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Дальневосточные моря

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Anooieaiea.

Oeaii/ea aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ii?ae – Aa?eiaiai, Ioioneia e ssiiineia –
auoyiooa n naaa?i-ainoiea ia thai-caiaae ii/oe ia 5000 ei. N caiaaea eo
ia?aie/eaaao iaoa?eeiaia iiaa?aaeuea Acee, a n ainoiea – aeoae
Aeaooneeo, Eo?eeueneeo e ssiiineeo ino?iaia. Oaeei ia?acii, yoe ii?y
caieiatho ?oaaaeiia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo e?oiiaeoei iaoa?eeii e naiui
aieueoei ieaaiii iaoae ieaiaou. Iie ioiinyony e ie?aeiiui ieaaie/aneei
ii?yi.

Aeey ?aeueaoa aeia ii?ae Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, eneeth/ay Aa?eiaiai,
oa?aeoa?ii neaaia ?acaeoea oaeueoa e cia/eoaeueiua i?ino?ainoaa, caiyoua
aieueoeie aeoaeiaie.

Aeaaiay /a?oa eo eeeiaoa – aai ionniiiue oa?aeoa?. Aneaaenoaea aieueoie
i?ioyaeaiiinoe ii?ae n naaa?a ia tha noaiaiue “ionniiiinoe” eo eeeiaoa
iaiaeeiaeiaa. Iia iaeaieaa y?ei au?aaeaia a ssiiineii, iaiaa caiaoia a
naaa?iie /anoe Ioioneiai, a Aa?eiaiaii ii?a i?iyaeyaony eeoue a thaeiie
/anoe.

Ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa i?e?iaeu ?anniao?eaaaiuo ii?ae – iaaieueoie
iaoa?eeiaue noie a ieo. Aneaaenoaea aieueoiai iauaia aiae yoeo ii?ae
?a/iie noie ia ieacuaaao ia ieo nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey. Aicaeaenoaea
?a/iuo aiae iuouaaony a i?ea?aaeiie ciia aicea onoueaa e?oiiuo ?ae, aaea
iaaethaeaaony ii?aniaiea iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy aaniie e eaoii.

Iaeei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia oi?ie?iaaiey aeae?ieiae/aneeo oneiaee
anao o?ao aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ii?ae – aiaeiiaiai /a?ac iiiai/eneaiiua
i?ieeau n nii?aaeaeueiuie ?aeiiaie Oeoiai ieaaia e ninaaeieie
aannaeiaie. Aa?eiaiai e Ioioneia ii?y naiaiaeii niiauathony n ieaaiii e
iaiaieaathony n iei aiaeaie aei aieueoeo (1000-2000 i) aeoaei, oiaaea
eae ssiiineia ii?a niaaeeiytho n iei eeoue ianeieueei iaeeeo (aei 150 i)
i?ieeaia.

Ai anao ?anniao?eaaaiuo ii?yo oi?ioi au?aaeaiu i?eeeau, aaee/eiu eioi?uo
ii?aaeaeythony a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii ianoa i/a?oaieai aa?aaia e
?aeueaoii aeia.

A aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ii?yo, iiuaathueo aa?aaa ?innee, aaeaaiaeii
ia?acothony oieueei iaeiieaoiea eueaeu. Iaeiaei aieueoay i?ioyaeaiiinoue
ii?ae n naaa?a ia tha aeaeaao nouanoaaiii ?acee/iuie eaaeiaua oneiaey a
eaaeaeii ii?a.

Aeaaiia iai?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a yoeo ii?yo
-aeiau/a e ia?a?aaioea ?uau e ?acee/iuo ia?uaiuo ii?ai?iaeoeoia, a
oaeaea ?aaioa ii?neiai o?ainii?oa – ia?aaicee a?ocia e iannaaee?ia.

AA?EIAIAIA II?A

Naiia naaa?iia ec ii?ae Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, naiia e?oiiia e aeoaieia
n?aaee ii?ae, iiuaathueo aa?aaa ?innee, Aa?eiaiai ii?a eae au aeeeiaii
iaaeaeo Aceae e Aia?eeie. Iii ioaeaeaii io Oeoiai ieaaia ino?iaaie
Eiiaiaei?nei-Aeaooneie aeoae. Iineaaeiyy ia?aie/eaaao ii?a n thaa, ia
naaa?a a?aieoea i?ioiaeeo ii eeiee iun Iiaineeueneiai (*oeioneee
iieoino?ia) -iun Ei?e (iieoino?ia Nuetha?ae).

Ai a?aiy iioiaeia ?onneeo eacaeia e i?iiuoeaiieeia a XVII a. e ?aea
Aiaaeu?ue yoi ii?a iacuaaeinue Aiaaeu?neei. A XVIII a. aai ia?aaeei
iacuaaee Eai/aoneei e Aia?iaui.

Iacaaoue ii?a eiaiai Aeoona Aa?eiaa -?oeiaiaeeoaey ia?auo ?onneeo
yeniaaeeoeee a yoii ii?a – i?aaeeiaeee a 1 788 a. Oi?noa?, niooiee Eoea.
Iacaaiea “Aa?eiaiai ii?a” iieo/eei ?ani?ino?aiaiea oieueei a XIX a.,
eiaaea aai aaae a iaeoiae n?aaee ?onneeo ii?yeia eaieoai A.I. Aieiaiei a
1818a., iicaeinoaiaaa o o?aioeocneiai aeae?ia?aoa Oe??uea.

Eco/aiea Aa?eiaiaa ii?y ia/aeinue n iienaiey aa?aaia, ii?aaeaeaiey
eii?aeeiao i?eiaoiuo ioieoia, ninoaaeaiey ia?auo ea?o. A yeniaaeeoeee A.
Aa?eiaa (1725 -1743) i?eieiaee o/anoea iaoo?aeenou N. Noaeea? e N.I.
E?aoaieiieeia, aeaaoea ia?aua oeaiiua naaaeaiey i ii?neie oaoia e oei?a.
O/anoieee yeniaaeeoeee (1787, 1791), ?oeiaiaeeiuo E.E.. Aeeeeianii e
A.A. Na?u/aaui, i?iaaee nuaieo, iienaee ianeieueei e?oiiuo caeeaia e
iieiaeeee ia ea?oo ino?ia Oiaeaoea.

A 1803-1 806 aa. yeniaaeeoeey E.O. E?ocaiooa?ia e TH.O. Eenyineiai ia
ei?aaeyo “Iaaeaaeaea” e “Iaaa” niaa?oeea ia?aia e?oainaaoiia ieaaaiea io
Iaoa?ao?aa aei Iao?iiaaeianea-ia-Eai/aoea. Aa o/anoieee i?iaiaeeee a
Aa?eiaiaii ii?a, eae e a ae?oaeo ianoao, ?aaoey?iua iaoai?ieiae/aneea
iaaethaeaiey, ii?aaeaeyee oaeaeueiue aan e oaiia?aoo?o aiaeu ia ?aciuo
aeoaeiao, ecia?yee nei?inoue e iai?aaeaiea oa/aiee. A aeaeueiaeoai
aeae?ia?aoe/aneea, aaia?aoe/aneea e aeae?ieiae/aneea ?aaiou a Aa?eiaiaii
ii?a i?iaiaeeee ?acee/iua yeniaaeeoeee. A 1 820 a. ia ei?aaeyo
“Aeaaiiaia?aiiue” (eaieoai A.N. Oeoia?aa) e “Ioe?uoea” (eaieoai I.I.
Aaneeueaa) a Aa?eiaiaii ii?a ?aaioaea Naaa?iay yeniaaeeoeey. A 1 826-1
829 aa. ninoiyeinue e?oainaaoiia ieaaaiea ia oethia “Naiyaei” iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii O.I. Eeoea, eioi?ue iienae caiaaeiia iiaa?aaeuea Aa?eiaiaa
ii?y, ninoaaee aoean ea?o e naiaeeo aeaiiuo ii ?aeiio Aeaooneie a?yaeu.

Ianoiyoaeueiia ieaaiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea naaa?iie /anoe Oeoiai
ieaaia a o. /. e Aa?eiaiaa ii?y, auiieiaii N.I. Iaea?iaui ia ei?aaea
“Aeoycue” a 1 886- 1 889 aa. Ii i?ineaaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u e
ieioiinoe ii?neie aiaeu ii aeoaeia a ?aciuo ?aeiiao ii?y, eco/ee oa/aiey
e aiaeiiaiai ii?y /a?ac i?ieeau.

Cia/eoaeueiua iao/iua ?acoeueoaou aeaee ?aciinoi?iiiea enneaaeiaaiey
Aa?eiaiaa ii?y, ia/aoua a 20-o aiaeao iaoaai noieaoey. Eo i?iaiaeeee
e?oiiua o/aiua E.I. Aea?thaei, I. Oieaeo, A.A. Ooaeia, I.A. Iienaaa,
A.A. ?aoiaiia e ae?. Aieueooth oeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho ea?ou
?ani?aaeaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u e nieaiinoe aiaeu, oa/aiee, a oaeaea ioe?uoea
iiauo, aua ia ecaanoiuo iaoea aeaeia ii?neeo i?aaieciia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeae?ieiae/aneee einoeooo e Oeoiieaaineee einoeooo
?uaiiai oicyenoaa e ieaaiia?aoee i?iaiaeeee eiiieaeniia eco/aiea
Aa?eiaiaa ii?y a 1932-1933 aa. a nayce ni Aoi?ui iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
iiey?iui aiaeii ia yeniaaeeoeeiiiuo noaeao “?inneiaio”,
“Aeaeueiaainoi/iee”, “E?aniia?iaaoe” e ae?. Auee nia?aiu aiaaoua
iaoa?eaeu ii aeae?iiaoai?ieiaee, oeiee e aeieiaee ii?y, a oaeaea
iaia?oaeaia ?aciiia?aciay aeoaieiaiaeiay oaoia. Eioaineaiua
enneaaeiaaiey Aa?eiaiaa ii?y i?iaeieaeaeenue e a iineaaeothuea aiaeu.
Iie caiaoii nie?aoeeenue a aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu e !
nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eeenue iinea aa ieii/aiey, iniaaiii n 1949 a., eiaaea
a ieo noae i?eieiaoue o/anoea oeaaiai iaoaai enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai oeioa
“Aeoycue”. Yeniaaeeoeee ia yoii noaeia iicaieeee iiae?iaii eco/eoue
?aeueao aeia, i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u e
nieaiinoe, no?oeoo?o aiaeiuo iann e oa/aiee a ii?a, aai aeieiae/aneea
iniaaiiinoe.

A iineaaeothuea aiaeu enneaaeiaaiey a ii?a i?iaiaeeeenue ?aaoey?ii ai
ana naciiu. Eae i?aaeei, iie auee eiiieaeniuie, ii i?iaiaeeeenue e
?aaiou n eiie?aoiuie oeaeyie. A /anoiinoe, eco/aeny iaeei ec iniiaiuo
i?ioeannia – aiaeiiaiai /a?ac i?ieeau, aaeenue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
?uaioicyenoaaiiua enneaaeiaaiey e o. i. Ana yoi iineoaeeei iniiaie aeey
aieueoiai /enea iao/iuo ioaeeeaoeee, a eioi?uo ananoi?iiia inaauaiu
aeaaiua /a?ou i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee Aa?eiaiaa ii?y, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
aeiaieueii aunieie noaiaie aai eco/aiiinoe.

Aa?eiaiai ii?a caieiaao ieiuaaeue 2315 oun. ei2, aai iauai – 3796 oun.
ei3, n?aaeiyy aeoaeia – 1 640 i, iaeaieueoay aeoaeia – 4097 i.

A ?aeueaoa aeia ii?y /aoei auaeaeythony: oaeueo e ino?iaiua ioiaee,
iaoa?eeiaue neeii, aeoaieiaiaeiay eioeiaeia. Oaeueoi-aay ciia n
aeoaeiaie aei 200 i a iniiaiii ?aniieiaeaia a naaa?iie e ainoi/iie
/anoyo ii?y, caieiay aieaa 40% aai ieiuaaee. Iaoa?eeiaue neeii n
aeoaeiaie io 200 aei 3000 i cia/eoaeueii oaeaeai io aa?aaa, eiaao
neiaeiue ?aeueao e caieiaao i?eia?ii 13% ieiuaaee ii?y. Aeoaieiaiaeiay
eioeiaeia n aeoaeiaie 3000-4000 i ?aniieiaeaia a thai-caiaaeiie e
oeaio?aeueiie /anoyo ii?y, oa?aeoa?ecoaony ioiineoaeueii au?iaiaiiui
?aeueaoii, aa ieiuaaeue ianeieueei i?aauoaao 40% ieiuaaee ii?y.

Aa?eiaiai ii?a ii/oe iieiinoueth iaoiaeeony a noaa?eoe/aneie
eeeiaoe/aneie ciia, oieueei naiay naaa?iay /anoue ioiineony e
a?eoe/aneie, a naiay thaeiay – e ciia oia?aiiuo oe?io. Naaa?iaa 55-56°
n. o. a eeeiaoa ii?y, iniaaiii a i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao, caiaoii au?aaeaiu
eiioeiaioaeueiua /a?ou; e thao io 55-56° n. o. eeeiao oeie/ii ii?neie.

Ceiie iaae ii?ai i?aiaeaaeatho naaa?i-caiaaeiua, naaa?iua e
naaa?i-ainoi/iua aao?u. Nei?inoue aao?a a i?ea?aaeiie ciia a n?aaeiai
6-8 i/n, a a ioe?uouo ?aeiiao io 6 aei 12 i/n. Oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa
iiieaeaaony n thaa ia naaa?. A naiua oieiaeiua ianyoeu (yiaa?ue –
oaa?aeue) iia ?aaia 1 -4° a thai-caiaaeiie e thaeiie /anoyo ii?y e –
15… -20° – a naaa?iuo e naaa?i-ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao. O aa?aaia Aeynee iia
iiaeao iiieaeaoueny aei -40… -48°.

A oaieue nacii i?aeiouanoaaiii aeotho thai-caiaaeiua, thaeiua e
thai-ainoi/iua aao?u ni nei?inoueth 4-7 i/n. Oieueei a thaeiie /anoe
ii?y, eoaea i?iieeatho o?iie/aneea oeeeeiiu (oaeooiu), iie aucuaatho
neeueiaeoea ooi?iu n aao?aie o?aaaiiie neeu. Eaoi aeiaieueii
i?ioeaaeiia. A naiua oaieua ianyoeu (etheue – aaaono) n?aaeiaiany/iay
oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa eciaiyaony io 4 ° ia naaa?a aei 13 ° ia thaa,
i?e/ai o aa?aaia iia auoa, /ai a ioe?uouo ?aeiiao.

I?e i/aiue aieueoii iauaia aiae Aa?eiaiaa ii?y ?a/iie noie a iaai
iaaaeee e ?aaai i?eia?ii 400 ei3 a aiae. Aai aieueoay /anoue iinooiaao a
naioth naaa?ioth /anoue ii?y, eoaea aiaaeatho iaeaieaa e?oiiua ?aee:
THeii (176 ei3/aiae), Eoneieaei (50 ei3/aiae) e Aiaaeu?ue (1 ei3/aiae).
Ieiei 80% aiaeiaiai noiea i?eoiaeeony ia eaoiea ianyoeu. Aeeyiea ?a/iuo
aiae iuouaaony a iniiaiii a i?ea?aaeiie ciia ia naaa?a ii?y.

Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia aeae?ieiae/aneea oneiaey ii?y ieacuaaao
aiaeiiaiai /a?ac Aeaooneea i?ieeau, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio a ii?a iinooiaao
aieueoia eiee/anoai iiaa?oiinoiuo e aeoaeiiuo oeoiieaaineeo aiae. *a?ac
Eai/aoneee e a iaiueoae noaiaie /a?ac Aa?eiaia i?ieea iiaa?oiinoiua
aiaeu auoaeatho ec ii?y. Aiaeiiaiai iaaeaeo ii?ai e ieaaiii aeeyao ia
?ani?aaeaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u e nieaiinoe, oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo?u e iauae
oee?eoeyoeee aiae Aa?eiaiaa ii?y.

Nieaiinoue iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae ii?y eciaiyaony io 33,0%i ia thaa aei
31,0%i ia ainoiea e naaa?i-ainoiea e 28,6%i a Aa?eiaiaii i?ieeaa.
Iaeioi?ia ?ani?an-iaiea aiae i?ienoiaeeo aaniie e eaoii a i?eonoueaauo
o/anoeao ii?y. Aa?oeeaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea nieaiinoe ii/oe iaeeiaeiai
ai ana naciiu aiaea. Io iiaa?oiinoe aei ai?eciioia OII-125i iia i?eia?ii
?aaia 33,0-33,3%i. Aa iaeioi?ia oaaee/aiea i?ienoiaeeo io 125-150 i aei
200-250 i, aeoaaea iia inoaaony ii/oe iaeciaiiie aei aeia.

Oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?y iiieaeaaony n thaa ia naaa?,
i?e/ai a caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y aiaeu ianeieueei oieiaeiaa, /ai a
ainoi/iie. Ceiie ia thaa caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ia
iiaa?oiinoe iau/ii ?aaia 1 -3 °, a a ainoi/iie /anoe 2-3°. Ia naaa?a
oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu aea?aeeony a i?aaeaeao io 0 ° aei -1,5 °. Eaoii
iiaa?oiinoiay oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu iiauoaaony aei 8-11° ia thaa ii?y e aei
4-6° a aai naaa?iuo ?aeiiao. Oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu eciaiyaony n aeoaeiie.
Ceiie iiaa?oiinoiay oaiia?aoo?a, ?aaiay i?eia?ii 2°, ?ani?ino?aiyaony
aei ai?eciioia 140-150 i, aeaeaa iia iiauoaaony e n aeoaeiu 200-250 i
aei aeia ninoaaeyao ieiei 3,5°. Eaoii oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu 7-8°
i?ineaaeeaaaony io iiaa?oiinoe aei aeoaeiu 10-15 i, ioeoaea iia ?acei
(aei 2,5°) iiieaeaaony aei aeoaeiu 50 i, a o aeia ?aaia 3 °. Ii ia?a
i?iaeaeaeaiey ia tha e i?eaeeaeaiey e Aeaooneei i?ieeaai ?annei-aiiinoue
aiae iinoaiaiii noe?aaony, e iie noaiiayony aieaa iaeii?iaeiuie.

Neiaeiia acaeiiaeaenoaea aao?ia, i?eoiea aiae /a?ac i?ieeau Aeaooneie
a?yaeu e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia nicaeaao aeaa onoie/eauo e?oaiai?ioa a
oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao ii?y. Iaeei ec ieo – aieueoie, iai?aaeaiiue i?ioea
/aniaie no?aeee, ioaaouaaao aeoaieiaiaeioth /anoue ii?y, ae?oaie, iaiaa
cia/eoaeueiue, iai?aaeai ii/aniaie no?aeea. Nei?inoe iinoiyiiuo oa/aiee
a ?aeiia i?ieeaia 25-50 ni/n, a a ioe?uoii ii?a 5-15 ni/n.

A Aa?eiaiaii ii?a iaaethaeathony nooi/iua i?eeeau a ?aeiia Aeaooneeo
ino?iaia, o Ei?yeneiai aa?aaa e o *oeioee. Ioia/athony iieonooi/iua
i?eeeau. Aaee/eia i?eeeaia ia i?aauoaao 2 i.

Oeeeeiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue aucuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aao?iaia aieiaiea
a ii?a. Iniaaiii neeueiia aieiaiea ?acaeaaaony a inaiia-ceiiaa a?aiy n
iiya?y ii iae. I?e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo neeueiuo aao?ao aunioa aiei
aeinoeaaao 6-8 i, a i?e aao?ao 20-30 i/n ia?acothony aieiu aunioie aei 1
0 i. A eaoiaa a?aiy ii?a auaaao aieaa niieieiui.

Aieueooth /anoue aiaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue Aa?eiaiaa ii?y iie?uoa
eueaeii ianoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. ?aiueoa anaai eueaeiia?aciaaiea
ia/eiaaony a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe, aaea eaae iiyaeyaony a ieoya?a,
caoai ii ia?acoaony thaeiaa. A oa/aiea ceiu any naaa?iay /anoue ii?y,
i?eia?ii aei 60° n. o., caiieiyaony eueaeii, oieueia eioi?iai aeioiaeeo
aei 6 i. Iaeiaei aeaaea ai a?aiy iaeaieueoaai ?acaeoey eaaeyiiai iie?iaa
any ieiuaaeue ii?y ia iie?uaaaony eueaeii. I?aiaeaaeatho ae?aeoothuea
eueaeu. N iay eaae ia/eiaao ?ac?ooaoueny, aai e?iiea ionooiaao ia naaa?.
A oa/aiea ethey e aaaonoa ii?a auaaao naiaiaeii ioi eueaea.

AEeaioiue e ?anoeoaeueiue ie? Aa?eiaiaa ii?y aeiaieueii aiaao e
i?aaenoaaeai ?acee/iuie aeaeaie, io iee?ineiie/aneeo iaeoaoaeae aei
ia?iiiuo ieaeiieoathueo.

A oeoiieaieoiia i?aiaeaaeatho aeeaoiiiaua aiaei?inee. Iie naiaiaeii
ia?yo a inaauaiiii neia e ia?aiinyony oa/aieyie.

A ciiieaieoiia iniiaiia ianoi caieiatho oieiaeiethaeaua oi?iu aaneiiiaeo
?a/eia. Eo iaeaieueoea neiieaiey iaaethaeathony ia iaeioi?ii oaeaeaiee
io aa?aaia, ioeoaea aeiianna ciiieaieoiia oiaiueoaaony eae a noi?iio
iiaa?aaeuey, oae e e oeaio?aeueiui ?aeiiai ii?y.

Aeiiiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue – oeoiaaioin -?ani?ino?aiaia a i?ea?aaeiie
ciia, aeaaiui ia?acii a thaeiie /anoe ii?y. Ia iaeeiaiaeuea ?anooo
caeaiua, ao?ua e e?aniua aiaei?inee, ?ani?ino?aiaia eaieia?ey (ii?neay
eaionoa), ii?neay o?aaa ci-noa?a. Ianoaie neiieaiey ?anoaiee ia?acotho
iaoe?iua iiaeaiaeiua eoaa.

N?aaee aeiiiuo aeeaioiuo (ciiaaioin) i?aiaeaaeatho aoaee, ?aeiia?aciua,
eaeieiaeea, iieethnee. A eo /enea ianeieueei aeaeia nuaaeiaiuo ieaeee,
e?aau e inueieiiae. I?aaenoaaeoaee ciiaaioina iaeoatho ia oieueei a
i?ea?aaeiuo aiaeao, ii e ia aieueoeo aeoaeiao oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiia
ii?y.

Eooeioaoia ian/eouaaao ieiei 315 aeaeia ?ua, ec eioi?uo 25 aeaeia eiatho
i?iiuneiaia cia/aiea. E aaaeiaeoei ec ieo ioiinyony naeueaeue, einine
(eaoa, ai?aooa, /aau/a, ia?ea), ei?thoea, o?anea, ieioae, iaaaaa,
iaeoon, eaiaaea.

A ii?a iaeoatho ii?neea ieaeiieoathuea: eeou, otheaie, a oii /enea
neao/e, ii?aee, eioeee e ae?. Iaeiaei eo /eneaiiinoue n?aaieoaeueii
iaaaeeea, iiyoiio aeiau/a eeoia e ii?neiai caa?y ia?aie/aia e
i?iecaiaeeony aeey ioaeae ianoiiai ianaeaiey.

Aa?eiaiai ii?a iiuaaao aa?aaa *oeioneiai aaoiiiiiiai ie?oaa, Eai/aoneie
iaeanoe ?innee e ooaoa Aeynea NOA. Aneaaenoaea aieueoie oaeaeaiiinoe
yoeo oa??eoi?ee eo yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae, iniaaiii i?ea?aaeiuo
?aeiiia, n?aaieoaeueii iaaaeee. Iaeiaei oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue
caiaoii ?acaeoa eae a i?eii?neeo ?aeiiao, oae e ia naiii ii?a. A
i?eeaaeaueo e ii?th ?inneeneeo iaeanoyo aeaenoaotho i?aaei?eyoey
ai?iiaeiauaathuae, ?uaiie, iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
yia?aaoe/aneea nenoaiu. Iniiaiua i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u: Aiaaeu?ue,
I?iaeaeaiey. Ia Aeynea ?ani?ino?aiaiu ?acee/iua ianoiua i?iiuneu.
Aeaaiua oeaio?u: ii?o Iii e Aeao/-Oa?ai? (ino?ia Oiaeaoea).

Aaaeiia ianoi a oicyenoaa ii?y caieiaao ii?neie o?ainii?o. *a?ac
Aa?eiaiai ii?a i?ioiaeyo noaeioiaeiua iooe ai iiiaea ?inneeneea e
ca?oaaaeiua ii?ou. A caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y i?ieaaaao o?anna, naycuaathuay
ii?ou Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea n Naaa?iui ii?neei iooai.

A no?oeoo?a ia?aaiceiuo a?ocia i?aaaee?otho iaooai?iaeoeou, ean,
iai?oaeiaaiea aeey ai?ii?oaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?uaa e ?uaiua ecaeaeey,
i?iaeiaieuenoaea e a?ocu aeey niaaaeaiey ianaeaiey naaa?iuo ?aeiiia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ia ii?a e a aai i?ea?aaeiie ciia
ieacuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiia iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia yeieiae/aneia
ninoiyiea ii?neie n?aaeu e ianaeythueo aa aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee, /oi
i?iyaeyaony a iniiaiii a caa?yciaiee ii?y. Iniiaiua enoi/ieee
caa?yciaiey -i?iiuoeaiiua e auoiaua noiee. E?iia oiai, niaoeeaeenou
n/eoatho, /oi caiaoiia eiee/anoai caa?ycieoaeae iinooiaao a ii?a iooai
aeaeueiaai aoiinoa?iiai ia?aiina oiene/iuo aauanoa.

Ii eiathueiny aeaiiui, a Aa?eiaiai ii?a a 1 996 a. na?ioaii 4,5 iei i3
noi/iuo aiae, ec eioi?uo 2,8 iei i3 o?aaoao i/enoee. Ni noi/iuie aiaeaie
a ii?a iinooieee ieo?aou e neioaoe/aneea iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiua aauanoaa;
ii ae?oaei caa?ycieoaeyi aeaiiuo ca 1996 a. ia eiaaony.

Iaeiaei a i?aaeoanoaothuea aiaeu ioia/aeinue cia/eoaeueiia iinooieaiea
?acee/iuo caa?yciythueo aauanoa (iaooai?iaeoeoia, acaaoaiiuo aauanoa,
neioaoe/aneeo iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuo aauanoa e ae?.) a Aiaaeu?neee caeea,
aooou Oaieueioth e Yiia. A ioe?uouo ?aeiiao ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?y
iaaethaeaeenue iaooyiua ieaiee. Niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho ii?neoth aiaeo
ioiineoaeueii /enoie a ioe?uoie /anoe e neaaicaa?yciaiiie a i?eii?oiauo
?aeiiao.

Aeiau/a ?uau, eeoia e ii?neiai caa?y, ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia, a iauai
aeecea e ii?ia. Iaeiaei eiaao ianoi e ia?a-eia, iniaaiii oeaiiuo aeaeia
(eininaaua, eaiaaea), a oaeaea ia?ooaiea eaio ii aeiau/a eeoia e
ii?neiai caa?y, /oi /?aaaoi nie?auaieai eo /eneaiiinoe.

A oeaeii yeinenoaia Aa?eiaiaa ii?y, aa?iyoii, iaoiaeeony a ioiineoaeueii
aeaaiiieo/iii ninoiyiee. Iaeiaei a aa eiiiiiaioao iaia?oaeeaathony
iianiua oiene/iua aauanoaa, a iniiaiii aio?iiiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. A
oneiaeyo Naaa?a yeinenoaiu aeiaieueii o?oiee, e aeaeueiaeoaa caa?yciaiea
iiaeao i?eaanoe e eo aeaa?aaeaoeee e aeaaea ?ac?ooaieth.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, nio?aiaiea yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe ii?y – caaea/a,
eioi?oth iaaei ?aoaoue oaea naaiaeiy.

IOIONEIA II?A

A oeaii/ea ?inneeneeo aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ii?ae yoi ii?a caieiaao
n?aaeeiiia iieiaeaiea. Iii aeiaieueii aeoaiei aaeaaony a Aceaoneee
iaoa?ee, a io Oeoiai ieaaia ioaeaeaii Eai/aoeie e aeoaie Eo?eeueneeo
ino?iaia. Io ninaaeiaai ssiiineiai ii?y aai ioaeaeyao ino?ia Naoaeei, a
niaaeeiytho n iei i?ieeau Iaaaeueneiai e Eaia?o-ca. Ioioneia ii?a
cia/eoaeueii auoyiooi n naaa?i-ainoiea ia thai-caiaae e ?anoe?aii a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe.

Ioioneia ii?a noaei ecaanoii ?onneei n 1639 a., ni a?aiai iioiaea ia?auo
caieai?ioiaeoeaa ai aeaaa n Eaaiii Iineae-oeiui e Oeoiio ieaaio. Oiaaea
ianoiua ioioie/uee ieaiaia iacuaaee yoi ii?a “eai”, /oi a ia?aaiaea n
ooiaonneiai icia/aao “aiaea, ii?a”. V ?onneeo iaeii ec ia?auo iacaaiee
ii?y —Eaineia, eiiaaea aai iacuaaee Ooiaonneei. Iicaeiaa, eiaaea auea
ioe?uoa Eai/aoea, noaee oiio?aaeyoueny e ae?oaea iacaaiey ii?y —
Eai/aoneia e Iaiaeeineia, ii yoe iacaaiey ia i?eaeeenue.

A XVII a. eacaee-caieai?ioiaeoeu iniiaaee a onouea iaeiie ec ?ae,
aiaaeathueo a ii?a, ceiiauea Einie Ino?iaeae. Ianoiua aeeoaee iacuaaee
yoo ?aeo Ieaoa, o. a. i?inoi ?aea. Eacaee iacuaaee aa aieaa iiiyoiui ei
neiaii “Ioioa”. A 1 647 a. aaeece ceiiauey Einie Ino?iaeae aue caeiaeai
iinaeie Ioioneee Ino?iaeae, eioi?ue aiineaaenoaee noae iacuaaoueny
Ioione, Ii noae ia?aui ii?oii ?innee ia Oeoii ieaaia. Ii aai iacaaieth
noaei eiaiiaaoueny e ii?a. Iacaaiea Ioioneia ii?a i?i/ii cae?aieeinue ia
anao ea?oao.

Iiyaeaiea ia ii?a ?onneeo eacaeia iieiaeeei ia/aei aai eco/aieth.
I?aaeaea anaai auee i?iaaaeaiu ianeaaeiaaiey e naeaeaiu /a?oaaee
caiaaeiiai, a caoai naaa?iiai e thaeiiai aa?aaia ii?y. A ia/aea XVIII a.
io?yaeaie Aeaieeu Aioeeoa?iaa e Eaaia Eicu?aaneiai auee ioe?uou
Eo?eeueneea ino?iaa e ninoaaeaiu /a?oaaee naaa?iuo Eo?eeueneeo ino?iaia.
Oaea a 1730 a. ?onneei auee ecaanoiu ieiei 20 ino?iaia yoie a?yaeu.

A aeaeueiaeoai o/anoiee Aaeeeie Naaa?iie yeniaaeeoeee N. E?aoaieiieeia
iienae Eai/aoeo e nia?ae oeaiiua naaaeaiey ii aeieiaee e oece/aneie
aaia?aoee Ioioneiai ii?y.

A 1805 a. E.O. E?ocaiooa?i ia noaeia “Iaaeaaeaea” i?iaiaeee
aeae?ia?aoe/aneea ?aaiou aia/aea a ssiiineii, a caoai a Ioioneii ii?yo.
Ii i?iecaae nuaieo iaeioi?uo aa?aaia ino?iaa Naoaeei. A thaeiie /anoe
Naoaeeineiai caeeaa noaeii ano?aoeei neeueiia Aio?neia oa/aiea e ii/oe
i?anioth aiaeo. E.O. E?ocaiooa?i naeaeae ioeai/iia caeeth/aiea i
niaaeeiaiee Naoaeeia n iaoa?eeii, /aio niinianoaiaaei aiaeiae/iia iiaiea
oaeeo ecaanoiuo ii?aieaaaoaeae XVIII a., eae Eaia?oc e A?iooii. ?aaiou
E.O. E?ocaiooa?ia nii?iaiaeaeaeenue iaaethaeaieyie iaae oa/aieyie e
i?eeeaaie, a oaeaea ecia?aieyie oaeaeueiiai aana aiaeu.

A 1811 a. A.I. Aieiaiei ai a?aiy ieaaaiey ia oethia “Aeeaia” i?iecaae
iienaiea Eo?eeueneie a?yaeu e naeaeae iiiai eioa?aniuo iaaethaeaiee iaae
oa/aieyie e i?eeeaaie a Ioioneii ii?a.

A 1 849 a. A.E. Iaaaeueneie, i?iaeieaeay ianeaaeiaaiea caiaaeiuo aa?aaia
Ioioneiai ii?y, naeaeae e?oiiia aaia?aoe/aneia ioe?uoea. Ii iouneae
oa?aaoa? a onouea ?aee Aio? e i?ioae /a?ac Aio?neee eeiai a Oaoa?neee
i?ieea, /ai auei aeieacaii ionoonoaea ian/aiiai ia?aoaeea,
niaaeeiythuaai Naoaeei n iaoa?eeii.

A 1 855 – 1 857 aa. E.E. O?aie, ?aaioaaoee n iniiaiii ia ino?iaa
Naoaeei, naeaeae ia?aia e?oiiia iaiauaiea i oa/aieyo Ioioneiai ii?y. Ii
auaeaeee oieiaeiua e oaieua oa/aiey e i?aaeeiaeee iauyniaiea
i?ienoiaeaeaieth oao e ae?oaeo.

Ia/eiay n 70-o aiaeia XIX a. ieaaiia?aoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu ii Ioioneiio
ii?th noaee iiiieiyoueny ?acoeueoaoaie aeoaieiaiaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee
oaiia?aoo?u e oaeaeueiiai aana aiaeu. Iie iaoee io?aaeaiea a ?aaioao E.
Iiaoeaae/a, A. Noa?eoeeiai, I. Iaeaeaey e ae?.

A 1888-1889 aa. a oeoiieaaineeo aiaeao, a oii /enea e a Ioioneii ii?a,
i?iaiaeee enneaaeiaaiey ia ei?aaoa “Aeoycue” aaeie?ae N.I. Iaea?ia. Ii
eo ?acoeueoaoai ii ninoaaee ia?aua ea?ou oaiia?aoo?u e oaeaeueiiai aana
ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?y, a oaeaea auaeaeee oieiaeiue i?iiaaeooi/iue neie a
aai aiaeao e ioiaoee auoiae oieiaeiuo aeoaeiiuo aiae ia iiaa?oiinoue
aicea Eo?eeueneie a?yaeu e a ae?oaeo ?aeiiao.

Ia/eiay n 1914 a. a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao a Ioioneii ii?a i?iaiaeee
enneaaeiaaiey ecaanoiue ?onneee aeae?ia?ao A.A. Aeaauaeia. Ii nia?ae e
iaiauee oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae ii aeae?ia?aoee,, aeae?ieiaee, aeieiaee e
iiiaei ?acaeaeai oece/aneie aaia?aoee ii?y. Ia iniiaa yoeo aeaiiuo A.A.
Aeaauaeia ninoaaee eioeeth Ioioneiai ii?y, a eioi?ie aeaaony aeiaieueii
ianoiyoaeueiay naiaeea aai i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee.

A 1 930 a. ia aeae?ia?aoe/aneii noaeia “*oe/a” a ioe?uoie /anoe
Ioioneiai ii?y auee i?iaaaeaiu aeoaieiaiaeiua enneaaeiaaiey oaiia?aoo?u,
nieaiinoe e oa/aiee. N oao ii? noaei i?iaiaeeoueny ?aaoey?iia
eiiieaeniia eco/aiea ii?y Oeoiieaaineei iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneei
einoeoooii ?uaiiai oicyenoaa e ieaaiia?aoee e ae?oaeie iao/iuie
einoeoooaie no?aiu.

A 1947 a. ia Ioioneii ii?a ?aaioaea eiiieaeniay yeniaaeeoeey Einoeoooa
ieaaiieiaee Aeaaeaiee iaoe ia noaeia “Aeoycue”. N oao ii? yoio ei?aaeue
iaoee iaiaeiie?aoii i?iaiaeee enneaaeiaaiey a yoii ii?a. Iie aeaee iiiai
iiauo oeaiiuo naaaeaiee i aaieiae/aneii no?iaiee aeia ii?y, ia
iniaaiiinoyo aai aeae?ieiae/aneeo oneiaee, i ?ani?aaeaeaiee ii?neeo
i?aaieciia e ae?.

A 1957 – 1959 aa. a Ioioneii ii?a ?aaioaee o/aiua ?acee/iuo einoeoooia e
aaaeiinoa ii i?ia?aiia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaioece/aneiai aiaea, a caoai a
?aieao aiaea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaioece/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa. Aaaeiia
ianoi a enneaaeiaaiee Ioioneiai ii?y caiyei eco/aiea no?oeoo?u aiaeiuo
iann, aiaeiiaiai n ninaaeieie aannaeiaie, eaaeiaua oneiaey e o. ae. Aeey
i?iaaaeaiey yoeo enneaaeiaaiee i?eaeaeaeenue e?oiiua iao/iua noaea,
naiieaou eaaeiaie ?acaaaeee, eneonnoaaiiua niooieee Caiee.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey eco/aiea Ioioneiai ii?y i?iaiaeeeinue ia
oieueei a eioa?anao iaoee, ii e ai iiiaii iineei i?eoeaaeiie oa?aeoa?,
iaania/eaay ioaeaeu ?uaiiai oicyenoaa e ii?neiai o?ainii?oa. Ii
?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiee iaienaiu ianoiyoaeueiua iao/iua ?aaiou,
nicaeaiu niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ea?ou e iiniaey. Aeaaiua iniaaiiinoe
i?e?iaeu Ioioneiai ii?y oaia?ue aeiaieueii oi?ioi ecaanoiu.

Ioioneia ii?a — iaeii ec iaeaieaa e?oiiuo e aeoaieeo ii?ae. Aai
ieiuaaeue ?aaia 1603 oun. ei2, iauai — 1316 ei3, n?aaeiyy aeoaeia — 821
i, iaeaieueoay aeoaeia — 3521 i. I?ioyaeaiiinoue aa?aaiaie eeiee aianoa
n ino?iaaie — 10 460 ei. I/a?oaiey aa?aaia neiaeiua, iniaaiii a
caiaaeiie e naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoyo ii?y.

?aeueao aeia Ioioneiai ii?y ?aciiia?acai. Naaa?iay e naaa?i-caiaaeiay
/anoe i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaoa?eeiaoth ioiaeue (oaeueo) oe?eiie io 200
aei 400 ei. Oaeueo caieiaao 22% ieiuaaee aeia. Ii/oe any inoaeueiay
/anoue ii?y (ieiei 70%) iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao iaoa?eeiaiai neeiia n
aeoaeiaie io 200 aei 1 500 i. Iaoa?eeiaue neeii e?ooie e ia?iaiue. Ia
iai auaeaeythony ioaeaeueiua iiaeaiaeiua aicauoaiiinoe, aiaaeeiu e
aeaeiaa. Naiay aeoaieay /anoue ii?y (aieaa 2500 i) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
o/anoie eiaea, caieiathuaai anaai 8% iauae ieiuaaee aeia. Ii auoyioo
aaeieue Eo?eeueneeo ino?iaia e iinoaiaiii noaeaaony io 200 ei i?ioea
ino?iaa Eoo?oi aei 80 ei aicea i?ieeaa E?ocaiooa?ia.

Ioioneia ii?a oa?aeoa?ecoaony ionniiiui eeeiaoii oia?aiiuo oe?io.
Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ii?y ia caiaaea aeoaiei aaeaaony a iaoa?ee e
?aniieiaeaia n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaeaei io iiethna oieiaea Naaa?iiai
iieooa?ey, iiyoiio aeaaiue enoi/iee oieiaea aeey yoiai ii?y iaoiaeeony
ia caiaaea, a ia ia naaa?a. Aunieea o?aaou Eai/aoee cao?oaeiytho
i?iieeiiaaiea oaieiai oeoiieaaineiai aicaeooa ia i?ino?ainoaa ii?y.
Oieueei ia thai-ainoiea e thaa ii?a ioe?uoi Oeoiio ieaaio e ssiiineiio
ii?th, ioeoaea iinooiaao oaieue aicaeoo. Aeeyiea ioeaaeaeathueo oaeoi?ia
ieacuaaaony neeueiaa, /ai ioaieythueo, iiyoiio Ioioneia ii?a a oeaeii
aanueia oieiaeiia. Iaeiaei aai aieueoay i?ioyaeaiiinoue n naaa?a ia tha
iaoneiaeeaaao cia/eoaeueiua i?ino?ainoaaiiua ?acee/ey iaoai?ieiae/aneeo
oneiaee ia ii?a.

A oieiaeioth /anoue aiaea (n ieoya?y ii ai?aeue) ainiiaenoaotho neeueiua
onoie/eaua naaa?i-caiaaeiua e naaa?iua aao?u, ia?aaeei aeinoeaathuea
ooi?iiaie neeu. Ceiie nei?inoue aao?a iau/ii ?aaia 10 — 11 i/n. N?aaeiyy
oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa a naiii oieiaeiii ianyoea — yiaa?a ?aaia ia
naaa?i-caiaaea ii?y -20… -25°, a oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao i?eia?ii –
10… — 15°, ia thai-ainoiea -5… -6°.

A oaieue nacii (n iay ii ieoya?ue) iaae ii?ai i?aiaeaaeatho neaaua
thai-ainoi/iua aao?u. Oeoiieaaineee (eaoiee) ionnii neaaaa aceaoneiai
(ceiiaai), o. e. i?ino?ainoaaiiua ?acee/ey aoiinoa?iiai aeaaeaiey a
eaoiaa a?aiy iaaaeeee. N?aaeiyy iany/iay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa a naiii
oaieii ianyoea — aaaonoa iiieaeaaony n thai-caiaaea (18 °) ia
naaa?i-ainoie (10— 12°). A eaoiea ianyoeu ia thaa ii?y aeiaieueii /anoi
iaaethaeathony o?iie/aneea oeeeeiiu – oaeooiu.

A Ioioneia ii?a aiaaeaao iiiai ?ae, i?aeiouanoaaiii iaaieueoeo. Iauee
iaoa?eeiaue noie ?aaai i?eia?ii 600 ei3/aiae, i?eia?ii 65% noiea aeaao
Aio?. ?a/iie noie iinooiaao a ii?a aeaaiui ia?acii aaniie e a ia/aea
eaoa. Aai iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea iuouaaony a i?ea?aaeiie ciia, aicea
onoueaa e?oiiuo ?ae.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee aeae?ieiae/aneeo oneiaee a Ioioneii ii?a
ea?aao aiaeiiaiai /a?ac Eo?eeueneea i?ieeau. A thaeiuo i?ieeaao
(Aeaoa?eiu, O?eca) a aa?oieo neiyo i?aiaeaaeaao noie ioioiii?neeo aiae,
a a aa?oieo neiyo naaa?iuo i?ieeaia, iai?eia?, a Ia?aii e Aoi?ii
Eo?eeueneeo, a iniiaiii eaeao i?eoie a ii?a oeoiieaaineeo aiae.

Oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?y iiieaeaaony n thaa ia naaa?. Ceiie
ii/oe iianaianoii iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu ioeaaeaeathony aei oaiia?aoo?u
caia?caiey, ?aaiie – 1,5…- 1,8°. Eeoue aicea Eo?eeueneeo i?ieeaia
oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe ?aaia 2,5 — 3,0°.

Eaoii iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu ii?y i?ia?aou aei oaiia?aoo?u 10— 12° a
oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao. Iaeaieaa oieiaeiua (6— 7°) iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu
iaaethaeathony o ino?iaa Eiiu, iuna Iueyaeia e i?ieeaa E?ocaiooa?ia.
Eciaiaiea oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu n aeoaeiie i?ienoiaeeo ?acee/ii a ?aciuo
?aeiiao ii?y.

Aeey aa?oeeaeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu eaoii oa?aeoa?ai
oieiaeiue i?iiaaeooi/iue neie – inoaoie ceiiaai ioeaaeaeaiey ii?y. A aai
?aciuo ?aeiiao ii caeaaaao ia ?aciuo ai?eciioao.

?ani?aaeaeaiea nieaiinoe ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?y oa?aeoa?ecoaony
n?aaieoaeueii iaeuie eciaiaieyie ii naciiai. Iau/ii nieaiinoue aieaa
aunieay (31 — 33°/00) a ainoi/iie /anoe ii?y, iaoiaeyuaeny iiae
aicaeaenoaeai oeoiieaaineeo aiae, /ai a caiaaeiie (25 — 31°/00), aaea
aiaeu ii?aniaiu iaoa?eeiaui noieii. N aeoaeiie nieaiinoue oaaee/eaaaony
aei 34°/00 ia ai?eciioao 450 — 500 i, e aeaeaa ei aeio iia noaiiaeony
aieueoa ia 0,5 — 0,6°/00.

Iiae aeeyieai aoiinoa?iuo i?ioeannia e i?eoiea aiae /a?ac Eo?eeueneea
i?ieeau a ii?a oi?ie?oaony nenoaia oa/aiee, ioaaouaathuay ii/oe anth
aeaaoi?eth. Neeueiua oa/aiey iaoiaeyo ii?a aaeieue aa?aaiaie /a?ou
i?ioea /aniaie no?aeee: oaieia Eai/aoneia oa/aiea, iai?aaeaiiia e naaa?o
a caeea Oaeeoiaa; iioie caiaaeiiai, a caoai thai-caiaaeiiai iai?aaeaiee
aaeieue naaa?iuo e naaa?i-caiaaeiuo aa?aaia ii?y; onoie/eaia oieiaeiia
Ainoi/ii-Naoaeeineia oa/aiea, eaeouaa ia tha, e aei-aieueii neeueiia
oaieia oa/aiea Niy, aoiaeyuaa a Ioioneia ii?a /a?ac i?ieea Eaia?oca.
Nei?inoe oa/aiee ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?y o caiaaeiuo aa?aaia Eai/aoee — 10 —
20 ni/n, a Naoaeeineii caeeaa — 30 — 45 ni/n, o Eo?eeueneeo i?ieeaia —
15 — 40 ni/n, a iioiea Niy — 50 — 90 ni/n. A oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ii?y
nei?inoe oiaiueoathony aei 5 — 10 ni/n.

Cia/eoaeueiua ?acia?u e neeueiua aao?u iaoneiaeeaatho ?acaeoea a ii?a
neeueiiai aieiaiey. Iniaaiii ao?iui iii auaaao inaiueth, a a aaceaaeiuo
?aeiiao e ceiie. Ia yoe naciiu i?eoiaeeony 55 — 70% ooi?iiaiai aieiaiey,
a o. /. n aunioaie aiei 4 — 6 i, a iaeaieueoea auniou aiei aeinoeaatho
10 —11 i. Naiua ianiieieiua — thaeiue e thai-ainoi/iue ?aeiiu ii?y.

A Ioioneii ii?a oi?ioi ?acaeou i?eeeau. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu nooi/iua
i?eeeau. Naiay aieueoay aaee/eia i?eeeaa (aei 1 3 i) iaaethaeaaony a
Iaiaeeineie aoaa (iun Ano?iiiie/aneee). Yoi iaeaieueoee i?eeea ia
iiaa?aaeuea ?inneeneeo ii?ae. A ?aeiia Oaioa?neeo ino?iaia aaee/eia
i?eeeaia i?aauoaao 7 i, a a naaa?iie /anoe ii?y iia aeinoeaaao 5 i.
Iaeiaiueoea i?eeeau ioia/athony o ainoi/iiai aa?aaa Naoaeeia.

Ceiie ii/oe ana ii?a iie?uaaaony eueaeii. Eueaeiia?aciaaiea ia/eiaaony a
iiya?a, a a yiaa?a e oaa?aea eueaeu aeinoeaatho iaeaieueoaai
?ani?ino?aiaiey. A ii?a i?aiaeaaeatho ae?aeoothuea eueaeu, a o ioiaeuo
aa?aaia naaa?iuo ?aeiiia ano?a/aaony i?eiae. Oieueia eueaeia e eiioeo
ceiu aeinoeaaao 0,8 — 1,0 i. Eaae en/acaao a n?aaeiai a eiioea iay —
ia/aea ethiy. A eaoiea ianyoeu ii?a naiaiaeii io eueaeia. Eeoue aicea
Oaioa?neeo ino?iaia iie iiaoo nio?aiyoueny e eaoii.

Ioioneia ii?a aeiaieueii aiaaoi aeeciueth. Iia i?iiecuaaao aai io
aa?oieo neiaa aei naiiai aeia. Aeaaiaea?y aieueoei aeoaeiai Eo?eeueneeo
i?ieeaia ia aeia e o aeia iaeoaao aiaaoay aeoaieiaiaeiay ieaaineay
oaoia: ainueieeo/aaua ei?aeeu, noaeeyiiua aoaee, iieeoaou, aeanyoeiiaea
?aee, ii?neea aaee, aieiaiiiaea iieethnee e ae?.

A aa?oieo neiyo ?ani?ino?aiai ieaieoii. A ?anoeoaeueiii ieaieoiia
(oeoiieaieoiia) i?aiaeaaeatho oieiaeiethaeaua aeeaoiiiaua aiaei?inee,
aeiianna eioi?uo aeinoeaaao 20 a/i3. Aeiianna ciiieaieoiia a neia 0 –
100 i eaoii i?eia?ii 3 a/i3.

Aeey i?ea?aaeiuo aiae oa?aeoa?iu aieueoea ca?inee aiaeiie
?anoeoaeueiinoe, a iniiaiii yoi eaieia?ey e ooeonu.

Aaioin, iauay aeiianna eioi?iai i?eia?ii 200 iei o, i?aaenoaaeai
?acee/iuie aeaeaie iieethneia, eaeieiaeeo, /a?aae e i?. N?aaee aeeaioiuo
aaioina naiia oeaiiia — e?oiiue eai/aoneee e?aa. E?iia yoiai aeaea,
aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiai iaiueoee ii ?acia?ai e?aa-no?eaoi. Ano?a/athony
e ae?oaea ?aeiia?aciua.

A eooeioaoia Ioioneiai ii?y ian/eouaaaony ieiei 300 aeaeia e iiaeaeaeia
?ua. N?aaee ieo i?aiaeaaeatho oieiaeiethaeaua aeaeu. Iaeiaei a
thai-caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y ano?a/athony e oaieiethaeaua, aeaaea
noao?iie/aneea aeaeu.

E i?iiuneiaui ioiinyony 40 aeaeia. A eo /enea ioioiii?neay iiioeyoeey
naeueaee, ieioae, o?anea, eaiaaea, iaeoon, iaaaaa, ii?neie ieoiue e ae?.
Iniaaiii oeaiiu eininaaua ?uau: ai?aooa, eaoa, eeaeo/, /aau/a. Aieueoay
/eneaiiinoue eininaauo naycaia n iaee/eai iiiai/eneaiiuo /enouo
ii?iaeenouo ai?iuo ?ae, i/aiue oaeiaiuo aeey ia?anoa, e n iaeeeai ei?ia
a ioe?uoii ii?a, aaea yoe ?uau ?anooo e ?acaeaathony aei ac?ineiai
ninoiyiey.

A caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y ?ani?ino?aiaia aaeooa, a ia oaaeeiaiiii neaeenoii
ino?iaea Eiiu aiaeyony neao/e. Ino?ia Otheaiee e aai i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu —
iaeii ec ?aaeeeo iano, aaea iaeoaao oeaiiue caa?ue — ii?neie eioee.
Eaoii a ioe?uoua aiaeu ii?y caoiaeyo ia ioei?i eaoaeiou. Aeiau/a
neao/ae, eaoaeioia, e iniaaiii ii?neeo eioeeia, no?iai ia?aie/aia a
oeaeyo eo nio?aiiinoe.

A ?aciuo i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao iaoa?eeiaie e ino?iaiie nooe, oaeueoa e
ioe?uouo aiae Ioioneiai ii?y a oie eee eiie noaiaie ?acaeoa
oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue. Ia aa?aaao iia i?aaenoaaeaia
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuie, noaei?aiiioiuie, ?uaiia?aaaouaathueie e ae?oaeie
i?aaei?eyoeyie. Ia iaeioi?uo o/anoeao oaeueoiaie ciiu aaaeaony ?acaaaeea
e iaeaaeeaaaony ?ac?aaioea iiaeaiaeiuo iaooaaaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. A
i?ea?aaeiuo e ioe?uouo aiaeao ?acaeoi ?uaieianoai e eeieoe?iaaiiay
aeiau/a ii?neiai caa?y. Ianoaie aeiauaathony aiaei?inee.

Ii aeaaoi?ee ii?y i?ioiaeyo o?ainii?oiua iooe. Iie naycuaatho iniiaiua
ii?ou -Iaaaaeai (Iaaaaai), Ayi, Ioione, Niaaoneoth Aaaaiue, Ei?naeia,
Ieeieaaane, Eiiniiieuene e ae?oaea n ?inneeneeie e ca?oaaaeiuie ii?oaie.
Ionthaea auaicyony e nthaea iinooiatho ?acee/iua a?ocu ec ii?oia ?innee,
aeeaeiaai e aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey.

?aciinoi?iiiyy oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue caiaoii aeeyao ia
oi?ie?iaaiea yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee a ii?a. Iaeiaei noaiaiue
iaaaoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia ii?neoth n?aaeo iaiaeeiaeiaa a ?aciuo
ianoao, /oi ii?aaeaeyao ?acee/ea yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee.

Aio?iiiaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia ii?neoth n?aaeo a iniiaiii i?iyaeyaony a
aa caa?yciaiee. Aai iniiaiua enoi/ieee — noiee i?iiuoeaiiuo e
eiiioiaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ii eiathueiny aeaiiui, a 1996 a. a Ioioneia
ii?a auei na?ioaii 256 iei o noi/iuo aiae, ec ieo o?aaothueo i/enoee —
46 iei i3. Ni noi/iuie aiaeaie a ii?a iinooiatho ieo?aou,
iaooai?iaeoeou, aeaeaci, neioaoe/aneea iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiua aauanoaa,
oaiieu e ae?oaea caa?ycieoaee.

Iaeaieaa caa?yciaiu i?ea?aaeiua e oaeueoiaua aiaeu: caeea Oa?iaiey,
Oaoeneay aoaa, aeaaoi?ee o naaa?i-ainoi/iiai Naoaeeia, i?ieea Eaia?oca,
caeea Aieaa, aoooa Iaaaaaa e ae?. Niaea?aeaiea caa?ycieoaeae caeanue
ii?ie i?aauoaao i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeioth eiioeaio?aoeeth a 5 — 10 ?ac. A
oeaio?aeueiie, naaa?i-caiaaeiie e naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoyo ii?y
ioia/aaony aai caa?yciaiea iaooyiie ieaieie. Iaeaieueoea ieiuaaee ieaiee
iaaethaeathony a i?iiuneiauo ?aeiiao ai a?aiy aeoeaiiai eiaa ?uau e
aeiau/e ii?ai?iaeoeoia.

Ii iiaieth niaoeeaeenoia, noaiaiue caa?yciaiiinoe aiae ioe?uouo ?aeiiia
ii?y iiea cia/eoaeueii ia neacuaaaony ia ninoiyiee yeinenoai,
ioiineoaeueii onoie/eauo e aeaenoaeth caa?yciythueo aauanoa. Ninoiyiea
oeoi- e ciiieaieoiia ioeaieaaaony eae aeaaiiieo/iia.

Iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia aeeaua aiaaonoaa ii?y ieacuaaao
ia?aoeeiiaeueiue i?iiunae, /oi i?iyaeyaony a ia?ooaieyo n?ieia eiaa e
iauaiia aeiau/e. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai nieaeaaony /eneaiiinoue e caianu
?acee/iuo i?iiuneiauo iauaeoia. Oae, ieacaeenue iiaei?aaiiuie caianu
eai/aoneiai e?aaa, ainoi/iinaoaeeineie ai?aooe .e ae?. A iineaaeiea
aiaeu aeiaieueii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeinue a?aeiiuea?noai, /oi oiaea
a?aaeeo aini?iecaiaenoao ?uau e ii?ai?iaeoeoia.

Iioaioeeaeueioth yeieiae/aneoth oa?ico i?aaenoaaeyao iaia/aaiia ?acaeoea
aeiau/e iaooe ec iiaeaiaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ia oaeueoa ainoi/iiai
Naoaeeia. Aiciiaeiua i?ieeau ao?iauo ?anoai?ia e iaooe i?e eo
?ani?ino?aiaiee a i?iiuneiaua ?aeiiu iaaaoeaii neaaeoony ia anae
yeinenoaia yoeo ?aeiiia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eniieueciaaiea aeeauo e
ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia ii?y o?aaoao ?ac?aaioee e i?iaaaeaiey yooaeoeaiuo
i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

ssIIINEIA II?A

Aa?aaa ?inneeneiai I?eii?uey iiuaatho aiaeu ssiiineiai ii?y – naiiai
thaeiiai ec iaoeo aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ii?ae. Iii eaaeeo iaaeaeo iaoa?eeii
Aa?acey, iieoino?iaii Ei?ay, ssiiineeie ino?iaaie e ino?iaii Naoaeei.
Yoi ii?a auoyiooi ii ia?eaeeaio, noaeaii a naaa?iie /anoe e aeiaieueii
oe?iei a oeaio?aeueiuo e thaeiuo ?aeiiao.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea iacaaiey “ssiiineia ii?a”, anoanoaaiii, naycaii ni
no?aiie ssiiieae, ino?iaiay nooa eioi?ie yaeyaony ainoi/iui e
thai-ainoi/iui iiaa?aaeueai yoiai ii?y.

Aia?aua i ssiiiee e ssiiineii ii?a oiiieiaaony a eeoaeneeo enoi/ieeao,
ioiinyueony ei II a. aei i. y. A Aa?iia i ssiiiee oneuoaee a eiioea XIII
— ia/aea XIV a. io a?aaneeo iooaoanoaaiieeia e eoioeia, iinauaaoeo
no?aiu Ainoi/iie Acee, /oi io?aaeaeinue a o?oaeao n?aaeiaaaeiauo
a?aaneeo ienaoaeae.

Aia?aua aa?iiaeoeu, a eiaiii ii?ooaaeueoeu, iinaoeee ssiiieth e thaeioth
/anoue ssiiineiai ii?y iaaeaeo 1539 e 1545 aa. A oa/aiea iineaaeothueo
i?eia?ii 1 00 eao ii?ooaaeueneea eoioeu e neoaeeaoea eioeiaiaie ia eo
noaeao aieeaiaeoeu e aiaee/aia ieaaaee a ssiiieth. N 1 624 a. a ssiiiee
aue onoaiiaeai cai?ao ia iinauaiea no?aiu eiino?aioeaie.

A ?innee ia?aua naaaeaiey i ssiiiee e ssiiineii ii?a noaee iiyaeyoueny
ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII a. iinea iooaoanoaey Aaneeey Iiy?eiaa a
1644—1645 aa. ii Aio?o aei aai onouey. Iaeioi?ua naaaeaiey i ssiiiee a
?innee iieo/aee ec caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo enoi/ieeia.

Ia ?onneie ea?oa ssiiiey aia?aua iaianaia a 1701 a. a Neae?neii Aoeana
C.O. ?aiaciaa. I?eaaaeaiiua ia iae naaaeaiey i ianoiiieiaeaiee ssiiineeo
ino?iaia e i?ieeaia, eo ?acaeaeythueo, auee aeiaieueii aeinoiaa?iu.

A 1787 a. a ssiiineii ii?a ieaaae Eaia?oc. Ii iienae iaeioi?ua o/anoee
caiaaeiiai aa?aaa Naoaeeia e iaaethaeae oa/aiea, eaeouaa ia tha e
thai-ainoie. Yoi auee iaeie ec ia?auo naaaeaiee i I?eii?neii oa/aiee. A
Ioioneia ii?a ii auoae i?ieeaii, iieo/eaoei eiy Eaia?oca.

A 1 849 a. A.E. Iaaaeueneie ia o?ainii?oa “Aaeeae” i?ioae a naioth
naaa?ioth /anoue ssiiineiai ii?y ec Aio?neiai eeiaia, ioe?ua i?ieea,
iacaaiiue aiineaaenoaee aai eiaiai, e aeieacaa, /oi Naoaeei – yoi
ino?ia.

Iinea ieaaaiey A.E. Iaaaeueneiai ?onneea oi?aiaua e aiaiiua ei?aaee
noaee ?aaoey?ii auaaoue a ssiiineii ii?a, iiiieiyy naaaeaiey i iai.

N 1 897 a. noaea aeaenoaiaaoue Aeae?ia?aoe/aneay yeniaaeeoeey Ainoi/iiai
ieaaia, ?oeiaiaeeiay nia/aea I.A. AEaeaiei, a caoai A.A. Aeaauaeiaui.
I?e yoii i?iaiaeeeenue ieaaiia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a i?ea?aaeiie
ciia e ioe?uoii ii?a.

Aieueoie aeeaae a eco/aiea ssiiineiai ii?y aianee aaeie?ae N.I. Iaea?ia,
enneaaeiaaaoee i?ieea Eaia?oca, e E.E. O?aie, iaiaueaoee ecaanoiua ia oi
a?aiy naaaeaiey ii oece/aneie aaia?aoee ssiiineiai ii?y a naieo ?aaioao:
“I/a?e oece/aneie aaia?aoee Naaa?i-ssiiineiai ii?y” e “I oa/aieyo
Ioioneiai, ssiiineiai e niaaeiuo n ieie ii?ae”.

Ia/eiay n 1925 a., eiaaea auea nicaeaia Oeoiieaaineay iao/ii-i?iiuneiaay
noaioeey, i?aia?aciaaiiay caoai a Oeoiieaaineee einoeooo ii?neiai
?uaiiai oicyenoaa e ieaaiia?aoee, noaee nenoaiaoe/anee i?iaiaeeoueny
ananoi?iiiea enneaaeiaaiey ssiiineiai ii?y. Iie aeeth/aee a naay
aeoaieiaiaeiua aeae?ieiae/aneea, aeae?iaeieiae/aneea e aeae?ioeie/aneea
iaaethaeaiey, i?iia?u aeoaei, eco/aiea aaieiae/aneiai no?iaiey aeia e
aa?aaia ii?y.

Aieueoie iauai eiiieaeniuo enneaaeiaaiee ssiiineiai ii?y aue i?iaaaeai
ii niaoeeaeueiie i?ia?aiia ianeieueeeie iao/iuie o/?aaeaeaieyie a 1932
a. ai a?aiy Aoi?iai Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iiey?iiai aiaea. N yoiai a?aiaie
yeniaaeeoeeiiiua ?aaiou a ii?a noaee aaeaaiaeiuie.

Ai a?aiy Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu yeniaaeeoeeiiiua enneaaeiaaiey a
ii?a auee yieciaee/aneeie. A iineaaiaiiua aiaeu eco/aiea ssiiineiai ii?y
noaei aiiaue ?acaeaaoueny, iniaaiii n 1949 a., eiaaea a enneaaeiaaiey
aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ii?ae e naaa?iie /anoe Oeoiai ieaaia aeeth/eeinue
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneia noaeii “Aeoycue”. Ia yoii noaeia auee
i?iaaaeaiu aeoaieiaiaeiua enneaaeiaaiey ii?y, acyou ia?acoeu aeiiiie
oaoiu, iieo/aiu eieiiee aeiiiuo ioeiaeaiee e o. i.

A 1957—1958 aa. ieaaiieiae/aneea ?aaiou a ssiiineii ii?a i?iaiaeeeenue
ii aaeeiie i?ia?aiia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaioece/aneiai aiaea, a a
iineaaeothuea aiaeu ia?aaeei ii neii?aeeie?iaaiiui iaaeaeoaaaeiinoaaiiui
ieaiai n eniieueciaaieai niooieeiaie eioi?iaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa
iiiaieaoieo eiiieaeniuo e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oeaeaauo enneaaeiaaiee
ssiiineia ii?a noaei iaeaieaa eco/aiiui ec anao ?inneeneeo ii?ae
Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea. Yoiio niinianoaiaaei nin?aaeioi/aiea ai
Aeaaeeainoiea e?oiiuo aeaaeaie/aneeo e ae?oaeo
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Onooiay ii ?acia?ai Aa?eiaiao e Ioioneiio, ssiiineia ii?a – iaeii ec
iaeaieaa e?oiiuo e aeoaieeo ?inneeneeo ii?ae. Aai ieiuaaeue — 1 062 oun.
ei2, iauai — 1 630 oun. ei3, n?aaeiyy aeoaeia — 1 536 i, iaeaieueoay
aeoaeia — 3699 i.

Aa?aaiaay eeiey ec?acaia n?aaieoaeueii neaai. Iaeaieaa i?inoia ii
i/a?oaieyi iiaa?aaeuea Naoaeeia, aieaa ec?acaiu aa?aaa I?eii?uey e
ssiiineeo ino?iaia. E?oiiua caeeau iaoa?eeiaiai aa?aaa: Aea-Eano?e,
Niaaoneay Aaaaiue, Iao?a Aaeeeiai, Iinueao, Ei?aeneee.

ssiiineia ii?a niaaeeiyaony Naiaa?neei i?ieeaii n aeoaeiaie aei 400 i n
Oeoei ieaaiii. I?ieeau Iaaaeueneiai e Eaia?o-ca naycuaatho ssiiineia e
Ioioneia ii?y, a Ei?aeneee i?ieea n iaeaieueoae aeoaeiie ieiei 110 i
niaaeeiyao ssiiineia e Ainoi/ii-Eeoaeneia ii?y; oceee i?ieea Eaiiii
iaaeaeo ino?iaaie Oiinth e Ethnth aaaeao ai Aioo?aiiaa ssiiineia ii?a.

?aeueao aeia ii?y aeiaieueii neiaeiue. A iai auaeaeytho naaa?ioth /anoue
(e naaa?o io 44° n. o.), oeaio?aeueioth (iaaeaeo 40 e 44° n. o.) e
thaeioth (e thao io 40° n. o.).

Aeii naaa?iie /anoe ii?y i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiaai ?iaea oe?ieee
aeaeia, iiaeieiathueeny e noaeathueeny e naaa?o. Aeoaeiu a iai
eciaiythony io 2300 — 2600 i ia thaa aei 900 — 1400 i ia naaa?a.

Oeaio?aeueiay /anoue ii?y – aeoaieay caieiooay eioeiaeia, n caiaaea,
naaa?a e ainoiea ia?aie/aiiay e?oouie nioneathueieny a ii?a neeiiaie
ai?iuo nii?oaeaiee I?eii?uey, iieoino?iaa Ei?ay, ino?iaia Oieeaeaei e
Oiinth, a n thaa – neeiiaie iiaeaiaeiie aicauoaiiinoe ssiaoi. Aeii
eioeiaeiu ?aniieiaeaii ia aeoaeiao ieiei 3500 i.

THaeiay /anoue ii?y ioee/aaony neiaeiui ?aeueaoii, o. e. a yoii ?aeiia
iaoiaeyony e?aaaua /anoe e?oiiuo ai?iuo nenoai -Eo?eei-Eai/aoneie,
ssiiineie e ?theth. Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caeanue caieiaao iaoe?iay
iiaeaiaeiay aicauoaiiinoue ssiaoi n i?eiueathueie e iae iiaeaiaeiuie
o?aaoaie. Oaeueo a iniiaiii oceee, oe?eiie ia aieaa 40 ei.

ssiiineia ii?a oeaeeeii eaaeeo a ciia ionniiiiai eeeiaoa oia?aiiuo
oe?io. Iaeiaei aneaaenoaea aieueoie i?ioyaeaiiinoe n naaa?a ia tha,
ninaaenoaa oieiaeiiai Aceaoneiai iaoa?eea e Ioioneiai ii?y ia naaa?a e
oaieiai Oeoiai ieaaia ia thaa oi?ie?othony caiaoiua eeeiaoe/aneea
?acee/ey iaaeaeo ?aciuie ?aeiiaie ii?y. A /anoiinoe, ia naaa?a
eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey i?eaeeaeathony e noaiiey?iui, a ia thaa iie ii/oe
noao?iie/aneea.

A oieiaeiia a?aiy aiaea (n ieoya?y ii ia?o) iaae ii?ai ainiiaenoaotho
neeueiua naaa?i-caiaaeiua aao?u ni nei?inoyie 12—15 i/n e aieaa (ceiiee
ionnii). Iie i?eiinyo n niaie nooie e oieiaeiue aicaeoo. A naiua
oieiaeiua ianyoeu (yiaa?ue — oaa?aeue) n?aaeiaiany/iay oaiia?aoo?a
aicaeooa ia naaa?a -20°, a ia thaa ieiei 5°.

A oaieue nacii (ai?aeue — naioya?ue) iaae ii?ai i?aiaeaaeatho thaeiua e
thai-caiaaeiua aao?u ni nei?inoueth 2 — 7 i/n (eaoiee ionnii). Eaoii e a
ia/aea inaie (etheue — ieoya?ue) iaae thaeiie /anoueth ii?y /anou
oaeooiu (n iaeneioiii a naioya?a). Iie aucuaatho o?aaaiiua aao?u,
eioi?ua ia?aaeei nii?iaiaeaeathony eeaiyie. N?aaeiaiany/iay oaiia?aoo?a
naiiai oaieiai ianyoea – aaaonoa a naaa?iie /anoe ii?y ?aaia i?eia?ii 15
°, a a thaeiuo ?aeiiao ieiei 25°.

Iaeia ec ioee/eoaeueiuo /a?o ssiiineiai ii?y – iaaieueoia /enei
aiaaeathueo a iaai ?ae. Iaeaieaa e?oiiay ec ieo – ?acaeieueiay (Noeooi).
Ii/oe ana ?aee ai?iua. Iaoa?eeiaue noie a ii?a ?aaai i?eia?ii 210
ei3/aiae e aeiaieueii ?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeai ii naciiai. Ii?aniythuaa
aeeyiea ?a/iuo aiae ia ii?neea iuouaaony aicea onoueaa ?ae.

Ia oi?ie?iaaiea aeae?ieiae/aneeo oneiaee ii?y nouanoaaiii aicaeaenoaoao
aiaeiiaiai /a?ac i?ieeau. Iniiaiie i?eoie aiae – ieiei 97% io iauaai
eiee/anoaa iinooiathuae a ii?a aiaeu ia?aoiaeeo /a?ac Ei?aeneee i?ieea.
Iaeaieueoee noie aiaeu inouanoaeyaony /a?ac Naiaa?neee i?ieea – 64%
iauaai ?anoiaea; /a?ac i?ieeau Eaia?oca, Iaaaeueneiai e Ei?aeneee
auoaeaao 34% aiae ec ssiiineiai ii?y.

Oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?y a iauai iiauoaaony n
naaa?i-caiaaea ia thai-ainoie. Ceiie iia eciaiyaony io aeeceeo e ioeth
io?eoeaoaeueiuo aaee/ei ia naaa?a e naaa?i-caiaaea aei 10 — 14 ° ia thaa
e thai-ainoiea. Oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu eeoue iacia/eoaeueii eciaiyaony io
iiaa?oiinoe aei aeia a naaa?iuo e naaa?i-caiaaeiuo ?aeiiao. A
oeaio?aeueiie e thaeiie /anoyo ii?y iiaa?oiinoiay oaiia?aoo?a 8—10°
nio?aiyaony aei ai?eciioia 100 — 150 i, a caoai iia ieaaii iiieaeaaony
aei 1,0 — 1,5° ia ai?eciioao 400 — 500 i e aeoaaea.

Eaoii oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe iiauoaaony io 1 8 — 20° ia naaa?a
aei 25 — 27° ia thaa ii?y. A naaa?iie /anoe ii?y oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu,
?aaiay 1 8 — 20° a iiaa?oiinoiii (0 — 15 i) neia, ?acei iiieaeaaony n
aeoaeiie e ia ai?eciioa 50 i ?aaia 4°, caoai iia iaaeeaiii iiieaeaaony
aei aeia. A oeaio?aeueiuo e thaeiuo ?aeiiao oaiia?aoo?a ieaaii
iiieaeaaony aei ai?eciioa 200 i, aaea iia eiaao cia/aiea i?eia?ii 6°,
aeoaaea aa iiieaeaiea noaiiaeony aieaa ?aceei e ia ai?eciioao 250 — 260
i iia aeinoeaaao aaee/eiu 1,5 — 2,0°, iiieaeaynue i?eia?ii aei 1 ° o
aeia.

N?aaeiyy nieaiinoue ssiiineiai ii?y ieiei 34 %0. N aeoaeiie nieaiinoue
eciaiyaony io iiaa?oiinoe aei aeia iacia/eoaeueii.

Aeaeaeaiea aiae ssiiineiai ii?y a iauai ia?acoao oee?eoeyoeeth i?ioea
/aniaie no?aeee n oeaio?ii a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y. *a?ac
Ei?aeneee i?ieea a ssiiineia ii?a iinooiatho aiaeu caiaaeiie aaoae
oaieiai oa/aiey Eo?inei e oe?ieei iioieii (Oeoneineia oa/aiea)
?ani?ino?aiythony ia naaa?i-ainoie aaeieue ssiiineeo ino?iaia. A
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ii?y Oeoneineia oa/aiea aicauoaiiinoueth ssia-oi
?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa aaoae. Ia oe?ioa 38 — 39° io naaa?iie aaoae
ioaeaeyaony iaaieueoie iioie, eaeouee ia caiaae, ia?aoiaeyuee a
i?ioeaioa/aiea aaeieue iieoino?iaa Ei?ay. Iniiaiay ianna aiae
Oeoneineiai oa/aiey auiineony ec ssiiineiai ii?y /a?ac i?ieeau
Naiaa?neee e Eaia?oca, a /anoue aiae yoiai oa/aiey aeinoeaaao Oaoa?neiai
i?ieeaa e, caaa?ioa ia tha aaeieue aa?aaa iaoa?eea, aeaao ia/aei
oieiaeiiio I?eii?neiio oa/aieth. THaeiaa caeeaa Iao?a Aaeeeiai
I?eii?neia oa/aiea iiai?a/eaaao ia ainoie e neeaaaony n naaa?iie
aaoaueth Oeoneineiai oa/aiey. Iacia/eoaeueiay /anoue aiae i?iaeieaeaao
aeaeaaoueny ia tha aei Ei?aeneiai i?ieeaa, aaea oaeaea aeeaaaony a
Oeoneineia oa/aiea.

A ioe?uoie /anoe oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiia ii?y aeaeaeaiea aiae ineiaeiyaony
ianoiuie e?oaiai?ioaie.

Nei?inoe iiaa?oiinoiuo oa/aiee ssiiineiai ii?y a iniiaiii iaoiaeyony a
i?aaeaeao 10 — 25 ni/n. A Ei?aeneii e Naiaa?neii i?ieeaao iie
oaaee/eaathony aei 50 — 100 ni/n.

Iaeaieaa neeueiia aieiaiea (aei 6 aaeeia e aieaa) a ssiiineii ii?a
iaaethaeaaony ai a?aiy oaeooiia e ceiie i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee oeeeeiiia.
Neeueiua aao?u oaeooiia ?acaeaatho aieiu aunioie 8 — 10 i. A oaieia
a?aiy i?aiaeaaeaao aieiaiea 1 -3 aaeea e iaaunieea aieiu.

A ii?a io/aoeeai au?aaeaiu i?eeeau. Iaeaieueoay aaee/eia i?eeeaa (ieiei
3 i) ioia/aaony o thaeiiai aoiaea a Ei?aeneee i?ieea. Aaee/eiu i?eeeaia
a Oaoa?neii i?ieeaa aeinoeaatho 2,3 — 2,8 i, a o ainoi/iuo aa?aaia
iieoino?iaa Ei?ay e I?eii?uey aaee/eia i?eeeaa ia i?aauoaao 0,5 i.

Naaa?iay e naaa?i-caiaaeiay /anoe ii?y, i?eeaaathuea e iaoa?eeo,
aaeaaiaeii ia 4 — 5 ianyoeaa iie?uaathony eueaeii, ieiuaaeue eioi?iai
caieiaao ieiei /aoaa?oe i?ino?ainoaa anaai ii?y. Iiyaeaiea eueaea
aiciiaeii oaea a ieoya?a, a iineaaeiee eaae caaea?aeeaaaony eiiaaea aei
na?aaeeiu ethiy. Iieiinoueth naiaiaeiui io eueaea ii?a auaaao oieueei a
ethea, aaaonoa e naioya?a. I?eiae ia?acoaony a aoooao e caeeaao
iaoa?eeiaiai iiaa?aaeuey, ii oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia eiaao.
Eaaeiaeoinoue ssiiineiai ii?y cia/eoaeueii eciaiyaony io aiaea e aiaeo.

AEeaioiue e ?anoeoaeueiue ie? ssiiineiai ii?y aiaao e ?aciiia?acai.
Aaniie e inaiueth ?acaeaaaony aieueoia eiee/anoai oieiaeiethaeauo
aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae, eaoii – oaieiethaeauo ia?eaeeieaauo. Yoi –
iniiaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee oeoiieaieoiia. Ciiieaieoii ii?y aeiaieueii
?aciiia?acai. Aai ianna i/aiue aaeeea e aeinoeaaao 1,5 — 2,5 a/i3 a
aa?oiai noiiao?iaii neia. N aeoaeiie aai ianna caiaoii oiaiueoaaony.

Ia iaaieueoeo aeoaeiao i?ea?aaeiuo aiae ?ani?ino?aiaiu caeaiua
aiaei?inee, ia aeoaeiao aei 30 i ?anooo ao?ua aiaei?inee, a aua aeoaaea
iaeoatho e?aniua aiaei?inee. ssiiineia ii?a aiaaoi eaieia?eae (ii?neie
eaionoie), aeey?eae, ooeonaie, aioaeueoeeae e oeeeioi?ie. Ia iaaieueoeo
aeoaeiao iaoe?iua ca?inee ia?acoao cinoa?a (ii?neay o?aaa) e
oeeeiniaaeeen (ii?neie eai), ianoaie ano?a/aaony na?aanniaay
aiaei?ineue, eonou eioi?ie aeinoeaatho 3 i auniou.

N?aaee aeiiiuo aeeaioiuo (aaioina) i?aiaeaaeatho iieethnee, oa?aeoa?iua
aeey iaeeiaiaeiie ciiu, aeoaaea aeeaoo aeaaiui ia?acii eaeieiaeea, a aua
aeoaaea – /a?ae e ?aeiia?aciua. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu aeaonoai?/aoua
iieethnee – ii?neea a?aaaoee e ono?eoeu, a oaeaea aieiaiiiaea iieethnee
– eaeueia?u e inueieiiae. Eaeieiaeea i?aaenoaaeaiu a iniiaiii o?aiaiaaie
e aieioo?eyie (ii?neeie iao?oeaie), a ?aeiia?aciua – e?aaaoeaie,
eaiaonoaie, iia?aie e e?aaaie.

A ssiiineii ii?a iaeoaao ieiei 600 aeaeia ?ua. Ia naaa?a e
naaa?i-caiaaea ii?y iaeoatho oieiaeiethaeaua aeaeu: oeoiieaaineay
naeueaeue, ieioae, eininaaua (eaoa, ai?aooa, /aau/a), o?anea, iaaaaa,
eaiaaea. A thaeiuo ?aeiiao aeeaoo oaieiethaeaua ?uau: na?aeeia-eaane,
yiiineee ai/ion, neoia?ey, nae?a. Eaoii a ii?a caoiaeyo o?iie/aneea
aeaeu: eaoo/ay ?uaa, ooiaoe, eoia-?uaa. Iaeaieueoaa aeaeiaia
?aciiia?acea ?ua naienoaaiii thaeiie /anoe ii?y, Ei?aeneiio i?ieeao e
i?ea?aaeiui aiaeai ino?iaa Oiinth.

A ssiiineii ii?a iiaeii ano?aoeoue ii?neiai eioeea, ia?io, aeaeueoeiia e
aeaaea eeoa.

Ia iaoa?eeiaii e ino?iaiuo aa?aaao ssiiineiai ii?y ?aaioaao iiiai
i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ooieoeeiie?oao ?acaeoia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, ?aniieiaeaiu e?oiiua e iaaieueoea
ii?neea ii?ou. Ia aiaeiuo i?ino?ainoaao ii?y ?ani?ino?aiaii ?uaieianoai
e aeiau/a ae?oaeo ii?ai?iaeoeoia, a a aai i?ea?aaeiie ciia i?aeoeeotho
ia?eeoeueoo?o. Ii?a a ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaieyo ia?anaeatho ii?neea iooe,
ii eioi?ui o?ainii?oiue oeio inouanoaeyao e?oaeiaiaee/iua ia?aaicee
a?ocia e iannaaee?ia. Aneaaenoaea eioaineaiie oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia aa?aaao e a naiii aannaeia ii?a eniuouaaao
cia/eoaeueioth aio?iiiaaiioth iaa?oceo, eioi?ay au?aaeaaony aeaaiui
ia?acii a caa?yciaiee aiae, a ii?ie i?iyaeyaony a ia?aoeeiiaeueiii
?uaieianoaa e aeiau/a iaeioi?uo ii?ai?iaeoeoia.

Ii eiathueiny aeaiiui, a 199.6 a. a ssiiineia ii?a auei na?ioaii anaai 1
82 iei i3 noi/iuo aiae, ec eioi?uo 148 iei i3 o?aaotho i/enoee. Ni
noi/iuie aiaeaie a ii?a iinooieee caa?yciythuea aauanoaa: ieo?aou,
iaooai?iaeoeou, aeaeaci, neioaoe/aneea iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiua aauanoaa,
oaiieu.

Iniiaiua enoi/ieee caa?yciaiey – i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey,
eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai, ii?ou, noaea, yeaeo?inoaioeee e o. i.
Caa?yciythuea aauanoaa iiiaaeatho a ii?a iaiin?aaenoaaiii n aa?aaa ni
noi/iuie aiaeaie e i?eiinyony ?aeaie. A nayce n yoei iaeaieaa caa?yciaiu
i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu aicea e?oiiuo ai?iaeia e ii?oia, a ?aeiiao ?acaeoiai
naeueneiai oicyenoaa e a i?eonoueaauo ciiao. Oae, caeea Iao?a Aaeeeiai
caa?yciytho noiee Aeaaeeainoiea, a oaeaea ?aee A?oaiiaea, Ia?oecaiea,
?acaeieueiay. Na?ioaiiua a ii?a aiaeu i?eiinyo n niaie cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai caa?yciythueo aauanoa (iaooai?iaeoeou, ieo?aou, aeaeaci e
ae?.), i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua eiioeaio?aoeee eioi?uo auee i?aauoaiu a 2
— 3 ?aca, a a ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiao, iai?eia?, a aoooa Cieioie ?ia, a
cia/eoaeueii aieueoeo ?acia?ao. Aiaeu yoiai caeeaa iau/ii
eaaeeoeoee?otho eae a?yciua, a a iaeioi?uo ?aeiiao aeaaea eae i/aiue
a?yciua.

A cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caa?yciaiu aiaeu Oaoa?neiai i?ieeaa. Caeanue
iaaethaeaeinue i?aauoaiea i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie eiioeaio?aoeee
iaooai?iaeoeoia a 6 — 9 ?ac, oaiieia a 5 ?ac. Aiaeu Oaoa?neiai i?ieeaa a
i?ea?aaeiie ciia, a ?aeiia Aeaenaiae?ianea-Naoaeeineiai, ioeaieaathony
eae a?yciua.

Aunieay caa?yciaiiinoue naienoaaiia aiaeai Aio?neiai e Onno?eeneiai
caeeaia. Caiaoiia i?aauoaiea i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie eiioeaio?aoeee auei
ioia/aii ii iaooai?iaeoeoai, oaiieai, iaaee, oeeieo, eaaeieth. Aiaeu
yoeo caeeaia ia?aaeei ioiinyo e a?yciui.

Ioe?uoua aiaeu ii?y caa?yciaiu a nouanoaaiii iaiueoae noaiaie, /ai a
ioia/aiiuo i?ea?aaeiuo ciiao. A ?aeiiao iaeeaeaiiuo noaeioiaeiuo o?ann
ia iiaa?oiinoe ano?a/aaony iaooyiay ieaiea. Yeinenoaiu ioe?uoiai ii?y
iuouatho aeeyiea caa?yciaiey, ii anoanoaaiiia naiii/euaiea iiea
iicaieyao niaoeeaeenoai ioeaieaaoue ninoiyiea eiio?iee?oaiuo ii?neeo
yeinenoai eae noaaeeueiia.

Aeieiae/aneea aiaaonoaa ssiiineiai ii?y, eae e ae?oaeo ii?ae,
eniuouaatho iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea eae i?e?iaeiuo, oae e aio?iiiaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia. E i?eia?o, iiae niaieoiiui aicaeaenoaeai yoeo oaeoi?ia
neiaeeeinue ninoiyiea aeoaieie aeai?annee naeueaee caeeaa Iao?a
Aaeeeiai.

Aianoa n oai a ssiiineii ii?a a oa/aiea iiiaeo eao aaaeoo eioaineaioth
aeiau/o oeaiiuo aeaeia ?uau e ii?ai?iaeoeoia ?uaaee ?aciuo no?ai. A
iineaaeiea aiaeu nenoaiaoe/anee ia?ooathony i?aaeea ?uaieianoaa,
ioia/athony neo/ae cia/eoaeueiiai ia?aeiaa, ?ani?ino?aieeinue
a?aeiiuea?noai. Ana yoi a ecaanoiie ia?a enoiueei nu?ueaaoth aaco
oeaiiie ?uau, iniaaiii eininaauo. Noaea i/aaeaeiie iaiaoiaeeiinoue
no?iaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uaieianoaa a oeaeyo ainnoaiiaeaiey e oaaee/aiey
caiania eininaauo e ae?oaeo aeaeia. Ianoiua i?aaiu e ?uaioicyenoaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey i?eieiatho caueoiua ia?u. Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii iauaaeeieoue
oneeey ?aciuo no?ai, i?aaeaea anaai auoiaeyueo e ssiiineiio ii?th, a
aeaea io?aiu e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey aai aeieiae/aneeo
aiaaonoa.

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