai naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai ?aeiia.

2. I?e?iaeiuie oaeoi?aie (eniieuecoy ea?ou aoeana «Aa?ieeeiaoe/aneea
?ano?nu», «Naeueneia oicyenoai»). Caeanue ioaeii oeacaoue oaiia?aoo?iue
?aaeei, aeaaeiinoue, oei eeeiaoa.

3. Noaiaiueth eioaineaiinoe aaaeaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa a oii eee eiii
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii ?aeiia.

4. Niaoeeaeecaoeeae aeaiiiai ?aeiia a ?anoaieaaiaenoaa e
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa (oeacaoue i?aiaeaaeathuea naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
eoeueoo?u e io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa).

Aeeao ? 24

1. Eaniay e aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue:

ninoaa, ?aciauaiea. Aaia?aoe/aneea ?acee/ey.

2. Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea no?ai Acee.

3.Ii?aaeaeaiea ii noaoenoe/aneei iaoa?eaeai iniiaiuo no?ai — yenii?oa?ia
eioa.

1. Eaniay i?iiuoeaiiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaee/eai aeaoo eaniuo iiynia.

A i?aaeaeao naaa?iiai eaniiai iiyna caaioaaeeaaaony oaieiay ae?aaaneia,
eioi?ay caoai ia?a?aaaouaaaony a ae?aaaniua ieeou, oeaeetheico, aoiaao,
ea?oii. Aeey ?innee, Eaiaaeu, Oaaoeee, Oeieyiaeee eaniay e
aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue — aaaeiua io?anee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee. Ia?aia ianoi a ie?a ii yenii?oo eaniie
i?iaeoeoeee caieiaao Eaiaaea. Aeaaiuie eiii?oa?aie ae?aaaneiu yaeythony
no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ssiiiey.

A i?aaeaeao thaeiiai eaniiai iiyna caaioaaeeaaaony eenoaaiiay
ae?aaaneia. Caeanue neiaeeeenue o?e aeaaiuo a?aaea eaniie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe: A?aceeey, O?iie/aneay Ao?eea, THai-Ainoi/iay Acey.
Caaioaaeeaaaiay a ieo ae?aaaneia ii?neei iooai auaiceony a ssiiieth,
Caiaaeioth Aa?iio, a inoaeueiay i?aeiouanoaaiii eaeao ia ae?iaa.

Aeey ecaioiaeaiey aoiaae a no?aiao thaeiiai iiyna ca/anooth eniieuecotho
iaae?aaaniia nu?uea: aaiaoe a Eiaeee, necaeue a A?aceeee, Oaicaiee,
aeaeoo a Aaiaeaaeao. E oai ia iaiaa ii aa i?iecaiaenoao, ec ?an/aoa ia
aeooo ianaeaiey, yoe no?aiu ionoatho iniaaiii neeueii.

2. Ca?oaaaeiay Acey caieiaao oa??eoi?eth a 27 iei ei2 n ianaeaieai 3,1
ie?ae /ae. Ia iieeoe/aneie ea?oa Acee aieaa 40 no aiaiiuo ainoaea?noa,
iiiaea ec eioi?uo yaeythony ae?aaieie. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai no?ai
?aaeiia ioiineony e /eneo ?acaeaathueony. Ca?oaaaeiay Acey aeaeeony ia
/aou?a noa?aaeiia: Oeaio?aeueioth e Ainoi/ioth Aceth, THai-Ainoi/ioth
Aceth, THaeioth Aceth, THai-Caiaae-ioth Aceth.

YAI no?ai ?aaeiia oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?eii?neei iieiaeaieai aieueoeinoaa
no?ai, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao auoiae e ii?yi Oeoiai, Eiaeeeneiai,
Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaiia; aeoaeiiui iieiaeaieai iaeioi?uo no?ai, eioi?ia
cia/eoaeueii iaiaa auaiaeii.

Ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu ?aaeiia, nicaeathuea aaco aeey oyaeaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ioee/athony aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai. Aeaaiui
aiaaonoaii ?aaeiia, ii?aaeaeythuei aai ?ieue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
aaia?aoe/aneii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, yaeyaony iaooue. E?oiiaeoea
iaooaaaciaua ?aeiiu — Naoaeianeay A?aaey, E?ai, IAY, Eoaaeo, E?ae.
Naaanoieiinoue aeeaeiaainoi/iie iaooe a 20 ?ac ieaea, /ai a ae?oaeo
?aeiiao. Iiieii Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea iaooue eiaaony ia ainoiea EI?, a
oaeueoao Eiaeiiacee, a A?oiaa, Iiaia, Iaeaecee. I?e?iaeiue aac
aeiauaatho a Eiaeiiacee, IAY, Naoaeianeie A?aaee, E?aia e ae?oaeo
no?aiao. Oaeai, aeaeaciie e ia?aaioeaaie ?oaeaie aiaaou EI? e Eiaeey.

Aieueoay /anoue aceaoneiai ?aaeiia caiyoa ai?aie e ionouiyie, iiyoiio
caiaeueiuie ?ano?naie ii ia aiaao. Iaania/aiiinoue iaoiae ia aeooo
ianaeaiey ieaea n?aaeiaie?iaie e a nayce n ?inoii ianaeaiey eiaao
oaiaeaioeeth e aeaeueiaeoaio nieaeaieth. Aiaeiua ?ano?nu ?ani?aaeaeaiu
e?aeia ia?aaiiia?ii. A no?aiao THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, E?aia
iaania/aiiinoue n?aaeiyy eee ecauoi/iay, a ia inoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee —
iaaeinoaoi/iay. Aa?ieeeiaoe/aneea ?ano?nu oaeaea eiatho naie
iniaaiiinoe. Caiania oaiea aacaea aeinoaoi/ii, ?aaeei oaeaaeiaiey
neeueii aa?uee?oao. Aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu aeinoaoi/ii aaeeee a
ai?iuo ?aeiiao. Eaniuie ?ano?naie aiaaou no?aiu Ainoi/iie e
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, Eiaeey, oioy iaania/aiiinoue eie ia aeooo ianaeaiey
iaauniea.

Aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony «aeaiia?aoe/aneei ac?uaii»,
iniaaiii a a?aaneeo no?aiao, oioy iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey nieaeaiey
anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai ii eieaaeaony io 20 aei 30
/ae. ia 1000 aeeoaeae. Yoie/aneee ninoaa ianaeaiey e?aeia neiaeai:
caeanue i?iaeeaaao aieaa 1000 ia?iaeia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e 9 ycueiaui
a?oiiai. N?aaee ieo e?oiiaeoea a ie?a — eeoaeoeu, oeiaeonoaioeu. A
ai?iuo ianoiinoyo ?annayiu iaei/eneaiiua ia?iaeu. Aieueoeinoai no?ai
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiu (Aoaaienoai, Eiaeey, O?e-Eaiea) — caeanue aei neo ii?
ia ooeoatho iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua eiioeeeou. Ca?oaaaeiay Acey — ?iaeeia
anao ?aeeaee ie?a, aeeyiea eioi?uo ia aeeciue ethaeae i/aiue aaeeei.
?aciauaiea ianaeaiey e?aeia ia?aaiiia?ii: a Aaiaeaaeao ieioiinoue
ianaeaiey ninoaaeyao 900 /ae./ei2, a a Iiiaieee e no?aiao
THai-Caiaae-iie Acee — a i?aaeaeao 1 /ae./ei . O?iaaiue o?aaiecaoeee
ieaea, /ai a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao ie?a (Aaiaeaaeao — 17%, Iaeenoai— 33%,
E?ai— 57%), ii oaiiu aa auno?i ?anooo, iniaaiii oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai
e?oiiuo ai?iaeia.

?acee/ey a o?iaia ?acaeoey e niaoeeaeecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo no?ai au?aaeaiu
a Acee aieaa ?acei, /ai a Aa?iia. Iiyoiio iiaeii auaeaeeoue oanoue a?oii
no?ai. E ia?aie ioiineony ssiiiey, eioi?ay ii iiiaei aaaeiui iieacaoaeyi
caieiaao eeaee?othuea iiceoeee n?aaee yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai
Aa?iiu. Aoi?oth a?oiio ia?acotho Eeoae e Eiaeey, aeiaeaoeany aieueoeo
oniaoia a yeiiiie/aneii e nioeeaeueiii ?acaeoee. Iaeiaei ii aeooaaui
iieacaoaeyi iie aua neeueii ionoatho io aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a. O?aouey
a?oiia — yoi iiaua eiaeono?eaeueiua no?aiu (?anioaeeea Ei?ay, Oaeaaiue,
Aiieiia, Neiaaio?), eie inouanoaeai auno?ue yeiiiie/aneee nea/ie. A
?acoeueoaoa ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee yoeo no?ai ii yiiineiio ia?acoeo a ieo
aicieeee e?oiiay aaoiiiaeeueiay, iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuay,
iaooaoeie/aneay, yeaeo?iiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. A /aoaa?ooth a?oiio
aoiaeyo iaooaaeiauaathuea no?aiu Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. Iieo/ay ia?iiiua
aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee iaooe, yoe ainoaea?noaa noaee aaaeiuie
i?iiuoeaiiuie ?aeiiaie n e?oiiie aeiau/ae iaooe e aaca e ae?oaeie
io?aneyie. Iyoay a?oiia — yoi no?aiu a iniiaiii n ai?iiaeiauaathuae eee
eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth (Iiiaieey, Aueaoiai, Aaiaeaaeao, Aoaaienoai,
O?e-Eaiea, Ei?aeaiey). Oanoay a?oiia no?ai — iaeiaiaa ?acaeoua (Eain,
Eaiaiaeaea, Iaiae, Aooai, Eaiai).

A oicyenoaa aieueoeinoaa no?ai i?aiaeaaeaao naeueneia oicyenoai e
ai?iiaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ai iiiaeo ec ieo aei neo ii? ia
?aoaia i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay i?iaeaia. Niaoeeaeecaoeey naeueneiai
oicyenoaa neeueii aa?uee?oao. A THaeiie, Ainoi/iie e THai-Ainoi/iie
Acee, a ?aeiia ionniiiiai eeeiaoa, aaea iuouaaony ecauoie o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia e iaoaaoea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue, ?acaeoi ?eninayiea.
EI?, ssiiiey, Eiaeey, O?e-Eaiea niaoeeaeece?othony ia au?aueaaiee /ay;
ia a?aieoea Ae?iu, Eaina, Oaeeaiaea ?aniieiaeai «cieioie o?aoaieueiee»
iinaaia iieeiiai iaea. A THai-Caiaaeiie Acee aaaeouae ca?iiaie
eoeueoo?ie yaeyaony ioaieoea ia i?ioaaiuo caieyo; caeanue ?ani?ino?aiaii
ianoaeuiia aeeaioiiaiaenoai.

Ai?iiaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ?acaeoay a no?aiao, aiaaouo
ieia?aeueiuie ?ano?naie, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eiio?iee?oaony
e?oiiuie caiaaeiuie eiiiaieyie. A IA?O ?acaeaathueany no?aiu Acee
aunooiatho a ea/anoaa iinoaaueeia iaooe, aaca, ia?aaioea, ieiaa,
aeaeaciie ?oaeu.

3. Eioa — eoeueoo?a, aicaeaeuaaaiay oieueei a ciiao o?iieeia e
noao?iieeia. Ii noaoenoe/aneei iaoa?eaeai («No?oeoo?a yenii?oa ii
ioaeaeueiui no?aiai ie?a») iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue no?aiu — yenii?oa?u eioa.
Eie yaeythony: Eaiey, Eieoiaey, Einoa-?eea, Iaaeaaanea?, Yoeiiey,
Oaaiaea.

Aeeao ? 25

1. Eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue: ninoaa, iniaaiiinoe ?aciauaiey.

I?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey. 2., Iauay yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneay
oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeiie ec no?ai Acee (ii auai?o o/auaainy).

2. Iaicia/aiea ia eiioo?iie ea?oa aaia?aoe/aneeo iauaeoia,

ciaiea eioi?uo i?aaeoniio?aii i?ia?aiiie (ii auai?o o/eoaey).

1. Iaeiie ec aaaeoueo io?aneae eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe yaeyaony
oaenoeeueiay. A no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaiueoaaony aeiey iaoo?aeueiiai
e oaaee/eaaaony aeiey oeie/aneiai aieieia. Ia ia?aii ianoa noieo
i?iecaiaenoai oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo oeaiae, aaea eeaea?aie yaeythony
Eeoae, Eiaeey, ?inney e ae?oaea ?acaeaathueany no?aiu. Aoi?ia ianoi
i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?iecaiaenoao oeaiae ec oeie/aneiai aieieia, caeanue
eeaee?otho NOA, Eiaeey, ssiiiey e ?yae ?acaeaathueony no?ai. A
i?iecaiaenoaa oaeeiauo e oa?noyiuo oeaiae eeaee?otho NOA, ssiiiey, EI?.
A oi aea a?aiy ia yenii?o aieueoa i?iecaiaeeony i?iaeoeoeee a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao. Aeaaiua yenii?oa?u Aiieiia, Iaeenoai, Eiaeey,
Aaeiao, A?aceeey e ae?. Caeanue oaenoeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia?aaeeaaao
ianoiyuee aoi, i?eaioe?oynue ia aeaoaaoth ?aai/oth neeo.

2. Oa??eoi?ey Eiaeee (noieeoea Aeaee) ii oi?ia iaiiieiaao o?aoaieueiee,
iniiaaieai i?ee?aieaiiue e iaoa?eeo e ioai?iaeaiiue io inoaeueiie Acee
ai?iie nenoaiie Aeiaeaaa. N naaa?a ia tha no?aia i?ioyaeaaaony ia 3,2
oun. ei, a n caiaaea ia ainoie — ia 2,9 oun. ei.
Yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea Eiaeee aeaaii?eyoii aeey ?acaeoey
oicyenoaa. Aeeeia ii?neeo a?aieoe cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa nooiiooiuo, e
eiaiii iie ea?atho aeaaioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea. Aaeieue aa?aaia Eiaeee
i?ioiaeyo ii?neea oi?aiaua iooe ec N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y a Eiaeeeneee
ieaai.

Ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio no?ith Eiaeey — oaaea?aoeaiay ?anioaeeea, ninoiyuay
ec 25 ooaoia. Eiaeey — ae?aaiaeoaa ainoaea?noai, n naiiauoiie eoeueoo?ie
e aiaaouie ia?iaeiuie o?aaeeoeeyie.

A i?e?iaeiii ioiioaiee Eiaeey — iaeia ec aiaaoaeoeo no?ai ie?a. Caeanue
aeaaii?eyoiue eeeiao e eieinnaeueiua aa?ieeeiaoe/aneea ?ano?nu. Caianu
iaeioi?uo aeaeia ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey eiatho ie?iaia cia/aiea (oaieue,
?oaeu oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, cieioi, o?iieou, oeoai). Iiiai/eneaiiua ?aee —
enoi/iee i?ioaiey e aeae?iyia?aee. Oneiaey ionniiiiai o?iie/aneiai
eeeiaoa iicaieytho niae?aoue a aiae aeaa-o?e o?iaeay.

Ii /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey Eiaeey aoi?ay no?aia a ie?a iinea Eeoay. Ca
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey iii oaaee/eeinue aei 850 iei /ae. Eiaeey — naiay
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiay no?aia a ie?a. Aeanyoee ieeeeiiia /aeiaae
ian/eouaatho oeiaeonoaioeu, aaiaaeueoeu, aeoa?oeu, iaiaeaeaaoeu e ae?.
Ainoaea?noaaiiui ycueii yaeyaony oeiaee. A ea/anoaa ycuea
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai iauaiey eniieuecoaony aiaeeeneee. ?aeeaeiciue ninoaa
ioee/aaony neiaeiinoueth:

aieaa 4/5 eiaeeeoeaa eniiaaaeotho eiaeoeci e 1/10 — ionoeueiainoai.
Eiaiii n eiaeoeciii naycaii aeaeaiea iauanoaa ia ia?aaiii?aaiua eanou.
I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e eanoa ii?aaeaeyao iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea ia anth
aeeciue. Neiaeiue yoie/aneee e ?aeeaeiciue ninoaa ianaeaiey
i?eaiaeeo e iaino?aieth iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee. A ?aciauaiee
ianaeaiey iaaethaeathony aieueoea eiio?anou. A i?aaeai?ueyo Aeiaeaaa —
2—4 /ae./ei2, ia Eiaei-Aaianeie ieciaiiinoe — aei 500 /ae./ei2. O?iaaiue
o?aaiecaoeee a Eiaeee iaaunie (iaiaa 30% ianaeaiey aeeaao a ai?iaeao).

Eiaeey — iaeei ec eeaea?ia no?ai «o?aoueaai ie?a». N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoia ainoaea?noai, eioi?ia a iniiaiii iaania/eaaao naie
iio?aaiinoe i?aeoe/anee ai anao io?aneyo. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
aeiieie?othuae io?aneueth eiaeeeneie yeiiiieee inoaaony naeueneia
oicyenoai. Caeanue caiyoi ieiei 70% anae ?aai/ae neeu.

Ec no?aiu eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Eiaeey i?aa?aoeeanue a no?aio
n ?acaeoie oyaeaeie eiaeono?eae. Caeanue i?iecaiaeyo noaiee, oaieiaicu,
aaoiiiaeee, o?aeoi?u, YAI, iai?oaeiaaiea aeey AYN e einie/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee. Aeaaiua io?anee eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Eiaeee —
oeii/aoiaoiaaeiay e aeaeooiaay, a oaeaea oaaeiay. Ana iie a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ?aaioatho ia yenii?o.

Ii iauaio naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa Eiaeey caieiaao 4-a ianoi
a ie?a. Iia — e?oiiaeoee i?iecaiaeeoaeue /ay, a?aoena, naoa?iiai
o?inoieea, ca?iiaiaiauo, aeaeooa, niaoeee, ?ena (ia aoi?ii ianoa iinea
EI?), oaaaea (ia o?aoueai ianoa), ioaieoeu e oeiieiaieieia (ia /aoaa?oii
ianoa).

A Eiaeee noi?ie?iaaiu caieaaeaeue/aneea ciiu, ?aniieiaeaiiua a
Eiaei-Aaianeie ieciaiiinoe. A thai-ainoi/iie /anoe — ?eniaiae/aneay
ciia, a naaa?icaiaaeiie /anoe — ioaie/iay ciia. E?iia ieo aua anoue ciiu
aicaeaeuaaiey naoa?iiai o?inoieea (aeieeia Aaiaa); oeii/aoieea (ia
Aeaeaineii ieineiai?uea); /ay (a i?aaeai?ueyo Ainoi/iie Eiaeee).

A no?aia ia nouanoaoao aeiieie?othuaai oeaio?a. Caeanue eae au /aou?a
«yeiiiie/aneea noieeoeu» — Aiiaae, Eaeueeoooa, Aeaee, Iaae?an. Iie
naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie aaaeiaeoeie o?ainii?oiuie iaaeno?aeyie.

3. Aeey ?aaiou iiaoo auoue i?aaeeiaeaiu no?aiu — o/anoieoeu e?oiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo nithcia e iauaaeeiaiee (Aa?iiaeneee nithc, IIAE e ae?.), a
oaeaea no?aiu — yenii?oa?u iniiaiuo aeaeia i?iiuoeaiiie e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020