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Черное море

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Ae?aaiaa?a/aneia iacaaiea ii?y — Iiio Aeneineee (a?a/. «Iaainoai?eeiiia
ii?a»). A «Aaia?aoee» No?aaiia (7.3.6) i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi oaeia
iacaaiea ii?a iieo/eei ec-ca o?oaeiinoae n iaaeaaoeeae, a oaeaea aeeeeo
a?aaeaeaaiuo ieai?i, ianaeyaueo aai aa?aaa. Iicaeiaa, iinea oaea/iiai
inaiaiey aa?aaia a?a/aneeie eieiienoaie, ii?a noaei iacuaaoueny Iiioii
Yaeneineei (a?a/., «Ainoai?eeiiia ii?a»). Ai?i/ai, o No?aaiia (1.2.10)
anoue oiiieiaiey i oii, /oi a aioe/iinoe *??iia ii?a iacuaaee e i?inoi
«ii?ai» (pontos).

Einie/aneee nieiie *??iiai ii?y, nicaeaiiue NASA MODISA Ae?aaiae ?one
X—XVI aaeao a eaoiienyo ano?a/aeinue iacaaiea «?onneia ii?a», a
iaeioi?uo enoi/ieeao ii?a iineo iacaaiea «Neeoneiai».

Nia?aiaiiia iacaaiea «*??iia ii?a» iaoei nai? niioaaonoaothuaa
ioia?aaeaiea a aieueoeinoaa ycueia: aiea. *a?ii ii?a, ?oi. Marea Neagra,
aiae. Black Sea, oo?. Karadeniz, oe?. *i?ia ii?a e ae?. Naiua ?aiiea
enoi/ieee, oiiieiathuea yoi iacaaiea, ioiinyony e XIII aaeo, iaeiaei
anoue ii?aaeae?iiua i?eciaee oiai, /oi iii eniieueciaaeinue e ?aiaa.
Nouanoaoao oeaeue ?yae aeiioac ioiineoaeueii i?e/ei aicieeiiaaiey oaeiai
iacaaiey:

Oo?ee e ae?oaea caaiaaaoaee, iuoaaoeany iiei?eoue ianaeaiea iiaa?aaeuey
ii?y, ano?a/aee y?inoiue ioii? ni noi?iiu /a?eania, aaeuaia e ae?oaeo
ieai?i, ca /oi e i?icaaee ii?a Ea?aaeai-aec — *??iui, iaainoai?eeiiui.

Ae?oaie i?e/eiie, ii iiaieth ?yaea enneaaeiaaoaeae, iiaeao auoue oio
oaeo, /oi ai a?aiy ooi?iia aiaea a ii?a neeueii oaiiaao. Ai?i/ai, ooi?iu
a *??iii ii?a ia neeoeii /anou, a oaiiaao aiaea ai a?aiy ao?ue ai anao
ii?yo caiee.

Au? iaeia aeiioaca i?ienoiaeaeaiey iacaaiey iniiauaaaony ia oii, /oi
iaoaeee/aneea i?aaeiaou (iai?eia?, yei?y), iiouaiiua a aiaeo ii?y
aeoaaea 150 i ia aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, iie?uaaeenue iae?oii /??iiai oeaaoa
aeaaiaea?y aeaenoaeth na?iaiaei?iaea.

Ae?oaay aeiioaca naycaia n i?eiyoui a ?yaea aceaoneeo no?ai «oeaaoiaui»
iaicia/aieai noi?ii naaoa, aaea «/??iue» iaicia/ae naaa?, niioaaonoaaiii
*??iia ii?a — naaa?iia ii?a. Nouanoaoao oo?aoeeay eaaaiaea, niaeanii
eioi?ie a aiaeao *??iiai ii?y iieieony aiaaou?neee ia/, eioi?ue aue
a?ioai ooaea ii i?inueaa oie?aaoaai aieoaaieea Aee. Ec-ca yoiai ii?a
aieioaony, iuoaynue auieaniooue ec naieo io/ei nia?oiiiniia i?oaeea, e
ie?aoeaaaony a /??iue oeaao

Aaieiae n/eoatho, /oi aeanyoee ieeeeiiia eao iacaae ia ianoa nia?aiaiiuo
N?aaeecaiiiai, *a?iiai, Acianeiai, Eanieeneiai e A?aeueneiai ii?ae aue
caeea ae?aaiaeoaai aeaaioneiai ieaaia Oyoen. Iooai aeeeoaeueiie
yaiethoeee yoio caeea iinoaiaiii ae?iaeeny, e, iaeiiaoe, i?eia?ii
ieeeeii eao iacaae, a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaiey Eaaeacneeo e E?uineeo ai?
*a?iia ii?a iainiaeeinue a caieiooue, ii/oe i?aniue aiaeiai.

Ainaiue ouny/ eao iacaae, aa?iyoii, iinea neeueiaeoaai caieao?ynaiey,
ia?aciaaeny i?ieea Ainoi?, e nieaiua n?aaeecaiiiii?neea aiaeu noaee
niaoeaaoueny n /a?iiii?neeie.

Aieaa 300 ?ae e ?a/ooae ianoo naie i?aniua aiaeu a ii?a, naiua e?oiiua —
Aeoiae, Aeiano?, THaeiue Aoa, Aeiai?.

*??iia ii?a ?aniieiaeaii aioo?e Aa?iaceaoneiai iaoa?eea e caieiaao
ieiuaaeue a 423 ouny/e eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia.

Iauay i?ioyaeaiiinoue aa?aaiaie eeiee ninoaaeyao 4340 ei, ec ia? 475 ei
iaoiaeyony a ?innee.

Ia?yaeo n Eanieeneei e Acianeei ii?yie iii ioiineony e thaeiui ii?yi
?innee.

*a?ac Ea?/aineee e Ainii?neee i?ieeau *??iia ii?a iaiaieaaaony aiaeaie
niioaaonoaaiii n Acianeei e I?aii?iui ii?yie.

*??iia ii?a eiaao ii/oe ieaaineoth neiaao e i?ic?a/iinoue ia aeoaeia aei
25 i, a a aeoaeiao, eae e a ieaaiao, noieo aa/iue i?ae.

*??iia ii?a eiaao ?acaeaeaiey ii aeoaeia ia aeaa ciiu — eenei?iaeioth
(aei aeoaeiu 150–200 i) e eeo?iioth aeecie na?iaiaei?iaeioth (aeoaeiu
ieaea 200 i), eioi?ay caieiaao 87% aai aiaeiie iannu.

Ieioiinoue aiaeu n aeoaeiie oaaee/eaaaony, e any a? ianna iaoiaeeony a
canoieiii ninoiyiee, aiaeiiaiai iacia/eoaeai, iao eenei?iaea,
aiaei?ineae e aeeauo nouanoa, ca eneeth/aieai aaeoa?ee iee?inie?a.
Iaeoathuea a aieueoii eiee/anoaa a aeoaeia ii?y, iie ?aceaaatho o?oiu
aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee. A ?acoeueoaoa eo aeayoaeueiinoe auaeaeyaony
na?iaiaei?iae, eioi?ue iaeaieeaaaony ia aeia.

N/eoaaony, /oi ca ieeeeiiu eao aaeoa?ee iaeiieee a ii?a aieaa ieeeea?aea
oiii na?iaiaei?iaea. Na?iaiaei?iae — yaeiaeoue aac, e?iia oiai, ii
iiaeao ai?aoue e ac?uaaoueny. Oai ia iaiaa, oa?ica ac?uaa *??iiio ii?th
ia a?iceo, oae eae i?ioeaio eiioeaio?aoeee na?iaiaei?iaea neeoeii iae
aeey aeinoeaeaiey oaeiai yooaeoa.

Oae /oi oieueei aa?oiee neie ii?y, ninoaaeythuee i?eia?ii 13% io iauaai
iau?ia aiaeu, canae?i oei?ie e oaoiie. Aeae?iaeieiae ian/eouaatho a i?i
/ooue aieueoa 250 aeaeia aiaei?ineae e ieiei 2-o ouny/ aeaeia aeeauo
i?aaieciia.

A *??iii ii?a nie?iinoue aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao 18,5
a/e, o iiaa?aaeee iia iau/ii ianeieueei iaiueoa, iaeiaei ia aiaineii
iaeeiaiaeuea n?aaeiyy nieaiinoue aeinoeaaao 18,7 a/e. *a?iiii?neay aiaea
a aeaa ?aca iaiaa nie?iay, /ai aiaea a Ie?iaii ieaaia, aaea o?iaaiue
nieae ninoaaeyao 35–36 a/e.

Aieaa ieceay nie?iinoue a *??iii ii?a ii n?aaiaieth n ieaaiii
iauyniyaony aieueoei iinooieaieai i?aniuo aiae ec ?ae, a oaeaea noiea
aiaeu ec Acianeiai ii?y n aieaa ieceie ieia?aeecaoeeae. I?aniua aiaeu
oiaea niaea?aeao niee, iaeiaei a i/aiue iaeuo eiee/anoaao, oae, a
o?eaeoeaoe eeo?ao aeiaeaeaaie (i?aniie) aiaeu eiee/anoai nieae
ninoaaeyao anaai 1 a.

Io /aai caaeneo oeaao aiaeu a ii?a? Iaeioi?ua aeoiatho, /oi io oeaaoa
iaaa. Yoi ia nianai oae. Oeaao aiaeu caaeneo io oiai, eae ii?neay aiaea
e a? i?eiane ?annaeaatho nieia/iue naao. *ai aieueoa a aiaea i?eianae,
ianea e ae?oaeo acaaoaiiuo /anoeoe, oai caeaiaa aiaea. *ai aiaea nieiiaa
e /eua, oai iia neiaa. A *??iia ii?a aiaaeaao iiiai e?oiiuo ?ae, eioi?ua
ii?aniytho aiaeo e ianoo n niaie iiiai ?acee/iuo acaanae, iiyoiio aiaea
a i?i — nei?aa caeaiiaaoi-neiyy, a o aa?aaia — aieaa cae?iay n
?acee/iuie iooaieaie ecoi?oaeiiai

*a?iia ii?a ii ninoaao e oa?aeoa?o ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeauo i?aaieciia
i/aiue naiaia?acii e iaiiaoi?eii. Ie iaeii ii?a ia Caiea ia eiaao
?acaeaeaiey ii aeoaeia ia aeaa ciiu – eenei?iaeioth (aei aeoaeiu 150-200
i) e eeoaiioth aeecie na?iaiaei?iaeioth (ieaea 200 i), caieiathuoth 87%
aai aiaeiie iannu.

A ?anii?yaeaiee aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee anaai 13% iauaia aiaeu. Eiaiii a
eenei?iaeiii neia iaeoatho ianeieueei nioai ieaieoiiiuo e aaioiniuo
aiaei?ineae e aieaa 2500 aeaeia aeeaioiuo. A /enea iineaaeieo 500 aeaeia
iaeiieeaoi/iuo i?aaieciia, ieiei 1900 – aaniicaiii/iuo, 185 aeaeia ?ua e
4 aeaea ieaeiieoathueo. E oeoiieaieoiio ioiinyony caeaiua, neia-caeaiua,
e?aiiaaeaooeeiaua, ia?eaeeiaaua e aeeaoiiiaua aiaei?inee. A ciiieaieoiia
– ee?a aieaa 30 aeaeia ?ua, iaaeocu, ii?neea /a?ae, aaneiiiaea ?a/ee,
ee/eiee iieethneia, /a?aae, ?aeia e “aeiiaieoea” naa/aiey ii?y
iaeiieeaoi/iay iieoeethea, ia aeieth eioi?ie i?eoiaeeony a ioaeaeueiua
ia?eiaeu iieiaeia aana ciiieaieoiia.

Naiua ?ani?ino?aiaiiua n?aaee ao?ii ?acaeaathueony eaoii aiaei?ineae –
yenoaeaeea, ia?eaeeieoi e oea?aoeeoi. Aeeaoiiiaua eiatho aeaa naciiiuo
ieea a ?aciiiaeaiee: ?aiiae aaniie e inaiueth. A oaa?aea-ia?oa, ai a?aiy
aniuoee ?acaeoey oeoiieaieoiia, iiaeii iaaethaeaoue eciaiaiea oeaaoa
aiaeu a i?ea?aaeiie /anoe ii?y – ec aieoaie iia noaiiaeony ao?ie. Yoi
naycaii n ianniaui aeaeaieai ieaieoiiiuo aiaei?ineae, e iacuaatho yoi
yaeaiea “oeaaoaieai aiaeu”. Iniaaiii eioaineaii a yoi a?aiy, ianeieueei
?ac a nooee, aeaeyony oaeea ianniaua aeaeu, eae neaeaoiiaia, oaoioea?inu
e ?ecinieaiey. Ianniaia ?aciiiaeaiea ciiieaieoiia i?eo?i/aii a iniiaiii
e eaoiei ianyoeai.

E aaioino ioiinyony i?ee?aieaiiua, naiaiaeii eaaeauea ia aeia,
caeaiuaathueany, ia?aaeaeaathueany ii aeio e ieaaathuea iaae naiui aeiii
aeeaioiua. A ninoaaa aaioiniuo aiaei?ineae – caeaiua, neia-caeaiua,
ao?ua, e?aniua e aeaa aeaea oeaaoeiauo aiaei?ineae – yinoa?a e ?oiiey.
Anaai aaioiniuo 304 aeaea, e naiua ?ani?ino?aiaiiua n?aaee ieo –
oeeeioi?a e oeenoice?a. Ia?aay ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 95%, aoi?ay – 4% io
anae iannu aeiiiuo aiaei?ineae. Oeeeioi?a nin?aaeioi/aia a
naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y, oeenoice?a ano?a/aaony iianaianoii, ii
iniaaiii aa iiiai o thaeiuo aa?aaia E?uia. Ca?inee aa – ethaeiia
ianoiiaeoaiea iaeueeia aieaa /ai 30 aeaeia ?ua, e ana iioiio, /oi aieaa
ei?iiia ianoi iouneaoue a ii?a o?oaeii. N 1 ea oeenoice?u iiaeii
nia?aoue 9000 aeoniuo /a?aae iieeoao, 3000 iaeeeo iieethneia e aei 2000
?aeiia?aciuo.

A ninoaaa aaioiniuo aeeaioiuo naiua ?acee/iua aeaeu aaniicaiii/iuo:
?a/ee aieiieaau, iiiaiuaoeieiaua /a?ae, ?aee, anoeeaeee, ei?iaiiaeee,
aeae?ieaeu, aeoeiee e iieethnee. Ec a?thoiiiaeo – ?aiaia, ianna, ?ennia,
oeaeoi, eeoaeneay-oaii/ea e ae?. Ec ieanoei/aoiaeaaa?iuo – ieaeey
ii?neie a?aaaoie, aaion, oaean e aua iiiaea aeaeu iieethneia. E aaioino
oaeaea ioiinyony aeiiiua, aeeaouea o aeia ?uau, – neaou, eaiaaea,
noeoaiea, ii?neie a?o, ei?iaea-caacaei/ao, ii?neie ae?aeii. A ii?a ana
iiiaiia?acea ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo oanii acaeiinaycaii ae?oa n ae?oaii e
ninoaaeyao aaeeioth yeieiae/aneoth nenoaio. Ie iaeii caaii ec iaa ia
iiaeao auoue ecuyoi aac nouanoaaiiiai a?aaea aeey ae?oaeo, e
/eneaiiinoue, e caei?iauea eaaeaeiai ec aeaeia ii?aaeaeythonyyoeie aea
iieacaoaeyie aeey ae?oaeo aeaeia, oae eae a ii?a nouanoaoao aaeeiay
ieuaaay oeaiue.

*a?iia ii?a iaeii ec naiuo iaeiiaeoaaiuo ii?ae ia caiea. Ia iaeei
eoae/aneee eeeiiao? /a?iiii?neie aiaeu i?eoiaeeony anaai o?eaeoeaoue
naiue eeeia?aiiia aeieiae/aneie iannu. Oae iieo/aaony iioiio, /oi
aeeciue a *a?iii ii?a nin?aaeioi/aia oieueei a oceie i?ea?aaeiie iieina
a iaeanoe iaaieueoeo aeoaei. Ieaea aeaoo nioai iao?ia aeecie iao.

Ii, ianiio?y ia n?aaieoaeueioth aaaeiinoue ii?neie oei?u e oaoiu,
oieueei aiaei?ineae a *a?iii ii?a ian/eouaatho aieaa 250 aeaeia. Anoue
aiaei?inee, iaeoathuea o aa?aaa – ei?aeeia, oeenoice?a, ii?neie naeao,
eao?ainey, anoue oa, eioi?ui ioaeia aeoaeia – oeeeioi?a, eee ii?neie
aeiia?aae, a anoue oaeea, eioi?ua i?inoi ieaaatho a aiaea, iai?eia?
ia?eaeaiay. Eioa?anii, /oi eiaiii iia nicaeaao inaiiaa naa/aiea ii?y.
Aianoa n ia?eaeaiaae a aiaea iaeoatho e naaoyueany e?ioioiua oeuieee,
iieoeeoee, eee ii/anaaoee. Anee iooeeueo?iaaoue eo ec aiaeu e aunooeoue,
oi iie oae e aoaeoonaaoeoueny oieiaeiui naaoii. Ca naa/aiea ioaa/aao
aauanoai, eioi?ia o/aiua iacaaee “ethoeeoa?ei”, a /anoue iiaaeeoaey aaea
– Ethoeeoa?a.

Ii ii/ai naaoyony e iaeioi?ua aeaeu iaaeoc e a?aaiaaeeia. *aoa anaai a
ii?a ano?a/athony iaaeocu n iacaaieyie ao?aeey e ei?ia?io. Ei?ia?io –
naiay e?oiiay /a?iiii?neay iaaeoca, a ao?aeey naiay iaeaiueeay. Anee
ao?aeey ?aaeei eiaaea auaaao aieueoa /ai 30 ni a aeeaiao?a, oi ?acia?
eoiiea ei?ia?ioa iiaeao aeinoeaaoue e iieoiao?a. Ao?aeey ia yaeiaeoa, a
aio ei?ia?io iiaeao iaianoe iaeia, iioiaeee ia iaeia e?aieaie. Iaeia
iiaeao aucaaoue eaaeia aeaeaiea, iie?aniaiea, a eiiaaea iiaoo iiyaeoueny
e aieaeu?e. *oiau ia eniuouaaoue ia naaa aeaenoaea yaea yoie e?aneaie
iaaeocu n /ooue oeieaoiaui eoiieii, aeinoaoi/ii i?e ano?a/a n iae
ioaanoe aa io naay ?oeie, acyaoenue ca aa?oithth /anoue eoiiea, ia
eioi?ie iao uoiaeaoe.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua iieethnee a *a?iii ii?a – yoi, eiia/ii,
ieaeee, ?aiaiu, ono?eoeu e a?aaaoee. Ana iie nuaaeiaiu. Ono?eoe e ieaeee
niaoeeaeueii ?acaiaeyo. Ono?eoeu aeeaoo aei 30 eao. Iie i/aiue aeeao/e:
iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny aac ii?y aieueoa aeaoo iaaeaeue. Iiaeao auoue,
iiyoiio eo e aaeyo aeeauie. Ono?eoeu ia *a?iiii?neii iiaa?aaeuea Eoaaie
ano?a/athony n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei. Iaeiaei ieaeeyie iaeaieaiu ana
i?ea?aaeiua eaiie e ii?oiaua i?e/aeu. Ieaeee aeeaoo eao 7-10 e ia aeon
ia oae ecuneaiu, eae ono?eoeu. Eo ia?aae aaeie ioaeii aa?eoue eee
aea?eoue. Eiiaaea a e?oiiie ieaeee iiaeii iouneaoue iaeeoth
aeai/oaeeieo. Iau/ii iia auaaao ?iciaiai oeaaoa e iai?aaeeueiie oi?iu.
Ieaeee – ianoiyuea aeeaua oeeueo?u. Iie i?iioneatho /a?ac naay ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai ii?neie aiaeu. I?e yoii a eo oaeao iaeaieeaaaony ana, /oi a
yoie aiaea niaea?aeaeinue. Iiyoiio eaeiieoueny ieaeeyie, aueiaeaiiuie a
ii?oo eee aaeece noieia i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee, ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony.

A?aaaoee oiaea ii-naiaio eioa?aniu. Yoio iieethne iiaeao ia?aiauaoueny
eae ?aaeoeaiue nia?yae. N neeie a?aaaoie caoeiiuaaao noai?ee naiae
?aeiaeiu, e no?oy aiaeu ia?aiineo aai ia iao?-ae?oaie aia?aae. O
a?aaaoeia iiiai aeac. Eo ieiei nioie. Ca/ai iie aio ioaeiu – iaiiiyoii.
Yoio iieethne neai. Anee aeac oaeaeeoue, oi ia aai ianoa au?anoao iiaue.

N Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea aianoa n ei?aaeyie ia *a?iia ii?a i?eaue iieethne
?aiaia. Oaia?ue ii caiieiiee ana iiaa?aaeuea Eaaeaca. ?aiaia nuaaeiaia.
Ec iaa iiaeii i?eaioiaeoue aeoniue noi, a iyni aa iaiiieiaao inao?eio.
?aiaia – oeuiee, i?e/ai iauaeoii aa ioiou neoaeao ieaeee e ono?eoeu.
Iieiaeua ?aiaiu i?inaa?eeaatho ?aeiaeio aea?oau e auieaatho
niaea?aeeiia, a ac?ineua iniae auaeaeytho neecue, eioi?ay ia?aeecoao
noai?ee iieethnea e iicaieyao ?aiaia nuanoue oicyeia. N/eoaaony, /oi
?aiaia – aeeaeaeoee ?iaenoaaiiee oao naiuo en/acioaoeo iieethneia, ec
?aeiaei eioi?uo ae?aaiea oeieeeeoeu iieo/aee naie ciaiaieoue io?io?iue
e?aneoaeue. Ioe?uoea io?io?a i?eienuaatho oeieeeeneiio aiao Iaeueea?oo.
Iaeiaaeaeu ii ni naiae ethaeiie niaaeie aoeye ii aa?aao ii?y. Ian ?ueny
a i?ea?aaeiuo aiaei?ineyo. Aae?oa Iaeueea?o caiaoee, /oi ec ianoe niaaee
noaeaao no?oeea e?iae. Ii iiaeicaae naiaai ethaeioea e iiiuoaeny
noa?aoue e?iaue. Ieacaeinue, /oi ieeaeie ?aiu iao. I?inoi niaaea
?aca?ucea ?aeiaeio, ec eioi?ie auoaeea io?io?ii-e?iaaaay e?anea. Nae?ao
aeiau/e Iaeueea?o ia?aaeae oeieeeeoeai, eioi?ua niiaee ca a?aiy
nouanoaiaaiey naiaai ia?iaea iieiinoueth ia?a?aaioaoue anao
?iaenoaaiieeia ?aiaiu a e?aneo.

Ia *a?iii ii?a ano?a/athony e e?aau. “Iaoe”, i?aii?iue, eaiaiiue,
o?aayiie, enaioi, e?aniiei?ue. Anaai 18 aeaeia. Caeanue iie ia
aeinoeaatho e?oiiuo ?acia?ia. Naiue e?oiiue – e?aniiei?ue. Ii aeaaea ii
?aaeei aeinoeaaao ?acia?a aieaa 20 ni a aeeaiao?a.

Ecaanoii i?eia?ii 180 aeaeia ?ua, eioi?ua iaeoatho ia *a?iii ii?a.
Aaeoaa, inao?, naa?thaa, naeueaeue, oaina (/a?iiii?neee ai/ion), oi?io,
otheueea, eaoaeue, aa?aaoey, noaa?eaea, neoia?ey, eaiaaea, iaeaieaea,
ooiaoe. E?aeia ?aaeei a *a?iia ii?a caieuaaao ?uaa-ia/. Ano?a/athony a
ii?a e oa?e – ?a/iie e ii?neie. N?aaee ?ua, ia eiathueo aieueoiai
i?iiuneiaiai cia/aiey, iiaeii ioiaoeoue au/ea, ii?neiai a?oa, ii?neoth
eaeo, ii?neiai eiiueea, eiethoeo, ii?neiai ae?aeiia, caeaiooeo –
iaeaiueeoth y?eoth ?uaeo, niiniaioth naieie coaaie ?aca?ucaoue ?aeiaeiu
iieethneia, ii?neiai iaoooa (o?eaeo), ii?neiai /a?oa.

?aiueoa a *a?iii ii?a aeeei oeaeuo 3 aeaea eaoaee, ii ec-ca i?iiunea e
caa?yciaiey ii?y /eneaiiinoue eaoaeaaiai noaaea noaea eaoano?ioe/anee
oiaiueoaoueny. *oiau iii?aaeoue iieiaeaiea, ec ssiiineiai ii?y aue
i?eaacai iaeaiaan. Yoi oiaea eaoaeue, ii aieaa iai?eoioeeaay. Ii
i?ae?anii aeeeeiaoece?iaaeny, ?anieiaeeeny e noae oaia?ue iauaeoii
i?iiunea ?uaaeia. E n/anoueth, e iiaieiauea /a?iiii?neie eaoaee a
iineaaeiea aiaeu iinoaiaiii ainnoaiaaeeaaaony.

Caacaei/ao, eioi?iai eiiaaea iacuaatho ii?neie ei?iaie, ca?uaaaony
aeoaiei a ee, aunoaaea ia iiaa?oiinoue iaeei eeoue onee, iaiiieiathuee
/a?ay. Yoei oneeii ii i?eaeaeaao e naaa iaeaiueeeo ?uaie e caaeaouaaao
eo.

Ii?neay eaea e ii?neie eiiae ioee/athony io ae?oaeo ?ua oai, /oi eo
naiee auiaouaatho ee?o ia a aiaeo, a a iniaua eiaeiua neeaaeee ia nieia
naioeia, e naioeu auiaoeaatho ee?o aei auaaaeaiey iaeueeia. Eioa?anii
oaeaea, /oi aeaca eiiueeia e eaeu iiaoo a?auaoueny aaoiiiiii e niio?aoue
a ?aciua noi?iiu.

Aeoe a *a?iii ii?a aeaa aeaea. Eao?ai (eieth/ay aeoea, ii?neay niaaea) e
iaeaiueeay iyoienoay aeoea noeeeeeoi (eioa/uey aeoea). Eao?ai eiiaaea
iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 2 iao?ia, a eioa/uey aeoea aieueoa iao?a ieeiaaea ia
au?anoaao. E eao?ai e noeeeeeoi aeey /aeiaaea ia iianiu, oioy ii
ioiioaieth e ?uaa aaaeoo naay eae ianoiyuea ceua e aeanoieea oeuieee.
Aaeyo ana, /oi oaaaeeony, aeaaea anee naie nuou. Iyni eao?aia aeiaieueii
aeoniia. Iniaaiii oi?ioe ieaaieee, ia/aiue e aaeue. A ia/aie eao?aia
niaea?aeeony aauanoai, eioi?ia iiiiaaao aieueiui iaeioi?uie oi?iaie
?aea. Nouanoaoao aeaaea i?aia?ao “eao?aen”, eioi?ue ecaioaaeeaaaony ec
ia/aie /a?iiii?neie aeoeu.

Eao?ai eiaao aeeeiiia e no?ieiia oaei iaoaeaaiie oi?iu. Ianoue ?aciauaia
nieco caino?aiiiai ?uea e eiaao oi?io iieoianyoea n e?ayie eciaioouie
iacaae. Aioo?e ianoe eiaaony ianeieueei ?yaeia ino?uo coaia. Oaei
iie?uoi iaeaiueeeie ino?uie eieth/eaie. Oeaao oaea na?iaaoi-ei?e/iaaue,
aieaa oaiiue ia nieia, ii aieai ?aca?inaiu aaeua iyoia. A?thoi naaoeia.
Eao?ai ioiineony e aeeai?iaeyuei ?uaai. Iaeia naiea ?iaeaeaao aei 15
iaeueeia ?acia?ii ieiei 25 ni. Eao?ai iau/ii aea?aeeony a i?eaeiiiuo
neiyo aiaeu noayie, ii /anoi iiaeii ano?aoeoue aai e o iiaa?oiinoe.
Aaniie e inaiueth eao?ai iiaeoiaeeo e aa?aaai, iau/ii i?e oaiia?aoo?a
aiaeu aeeceie e 15 N. Ceiie noae yoie ?uau aea?aeaony ia cia/eoaeueiuo
(100-150 i ) aeoaeiao, aaea iie ei?iyony iaeeie ii?neie ?uaie
(noaa?eaea, oaina). Eaoii eao?ai aea?aeeony ia aeoaeiao a 40-45 iao?ia e
ei?ieony oi?ioii e ia?eaiaie iaauaea?aeeaathueo cia/eoaeueiiai iiauoaiey
oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu.

A ninoaaa 180 aeaeia /a?iiii?neeo ?ua i?iiuneiauie a 50-o aiaeao
n/eoaeenue eaiaaea-eaeeai, eaoaeue, aaeoaa, na?aai, naeueaeue, au/ee,
ii?neie ieoiue, a?o, oaiiue ai?aueue, noeoaiea, aoa?iia, eeeueea,
noaa?eaea, oaina. I?ioei anaai 40 eao, e a /enea i?iiuneiauo a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy inoaeenue aaeaa ee ia o?e iineaaeieo aeaea. Ana inoaeueiua
i?iiuneiaia cia/aiea ii ?aciui i?e/eiai iioa?yee.

Noaa?eaea. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia ii anae i?ea?aaeiie ciia *a?iiai ii?y,
ia?acoao ?yae ianoiuo noaae. Aeeeia ?uaee 10-17 ni, aan 15-75 a, aeeaao
io iaeiiai aei o?ao eao. Ia?anoeony n iay ii aaaono. Ee?eiie aei 50
ouny/. Ieoaaony ciiieaieoiiii e iaeeie ?uaaoeie.

Iaeaieaea. ?iaenoaaiieoea neoia?ee. Neeueiue, auno?i ieaaathuee oeuiee.
Aeinoeaaao 60-80-naioeiao?iaie aeeeiu, aeeaao aieaa 10 eao. A *a?iii
ii?a ei?ieony e eaoii ia?anoeony, ii inaiueth e iieiaeue, e ac?ineua
ooiaeyo e thao /a?ac Ainoi?, ainoeo o ian ia eaaeaeue aiae, ana ?aaea e
?aaea.

Au/eia a *a?iii ii?a aieaa 10 aeaeia: au/ie aoau?ue, aoey,
6u/ie-oeooeee, i?eeeaeaathuee ee?eiee ia eaiaienouo iaeeiaiaeiuo
?innuiyo e ae?. Naiue e?oiiue au/ie-ia?oiaee, eee aeaaa. Naiue
iiiai/eneaiiue au/ie-e?oaeye – ioee/iue naiueyiei e i/aiue caaioeeaue
ioaoe.

Caeaiooee. A *a?iii ii?a eo 8 aeaeia. Ethaeiua ianoa iaeoaiey – neaeu n
ca?ineyie oeenoice?u. Ieoathony iieethneaie, /a?ayie, ?aeiia?aciuie.
Eioaineaii auaeaathony iiaeaiaeiuie ioioieeaie. A ia?eiae ia?anoa
iaeioi?ua caeaiooee no?iyo iaaeaeo eaiiae aiacaea. Ee?eiie aei 50 ouny/.

Eaiaaea-eaeeai. Ano?a/aaony iianaianoii. Ethaeo ian/aiua e ?aeooa/iua
a?oiou. Ceiie e eaoii aea?aeeony ia aeoaeia, aaniie e inaiueth
ia?aoiaeeo ia iaeeiaiaeuea. Ia?anoeony n ai?aey ii etheue. ?acia?u
ac?ineuo iniaae aei 70 ni. Aan aeinoeaaao 12 ea. Ieoaaony aeiiiie ?uaie
e e?aaaie. Anoue e ae?oaea aeaeu eaiaae: aeinna, eaiaaeea Eannea?a
(a?eiaeinn) e ae?.

Neao-oainoieie. O?yuaaay, ieineay aeeai?iaeyuay ?uaa, ?iaenoaaiieoea
aeoe. Iniaaiii e?oiiua naiee aeinoeaatho aeeeiu 2,5 iao?a. Ieoaaony
aeiiiuie ?uaaie, e?aaaoeaie, e?aaaie, iieethneaie. Ia oainoa –
cacoa?aiiay einoyiay eaea, o iniiaaiey eioi?ie ?aniieaaaaony yaeiaeoay
aeaeaca. Oeie aeey /aeiaaea aieaciai, eiiaaea nia?oaeai. Aeaoaiuoae
?iaeaeatho io 6 aei 28 a ethia-ethea.

Nieea?a (ii?neie ieoiue). Aaniie e eaoii a *a?iii ii?a nieea? iniaaiii
iiiai. N ai?aey ii etheue aoiaeyo a i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu aeey ia?anoa.
Ieiaeiaeoinoue io 1300 aei 10000 ee?eiie. Ieoathony ciiieaieoiiii.
Aeeeia naiie 8-16, naioeia 13-20 ni. Aan aei 100 a. Ia?yaeo ni
noaa?eaeie – iniiaiie iauaeo ethaeoaeueneiai eiaa.

Na?aai. Noaaeiay, aeeeiie aei 75 ni no?aeiaeaeiay ?uaa. *aethnoe
oaeeeiaiiua, eethaiaeaeiua. *aooy iaeeay, nieiea caeaiay. AEeaao aei 6-7
eao. Iieiaic?aeie noaiiaeony e aiaeo. Ia?anoeony n iay aei eiioea
aaaonoa. A ?acee/iua naciiu iea?e?oao a nayce n ia?anoii, iaaoeii,
ceiiaaieai. A iiya?a iooiaeeo e thao. Ceioao a I?aii?iii ii?a.

Eooa?ue. Oeuiay noaaeiay ?uaa. I?e aana 8-10 ea a aeeeio aeinoeaaao
iao?a. Oaei n aieia i?iaeieaiaaoia. ?io aieueoie, /aethnoe e?oiiua,
ino?icoaua. Ieoaaony eneeth/eoaeueii ?uaie. ?aeii ia?anoa –
naaa?i-caiaaeiay /anoue ii?y. ?anoao e ieoaaony oai aea. Ia?ano – n
ethiy ii naioya?ue. AEeaao 8-9 eao.

E ieaeiieoathuei *a?iiai ii?y ioiinyony otheaiue-iiiao e o?e aeaea
aeaeueoeiia: aciaea, aaeiai/ea e aoaeeia.

*a?iia ii?a ianaeytho o?e aeaea aeaeueoeiia (coaaouo eeoia). Naiue
e?oiiue aooueeiiin, eee aoaeeia. Iiiaiueoa – aaeiai/ea e naiue
iaeaiueeee aeaeueoei – ii?neay naeiuey (iuoooi, aciaea, /oiea).
Iaeoaoaeue aeaeueoeia?eaa e ieaaia?eaa – aoaeeia. Yoi oio naiue ii?neie
iiaeiiuoiue “e?ieee”, n eioi?ui yenia?eiaioe?otho o/aiua ai iiiaeo
no?aiao ie?a.

E?iia ?aaiou ia iaoeo, aoaeeiu – aunieioaeaioeeaua aeoa?u c?aeeuiuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee aeey ?aciiycu/iie ioaeeee, ainoi?aeaiii aieiaee?othuae
yoei aanaeui ii?neei “oee?ea/ai”.

Iiaoo iie iiiaia: i?uaatho /a?ac ioaa/aiiua iaiai ia?o/e, iiae
aeeiiiaiaiaio iiaoo niaoue, eeoi ea?atho a oooaie, aaenaie, aaneaoaie,
eaoatho niaae ia ieioeeao, aeiiaee?otho e ia?aa?anuaathony iy/aie. Yoi
iao/aiiua aeaeueoeiu, ii aeaaea iaae?anne?iaaiiua, i?eaueioa e
aeaeueoeia?eth e aai ?aaioieeai, aaaeoo naay i/aiue ?aneiaaiii e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii. Ae?aciyo ?ua, oaaoay eo ca oaino, ea?atho ae?oa n
ae?oaii a “naei/ee”, “aeiaiiyeee”, “iyoiaoee”, aua?anuaatho ec aiaeu
iaioaeioth ei ?uao, iu?ytho ca ?aciuie i?aaeiaoaie, ia?iiaiiuie
c?eoaeyie a aiaeo, e neo/aaony, /oi oau?ytho eie aea a ethaeae. Ia
Ea?aaeaaa a aeaeueoeia?ee aeaeueoei Iaeuo, iaa?aa iieiue ?io aiaeu,
i/aiue i?eoeaeueii iethaony no?oeeaie aiaeu a iinaoeoaeae, oioy yoiio
iaeeiio ooeeaainoao aai ieeoi, ?acoiaaony, ia o/ee.

Ae?anne?iaea aeeaioiuo o?aaoao io /aeiaaea iiieiaiey eo ineoieiaee,
ciaiey eo ia?aca aeecie e iniia aeieiaee, ii aeaaiia – aeia?iou, ethaae
e iiaoi?aiey caaeaiiuo “o?ieia”. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ia ae?anne?iaeo niaaee
o?aoeony iieoi?a aiaea, eioaaee – oanoue eao, aeaeueoeia – iieaiaea. I?e
yoii anee eioaaeue e niaaeo iiaeii iaeacuaaoue, n aeaeueoeiaie yoio
“iiia?” ia i?ieaeao. Ae?anne?iauee i?inoi ia?anoaao aeey ieo
nouanoaiaaoue, ia ?aaioa iiaeii iinoaaeoue e?ano. Oieueei eanea e
iiiu?aiea.

Aeaeueoeiu yaeytho niaie ia?acaoe auni/aeoae i?eniiniaeaiiinoe e aiaeiie
noeoee. *oiau i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue yoi, ia?aoeiny e e?aoeei “aieaoiui”
aeaiiui i?eiaieoaeueii e aoaeeia. Aeeeia oaea 2,0-2,5 iao?a. Aan 130-300
ea. AEeaoo 25-30 eao. E ia?aaeaeaeaieth a aiaea i?eniiniaeaiu ai?acaei
eo/oa ?ua. Ia?aaeiea ieaaieee neoaeao aeaeueoeio ?oeyie aeoaeiu,
iiai?ioia e oi?iicaie. Ai?eciioaeueii ?aniieiaeaiiue oainoiaie ieaaiee
ia /oi eiia, eae iiuiue a?aaiie aeio, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio aeaeueoeiu
aeinoeaatho e?aena?neeo nei?inoae, iiaeieao nii?iaiaeaeay e aeaaea
ia?aaiiyy ii?neea noaea. Nei?inoue eo ia?aaeaeaeaiey iiaeao aeinoeaaoue
60-68 ei//an.

I?aaiia iaiiyiey aeaeueoeiu ia eiatho, caoi c?aiea e neoo ioiaiiua.
Aeaaea aaeaa neuoeiue oaea? i aiaeo ae?iaeiee aeeaiao?ii 2,5 ii eee
aaeaa ?acee/eiue anieane niaea?aeeiiai /aeiie eiaeee i?eaeaeatho
aeaeueoeiia e enoi/ieeo ooia. Ieoathony aeaeueoeiu ?uaie, iieethneaie.
?uau ei iaaei 20-30 ea a nooee. Ioee/iue aeae?ieieaoeeiiiue aiia?ao
iicaieyao aeaeueoeiai iaia?oaeeaaoue aeiau/o ia ?annoiyiee aei 3 ei,
iu?ytho iie ca iae ia aeoaeio 200-300 i. Aeuoaiea iiaoo caaea?aeeaaoue
ia 10 e aeaaea 15 ieioo. Oaiia?aoo?a oaea oaeay aea, eae o /aeiaaea.
Oie?atho, eae e iu, i?e oaiia?aoo?a oaea 42-43°. Iaeaieueoay
oieoaiiinoue a ia?oa, iaeiaiueoay – a eiioea eaoa – ia/aea inaie. Aeuoao
aoiinoa?iui aicaeooii, ia?eiaee/anee iiaeieiaynue ia iiaa?oiinoue. Ia
aieiaa ?aniieiaeaii ioaa?noea (aeuoaei), ieioii cae?uaaaiia iiae aiaeie
eeaiaiii. Iaeiia?aiaiii aeuoaei e i?aai caoeiaie neaiaeecaoeee. Niyo
aeaeueoeiu a iieoiao?a io iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, iionoea aiec oaino e
ia?eiaee/anee ioe?uaay e cae?uaay aeaca. Aieatho oaie aea aieaciyie, /oi
e /aeiaae, ia/eiay io ?aea, aeeaaaoa, ia?aiuo e ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa
aei einoeueoa e eioa?eoa.

?aciiiaeathony aoaeeiu n oanoeeaoiaai aic?anoa. Aaniie aoaeouee iaiaoa a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeiae “ooaaeeaaao”, eniieiyy ethaiaiue oaiaoe: iie n
naieie /anoi naeeaeathony, eanathony ae?oa ae?oaa ieaaieeaie, aieiaie,
iinaie. I?i/eo i?aoaiaeaioia ia aeaaineeiiiinoue “iaaanou” naiaoe,
nae?aii eeaoeay coaaie, aiieo, iaeiaei neo/aaa ?aiaiey e ae?ae iaaeaeo
“aeaieoaie” ia auaaao. Iaiaa aeinoieiue nai iiieiaao, eiaaea aai oainu
?aaiu ioeth, e aac?iiioii oaeaeyaony. ?acaa? nia?eaaiey o aoaeei a
ethea. Nionoy 10-11 ianyoeaa naiea, ?ac a aeaa aiaea, ?iaeaao iaeiiai
aeaoaiuoa. Ia?aae ?iaeaie iia no?aieoaeueii aeaeaaaony, ecaeaaao oaino,
nieio, ia/eiaao caaaoue. Yoi naiaia?aciue neaiae, ii eioi?iio ieaaathuea
?yaeii “oaoee-iiaeoooe” aioiayony i?eiyoue ?iaeu. Iie ie?oaeatho
aoaeouoth iaoue oaniui eieueoeii, caueuatho aa, iiiiaatho aeaoaiuoo e
aiiaua a neo/aa eaeie-eeai ioaeaeu i?eoiaeyo ia au?o/eo.

?iaeaao naiea iiae aiaeie aaniie. Iiyaeyaony iaeuo ia naao naa?iooui a
o?oai/eo oainoeeii aia?aae, e, eae oieueei i/ooeony a aiaea, iaoue eee
iaeia ec “iyiae” iiaeoaeeeaatho aai e iiaa?oiinoe, /oiau acaeioioe e
iaiieiee eaaeea aicaeooii. Aaneo aeaeueoeiaiie-aoaeaiie ieiei ioaea,
aeeeiie a iieiaeio iaoa?e. *oiau ia iioa?youeny e, aeaaiia, /oiau aai ia
iioa?yee, ii ia?eiaee/anee “anieaeeaaao” oiieei, aecaeeaui aieineii.
Iaoue aeiai e ii/ueth ai?uneeaaao i/aiue aee?iia iieiei iaeuoo a ?io, e
oae aei 30 ei?ieaiee a nooee. Iinea iieoaiaea aeaeueoeiaiie aaniieieo
iaoue oaea ?aaea, ?ac oanoue-naiue. I?eia?ii /a?ac aiae ii oaea
ia?aoiaeeo ia nianoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea e ia/eiaao ieoaoueny ?uaie.
Aea?aeeony iaeuo ai ieaaeai/anoaa no?iai aicea ?iaeeoaeueieoeu. Ieaaaoue
aio ?ac?aoaaony oieueei ii e?oao aeeaiao?ii 2-3 i, eiay a oeaio?a iaoue.
Anee ia/eiaao aieueie/aoue e auoiaeeoue ec iiaeiiaaiey, ?iaeeoaeueieoea
iaeacuaaao aai.

Ia?ac aeecie o aeaeueoeiia noaaeiue. Iniiaie noaaea yaeyaony naiuey.
Aeaaa noaaea – iaeaieaa e?oiiay e neeueiay naiea. Naiee aea?aeaony
aianoa n aeaoueie ?aciuo iieieaiee. Aei/a?e, aio/ee, i?aaio/ee a naia
a?aiy noaiiayony iaiaie, ii ec noaaea ia ooiaeyo, e yoi i?e/eia oiai,
/oi a aeaineii aeaeueoeiueai noaaea iiaoo aea?aeaoueny aianoa aei
aeanyoe ?aciuo iieieaiee. Iooeu e a?yaeouea “aeaieoe” aea?aeaony
ioaeaeueii ioaeneei eeaiii. Niaa?oaiii ii?aaeaeaiiue iio?aaeoaeueneee
eioa?an iie i?iyaeytho e naiuea a oi a?aiy, eiaaea ianooiatho a?a/iua
ea?u e “naaoianoai”. Nayce a noaaeao – iai?iieoaeueiua, ieuaaua,
eioi?iaoeeiiiua, ainieoaoaeueiua, ea?iaua – i/aiue e?aieea.

Oece/aneay neea aeaeueoeiia ii?aceoaeueia. Iaeiei aciaoii oainoa iie
iiaoo ia oieueei eneaea/eoue, ii aeaaea oaeoue /aeiaaea. E?oiiuo aeoe a
o?iie/aneeo ii?yo iie, nia?aaoenue eiiiaieae, eaaei ?ac?uaatho ia /anoe,
e, oai ia iaiaa, ie iaeiiai a?aaeaeaaiiai aeaeaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e
/aeiaaeo, ae?anne?othuaio eee yenia?eiaioe?othuaio n ieie, a
aeaeueoeia?eyo ioia/aii ia auei. Aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee eo ea/ao,
ia?aaaouaatho aieueioth eiaeo aaeeeie i?aia?aoaie, iaeo/atho, aeaeatho
eiuaeoeee e aeaaea iia?e?otho. Ana i?eieiaaony eae aeieaeiia, n
iaeciaiiui oa?iaieai, aac iiiuoee iooieeiooue, oaea?eoue ieaaieeii,
oeoneoue.

Ethaiiuoai ycue aeaeueoeiia. Aai iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia ycue aeanoia
(?acee/iua iicu, i?uaeee, iiai?iou, ?acee/iua niiniau ieaaaiey, ciaee,
iiaeaaaaiua oainoii, aieiaie, ieaaieeaie) e caoeiaoth neaiaeecaoeeth,
aa?iaa, ycue caoeiauo eiioeuenia. Aeaeueoeiu-iaeeii/ee iau/ii iie/ao, ii
noieo nia?aoueny ei aianoa, eae iiouaiiua a aiaeo aeae?ioiiu oeene?otho
aiaaoaeoee iaai? caoeia. *aai oieueei ia oneuoeoue! Uaaao, aeoaeaeaiea,
aecae, ne?aaeao, uaeeaiuea, /iieaiuea, ne?eiu, oeiiee, iene, ?aa, aiiee,
e?eee, eaaeaiuea, naenou. Yoi aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaaao aiaaonoa caoeiaie
neaiaeecaoeee aeaeueoeiia. *aua anaai aeaeueoeiu naenoyo, i?e/ai iaeieo
naenoia o aeaeueoeiia 32, n?aaee eioi?uo anoue neaiaeu aiee, o?aaiae,
i?eaaonoaey e i?ecuaiue eee/ “ei iia”, e iaeioi?ua ec eeiaaenoia
auneacuaatho i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi anoue eaeay-oi aiaeiaey iaaeaeo ycueii
naenoia o /aeiaaea e aeaeueoeiia. Aeaoe a Oo?oeee a oeiea eco/atho ycue
naenoia. Ia Eaia?neeo ino?iaao oocaioeu ia ?annoiyiee 10 ei
ia?aaiaa?eaathony naenoaie. Iaeioi?ua ieaiaia a Iaeneea oaeaea oe?iei
iieuecothony yoei naiaia?aciui niiniaii iauaiey. Aiciiaeii, ii aiaeiaee
n /aeiaaeii eaaeaeue ec 32 naenoia o aeaeueoeiia iaicia/aao
ii?aaeaeaiioth o?aco, a yoi oaea aunoaa aeinoeaeaiea ia oiia caoeiaie
neaiaeecaoeee n?aaee aeeaioiuo.

Iauai eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth niiniaiu ia?aaeaaaoue aeaeueoeiu,
iiaaaeai/aneea iniaaiiinoe, /?acau/aeiay iiiyoeeainoue, eaaeinoue
iao/aiey aiai?eo i aunieie noaiaie eo oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. O ieo
e?oiiue, ii aano i?aauoathuee /aeiaa/aneee, iica. Ii iauaio /eneo eeaoie
a ei?a, /eneo ai?icae e ecaeeei aeaeueoeiu oiaea iia?aaeatho /aeiaaea.

A caeeth/aiea ianeieueei i?aeoe/aneeo niaaoia ia neo/ae, anee au
oaeaeeoa ia aa?aao aua?ineaoaainy ec ii?y aeaeueoeia.

Iaeuoa eee aeaeueoeia-aciaeo iiaeii acyoue ia ?oee e ia?aianoe ia
iaeeiaiaeuea. N oyaeaeie aaeiai/eie eee ni ac?ineie aoaeeiie iaeiiio ia
ni?aaeoueny, iiyoiio iaaei aucaaoue iiiiuue, i?aaieciaaoue eaoo/ee
nianaoaeueiue io?yae. Anee au aaeaiai, iaeei aeieaeai aaaeaoue ca
iiaenii?ueai, aoi?ie inoaaony ieiei aeaeueoeia e nia/eaaao aai eiaeo
ii?neie aiaeie. Yoi i?aaeoi?aaeeo ianuoaiea e aiciiaeiinoue oaieiaiai
oaea?a. Oaueoue aieieii e ii?th, oieeaoue, ia?aoaneeaaoue ii aaeueea,
eaioiaaoue ii iai?aaeaieth e aiaea aeaeueoeia iaeuecy, oae eae eiaea o
aeaeueoeiia iaaeiay, aonoi i?iiecaiiay e?iaaiiniuie ninoaeaie e ia?aiuie
ieii/aieyie. Anee aa ii?aieoue, auaeeoue aio aoaeao o?oaeii. N?aco
iioneaoue aeaeueoeia ia aeoaieia ianoi oiaea iaeuecy. Nia/aea iaaei
aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue iieaaeaoue a aiaea ia iaeeiaiaeuea, aaea ii niiaeao
ni?aaeoueny n oieiaui ninoiyieai e ia/aoue ii?iaeueii aeuoaoue. Anee a
aaaea ianeieueei aeaeueoeiia e n?aaee ieo iaeuoe, ioianeoa nia/aea eo ia
iaeeiaiaeuea, ac?ineua naie iioii aoaeoo ?aaoueny e iei. Anee aea ia
aa?aao oieueei ac?ineua, oi?ioi au ia?aianoe eee ia?aaacoe eo a ii?a
n?aco anao, oae eae oa, eiai au oniaee ia?aianoe, aeaey ia aa?aao
inoaaoeony e neuoa iiaeaaaaiua eie neaiaeu, aiiaue aua?inyony ia aa?aa.
A yoii neo/aa oi?ioi au aucaaoue e ianoo aaaenoaey iaeua ieaan?aaenoaa e
iiiuoaoueny nianoe anao iaeiia?aiaiii.

Iiaeao neo/eoueny, /oi, caieua aeaeaei io aa?aaa, au ano?aoeoanue n
aeaeueoeiii a ii?a. Ia ioaaeoanue. Ca 2500 eao iauaiey /aeiaaea n
aeaeueoeiii ia ioia/aii ie iaeiiai neo/ay aa?anneaiinoe. Iiyoiio ia
e?e/eoa io oaeana, ia aeaeaeoa ?aceeo aeaeaeaiee e ia niaoeoa aeaeueoeia
– ia iuoaeoanue “oaaaeaoue”. Iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey aai oainoa aeinoaoi/ii,
/oiau aeiaiaoue aan. Niieieii ieuaeoa e aa?aao aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee
a?aiy io a?aiaie ?yaeii n aaie aoaeao auniauaaoueny ec aiaeu iie?ay
oeuaathuayny aeaeueoeiuey oeceiiiiey.

Iaeuecy ia neacaoue ia “oieeaeueiie iniaaiiinoe” aoaeei – “eo no?aieaiee
e onoaiiaeaieth ?acee/iuo oi?i iauaiey” n /aeiaaeii. Aeinoaoi/ii
aniiiieoue o?anoiiaoeeiua enoi?ee i iaeue/eeao e aeaeueoeiao, caienaiiua
ii/oe aeaa ouny/e eao iacaae Ieeieai Noa?oei. Iaeue/ee Aeeiienee
i?e?o/ee aeaeueoeia e eaoaeny ia iai i?e noa/aiee ia?iaea, a /ai, noaey
ii anaio, i?aoniaaae. Aua aeaa iaeue/eea, caieiaaoeony oai aea nii?oii,
oia?ee, i?e/ai oaei iaeiiai ec ieo, Aa?iana, ooiioaoaai ai a?aiy ooi?ia,
aeaeueoei aeinoaaee e aa?aao. ?anneacaie i aeaeueoeiao-ecaic/eeao,
aeaeueoeiao-iiiiuieeao ?uaaeia, aeaeueoeiao-nianaoaeyo,
aeaeueoeiao-ia?oia?ao a ea?ao aeaoae e ac?ineuo iano?yo ia oieueei
aioe/iua enoi/ieee, ii e nia?aiaiiua iao/iua e iiioey?iua ecaeaiey.
“?o/iay” aoaeeia ii eee/ea Aeueoa a aaaonoa 1968 aiaea noaea “caacaeie”
Aaiaoi?ee: n iae oeaeue ianyoe ea?aee eo?i?oieee, “a?aee aa ia ?oee,
aeaaeeee” e iiaeea?ieeaaee ?uaie, eioi?oth iia e oiio aea aui?aoeaaea o
?uaaeia. A?aeiiuea?, iiaeaeaaoee inoaoueny iaecaanoiui, ?anneacuaae, eae
a eiioea 1980-o a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao i?eaeeceoaeueii a iaeii e oi
aea a?aiy (?aiiae aaniie) aoaeeiu iiiiaaee aio i?iiuoeyoue
eaiaaeo-eaeeaia a ica?a Aeiioceaa. Aeaeueoeiu, e?oaeanue iiaeecinoe io
iiaeaiaeiiai ieiaoea, anioaeaaee ?ua ni aeia, io/aai oa noaiiaeeenue
caiaoiuie e /ooue ee ia naie iaiecuaaeenue ia ieeo.

Enneaaeiaaiey aunoae ia?aiie aeayoaeueiinoe e iiaaaeaiey iieacaee, /oi
aoaeeiu iienoeia “?acoiiua aeeaioiua”, iaeiaei ia aieaa /ai
/aeiaaeiia?aciua iaacueyiu, e?unu e niaaee. Neaao nianaoaeae aoaeeiu
nieneaee aeaaiaea?y ?anneacai oao iaiiiaeo, eiai iie aeinoaaeee e
aa?aao, oa aea, eiai aeaeueoeiu iiaeoaeeeaaee a noi?iio ii?y, oaea
ieeiaaea ie/aai ieeiio ia ?anneaaeoo. Ia noieo aaniethoece?iaaoue
ie?iethaeauo aeeaioiuo, aeaaea eiaaea eo aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e
ethaeyi aiieia i/aaeaeii.

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