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Экология Нефти

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Aaaaeaiea.

Aia/aea /aeiaae ia caaeoiuaaeny i oii, /oi oaeo a naaa eioaineaiay
aeiau/a iaooe e aaca. Aeaaiui auei auea/aoue eo eae iiaeii aieueoa. Oae
e iinooiaee. Ii aio a ia/aea 40-o aa. oaeouaai noieaoey iiyaeeenue
ia?aua ianoi?aaeeaathuea neiioiiu.

Yoi neo/eeinue ia iaooyiii ianoi?iaeaeaiee Oeeieiaoii
(Eaeeoi?iey, NOA). Ianoi?iaeaeaiea i?ioyaeaaaony /a?ac thai-caiaaeiua
?aeiiu ai?iaea Ein-Aiaeaeaeana e /a?ac caeea Eiia-Ae/ aeioiaeeo aei
i?ea?aaeiuo eaa?oaeia iaeiieiaiiiai eo?i?oiiai ai?iaea. Ieiuaaeue
iaooaaaciiiniinoe 54 ei2. Ianoi?iaeaeaiea auei ioe?uoi a 1936 a., a oaea
a 1938 a. noaei oeaio?ii iaooaaeiau/e Eaeeoi?iee. E 1968 a. ec iaae?
auei auea/aii ii/oe 160 iei. o iaooe e 24 ie?ae. i3 aaca, anaai aea
iaaeathony iieo/eoue caeanue aieaa 400 iei. o iaooe.

?aniieiaeaiea ianoi?iaeaeaiey a oeaio?a aunieieiaeono?eaeueiie e
aonoiianaeaiiie iaeanoe thaeiie Eaeeoi?iee, a oaeaea aeecinoue aai e
e?oiiui iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuei caaiaeai Ein-Aiaeaeaeana eiaei aaaeiia
cia/aiea a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee anaai ooaoa Eaeeoi?iey. A nayce n yoei n
ia/aea yenieoaoaoeee ianoi?iaeaeaiey aei 1966 a. ia iai iinoiyiii
iiaeaea?aeeaaeny iaeaunoee o?iaaiue aeiau/e ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie
iaooyiuie ianoi?iaeaeaieyie Naaa?iie Aia?eee.

A 1939 a. aeeoaee ai?iaeia Ein-Aiaeaeaean e Eiia-Ae/ ii/oanoaiaaee
aeiaieueii iuooeiua nio?ynaiey iiaa?oiinoe caiee – ia/aeinue i?inaaeaiea
a?oioa iaae ianoi?iaeaeaieai. A ni?ieiauo aiaeao eioaineaiinoue yoiai
i?ioeanna oneeeeanue. Iaiaoeeny ?aeii inaaeaiey a aeaea yeeeioe/aneie
/aoe, aeii eioi?ie i?eoiaeeeinue eae ?ac ia naiae aioeeeeiaeueiie
neeaaeee, aaea o?iaaiue ioai?a ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee aue iaeneiaeai. A
60-o aa. aiieeooaea inaaeaiey aeinoeaea oaea 8,7 i. Ieiuaaee,
i?eo?i/aiiua e e?ayi /aoe inaaeaiey, eniuouaaee ?anoyaeaiea. Ia
iiaa?oiinoe iiyaeeenue ai?eciioaeueiua niauaiey n aiieeooaeie aei 23 ni,
iai?aaeaiiua e oeaio?o ?aeiia. Ia?aiauaiea a?oioa nii?iaiaeaeaeinue
caieao?ynaieyie. A ia?eiae n 1949 a. ii 1961 a. auei caoeene?iaaii iyoue
aeiaieueii neeueiuo caieao?ynaiee. Caiey a aoeaaeueiii niunea neiaa
ooiaeeea ec-iiae iia. ?ac?ooaeenue i?enoaie, o?oaii?iaiaeu, ai?iaeneea
no?iaiey, oinnaeiua aei?iae, iinou e iaooyiua neaaaeeiu. Ia
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou iio?a/aii 150 iei.aeie. A 1951 a. nei?inoue
i?inaaeaiey aeinoeaea iaeneioia – 81 ni/aiae. Aicieeea oa?ica caoiieaiey
nooe. Iaioaaiiua yoeie niauoeyie, ai?iaeneea aeanoe Eiia-Ae/a i?ae?aoeee
?ac?aaioeo ianoi?iaeaeaiey aei ?ac?aoaiey aicieeoae i?iaeaiu.

E 1954 a. auei aeieacaii, /oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii
ai?ueau n i?inaaeaieai yaeyaony caea/ea a ieano aiaeu. Yoi noeeei oaeaea
oaaee/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa iaooaioaea/e. Ia?aue yoai ?aaiou ii
caaiaeiaieth aue ia/ao a 1958 a., eiaaea ia thaeiii e?uea no?oeoo?u
noaee caea/eaaoue a i?iaeoeoeaiue ieano aac iaeiai 60 oun.i3 aiaeu a
nooee. *a?ac aeanyoue eao eioaineaiinoue caea/ee oaea aic?inea aei 122
oun.i/noo. I?inaaeaiea i?aeoe/anee i?ae?aoeeinue. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
oeaio?a /aoe iii ia i?aauoaao 5 ni/aiae, a ii iaeioi?ui ?aeiiai
caoeene?iaai aeaaea iiaeuai iiaa?oiinoe ia 15 ni. Ianoi?iaeaeaiea aiiaue
anooieei a yenieoaoaoeeth, i?e yoii ia eaaeaeoth oiiio ioia?aiiie iaooe
iaaiaoatho ieiei 1600 e aiaeu. Iiaeaea?aeaiea ieanoiaiai aeaaeaiey aeaao
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia noa?uo o/anoeao Oeeieiaoiia aei 70 % nooi/iie
aeiau/e iaooe. Anaai ia ianoi?iaeaeaiee aeiauaatho 13 700 o/noo iaooe.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiyaeeenue niiauaiey i i?inaaeaiee aeia Naaa?iiai
ii?y a i?aaeaeao ianoi?iaeaeaiey Yeioene iinea ecaea/aiey ec aai iaae?
172 iei.o iaooe e 112 ie?ae. i3 aaca. Iii nii?iaiaeaeaaony
aeaoi?iaoeeyie noaieia neaaaeei e naieo ii?neeo ieaooi?i. Iineaaenoaey
o?oaeii i?aaeneacaoue, ii eo eaoano?ioe/aneee oa?aeoa? i/aaeaeai.

I?inaaeaiea a?oioa e caieao?ynaiey i?ienoiaeyo e a noa?uo
iaooaaeiauaathueo ?aeiiao ?innee. Iniaaiii yoi neeueii /oanoaoaony ia
Noa?ia?iciaineii ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Neaaua caieao?ynaiey, eae ?acoeueoao
eioaineaiiai ioai?a iaooe ec iaae?, iuouaeenue caeanue a 1971 a., eiaaea
i?iecioei caieao?ynaiea eioaineaiinoueth 7 aaeeia a yieoeaio?a, eioi?ue
aue ?aniieiaeai a 16 ei io a. A?iciiai. A ?acoeueoaoa iino?aaeaee aeeeua
e aaeieieno?aoeaiua caeaiey ia oieueei iinaeea iaooyieeia ia
ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ii e naiiai ai?iaea. Ia noa?uo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo
Aca?aaeaeaeaia – Aaeaoaiu, Naaoi/e, ?iiaiu (a i?eai?iaeao a. Aaeo)
i?ienoiaeeo inaaeaiea iiaa?oiinoe, /oi aaaeao e ai?eciioaeueiui
iiaeaeaeeai. A naith i/a?aaeue, yoi yaeyaony i?e/eiie niyoey e iieiiee
ianaaeiuo o?oa yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo iaooyiuo neaaaeei.

Nianai iaaeaaiea ioaieinee eioaineaiuo iaooyiuo ?ac?aaioie i?iecioee a
Oaoa?ee, aaea a ai?aea 1989 a. auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii caieao?ynaiea neeie
aei 6 aaeeia (a. Iaiaeaeaaane). Ii iiaieth ianoiuo niaoeeaeenoia,
nouanoaoao i?yiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oneeaieai ioea/ee iaooe ec iaae?
e aeoeaecaoeeae iaeeeo caieao?ynaiee. Caoeene?iaaiu neo/ae ia?uaa
noaieia neaaaeei, niyoea eieiii. Iiaecaiiua oie/ee a yoii ?aeiia
iniaaiii ianoi?aaeeaatho, aaaeue caeanue nii?oaeaaony Oaoa?neay AYN. Ai
anao yoeo neo/ayo iaeiie ec aeaenoaaiiuo ia? oaeaea yaeyaony iaaiaoaiea
a i?iaeoeoeaiue ieano aiaeu, eiiiaine?othuae ioai? iaooe.

1.Nia?oiiiniua ooiaiu.

Ai?acaei aieueooth iianiinoue oaeo a naaa eniieueciaaiea iaooe e aaca a
ea/anoaa oiieeaa. I?e nai?aiee yoeo i?iaeoeoia a aoiinoa?o auaeaeythony
a aieueoeo eiee/anoaao oaeaeeneue aac, ?acee/iua na?ienoua niaaeeiaiey,
ieneae acioa e o.ae. Io naeeaaiey anao aeaeia oiieeaa, a oii /enea e
eaiaiiiai oaey, ca iineaaeiea iieaaea niaea?aeaiea aeeieneaea oaea?iaea
a aoiinoa?a oaaee/eeinue ii/oe ia 288 ie?ae.o, a ec?anoiaeiaaii, ii
iiaen/aoai aeaaeaieea O.O. Aeaaeoay, aieaa 300 ie?ae.o eenei?iaea. Oaeei
ia?acii, n iiiaioa ia?auo eino?ia ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea aoiinoa?a
iioa?yea ieiei 0,02 % eenei?iaea, a i?eia?aea aei 12 % oaeaeeneiai aaca.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaeaaiaeii /aeiaa/anoai naeeaaao 7 ie?ae.o oiieeaa, ia
/oi iio?aaeyaony aieaa 10 ie?ae.o eenei?iaea, a i?eaaaea aeeieneaea
oaea?iaea a aoiinoa?a aeioiaeeo aei 14 ie?ae.o. A aeeaeaeoea aea aiaeu
yoe oeeo?u aoaeoo ?anoe a nayce n iauei oaaee/aieai aeiau/e ai?th/eo
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo e eo naeeaaieai. Ii iiaieth O.O. Aeaaeoay, e 2020 a.
a aoiinoa?a en/aciao ieiei 12 000 ie?ae.o eenei?iaea (0,77 %). Oaeei
ia?acii, /a?ac 100 eao ninoaa aoiinoa?u nouanoaaiii eciaieony e, iaaei
iieaaaoue, a ooaeooth noi?iio.

Oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa eenei?iaea e ?ino niaea?aeaiey oaeaeeneiai aaca,
a naith i/a?aaeue, aoaeoo aeeyoue ia eciaiaiea eeeiaoa. Iieaeoeu
aeeieneaea oaea?iaea iicaieytho ei?ioeiaieiiaiio nieia/iiio eceo/aieth
i?iieeaoue neaicue aoiinoa?o Caiee e caaea?aeeaatho eio?ae?aniia
eceo/aiea, enioneaaiia caiiie iiaa?oiinoueth. Aicieeaao oae iacuaaaiue
„ia?ieeiaue yooaeo”, e n?aaeiaieaiaoiay oaiia?aoo?a iiauoaaony.
I?aaeiieaaatho, /oi iioaieaiea n 1880 a. ii 1940 a. a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie neaaeoao ioianoe ca yoio n/ao. Eacaeinue au, a aeaeueiaeoai
iioaieaiea aeieaeii i?ia?anneaii ia?anoaoue. Iaeiaei ae?oaia
aicaeaenoaea /aeiaaea ia aoiinoa?o iaeo?aeecoao „ia?ieeiaue yooaeo”.

*aeiaa/anoai auaeaeyao ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iuee e ae?oaeo iee?i/anoeoe,
ye?aie?othueo nieia/iua eo/e e naiaeyueo ia iao iaa?aaaoaeueiia
aeaenoaea oaeaeeneiai aaca. Ii naaaeaieyi aia?eeaineiai niaoeeaeenoa E.
O?aeca?a, iaae Aaoeiaoiiii iiiooiaiea aoiinoa?u n 1905 a. ii 1964 a.
ninoaaeei 57 %, a iaae iaeiei ec oaaeoea?neeo ai?iaeia – 88 %. Iaae
Oeoei ieaaiii i?ic?a/iinoue aoiinoa?u nieceeanue ia 30 % anaai ca
aeanyoue eao – n 1957 a. ii 1967 a.

Caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u oaeo a naaa e ae?oaoth iianiinoue – iii nieaeaao
eiee/anoai nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee, aeinoeaathuae iiaa?oiinoe Caiee. Ii
aeaiiui Iaoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey NOA ii eco/aieth ieaaia e aoiinoa?u
iaae oa??eoi?eae yoie no?aiu a ia?eiae n 1950 a. ii 1972 a. nieia/iay
?aaeeaoeey oiaiueoaeanue inaiueth ia 8 %, a aaniie oaaee/eaaeanue ia 3
%. A n?aaeiai n 1964 a. iia oiaea ia 1,3 %, /oi yeaeaaeaioii iioa?a
i?eia?ii 10 iei nieia/iiai aeiy a nooee. Yoa, eacaeinue au, iaei/ue
iiaeao eiaoue na?ueaciua eeeiaoieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey.

Caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u iaae Niaaeeiaiiuie Ooaoaie i?eaaei a 1975 a. e
nianai oaea iaiaeeaeaiiiio yaeaieth. A ?aeiia Ainoiia (ooao Ianna/onaon)
auei onoaiiaeaii ?aceia oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa iciia a aoiinoa?a – 0,127
/anoe ia ieeeeii, oiaaea eae onoaiiaeaiiue oaaea?aeueiuie aeanoyie NOA
i?aaeae aaciianiinoe ninoaaeyao 0,08 /anoe ia ieeeeii. Ecaanoii, /oi
icii ia?acoaony a aoiinoa?a i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee oaeaaiaei?iaeia n
eenei?iaeii aicaeooa e a aieueoeo eiee/anoaao ii aieaa yaeiaeo, /ai
oaa?iue aac. 10 aaaonoa 1975 a. oi?aaeaiea cae?aaiio?aiaiey ooaoa
iauyaeei „icii-o?aaiao”, eioi?ay i?iaeeeeanue aei 14 aaaonoa. Yoi auea
oaea aoi?ay o?aaiaa ca aiae.

Aieueoay ?ieue a caa?yciaiee aoiinoa?u i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?aaeoeaiui
naiieaoai, iaoeiai, caaiaeai e oaa?eeai. *oiau ia?ana/ue Aoeaioe/aneee
ieaai, nia?aiaiiue ?aaeoeaiue eaeia? iiaeiuaao 35 o eenei?iaea e
inoaaeyao eiaa?neiiiua neaaeu, oaaee/eaathuea iaea/iinoue. Cia/eoaeueii
caa?yciytho aoiinoa?o e aaoiiaoeiu, eioi?uo oaea nae/an ian/eouaaaony
aieaa 500 iei. Ii iiaen/aoai niaoeeaeenoia, iaoeiu „?aciiiaeathony” a 7
?ac auno?aa ethaeae. Eiaiii ei i?eiaaeeaaeeo iieiaeiiay aeiey o/anoey a
io?aaeaiee Aia?eee. Eae cayaee a 1976 a. naiaoi? Y. Ianee, a NOA
eaaeaeue aiae io caaieaaaiee, aucaaiiuo caa?yciaieai aicaeooa, oie?aao
15 oun. /aeiaae. Aia?eeaioeaa yoi ia ia oooeo o?aaiaeeo. Iiyaeythony
?acee/iua i?iaeou nicaeaiey aeaeaaoaeae, ?aaioathueo ia ae?oaeo aeaeao
oiieeaa. Yeaeo?iiiaeee oaea ia iiainoue, ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a anoue
iiuoiua ia?acoeu, ii iiea eo oe?ieia aiaae?aiea a aeeciue naea?aeeaaaony
ec-ca iaeie iiuiinoe aeeoioeyoi?ia.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiyaeeanue iiaay eaeay – aaoiiiaeeue n eia?oeeiiiui
aeaeaaoaeai. E nii?oaeaieth aai i?enooieee aia?eeaineea eiiiaiee „Ee?
iioi?a” e „TH. Oeaeaeen”. Ii aoaeao niaaaeai aeaoiy oyaeaeuie
iaoiaeeaie, ?aaioathueie a aaeooia. Aeey eo ?ane?o/eaaiey ia?aae
auacaeii i?aaeoniio?ai yeaeo?iiioi?, ieoathueeny io auoiaie naoe.
Caianaiiay eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey iaoiaeeia /a?ac ei?iaeo ia?aaea/ aoaeao
iinooiaoue ia aaaeouea eieana. Iaeiie ca?yaeee oaaoeo ia 80 ei i?iaaaa
ni nei?inoueth 96 ei//. Iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue oaeiai aaoiiiaeey
aeinoeaaao 160 ei//. Aaoiiiaeeue, eioi?iio ia ioaeai ie aaicei, ie
ae?oaia ai?th/aa e eioi?ue ia i?iecaiaeeo auoeiiiuo aacia nei?i aoaeao
aiaae?yony a aeeciue ethaeae.

Iaiaeue aeeaae a io?aaeaiea aoiinoa?u aiinyo ?acee/iua caaiaeu, oaiei- e
yeaeo?inoaioeee. N?aaeiae iiuiinoe yeaeo?inoaioeey, ?aaioathuay ia
iacooa, aua?anuaaao aaeanooi/ii a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo 500 o na?u a
aeaea na?ienoiai aiaeae?eoa, eioi?ue, niaaeeiyynue n aiaeie, oio/an aea
aeaao na?ienooth eeneioo. O?aioeocneee aeo?iaeeno I. ?oca i?eaiaeeo
oaeea aeaiiua. Oaieiaay yeaeo?inoaioeey eiiiaiee „Yeaeo?eneoa aea O?ain”
aaeaaeiaaii aua?anuaaao a aoiinoa?o ec naieo o?oa 33 o na?iiai
aiaeae?eoa, eioi?ue-iiaeao i?aa?aoeoueny a 50 o na?iie eeneiou.
Eeneioiue aeiaeaeue ioaaouaaao oa??eoi?eth ieiei yoie noaioeee a
?aaeeona aei 5 ei. Oaeea aeiaeaee iaeaaeatho aieueoie oeie/aneie
aeoeaiinoueth, iie ?acuaaeatho aeaaea oeaiaio, ia aiai?y oaea ia
ecaanoiyea eee i?aii?a.

Iniaaiii no?aaeatho iaiyoieee noa?eiu. Aaaenoaaiiia iieiaeaiea
neeaaeuaaaony n aoeineei Ae?iiieai, eioi?ue aio oaea aieaa 2500 eao
auaea?aeeaaao ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aeeyiea caieao?ynaiee, iaaaaia eiino?aiiuo
caoaao/eeia, iiaea?ia. Oaia?ue aea yoiio anaie?ii ecaanoiiio iaiyoieeo
noa?eiu oa?iaeaao na?ueaciay iianiinoue. Caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u
iinoaiaiii ?ac?ooaao iiaa?oiinoue i?aii?a. Iaeue/aeoea /anoeoeu aeuia,
aua?anuaaaiua a aicaeoo i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie Aoei, aianoa n
eaieyie aiaeu iiiaaeatho ia i?aii?, a oo?ii enia?eaoenue, inoaaeytho ia
iai aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai aea caiaoiuo iniei. Ii ooaa?aeaeaieth
a?a/aneiai a?oaieiaa i?ioanni?a Ia?eiaoina, iaiyoieee ae?aaiae Yeeaaeu
aieueoa iino?aaeaee ca iineaaeiea 20 eao io caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u, /ai
ca 25 noieaoee, iieiuo aiei e iaoanoaee. *oiau nio?aieoue aeey iioiieia
yoe aanoeaiiua oai?aiey ae?aaieo ciae/eo, niaoeeaeenou iaia?aiu iie?uoue
iaeaieaa iino?aaeaaoea /anoe iaiyoieeia niaoeeaeueiui caueoiui neiai ec
ieanoeea.

Caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u ?acee/iuie a?aaeiuie aacaie e oaa?aeuie /anoeoeaie
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aicaeoo e?oiiuo ai?iaeia noaiiaeony iianiui aeey
aeecie ethaeae. A iaeioi?uo ai?iaeao NOA, ssiiiee, Aa?iaiee
?aaoee?iaueee oee/iiai aeaeaeaiey aeuoao eenei?iaeii ec niaoeeaeueiuo
aaeeiiia. Iaoaoiaeai yoa aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeinoaaeyaony ca
aeiiieieoaeueioth ieaoo. A Oieei e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ai?iaeao ssiiiee ia
oeeoeao onoaiaaeeaathony eenei?iaeiua aaeeiiu aeey aeaoae, /oiau iie ii
aei?iaa a oeieo iiaee aeioiooue naaaeaai aicaeooa. ssiiineea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee ioe?uaatho niaoeeaeueiua aa?u, aaea ethaee iiaeiuatho
ia aeeiaieueiua iaieoee, a naaaeee aicaeoo. I?aaaea, a iineaaeiea aiaeu
ianoaiiaea eciaieeanue a eo/ooth noi?iio.

Iniaoth iianiinoue aeey aeecie ethaeae i?aaenoaaeytho nia?oiiiniua
ooiaiu, iioneathueany ia e?oiiua ai?iaea. Naiay aieueoay o?aaaaeey
i?iecioea a 1952 a. a Eiiaeiia. I?inioaoenue oo?ii 5 aeaeaa?y,
eiiaeiioeu ia oaeaeaee nieioea. Iaiau/aeii ieioiue niia, nianue aeuia e
ooiaia, aea?aeaeny iaae ai?iaeii 3-4 aeiy. Yoio niia, ii ioeoeeaeueiui
aeaiiui, oian 4 oun. aeeciae, oooaeoea ninoiyiea caei?iauey aua iiiaeo
ouny/ ethaeae. Oaeea ooiaiu ia ?ac aeooeee ethaeae e ae?oaeo ai?iaeia
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, Aia?eee e ssiiiee. A a?aceeueneii ai?iaea Nai-Iaoeo
o?iaaiue caa?yciaiey aicaeooa a 3 ?aca i?aauoaao iaeneiaeueii
aeiionoeiua ii?iu, a a ?ei-aea-AEaiae?i – a 2 ?aca. Iau/iuie
caaieaaaieyie caeanue noaee ?acae?aaeaiea neecenoie iaiei/ee aeac,
aeea?ae/aneea caaieaaaiey, ia?aoiaeyuea a o?iie/aneee a?iioeo e anoio.
ssiiineee ai?iae Iaaiy iieo/ee oeooe „yiiineie noieeoeu niiaa”,

Oieei auoae ia o?aouea ianoi n?aaee yiiineeo ai?iaeia ii /eneo
caaieaaaiee, aucaaiiuo caa?yciaieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy caeanue ca?aaeno?e?iaaii nauoa 4 oun. oaeeo aieueiuo. A na?aaeeia
ieoya?y 1975 a. na?ueaciay oa?ica io?aaeaiey iaaenea iaae yoei ia?iiiui
ai?iaeii, aaea aeeaao ii/oe 12 iei./aeiaae. Eiioeaio?aoeey ?acee/iuo
a?aaeiuo ieneaeia a ?yaea ?aeiiia ai?iaea a a ?ac i?aauneea aeiionoeiue
o?iaaiue. Oieeeneea aeanoe ioaeaee ?anii?yaeaiea anai oaa?eeai e
caaiaeai nie?aoeoue iio?aaeaiea oiieeaa ia 40 %. AEeoaeyi iiniaaoiaaee
ia auioneaoue aeaoae ia oeeoeo, aeaau oaa?a/ue eo io io?aaeaiey.

Inaaeo nia?oiiiniuo ooiaiia ia auaea?aeeaatho aeaaea ?anoaiey. Ca
iineaaeiea 10 eao caeaiay ciia Oieei nie?aoeeanue ia 12 %, nae/an ia
eaaeaeiai ai?iaeaieia i?eoiaeeony ia aieaa 1 i2 caeaiuo ianaaeaeaiee.
Iiyaeeenue oe?iu, eioi?ua naeatho aea?aauey iai?ieao. A?aiaea
iieoiao?iaiai aeeaiai ?anoaiey a ai?oea noieo a ianyoe i?eia?ii 4000
eai. Ii e yoe ei/othuea ii ai?iaeo „iaeiiianoiua ia?ee” ia
auaea?aeeaatho caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u, /aoioo e oayaeatho. *oiau
nio?aieoue oei?o, aa a?aiy io a?aiaie auaicyo ia naaaeee aicaeoo a
caai?iaeiua ?aeiiu. Ana /aua e /aua aeey „icaeaiaiey” i?iiuoeaiiinoue
auioneaao neioaoe/aneea iaeueiu, aaiaoe, oeaaou, o?aao e oeaeua
eneonnoaaiiua aaciiu.

*oiau aia?aiy i?eiyoue caueoiua ia?u io niiaa, a Eaioneii oieaa?neoaoa
(NOA) neiino?oe?iaai niaoeeaeueiue ieie-i?ioeaiaac. Anee caa?yciaiea
aicaeooa i?eieiaao oa?iaeathuea ?acia?u, oi ia i?eai?a aniuoeaaao
ieieaoth?iay eaiii/ea. Iaeiei aeaeaeaieai ?oee iiaeii aeinoaoue
ii?oaoeaioth ianeo e caueoeoue naie eaaeea io yaeiaeouo aauanoa. A
ssiiiee auaaaeai niaoeeaeueiue ni?o aaaiiee „ceiiyy ei?ieaaneay
aaiia-3″, eioi?ay neoaeeo eiaeeeaoi?ii iniaiai oioioeie/aneiai niiaa,
ia?acothuaainy a ?acoeueoaoa ?aceiaeaiey auoeiiiuo aacia aaoiiiaeeae
iiae aicaeaenoaeai nieia/iuo eo/ae. I?e iiauoaiee eiioeaio?aoeee niiaa
ia eenoueyo ?anoaiee oaea /a?ac a /. iiyaeythony aaeua iyoia.

2.*??iua ieaaiu.

Aac?annoaeii caa?yciyao /aeiaae e aiaeiua aannaeiu ieaiaou. Aaeaaiaeii a
Ie?iaie ieaai ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai na?anuaaaony io 2 aei 10 iei.o
iaooe. Ay?ioioinuaieie ni niooieeia caoeene?iaaii, /oi oaea ii/oe 30%
iiaa?oiinoe ieaaia iie?uoi iaooyiie ieaieie. Iniaaiii caa?yciaiu aiaeu
N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y. Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia e eo aa?aaa.

Eeo? iaooe eeoaao eenei?iaea, noieue iaiaoiaeeiiai ?uaai, 40 oun.e
ii?neie aiaeu. Oiiia iaooe caa?yciyao 12 ei2 iiaa?oiinoe ieaaia. Ee?eiee
iiiaeo ?ua ?acaeaathony a i?eiiaa?oiinoiii neia, aaea iianiinoue ano?a/e
n iaooueth aanueia aaeeea. I?e eiioeaio?aoeee aa a ii?neie aiaea a
eiee/anoaa 0,1-0,01 ie/e ee?eiee iiaeaatho ca ianeieueei nooie. Ia 1 aa
ii?neie iiaa?oiinoe iiaeao iiaeaiooue aieaa 100 iei. ee/eiie ?ua, anee
eiaaony iaooyiay ieaiea. *oiau aa iieo/eoue, aeinoaoi/ii aueeoue 1 e
iaooe.

Enoi/ieeia iinooieaiey iaooe a ii?y e ieaaiu aeiaieueii iiiai. Yoi
aaa?ee oaiea?ia e ao?iauo ieaooi?i, na?in aaeeanoiuo e i/enoiuo aiae,
i?eiin caa?yciythueo eiiiiiaioia ?aeaie.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy 7-8 o iaooe ec eaaeaeuo 10 o, aeiauaaaiuo a ii?a,
aeinoaaeyaony e ianoai iio?aaeaiey ii?neei o?ainii?oii. Ia iaeioi?uo
o/anoeao Ie?iaiai ieaaia i?ienoiaeeo aoeaaeueii noieiioai?aiea.
Iai?eia?, /a?ac i?ieea Ea-Iaio, oe?eia eioi?iai 29 ei, aaeanooi/ii
i?ioiaeeo aieaa 1000 noaeia. Iaioae?aii, /oi eiee/anoai oaiea?iuo
eaoano?io caeanue aaeeei. Iniaaiii iie aic?inee a 70-80-o aa. Oieueei a
1975 a. iiaeaei 10 oaiea?ia iauei aiaeieciauaieai a 815 oun. o. Ii/oe
eaaeaeue aiae neo/athony e?oiiua eaoano?iou. Iiaeaeoe, ia?aay, eioi?ay
aneieuoioea ie?, i?iecioea a 1967 a. O aa?aaia Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu iioa?iae
aaa?eth noia?oaiea? „Oi??e Eaiueii”, a ii?a iiiaei 120 oun.o iaooe.
Ia?iiiia iaooyiia iyoii iaacia?aceei i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu e aa?aaa O?aioeee
e Aiaeee. Iiaeaei 50 oun. aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe, o.a. 90 % ii?neeo ioeoe
yoeo ?aeiiia.

A aeaeueiaeoai eaoano?iou e?oiiuo oaiea?ia auieaneeaaee a ii?y e ieaaiu
ana iiaua e iiaua ii?oeee iaooe. 1974 a. – aaa?ey aia?eeaineiai oaiea?a
„O?ainoa?ii”, eiaaoaai ia ai?oo 25 000 o iaooe. Ec i?iaiei oieueei ca
ia?aoth iaaeaeth auoaeei 3500 o iaooe! Ia?iiiia iaooyiia iyoii
ieiuaaeueth a ianeieueei aeanyoeia eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia iaaeeaiii
aeaeioeinue e iiaa?aaeueth thaeii-eiaeeeneiai ooaoa Ea?aea, oie/oiaeay
ii?neeo iaeoaoaeae.

A yiaa?a 1976 a. a caeea Aaio?e (E?eaiaeey) ii aeia eiiiaiee „Aaeo iee”
(NOA) ec oaiea?a „Ao?ai ciaeeae” aiaeieciauaieai 210 oun.o aueeeinue 450
o iaooe. Iiae aa neiai ieacaeanue any naaa?iay /anoue caeeaa, a iiae
oa?icie e iiaa?aaeuea ia i?ioyaeaiee 35 ei.

A oaa?aea 1976 a. ia oaiea?a „Nai-Iaoa?”, niaa?oaaoai iiae eeaa?eeneei
oeaaii ieaaaiea ec Ia?o a Eieoiaeth n 33 oun.o iaooe ia ai?oo, aniuoioe
iiaea?. Noaeii caoiioei, iaooue aueeeanue a ii?a. Aeanyoue aeiae ii?yee
eieoiaeeneeo AIN aaee aaconiaoioth ai?ueao ii i/enoea aiae a ?aeiia
aaaenoaey, ioaaoeaoaai i?ea?aaeioth iieino i?ioyaeaiiinoueth ieiei 30
ei.

A ia/aea 1976 a. o aa?aaia A?aoaie iioa?iae e?ooaiea noia?oaiea?
„Ieeiiee a?aeaa?e” aiaeieciauaieai 275 oun.o – nianoaaiiinoue eiiiaiee,
iniiaaiiie a?a/aneei iaaiaoii A. Iiannenii. *oaeiaeuiia iacooiia ianeai
caoiieei aa?aaa iaeiaaea aeeaiieniiai o?aioeocneiai i-aa Oynnai.
I?aaeoaeuenoai auei auioaeaeaii i?eaea/ue aiaiii-ii?neea neeu e naia?iua
iiae?acaeaeaiey aeey i/enoee iiaa?aaeuey ino?iaa, ?anoeoaeueiinoe e
aeeaioiiio ie?o eioi?iai oaea iaianai iaiii?aaeiue oua?a.

A yiaa?a 1977 a. oaiea? „A?ai Ia?/aio” aeeeiie 182 i nae ia iaeue o
aa?aaia aia?eeaineiai ooaoa Ianna/onaon. Aieiu ?aneieiee iaoeio e 29
iei.e oaiiie ianeyienoie aeeaeeinoe aueeeinue a ieaai, ia?aciaaa iyoii
?acia?ii 240o60 ei.

A 1977 a. – eaoano?ioa n oaiea?ii „Ae?eic *aeeaiaeaea?” e 20 iei.e iaooe
iiiaei a aeaaoi?eth Aaaaeneeo ino?iaia. A yoii aea aiaeo a ?acoeueoaoa
iiaea?a ia ai?oo oaiea?a „Oyaaeai iao?eio” a naaa?iie /anoe Oeoiai
ieaaia „iioa?yii” 90 oun. o iaooe.

1978 a. ciaiaioaony naiie e?oiiie oaiea?iie eaoano?ioie o aa?aaia
A?aoaie. Aia?eeaineee noia?oaiea? „Aiiei Eaaeen” ianei/ee ia ?eou, aueea
a ii?a 230 oun.o iaooe.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiie aaa?eae a 1979 a. yaeeinue noieeiiaaiea oaiea?ia
„Yoeyioee yii?ann” e „Eaeaeai Eyioyi” a Ea?eaneii caeeaa iaaeaeaei io
O?eieaeaaea. A ii?a aueeeinue 300 oun. o iaooe.

Iiya?ueneee ooi?i 1981 a aua?inee ia aieii?ac ii?oa Eeaeiaaea a?a/aneee
oaiea? „Aeiaon Aneie”. Ec ia?aciaaaoaeny i?iaieiu a ii?a auoaeei 10
oun.o iaooe.

A aaaonoa 1983 a. iaaeaeaei io aa?iiaeneiai iiaa?aaeuey Aoeaioeee
caai?aeny oaiea? „Eanoeeei aea Aaeueaa?”. Noaeii caoiioei, auionoea a
aiaeu ieaaia 250 oun.o iaooe.

O iiaa?aaeuey Aioa?eoeaeu a yiaa?a 1989 a. oa?ieo e?ooaiea oaiea? „Aaey
ia?aeni” n 1 oun.o aeecaeueiiai ianea ia ai?oo. Aeaa ianyoea nionoy
no?aoiay o?aaaaeey ?acua?aeanue a a?eoe/aneeo aiaeao Aeynee. Oaiea?
„Yennii aaeaeec” ii aeia eaieoaia iaii?ieny ia ?eo. Ec i?iaieiu auoaeei
aieaa 40 oun.o iaooe. Ia?aciaaeinue iaooyiia iyoii ieiuaaeueth aei 800
ei2. Aeaaoi?ey i?ieeaa I?eioe Oeeueyi auea iauyaeaia „ciiie aaaenoaey”.
Ia ai?ueao n caa?yciaieai auee a?ioaiu AIN NOA. ?yae no?ai ie?a (a oii
/enea e ?inney) iiniaoeee i?eeoe ia iiiiuue. Oai ia iaiaa, ii neiaai
aacaou „Aaoeiaoii iino”, yoa aaa?ey a?iceo „iioaioeeaeueiie
yeieiae/aneie eaoano?ioie”, iineaaenoaey eioi?ie o?oaeii i?aaeoaaaeaoue.

A eiioea ia?oa 1989 a. aieeaiaeneee ?a/iie oaiea? nae ia iaeue a ?aeiia
Aaae-Oiiiaoa. A ?aeo aueeeinue ieiei 1 oun.o iaooe. Iaooyiay ieaiea
iie?uea ?aeo ia i?ioyaeaiee 7 ei. Iiae oa?icie ieacaeanue aeeciue ?a/iuo
iaeoaoaeae a ?aeiia 50 ei ieaea caiaaeii-aa?iaineie noieeoeu.

A ai?aea 1989 a. eiaeeeneee oaiea? „Eai/aiaeaeoiaa” iaeaoae ia ?eou a
E?aniii ii?a a oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aiaeao Naoaeianeie A?aaee- a 5 ei io
ii?oa Aeaeeaea. Ec i?iaiei auoaeei aieaa 10 oun.o iaooe.

Ia/aeueiue nienie oaiea?iuo aaa?ee iiaeii auei au i?iaeieaeeoue, ii eo
aeiey a iaooyiii caa?yciaiee ii?y n?aaieoaeueii iaaaeeea. A 3 ?aca
aieueoa iinooiaao iaooe a aeaaoi?ee ca n/ao i?iiuaee oeenoa?i oaiea?ia e
na?ina yoie aiaeu; a 4 ?aca eioaineaiaa caa?yciytho ii?y e ieaaiu
ioa?inu iaooaoeie/aneeo caaiaeia, ii/oe noieueei aea iaooe iinoaaeytho e
aaa?ee ii?neeo ao?iauo (?en. 2).

Ia/aeueiue ?aei?ae ii caa?yciaieth ii?neeo aiae i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaooyiie
neaaaeeia „Eenoie-1″ (Iaeneea), i?iao?aiiie o aa?aaia i-iaa THeaoai a
Iaeneeaineii caeeaa. Aaa?ey neo/eeanue a ethia 1979 a. e aaeaaeiaaii a
aeaaoi?eth aueeaaeinue aieaa 4 oun.o iaooe. Neaaaeeia oiioaie?iaaea
aieaa ianyoea, auieanioa ec iaae? ii/oe 0,3 ieie „/a?iiai cieioa”.
Eeeaeaeaoeey oiioaia iaioeanue a 131,6 iei.aeie.

Anoaao oa?iaeathuee aii?in: /oi aeaeaoue n yoeie „/a?iuie ieaaiaie”? Eae
nianoe eo iaeoaoaeae io aeaaee?

No?iyony ?acee/iua ieaiu. Ai O?aioeee nicaeaia niaoeeaeueiay oeaio?eooaa
ia?ee „Oeeeeiiao”. Iia onoaiaaeeaaaony ia naiioiaeiie ii?oiaie aa?aea
aianoa n a?oiiie ianinia, eioi?ua niae?atho n iiaa?oiinoe aiaeo aianoa n
ieaieie iaooe. Iiiaaeay caoai ai a?auathueany aa?aaaiu ono?ienoaa,
nianue auno?i ?acaeaeyaony, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 200 M//.

Oaaaeneea e aiaeeeneea niaoeeaeenou aeey i/enoee ii?neeo aiae io iaooe
i?aaeeaaatho eniieueciaaoue noa?ua aacaou, eonee iaa?oee, ia?acee n
aoiaaeiuo oaa?ee. Ana yoi eciaeue/aaony ia oiieea iieinu aeeeiie 3 ii.
A?ioaiiua ia aiaeo, iie niiniaiu aieoaoue a naay 28-e?aoiia eiee/anoai
iaooe ii n?aaiaieth n nianoaaiiie iannie. Caoai oiieeai ec ieo eaaei
ecaeaeaaony i?anniaaieai. Oaeea iieinee aoiaae, iiiauaiiua a aieueoea
iaeeiiiaua „aainueee”, i?aaeeaaaaony eniieueciaaoue aeey nai?a iaooe a
ii?a ia ianoa eaoano?iou oaiea?ia

Eiathony e ae?oaea ieaiu. Oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou aeaao i?eiaiaiea
aeenia?aaoi?ia – iniauo aauanoa, naycuaathueo iaooue; ia?aaioea iaooyiuo
ieaiie aeaeaciui ii?ioeii n iineaaeothuei niae?aieai „iieeie” iaaieoii.
Aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu aiceaaathony ia aeieiae/aneoth caueoo: a
eaai?aoi?eyo oe?iu „Aeaeaia?ae yeaeo?ee” (NOA) nicaeai noia?iee?ia,
niiniaiue ?anuaieyoue iieaeoeu OA.

?onneea o/aiua onoaiiaeee, /oi iaeioi?ua aeeoaee ii?ae aiana ia
no?aaeatho io iaooyiiai caa?yciaiey. A Eaniee, iai?eia?, aeeaao iieethne
– ea?aeeoi. Yoi e?ioa/iia nouanoai, iieo/eaoaa naia iacaaiea ca
na?aeoeaaeaeioth oi?io ?aeiaeiee, ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a i/enoea
ii?neie aiaeu, aeiauaay naaa oaeei ia?acii e ieuo, e eenei?iae aeey
aeuoaiey. Anee iiaeiaiuie niiniaiinoyie iia au iaeaaeaoue /aeiaae, oi a
nooee ii aeieaeai aue au i?iioneaoue neaicue naay aieaa 200 o aiaeu!
I?e?iaea „ieaie?iaaea” iaiaoiaeeiinoue i/enoee ii?ae e ieaaiia, aaaeue
ecaanoii e anoanoaaiiia iinooieaiea iaooe a yoe aiaeiaiu. I?iieeiiaaiea
aa ec-iiae caiee caoeene?iaaii, iai?eia?, o aa?aaia Eaeeoi?iee,
Aano?aeee, Eaiaaeu, Iaeneee, Aaianoyeu, a Ia?neaeneii caeeaa. Ia iaeiii
ec o/anoeia aeia Eaeeoi?ieeneiai caeeaa, a i?ieeaa Naioa-Aa?aa?a,
caoeene?iaaia anoanoaaiiay ooa/ea iaooe ec iaae? n aeaaeoii io 350 aei
500 i a nooee. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi yoio i?ioeann i?ioaeaao caeanue oaea
aeanyoee ouny/ eao, a aia?aua aue ca?aaeno?e?iaai a 1793 a. aiaeeeneei
ii?aieaaaoaeai Ae.Aaieoaa?ii. Ii ioeaieai o/aiuo NOA, aiaeiaia
iinooieaiea iaooe a Ie?iaie ieaai i?e anoanoaaiiii i?ina/eaaiee
ninoaaeyao io 200 oun. o aei 2 iei. o . Ia?aue i?aaeae iaeaieaa
aa?iyoai, ii ninoaaeo anaai ieiei a % io iauaai iauaia iaooe,
iinooiathuae a ii?y e ieaaiu ieaiaou ec aio?i-iiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia.
Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue, /oi i?e oiiieiaaoaeny oaea aaa?ee oaiea?a „Oi??e
Eaiueii” a ieaai aueeeinue noieueei aea iaooe, neieueei i?ina/eaaaony a
aiaeo ec eaeeoi?ieeneeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ca 28 eao. Oaeea eiee/anoaa ia
iiae neeo aeeaui naieoa?ai ii?y, /aeiaae aea iiea nouanoaaiiie iiiiue ei
ieacaoue, e niaeaeaieth, ia a ninoiyiee.

E?iia iaooe, a ii?y e ieaaiu auiineony iiiai ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, caa?yciythueo yoe aiaeiaiu. Ii aeaiiui
AE.-E.Eonoi, a aa?oiai neia ieaaiia aei aeoaeiu 300 i niaea?aeeony
naeiaoe, ?oooue, eaaeiee, eioi?ua oaeaatho ?uao e aeaaea naieo ethaeae.
Ii naaaeaieyi o/aiuo Eaeeoi?ieeneiai oieaa?neoaoa, oieueei a naaa?iie
aeaaoi?ee Oeoiai ieaaia ia ia/aei 80-o aa. ieaaaei ieiei 5 iei. noa?ie
?aceiiaie iaoae, 35 iei. ionouo ieanoianniauo aooueie e ieiei 70 iei.
noaeeyiiuo. AE.-E.Eonoi ieoao: „Ii?a noaei noi/iie yiie, eoaea
noaeathony ana caa?yciythuea aauanoaa, auiineiua io?aaeaiiuie ?aeaie;
ana caa?yciythuea aauanoaa, eioi?ua aaoa? e aeiaeaeue niae?atho a iaoae
io?aaeaiiie aoiinoa?a; ana oa caa?yciythuea aauanoaa, eioi?ua
na?anuaatho oaeea io?aaeoaee, eae oaiea?u. Iiyoiio ia neaaeoao
oaeeaeyoueny, anee iaei-iiiaeo ec yoie noi/iie yiu ooiaeeo aeeciue”.

Oaeay aea neooaoeey neeaaeuaaaony n aeae?inoa?ie e ia eiioeiaioa:

?aee e ica?a aeaeathony iai?eaiaeiuie ia oieueei aeey eo caeiiiuo
iaeoaoaeae, ii e aeey ethaeae. A Aa?iaiee, iai?eia?, aaeaaiaeii
neeaaaony a ?aee 14 ie?ae.i3 noi/iuo aiae, ec eioi?uo i/enoea
iiaeaa?aaaony a eo/oai neo/aa iaeia o?aoue. ?aei – ?aea, niaaaeathuay
aiaeie iiiaea ai?iaea Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, ianao a naieo aiaeao eaaeaeua
nooee noieueei yaeiaeouo oeie/aneeo aauanoa, neieueei iiaoo ia?aaacoe
1000 aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ninoaaia. Aieeaiaeneea oeieee n/eoatho, /oi a
?aeiia ?iooa?aeaia iianiay eiioeaio?aoeey aauanoa a aiaea ?aeia
ianoieueei aaeeea, /oi ath iaeuecy aeaaea /enoeoue coau, oae eae iiaeii
io?aaeoueny. Aeanyoue eao iacaae aue niaa?oai aiiethuee aeo aaiaeaeecia:
ianeieueei ouny/ eeo?ia io?aaioaiiiai iacooa auei neeoi a ?aei aeec
Aethnnaeueaei?oa (Aa?iaiey). Iiaa?oiinoue aiaeu ia i?ioyaeaiee 7 ei
ieacaeanue iie?uoa yaeiaeoie ieaieie, ianouae aeaaeue ?a/iui iaeoaoaeyi.
Iiae oa?ico iinoaaeaii niaaaeaiea aiaeie aeeoaeae Aethnnaeueaei?oa e
ae?oaeo i?e-?aeineeo ai?iaeia. Ia eo/oa ianoieo aeaei n e?oiiaeoae ?aeie
NOA – Ienneneie. A aeieiae/aneii niunea aaeaa ia iiaeaee Aaeeeea Ica?a
Naaa?iie Aia?eee. Eeoue oeoaie/aneea oneeey, iaioaaeoeany NOA a 17 ie?ae
aeie., nianee yoe oieeaeueiua aiaeiaiu.

Aa?aa?neia ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea i?e inaiaiee iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee
i?iyaeyaony e a iaoae no?aia. Ii ?acee/iui i?e/eiai i?e aeiau/a e
o?ainii?oa „/a?iiai cieioa” /anoue nu?uey aueeaaaony ia caiioth
iiaa?oiinoue e a aiaeiaiu. Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue, /oi oieueei ca 1988 a.
i?e ii?uaao iaooai?iaiaeia ia Naiioei?neii ianoi?iaeaeaiee a
iaeiieiaiiia ica?i iiiaei ieiei 110 oun.o iaooe. Ecaanoiu neo/ae neeaa
iacooa e nu?ie iaooe a ?aeo Iaue (ia?anoeeeua oeaiiuo ii?iae ?ua) e
ae?oaea aiaeiua a?oa?ee no?aiu.

Nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, aoaeoi /aeiaae caauaaao i oii, /oi aiaea –
iniiaa aeecie. A-aea-Naio-Yecthia?e, iiiyaoee ianoiyuoth oeaio aiaeu
iinea eaoano?iou naiieaoa a Naoa?a, ienae: „Aiaea, o oaay iao ie aeona,
ie oeaaoa, ie caiaoa, oaay iaaiciiaeii iienaoue, oiaie ianeaaeaeathony,
ia aaaeay, /oi ou oaeia! Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi ou iaiaoiaeeia aeey
aeecie: ou – naia aeeciue. Ou iaiieiyaoue ian ?aaeinoueth, eioi?oth ia
iauynieoue iaoeie /oanoaaie. N oiaie aica?auathony e iai neeu, n
eioi?uie iu oaea i?inoeeenue. Ii oaiae ieeinoe a ian aiiaue ia/eiatho
ao?eeoue auniooea ?iaeieee iaoaai na?aeoea”.

Ii aiaea ioaeia ia oieueei ethaeyi. *oiau au?anoeoue 1 o ca?ia, ioaeii
1000 i3 aiaeu, /oiau auieaaeoue 1 o noaee – 120 i3. Eiee/anoai i?aniie
aiaeu, i?eaiaeiie aeey /aeiaaea, n eaaeaeui aiaeii noaiiaeony ana
iaiueoa e iaiueoa. Oaea nae/an aaeaaiaeii NOA ieaoyo 2 ie?ae.aeie.
Eaiaaea ca i?aai eniieueciaaoue anoanoaaiiua enoi/ieee i?aniie aiaeu,
iaoiaeyueany ia oa??eoi?ee yoie no?aiu. AEeoaee Aeoenao?aa (Aa?iaiey)
ieaoyo ca aiaeo, i?eaiceioth ec O?aioeee, ii 89 ioaiieaia ca eeo?.
I?aaeiieaaatho, /oi eao /a?ac aeanyoue aooueea ieoueaaie aiaeu aoaeao
noieoue aei?iaea aooueee aeia.

A oi aea naiia a?aiy ?aee – yoe anoanoaaiiua ?aca?aoa?u i?ioi/iie
i?aniie aiaeu – /anoi eniieuecotho eae o?ainii?o aeey i?iiuoeaiiuo
iooiaeia. Aaeaaiaeii ?aee aua?anuaatho a ii?y e ieaaiu 2,3 iei.o
naeioea, 1,6 iei.o ia?aaioea, 6,5 iei.o oinoi?a. Eiee/anoai aeaeaca,
eioi?ia auiineony ?aeaie a ii?y, ?aaii iieiaeia ie?iaie i?iaeoeoeee
noaee. Iaeei oieueei ?aei aua?anuaaao a Naaa?iia ii?a ca aiae ieiei 60
iei.o ?anoai?aiiuo a aiaea ioa?inia. Anaai aea a oa/aiea aiaea ethaee
na?anuaatho a aiaeiaiu, aoiinoa?o e ia nooo aieaa 500 iei. o.
anaaiciiaeiuo iooiaeia.

3.Iaooue, i?e?iaea e /aeiaae.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo iooae ia?aaeaeaiey n?aaeu io
caa?yciaiey yaeyaony nicaeaiea eiiieaeniie aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeannia
aeiau/e, o?ainii?oa e o?aiaiey iaooe. A iaoae no?aia oaeay nenoaia
aia?aua auea nicaeaia a 70-o aa. e i?eiaiaia a ?aeiiao Caiaaeiie Neae?e.
Iio?aaiaaeinue nicaeaoue iiaoth oieoeoee?iaaiioth oaoiieiaeth aeiau/e
iaooe. ?aiueoa, iai?eia?, ia i?iiuneao ia oiaee o?ainii?oe?iaaoue iaooue
e iiiooiue aac niaianoii ii iaeiie nenoaia o?oaii?iaiaeia. N yoie
oeaeueth nii?oaeaeenue niaoeeaeueiua iaooyiua e aaciaua eiiioieeaoeee n
aieueoei eiee/anoaii iauaeoia, ?ann?aaeioi/aiiuo ia iaoe?iuo
oa??eoi?eyo. I?iiuneu ninoiyee ec nioai iauaeoia, i?e/ai a eaaeaeii
iaooyiii ?aeiia eo no?ieee ii-naiaio, yoi ia iicaieyei naycaoue eo
aaeeiie nenoaiie oaeaoi?aaeaiey. Anoanoaaiii, /oi i?e oaeie oaoiieiaee
aeiau/e e o?ainii?oa iiiai i?iaeoeoa oa?yeinue ca n/ao enia?aiey e
ooa/ee. Niaoeeaeenoai oaeaeinue, eniieuecoy yia?aeth iaae? e aeoaeiiuo
ianinia, iaania/eoue iiaea/o iaooe io neaaaeeiu e oeaio?aeueiui
iaooanai?iui ioieoai aac i?iiaaeooi/iuo oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee. *enei
i?iiuneiauo iauaeoia nie?aoeeinue a 12-15 ?ac.

Ii iooe aa?iaoecaoeee nenoai nai?a, o?ainii?oa e iiaeaioiaee iaooe eaeoo
e ae?oaea e?oiiua iaooaaeiauaathuea no?aiu caiiiai oa?a. A NOA,
iai?eia?, iaeioi?ua i?iiuneu, ?aniieiaeaiiua a aonoiianaeaiiuo ?aeiiao,
eneonii ne?uou a aeiiao. A i?ea?aaeiie ciia eo?i?oiiai ai?iaeao Eiia-Ae/
(Eaeeoi?iey) iino?iaii /aou?a eneonnoaaiiuo ino?iaa, aaea i?iecaiaeeony
?ac?aaioea ii?neeo ieiuaaeae. N iaoa?eeii yoe naiaia?aciua i?iiuneu
naycaiu naoueth o?oaii?iaiaeia aeeeiie nauoa 40 ei e yeaeo?ieaaaeai
i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 16,5 ei. Ieiuaaeue eaaeaeiai ino?iaa 40 oun.i2,
caeanue iiaeii ?acianoeoue aei 200 yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo neaaaeei n
eiiieaeoii iaiaoiaeeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Ana oaoiieiae/aneea iauaeou
aeaei?e?iaaiu – iie ni?yoaiu a aaoie ec oeaaoiiai iaoa?eaea, aie?oa
eioi?uo ?aciauaiu eneonnoaaiiua iaeueiu, neaeu e aiaeiiaaeu. Aa/a?ii e
ii/ueth any yoa aooaoi?ey iiaenaa/eaaaony oeaaoiuie i?iaeaeoi?aie, /oi
nicaeaao aanueia e?ani/iia yecioe/aneia c?aeeua, ii?aaeathuaa
aiia?aaeaiea iiiai/eneaiiuo ioaeuoathueo e oo?enoia.

Eoae, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iaooue – yoi ae?oa, n eioi?ui iaaei
aea?aeaoue ooi aino?i. Iaa?aaeiia ia?auaiea n „/a?iui cieioii” iiaeao
iaa?iooueny aieueoie aaaeie. Aio aua iaeei i?eia? oiai, eae eceeoiyy
ethaiaue e iaio i?eaaea e iai?eyoiui iineaaenoaeyi. ?a/ue iieaeao ia
oaea oiiieiaaoainy caaiaea ii i?iecaiaenoao aaeeiai-aeoaieiiiai
eiioeaio?aoa (AAE) a a. Ee?eoe. Eae auynieeinue, i?iecaiaenoai yoiai
i?iaeoeoa e aai i?eiaiaiea /?aaaoi na?ueaciuie iineaaenoaeyie. Ia?aua
iiuou auee iaiaaeaaeeaathueie. Iaeiaei a aeaeueiaeoai ieacaeinue, /oi o
aeeaioiuo i?e eniieueciaaiee AAE i?ienoiaeeo aeoaieay iaoieiaey a e?iae
e a iaeioi?uo i?aaiao, ai aoi?ii iieieaiee nieaeaaony ieiaeiaeoinoue e
eiioiieiae/aneay ?aaeoeey. A?aaeiua niaaeeiaiey (iai?ei) /a?ac iyni
aeeaioiuo iiiaaeatho e /aeiaaeo e oaeaea ieacuaatho ia iaai
iaaeaaii?eyoiia aeeyiea. I?iecaiaenoai AAE nii?yaeaii n caa?yciaieai
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A /anoiinoe a a. Ee?eoe caaiae ia aue niaaaeai
iaiaoiaeeiie i/enoeoaeueiie nenoaiie, /oi i?eaaei e nenoaiaoe/aneiio
aua?ino a aoiinoa?o aaeeiauo aauanoa, aucuaathueo aeea?aeth e anoio.
O/eouaay yoi, ?yae ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai (Eoaeey, O?aioeey, ssiiiey)
i?einoaiiaeee o naay i?iecaiaenoai AAE.

Ana yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi eniieueciaaiea iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia
aeieaeii auoue aanueia aeeo?aoiui, i?iaeoiaiiui e aeice?iaaiiui. Iaooue
o?aaoao e naaa aieiaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue ia
oieueei eaaeaeiio iaooyieeo, ii e anai, eoi eiaao aeaei n i?iaeoeoaie
iaooaoeiee.

Caeeth/aiea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /aeiaa/anoai ia?aaeeaaao oaeaaiaei?iaeioth y?o.
Iaooyiay io?aneue yaeyaony aeaaiie aeey ie?iaie yeiiiieee. A iaoae
no?aia yoa caaeneiinoue iniaaiii auniea. E niaeaeaieth ?inneeneay
iaooyiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue iaoiaeeoueny nae/an a ninoiyiee aeoaieiai
e?ecena. Auei ia?a/eneaii iaiaei aa i?iaeai. Eaeiau aea ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey io?anee? Anee i?iaeieaeaoue oeuie/aneoth yenieoaoaoeeth
ianoi?iaeaeaiee aeoia n aieueoeie iioa?yie i?e o?ainii?oe?iaea e
ia?aoeeiiaeueiie iaooaia?a?aaioeie, oi aoaeouaa iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
i?aaenoaaeyaony aanueia i?a/iui. Oaea naaiaeiy nie?auaiea oaiiia
i?iecaiaenoaa ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 12 – 15% a aiae, /oi /?aaaoi iieiui
?acaaeii no?aoaae/anee aaaeiie aeey aea?aeaau io?anee. Aeaeueiaeoaa
yenoaineaiia ?acaeoea iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oaea iaaiciiaeii.
Iai?eia?, aieueoea iauaiu iaooe Ainoi/iie Neae?e o?oaeiiaeinooiiu ec-ca
neiaeiiai aaieiae/aneiai no?iaiey, o?aaotho ia?iiiuo eiaanoeoeee a
aeiau/o. Neaaeiaaoaeueii aoaeoo i?e?anoaoue neaai. Yooaeo io
aaieiai?acaaaeee auoa a Caiaaeiie Neae?e, iaeiaei a yoii ?aaeiia
aunieii?iaeoeoeaiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey oaea cia/eoaeueii enoiuaiu.

Ii yoei e ae?oaei i?e/eiai ?innee iaiaoiaeeii ?aoi?ie?iaaoue iaooyioth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Aeey yoiai a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioaeii:

1) Ia?aniio?aoue nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, nouanoaaiii niecea iaeiae ia
iaooai?iecaiaeeoaeae, iaeiaei onoaiiaeoue aunieea oo?aou ca
ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo aiaaonoa e ia?ooaiea
yeieiaee.

2) Iaiaa aeanoei ?aaoee?iaaoue oeaiu aioo?e no?aiu, iiaeaea?aeeaay eo
ianeieueei ieaea ie?iaiai o?iaiy. Yenii?o aea iaooe ca ?oaaae aanoe
oieueei ii ie?iaui oeaiai.

3) *anoe/ii ainnoaiiaeoue oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea io?aneueth,
auoaeathuaa ec naiie no?oeoo?u iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e eiathuaa iiiai
iieiaeeoaeueiuo iiiaioia (?aoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia iaooai?iaiaeia). Yoi,
iaeiaei, ia icia/aao iieiiai aica?aoa e noa?ie iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey.

4) Nio?aiaiea aaeeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa – oneiaey auaeeaaiey
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena.

5) Iaeoe /aoeoth e i?iaeoiaiioth i?ia?aiio eiaanoeoeee a iaooyioth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

6) I?aaieciaaoue aaeeiue ?inneeneee aaie iaooe e aaca, ainoaea?noaaiiay
aiaoiaoi?aiaay oe?ia, aeeth/athuay i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee,
aeiauaathueo, ia?a?aaaouaathueo e o?ainii?oe?othueo iaooue e aac. Yoi
iicaieeo i?einoaiiaeoue oaioe/iua aa?oa?iua naeaeee, iiae?uaathuea
eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa.

7) Nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeioth nenoaio ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, iaania/eaathuoth
oaa?aeoth caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aaco aeey ?aaiou n eiino?aiiuie eiiiaieyie
ii niaianoiie ?ac?aaioea iaeaieaa neiaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee.

8) Noaaeeece?iaaoue iauaiu aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio n oeaeueth
ainiieiaiey caiania iaooe e aaca.

?aaeecaoeey i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia? a eiiieaena n ae?oaeie icia/aea au
i?einoaiiaeo eioeyoeee e oe?aieaiea eo?na ?oaey (iai?eia?, noieiinoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ia 40% ii?aaeaeyaony oeaiie
ai?th/a-niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia).

Iiyaeeny au eioa?an e i?eia?aoaieth iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuaai
iai?oaeiaaiey. Noeioe e ?acaeoeth iieo/eea au ia oieueei iaooyiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ii e iaoeiino?ieoaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey, iaooaoeie/aneay,
oeie/aneay, iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ae?oaea io?anee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iieiaeaiea a iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeiia, ii auoiae nouanoaoao – ?aoi?ie?iaaiea io?anee. Iinea /aai iia,
eiia/ii, ia noaiao “eieiiioeaii”, eioi?ue iioyiao anth yeiiiieeo,
iaeiaei niiaeao aianoe aanueia cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a aic?iaeaeaiea
?innee.

A iiaiia ca iaooueth /aeiaae aacaeaeinoii oanieo i?e?iaeo: au?oaaao
eana, caoaaouaaao ianoaeua e iaoie, caa?yciyao ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.
„I?aaeaea i?e?iaea oa?iaeaea /aeiaaeo, – ieoao AE.-E.Eonoi, – a nae/an
/aeiaae oa?iaeaao i?e?iaea”. Yoe neiaa ecaanoiiai o?aioeocneiai
o/aiiai-anoanoaieniuoaoaey ii?aaeaeytho iuiaoiaa niioiioaiea nee a
i?aaie/aneii ie?a. Naiae ia?acoiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaae iiaeao
iinoaaeoue i?e?iaeo ia a?aiue aeieiae/aneie eaoano?iou, eioi?ay
iociaaony, i?aaeaea anaai, ia iai naiii. Ii?aaaeuaathony neiaa
o?aioeocneiai iiyoa O.?. aea Oaoia?eaia: „Eana i?aaeoanoaotho /aeiaaeo,
ionouie neaaeotho ca iei”. Oaea nae/an, ii au?aaeaieth Aeae. Ia?oa,
„Caiey aeecea e oiio, /oiau naeaeaoueny iai?eaiaeiie aeey eo/oeo naieo
iaeoaoaeae”. Iiae „eo/oeie iaeoaoaeyie” aia?eeaineee o/aiue
iiae?acoiaaae ethaeae.

Nieioue e ?yaeii caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu inouanoaeyaony
iai?iecaieueii, aac ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiunea. Aieueoie a?aae i?e?iaea
iaiineony, iai?eia?, io iioa?e iaooai?iaeoeoia i?e eo o?ainii?oe?iaea.
Aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie n/eoaeinue aeiionoeiui, /oi aei 5 % io aeiauoie
iaooe anoanoaaiiui iooai oa?yaony i?e aa o?aiaiee e ia?aaicea. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi a n?aaeiai a aiae iiiaaeaao a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo aei 150
iei. o. iaooe, ia n/eoay ?acee/iuo eaoano?io n oaiea?aie eee
iaooai?iaiaeaie. Ana yoi ia iiaei ia neacaoueny io?eoeaoaeueii ia
i?e?iaea.

Oyaa /aeiaaea e i?e?iaea ?anoao. Aaeaaiaeii a iaoae no?aia ieiei 30
iei. /aeiaae ioaeuoatho ia eiia i?e?iaeu, a e 2000 a., eae ooaa?aeaeatho
o/aiua, oaea 100 iei. /aeiaae aoaeoo no?aieoueny i?iaanoe naie ioaeuo ia
aeeaiieniuo i?inoi?ao iaoae ?iaeeiu. Iaeiaei iaoa ethaiaue e i?e?iaea ia
aeieaeia iineoue iio?aaeoaeueneiai oa?aeoa?a. Neiai „ethaeoue” aeieaeii
o ian ioiaeaeanoaeyoueny ni neiaii „aa?a/ue”.

Iao aeii – ieaiaoa Caiey – yoi anaai eeoue iaeaiueeee aieoaie ei?aaeee,
eaoyuee a no?iaii e iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiii einiina. TH.A. Aaaa?ei caienae
a naiai aeiaaieea: „Iaeaoaa Caieth a ei?aaea-niooieea, y oaeaeae, eae
i?ae?ania iaoa ieaiaoa- Ethaee, aoaeai o?aieoue, e i?aoiiiaeaoue yoo
e?anioo, a ia ?ac?ooaoue aa!”. Io eaaeaeiai ec ian caaeneo noaeueaa
aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu. I?iaeaia io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aeieaeia
noaoue ainoaea?noaaiiie i?iaeaiie a eaaeaeie no?aia. ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia aeinoa?u, ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia Caiee, aa?aaeiia
ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea – aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiue iooue nianaiey aeeaie
n?aaeu e naiiai /aeiaa/anoaa.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. O?ouaa A.O. Aaia?aoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe NNN?. –3-a ecae., ia?a?aa. e
aeii. – I.: Iuneue, 1986. –416n., ea?o., noai., oaae.

2. Eaieeei A. Iaooue ?iaeeiu // Iao nia?aiaiiee. 1993. ?5.

3. E?theia A.A. Iieiua eaieno?u e ionoua ea?iaiu //YEI. 1994. ?1.

4. Iaaa?ia A. Ia?niaeoeau iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Caiaaeiie Neae?e //
Aeaeiaie ie? . 1993. 22 iay.

5. Iaooue e aac a ca?eaea ieaiaou // Aeaeiaie ie?. 1994. 1-7 aaaonoa.

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