.

Багамские острова

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 702
Скачать документ

?aoa?ao

Ia oaio

AAAAINEEA INO?IAA

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

1. I?e?iaea

2. Ianaeaiea e iauanoai

3. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai

4. Yeiiiieea

5. I?iiuoeaiiinoue

6. Naeueneia oicyenoai

7. O?ainii?o

8. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea

9. Athaeaeao e aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea

10. Enoi?ey

Aaaaeaiea

Aaaaineea ino?iaa, Niae?oaeanoai Aaaaineeo Ino?iaia, iacaaeneiia
ainoaea?noai ia iaeiieiaiiii a?oeiaeaaa a Aoeaioe/aneii ieaaia,
aeeth/athuaa ie. 700 ino?iaia, ec ieo 40 iaeoaaiuo, e ie. 2000 ?eoia.

A?oeiaeaa i?inoe?aaony i?eia?ii ia 1500 ei n naaa?i-caiaaea ia
thai-ainoie iaaeaeo ino?iaaie Aieueoie Aaaaia e Aieueoie Eiaaoa e
ioaeaeai io Oei?eaeu (NOA) Oei?eaeneei i?ieeaii, a io Eoau – Noa?ui
Aaaaineei i?ieeaii. Iauay ieiuaaeue ino?iaia 13 940 ea. ei, a oii /enea
iaeoaaiuo – ie. 11 400 ea. ei. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua ino?iaa – Aiae?in (4,1
oun. ea. ei), Aieueoie Aaaei (2 oun. ea.ei), Aieueoie Eiaaoa, Aieueoie
Aaaaia (1,1 oun. ea. ei), Iueth-I?iaeaeain (ni noieeoeae ainoaea?noaa –
Iannao), Yeuethoa?a, Eyo, Nai-Naeueaaaei?, Eiia-Aeeaiae, Aieueoie
Yenoia, E?oeaae-Aeeaiae, Aeeein, Iayaoaia.

Aaaaineea Ino?iaa. Noieeoea – Iannao. Ianaeaiea – 297,48 oun. /aeiaae
(2003). Ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea – 65%, naeueneia – 35%. Ieioiinoue
ianaeaiey – 19 /aeiaae ia 1 ea. ei. Ieiuaaeue – 13 940 ea. ei. Naiay
aunieay oi/ea – ai?a Aeaa?iea (63 i). Ioeoeeaeueiue ycue – aiaeeeneee.
Iniiaiay ?aeeaey – o?enoeainoai (i?ioanoaioeci). Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea:
aaaaineee aeieea? = 100 oeaioai. Iaoeeiiaeueiue i?acaeiee: Aeaiue
iacaaeneiinoe – 10 ethey (1973). Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeii: «Aia?aae,
Aaaaiu!»

1. I?e?iaea

Ino?iaa a?oeiaeaaa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aunooiathuea iaae o?iaiai ieaaia
o/anoee iaoe?iiai caoiieaiiiai ecaanoiyeiaiai ieaoi. Iiuiinoue
ecaanoiyeiauo ioeiaeaiee ie. 4500 i. Ia ainoiea ieaoi e?ooi ia?uaaaony a
noi?iio Naaa?i-Aia?eeaineie eioeiaeiu Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia. Io i-iaa
Oei?eaea a?oeiaeaa ioaeaeai iaeeiaiaeiui Oei?eaeneei i?ieeaii, io i.Eoaa
– Noa?ui Aaaaineei i?ieeaii. Aeaaoi?ee iaaeaeo ino?iaaie iaeeiaiaeiu,
iaeiaei iiaa?oiinoue iiaeaiaeiiai ieaoi ?anna/aia aeoaieeie o?aueiaie, e
eioi?ui i?eo?i/aiu oa?aaoa?u. Iiiai/eneaiiua ei?aeeiaua ?eou, a oaeaea
aeaeacenoua i?ineie a ecaanoiyeao nicaeatho iaiau/aeii e?ani/ioth
ea?oeio iiaeaiaeiiai ie?a.

Ino?iaa iiaeiyou ioiineoaeueii o?iaiy ieaaia io ianeieueeeo iao?ia
i?eia?ii aei 60 i. Iaeaunoay oi/ea no?aiu – ai?a Aeaa?iea (63 i) –
iaoiaeeony ia i.Eyo. ?aeueao ino?iaia ieineee. Ia aa?aaao, ia?auaiiuo a
noi?iio ieaaia, i?ineaaeeaaaony na?ey ii?neeo oa??an. E caiaaeiiio
iiaa?aaeueth ino?iaia i?eo?i/aiu iiiai/eneaiiua nieaiua eaaoiiua ica?a e
iaia?iaua aieioa. Ianoaie aaeieue iiaa?aaeuey oyiaony iieina ian/aiuo
ieyaeae. Ia ino?iaao oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu ea?noiaua yaeaiey e oi?iu
?aeueaoa. Iiyoiio ?ae ia a?oeiaeaaa iao, ii iiiai ea?noiauo ica?.
Enoi/ieeia i?aniie aiaeu e?aeia iaei.

Eeeiao – o?iie/aneee iannaoiue. Ceiu aeaaiaea?y aeeyieth Aieueono?eia
iya/a, /ai ia Naaa?i-Aia?eeaineii iaoa?eea. N?aaeiea oaiia?aoo?u ceiieo
ianyoeaa 22–24° N, eaoieo – 29–30° N. N?aaeiaa aiaeiaia eiee/anoai
inaaeeia 1000–1500 ii (ianoaie ia ainoiea – anaai 750 ii). Iie
auiaaeatho aeaaiui ia?acii a iaa-ethia e naioya?a-ieoya?a. *anoi auaatho
o?iie/aneea o?aaaiu. Iineieueeo ino?iaa ?aca?inaiu ia aieueoie ieiuaaee,
?ac?ooeoaeueiia aeaenoaea o?aaaiia ia eaaeaeii ino?iaa neacuaaaony a
n?aaeiai iaeei ?ac a 12 eao.

Ianoaie ecaanoiyee, auoiaeyuea ia aeiaaioth iiaa?oiinoue, eeoaiu
ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa. A iiieaeaieyo ?aeueaoa ai aioo?aiieo ?aeiiao
?ani?ino?aiaiu nieii/aee e canieaiiua ii/au, a inoaeueiuo ?aeiiao
i?aiaeaaeatho ieiaei?iaeiua e?anii-ei?e/iaaua ii/au.

Anoanoaaiiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue ia aieaa canooeeauo ainoi/iuo ino?iaao
ena?ioeoiay, n i?aiaeaaeaieai eaeoonia e aeiy. Ia aieueoeinoaa ino?iaia
ecia/aeueii aeiieie?iaaee o?iie/aneea eana. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaea ec
ieo naaaeaiu, e ia eo ianoa ?anooo iecei?ineua eonoa?ieee. Oai, aaea
eana nio?aieeenue (ia ino?iaao Aiae?in, Aieueoie e Iaeue Aaaei, Aieueoie
Aaaaia), ?ani?ino?aiaiu oaeea oeaiiua oe?ieieenoaaiiua ae?aaaniua
ii?iaeu, eae e?aniia (iaoaaiie), eaiiaoaaia e aeaeaciia aea?aauey, a
oaeaea ea?eaneay ninia. A oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eanao a eciaeeee ?anooo
aoaaiaeeeay, aeaniei, i?oeaeae e ae?oaea ?anoaiey n e?aneauie e iaaeii
iaoioueie oeaaoaie. Ia iaeioi?uo ino?iaao nicaeaiu eneonnoaaiiua
iinaaeee eacoa?eiu, iaoaaiie e ?yaea oaieiuo o?iie/aneeo ii?iae.

AEeaioiue ie? Aaaaineeo i-aia aaaeai. Ieaeiieoathueo i/aiue iaei, ec ieo
iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiu eaoo/ea iuoe. Ec caiiiaiaeiuo iiiai eyaooae, ec
i?aniueathueony – yua?eoe e ciae. A oaoia ino?iaia iaeaieaa
iiiai/eneaiiu ioeoeu, a oii /enea ia?aeaoiua ec Naaa?iie Aia?eee (ooee,
aone e ae?.), eioi?ua inoathony ia ceiiaeo. Ia aieioao e a i?aaeaeao
eaaoi aiaeyony oeaieiai (oieueei a iaoeeiiaeueiii ia?ea ia i.Aieueoie
Eiaaoa aiacaeeony nauoa 50 oun. e?aniiai oeaieiai), iaeeeaiu, eieieoeu,
oeaiee e ae?oaea aiaeiieaaathuea. Iaeeueiu oa?ieou, iineeou e ae?oaea
ianaeiiua. A i?ea?aaeiuo aiaeao, aicea ?eoia, aiaeeony iiiai aeaeia
?uau, a oii /enea aoeaioe/aneee ia?oniee, aa??aeoaea, iae?aeue e ae?.
Ano?a/athony ii?neea /a?aiaoe (ia i. Aieueoie Eiaaoa ianoa yeoeaeeaaeee
caeaiie /a?aiaoe), iiiai/eneaiiu iieethnee e aoaee. A iaoeeiiaeueiii
ia?ea Yenoia-Een iiae io?aiie iaoiaeyony aieioiua e iaia?iaua eaiaeoaoou
e ei?aeeiaua ?eou.

Anni?oeiaio iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo ia Aaaaineeo Ino?iaao ia?aie/ai
ecaanoiyeaie e a?aaiieoii (/enoue ea?aiiao eaeueoeey). Ia oaeueoa
Aaaaineeo i-aia iaoiaeeony aai e?oiiaeoaa a ie?a ianoi?iaeaeaiea.

Aeaaiaea?y iyaeiio oaieiio eeeiaoo, ian/aiui ieyaeai, /enoui i?ea?aaeiui
aiaeai e iaia?aie/aiiui aiciiaeiinoyi iiaeaiaeiie ioiou Aaaaineea
Ino?iaa noaee anaie?ii i?eciaiiui ceiiei eo?i?oii.

2. Ianaeaiea e iauanoai

A 2003 ia Aaaaineeo Ino?iaao i?iaeeaaee 297,48 oun. /aeiaae, i?e/ai
aieaa iieiaeiu ec ieo – ia i.Iueth-I?iaeaeain. 28,8% ianaeaiey ioiineony
e aic?anoiie a?oiia aei 15 eao, 65,4% – io 15 aei 65 eao e 5,8% – noa?oa
65 eao. ?iaeaeaaiinoue ioeaieaaaony a 18,57 ia 1000 ianaeaiey,
nia?oiinoue – 8,68 ia 1000, yiea?aoeey – 2,67 ia 1000. ?ino ianaeaiey a
2003 ninoaaee 0,77%, ieaaeai/aneay nia?oiinoue – 26,21 ia 1000
iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. A nayce n ?ani?ino?aiaieai NIEAea ia ino?iaao
i?ineaaeeaaaony oaiaeaioeey e ?inoo nia?oiinoe, nie?auaieth iaeeaeaaiie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie e nieaeaieth oaiiia i?e?inoa ianaeaiey. Ii
ioeaieai, a 1999 ia Aaaaineeo Ino?iaao 6900 /aeiaae auee eioeoee?iaaiu
NIEAeii, neii/aeenue io yoiai caaieaaaiey 500 /aeiaae.

Iniiaiie eiiiiiaio oi?ie?othuaeny aaaaineie iaoeee – ao?iaia?eeaioeu e
ioeaou, ninoaaeythuea aieaa 3/4 anaai ianaeaiey. Eiathony aeeanii?u
auoiaeoeaa n Aaeoe, ssiaeee e n ino?iaia O??en e Eaeein. Aeiey
aa?iiaeoeaa e naaa?iaia?eeaioeaa iaaaeeea. Yoi a iniiaiii eiioeiaaio
iiaeeeuo iaania/aiiuo a?aaeaeai ec NOA, Eaiaaeu, Aaeeeia?eoaiee,
iinaeeaoeony ia Aaaaiao iinea auoiaea ia iaineth.

N?aaee aa?othueo i?aiaeaaeatho i?ioanoaiou, a oii /enea aaioenou,
aiaeeeaia, iaoiaeenou, ie. 19% – ?eineeo eaoieeeia, /anoue ianaeaiey
i?eaea?aeeaaaony ao?eeaineeo eoeueoia.

Ia Aaaaineeo Ino?iaao aaaaeaii aanieaoiia iaycaoaeueiia iao/aiea aeaoae
a aic?anoa io 5 aei 14 eao. Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu cia/eoaeueii au?inei
/enei o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, e ia e?oiiuo ino?iaao aieueoeinoai aeaoae
eiaao aiciiaeiinoue iinauaoue n?aaeithth oeieo. Ieiei 20% auioneieeia
oeie iieo/atho i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo a ianeieueeeo
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneeo o/eeeuao, iaaeaaiae/aneii e oaoie/aneii
eieeaaeaeao. Nianoaaiiuo aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee ia Aaaaineeo Ino?iaao
iao, ii n 1964 i?aaeoaeuenoai onoaiiaeei nayce n Aano-Eiaeneei
oieaa?neoaoii ia ssiaeea e aiae nionoy ioe?uei a Iannao aai cai/iia
ioaeaeaiea. Iaeioi?ua aaaaioeu iieo/atho aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a
oieaa?neoaoao NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiee e Eaiaaeu. 98% ianaeaiey Aaaaineeo
Ino?iaia a?aiioii.

Cae?aaiio?aiaiea iaoiaeeony ia aunieii o?iaia. Ianoiui iaaeeeai
oaeaeinue iieiinoueth iiaaaeeoue aieueoeinoai o?iie/aneeo aieaciae. A
1965 i?aaeoaeuenoai i?enooieei e inouanoaeaieth i?iaeoa aeeeeuiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa aeey iaeieioueo neiaa ianaeaiey e ooaa?aeeei nenoaio
eiioa/iie i?iaeaaee aeaoaaiai aeeeuey. Ainoaea?noaaiiua iiniaey
auiea/eaathony oieueei iiaeeeui ethaeyi (iainee ii noa?inoe) e
eiaaeeaeai.

3. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai

Niae?oaeanoai Aaaaineeo Ino?iaia aeiaeeinue ia?aie/aiiiai aioo?aiiaai
naiioi?aaeaiey a 1964 e iieiiai – a 1969. 10 ethey 1973 auea
i?iaicaeaoaia iacaaeneiinoue Aaaaineeo Ino?iaia a ninoaaa Niae?oaeanoaa,
aicaeaaeyaiiai Aaeeeia?eoaieae. Ii eiinoeoooeee 1973, aeaaa ainoaea?noaa
– ei?ieaaa Aaeeeia?eoaiee, eioi?oth i?aaenoaaeyao aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeanoue inouanoaeyao aeaooiaeaoiue ia?eaiaio,
ninoiyuee ec Naiaoa e Iaeaou nia?aiey. 16 /eaiia Naiaoa iacia/athony
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii (9 – ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?aiuea?-ieieno?a, 4 –
eeaea?a iiiiceoeee e 3 – ii niaeaoaieth iaaeaeo eeaea?aie i?aayuae e
iiiiceoeeiiiie ia?oee). Naiao eiaao i?aai caaea?aeeaaoue i?eiyoea
caeiiia (ca eneeth/aieai oao, eioi?ua eanathony oeiainia). Iaeaoa
nia?aiey ninoieo ec 40 /eaiia, ecae?aaiuo anaiauei aieiniaaieai. N?ie
iieiiii/ee iaaeo iaeao – 5 eao, iaeiaei aiciiaeai aein?i/iue ?inione
ia?eaiaioa. Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aaeoaeuenoao ai
aeaaa n i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii – iau/ii eeaea?o ia?oee, eiathuae
aieueoeinoai a ia?eaiaioa. I?aaeoaeuenoai ioaa/aao ia?aae Iaeaoie
nia?aiey.

Noaeaaiay aeanoue ninoieo ec iau/iuo noaeia, Aiaeeyoeeiiiiai noaea e
Aa?oiaiiai noaea.

Aaaaineea Ino?iaa yaeythony /eaiii ?yaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee:
III, I?aaiecaoeee aia?eeaineeo ainoaea?noa, Ea?eaneiai niiauanoaa e ae?.

4. Yeiiiieea

Aaaaineea Ino?iaa – ?acaeaathuaany ainoaea?noai, yeiiiieea eioi?iai a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io eiino?aiiiai oo?ecia e iooi?iie
aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe. A 2000 AAI ninoaaee 4,5 ie?ae. aeiee., eee 15
oun. aeiee. ia aeooo ianaeaiey. A 1999 ia aeieth oo?ecia i?eoiaeeeinue
60% AAI, i?i/eo noaoae noa?u oneoa – 30%, i?iiuoeaiiinoe – 7%,
naeueneiai oicyenoaa – 3%. Noaaeeueiue ?ino AAI (3% a 1998, 6% a 1999 e
4,5% a 2000) iaania/eaaao oaaee/eaathueeny iioie oo?enoia e aoi,
naycaiiue ni no?ieoaeuenoaii ioaeae, aeeeuo aeiiia e iaono?ienoaii
eo?i?oia. O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu ioeaieaathony i?eia?ii a 156 oun. /aeiaae
(40% caiyou a oo?enoe/aneii aeciana, 50% – a noa?a eiuo oneoa, 5% – a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, 5% – a naeueneii oicyenoaa). Ia eiatho iinoiyiiie ?aaiou
ie. 9% yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey.

Aua aei Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu Iannao noae iaaieueoei oo?enoe/aneei
oeaio?ii. A iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae /enei ioaeae a ai?iaea iiiaie?aoii
au?inei. Ioaee iino?iaiu oaeaea ia aieueoeinoaa iaeaieaa ianaeaiiuo e ia
iaeioi?uo iaeiianaeaiiuo ino?iaao. Neaayony Aaaaiu e naieie eaceii.
Aaeaaiaeii no?aia i?eieiaao aieaa 2 iei. oo?enoia. Iiiaea ioaee,
?anoi?aiu e eaceii i?eiaaeeaaeao eiino?aiiui eiiiaieyi.

Iaeiaiaua eueaiou e iaania/aiea oaeiu aeeaaeia aeaeatho Aaaaineea
Ino?iaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey aecianiaiia e oeiainenoia, iiyoiio
ino?iaa yaeythony iaeiei ec aaaeoueo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oeiainiauo e
aeaeiauo oeaio?ia. Nioie aaieia, e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee e
oe?i NOA, Eaiaaeu, Aaeeeia?eoaiee e ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa eiatho naie
ioaeaeaiey a Iannao e O?eii?oa.

5. I?iiuoeaiiinoue

Aeiau/a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo ia Aaaaineeo Ino?iaao aaaeaony aia?eeaineeie
eiiiaieyie e ia?aie/aia ?ac?aaioeie oaeueoiaiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey
a?aaiieoa (i?eiaiyaony a i?iecaiaenoaa noaeea, aeaeaciaaoiia e
oaeia?aiee) a caiaaeiie /anoe a?oeiaeaaa e auia?eaaieai niee ec ii?neie
aiaeu ia ino?iaao Eiia-Aeeaiae e Aieueoie Eiaaoa.

A 1955 /anoiay aia?eeaineay eiiiaiey a?aiaeiaaea ia thaeiii iiaa?aaeuea
i.Aieueoie Aaaaia o/anoie ieiuaaeueth 20 oun. aa iiae iino?ieeo
aeoaieiaiaeiiai ii?oa, i?iiuoeaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai e nicaeaiea
iaiaoiaeeiie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Acaiai ae aue iaania/ai aaciaeiaiaue ?aaeei
aei 1990 e aaniioeeiiue aaic n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa aei 2054. A 1963
caeanue au?in ai?iae O?eii?o, iinoaiaiii i?aa?aoeaoeeny a e?oiiaeoee
eiaeono?eaeueiue oeaio? no?aiu n iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuei caaiaeii
(i?eiaaeeaaeauei aia?eeaineei eiiiaieyi), ?aaioathuei ia eiii?oiii
nu?uea, e ianeieueeeie aeanyoeaie ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ec
e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ai O?eii?oa aeaenoaotho oeaiaioiue e aeaa
oa?iaoeaaoe/aneeo caaiaea, oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeauea eiino?aiiui eiiiaieyi.
Aoi?ui ii cia/aieth i?iiuoeaiiui ai?iaeii yaeyaony Iannao, a eioi?ii
nin?aaeioi/aiu i?aaei?eyoey ieuaaie, oaaeiie, oaenoeeueiie e oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia i.Aieueoie Aaaei aeaenoaoao iino?iaiiue aia?eeaineie
eiiiaieae caaiae ii ecaioiaeaieth ae?aaanii-oeaeetheiciie iannu,
?aaioathuee ia aaca caaioiaie ianoiie ea?eaneie niniu. Yoio iieooaa?eeao
eaeao ia ecaioiaeaiea aoiaae ia caaiaea yoie eiiiaiee ai Oei?eaea.

6. Naeueneia oicyenoai

Naeueneia oicyenoai a no?aia ia?aie/aii iaaeinoaoeii iiaeoiaeyueo
ieiuaaeae ia aonoiianaeaiiuo ino?iaao (aicaeaeuaaaony anaai 1% caiaeue)
e iaania/eaaao i?eia?ii 25% iio?aaiinoae no?aiu a i?iaeiaieuenoaee. A
iaeeeo iieoiaoo?aeueiuo oicyenoaao au?aueaatho aeaaiui ia?acii iaiue, a
aieaa e?oiiuo – aiaianu, aaiaiu, iaiai, naoa?iue o?inoiee, oeeo?oniaua,
eieiniaoth iaeueio. ?acaeoi ioeoeaaiaenoai. A i?ea?aaeiuo aiaeao
aaaeaony iaaieueoie ii iauaio i?iiunae eaiaonoia, ii?neeo aoaie e
aeai/oaa.

7. O?ainii?o

I?ioyaeaiiinoue aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia ia ino?iaao – ie. 2700 ei, aieaa
iieiaeiu ec ieo eiatho oaa?aeia iie?uoea. ?acaeou eaaioaaeiia
noaeioiaenoai e aaeaniiauaiea. Ia Aaaaineeo i-aao aeaenoaotho o?e
iniiaiuo ii?neeo ii?oa: Iannao, O?eii?o e Iaoueth-Oaoi. Aeaaiue ii?o
Iannao iiaeao i?eieiaoue e?oiiua ieaaineea noaea e ?aniieaaaao oaeaea
aieueoie anoanoaaiiie aaaaiueth, caueuaiiie io aao?a e aiei, e
iiiaeanoaii yei?iuo noiyiie aeey yoo e iaeiia?iuo noaeia. A ie?anoiinoyo
O?eii?oa iino?iai iaooyiie ii?o aeey i?eaia noia?oaiea?ia, eioi?ue
eniieuecoaony aeey o?aiceoa aeeaeiaainoi/iie e ao?eeaineie iaooe e
ioa?ocee iaooai?iaeoeoia a NOA. A yoii aea ii?oo i?iecaiaeeony cai?aaea
oiieeaii ieaaineeo noaeia, a oii /enea o?aiceoiuo. Oi?aiaue oeio
Aaaaineeo Ino?iaia ian/eouaaao 1049 noaeia (eaaeaeia aiaeieciauaieai
aieaa 1000 a?oooi-?aaeno?iauo oiii) iauei aiaeieciauaieai aieaa 30 iei.
a?oooi-?aaeno?iauo oiii. Iiae oeaaii Aaaaineeo Ino?iaia oiaeyo oi?aiaua
noaea i?eia?ii 40 no?ai.

A no?aia aeaenoaotho 65 ay?iii?oia. Ianoiay aaeaeiiiaiey iaania/eaaao
niiauaiea iaaeaeo ino?iaaie Aaaaineiai a?oeiaeaaa, a oaeaea n
i?eiaaeeaaeaueie Aaeeeia?eoaiee ino?iaaie O??en e Eaeein. Ec
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ay?iii?oa a Iannao niaa?oathony ?aenu a Aa?iio, no?aiu
Ea?eaneiai aannaeia e Naaa?ioth e THaeioth Aia?eeo. Aoi?ie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ay?iii?o iaoiaeeony ai O?eii?oa.

8. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea

Yeiiiieea Aaaaineeo Ino?iaia iaoiaeeony a caaeneiinoe io ca?oaaaeiuo
eiaanoeoeee. Ia ino?iaao aeaenoaotho e?oiiua eiino?aiiua, a iniiaiii
aia?eeaineea, oeiainiaua e i?iiuoeaiiua eiiiaiee.

A no?oeoo?a yenii?oa i?aiaeaaeaao i?iiuoeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey, aeaaiui
ia?acii iaooai?iaeoeou, iaaeeoeeineea i?aia?aou e oeaiaio. Aaaaineea
Ino?iaa yenii?oe?otho oaeaea ?ii, ae?aaanii-oeaeetheicioth ianno,
ii?ai?iaeoeou e a iaaieueoii iauaia – o?iie/aneea iaiue e o?oeou.
Aeioiaeu io yenii?oa iinoiyiii oaaee/eaathony. Iniiaiua ia?oia?u ii
yenii?oo – NOA, Oaaeoea?ey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aeaiey.

A no?oeoo?a eiii?oa i?aiaeaaeaao nu?uea, a /anoiinoe iaooue (a iniiaiii
ec Naoaeianeie A?aaee) aeey aa aeaeueiaeoae ia?a?aaioee,
i?iaeiaieuenoaea, iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u, iaoeiu, yeaeo?iieea. Iniiaiua
ia?oia?u ii eiii?oo – NOA, Eoaeey, ssiiiey, Aeaiey.

Aaaaineea Ino?iaa yaeythony ia?aaaei/iui ioieoii ia?eio?aoeea a NOA e
Aa?iio.

9. Athaeaeao e aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea

Aoeueoay /anoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia neeaaeuaaaony ec oaiiaeaiiuo
iioeei, iinooieaiee io eaceii, i?iaeaaee caiee, ii/oiauo nai?ia e
eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa. Iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa a no?aia iao. ?anoiaeiua
noaouee ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa aeeth/atho ia?aciaaiea,
nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea e iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou. Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea –
aaaaineee aeieea? = 100 oeaioai.

10. Enoi?ey

Ia?aiia/aeueiuie iaeoaoaeyie Aaaaineiai a?oeiaeaaa auee eiaeaeneea
ieaiaia neaiiaaa. A ia?auo aaeao iaoae y?u ia ino?iaa aoi?aeenue ieaiaia
oaeii, aiai?eaoea ia ycueao a?aaaeneie a?oiiu. Oaeii au?aueaaee yin,
eoeo?oco, iaieie e oeii/aoiee. N?aaee ieo auee ?aianeaiieee, eioi?ua
i?yee, oeaee e caieiaeenue ecaioiaeaieai aeeiyiie iinoaeu.

12 ieoya?y 1492 Eieoia aia?aua nooiee ia caieth Iiaiai Naaoa,
aunaaeeaoenue ia i.Nai-Naeueaaaei? a a?oeiaeaaa Aaaaineeo i-aia, eioi?ue
ianoiua eiaeaeoeu iacuaaee Aoaiaoaie. Caoaaoea n niaie oanoa?uo
eiaeaeoeaa n yoiai ino?iaa, Eieoia iiieue aeaeaa e ino?iao, eioi?iio
aeae eiy Naioa-Ia?ey-aea-ea-Eiinainueii (iuia – ?ai-Ee), caoai e
i.Oa?iaiaeeia (Eiia-Aeeaiae). Iiiaea eiaeaeoeu – ei?aiiua aeeoaee
Aaaaineeo i-aia – auee ia?auaiu a ?aanoai eniaioeaie e auaacaiu aeey
?aaiou ia ieaioaoeeyo e ?oaeieeao i.Yniaiueiea (Aaeoe). A ?acoeueoaoa
a?oeiaeaa iaacethaeae. N na?aaeeiu 16 a. a?aae Eniaiee, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue o?aioeocu, eniieueciaaee yoe ino?iaa eae aaco aeey iaiaaeaiey
ia eniaineea noaea. Oaeei ia?acii, ia i?ioyaeaiee 200 eao ca Aaaaineeie
i-aaie ooaa?aeeeanue ?aiooaoeey i?eaaaeeua ie?aoia.

A 1629 Aaaaineea i-aa auee iiaeaeiaaiu Ea?eii I iaeiiio ec naieo
ieieno?ia, eioi?ue, iaeiaei, aeaaea ia i?aaei?eiye iiiuoee nicaeaoue ia
ieo iinaeaiey. A 1647 a Eiiaeiia auea ia?aciaaia eiiiaiey iiae iacaaieai
«Yeuethoa?ai aaeaai/o?a?n» aeey eieiiecaoeee Aaaaineeo i-aia.
Ia?anaeaioeu, auoiaeoeu ec Aiaeee, n Aa?ioaeneeo i-aia e ec a?eoaineeo
eieiiee Naaa?iay e THaeiay Ea?ieeia a Naaa?iie Aia?eea, ia?aiia/aeueii
iainiiaaeenue ia i.Yeuethoa?a, i?aai aeaaeaiey eioi?ui ei i?aaeinoaaee
Ieeaa? E?iiaaeue. Iaeiaei iinea ?anoaa?aoeee Ea?e II ia?aaeae yoi i?aai
ei?aeai-aeaaeaeueoeai Naaa?iie e THaeiie Ea?ieeiu, ioeoeeaeueii
nio?aieaoaany aei 1787. A 1689 eiiiaiey «Yeuethoa?ai aaeaai/o?a?n»
iniiaaea ia i.Iueth-I?iaeaeain iinaeaiea *a?enoaoi, anei?a
ia?aeiaiiaaiiia a Iannao (Ianni) a /anoue i?eioea Aeeueaaeueia
I?aineiai-Iannaoneiai. A 1703 Iannao auei ?ac?ooaii eniaioeaie, /oi
cia/eoaeueii oneeeei iiceoeee ie?aoia ia ino?iaa. A 1718 aeey iaaaaeaiey
ii?yaeea ia Aaaaineeo i-aao ei?ieaaneei aoaa?iaoi?ii aue iacia/ai
eaieoai Aoaen ?iaeaea?n. E iiiaioo aai i?eauoey ia i.Iueth-I?iaeaeain
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii oe?uaaeenue 2000 ie?aoia. A 1720 eniaioeu niiaa
iaiaee ia ino?ia. Aeey caueou eieiiee aoaa?iaoi?o i?eoeinue iieoe ia
nithc n ie?aoaie. A 1776 aiaiiue oeio NOA caoaaoee oe?aieaiiue oi?o
Iiioaath, caueuaaoee aaaaiue Iannao, e a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeiae
oaea?aeeaae aai.

A 1781 eieiieth caoaaoeee eniaioeu e inoaaaeenue oai aieaa aiaea,
iaeiaei oaea a 1783 ii Aa?naeueneiio ie?iiio aeiaiai?o aeanoue aiaee/ai
auea ainnoaiiaeaia e nio?aiyeanue aei naiiai i?iaicaeaoaiey
iacaaeneiinoe Aaaaineeo Ino?iaia. Ii ieii/aiee Aieiu ca iacaaeneiinoue
aiaeeeneeo eieiiee a Naaa?iie Aia?eea (1775–1783) ia ino?iaao
iainiiaaeenue ie. 3000 aia?eeaineeo eiyeenoia, nio?aieaoeo aa?iinoue
a?eoaineie ei?iia, a oaeaea eo ?aaia. Ia ia/aeueiuo yoaiao canaeaiey ia
Aaaaiao au?aueaaeny oeii/aoiee. N yoie oeaeueth ia a?oeiaeaa aaiceeenue
?aau ec Ao?eee e auaoeo naaa?iaia?eeaineeo eieiiee. Iinea ioiaiu ?aanoaa
a 1838 yeiiiieea eieiiee i?eoea a oiaaeie, e iiiaea aeeoaee iieeioee
ino?iaa.

Iaeeaeaiea oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia Aaaaineeo Ino?iaao i?iecioei
ai a?aiy A?aaeaeaineie aieiu a NOA a 1861–1865, eiaaea ia ino?iaao
aace?iaaeny oeio, auaiceaoee oeiiie ec thaeiuo ooaoia NOA. Aeioiaeu
eieiiee oi?ie?iaaeenue a iniiaiii ca n/ao oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei ia
oi?aiaeth oeiieii. A ia?eiae aeaenoaey «nooiai caeiia» a NOA a 1920–1933
Aaaaineea Ino?iaa i?aa?aoeeenue a iaeei eo ia?aaaei/iuo ioieoia
eiio?aaaiaeiiai aaica nie?oiuo iaieoeia a NOA. Oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu ia
aaic e auaic nie?oiiai i?eianee cia/eoaeueiua aeioiaeu eieiiee e
/anoe/ii auee aeiaeaiu a oo?enoe/aneee aecian, aiineaaenoaee noaaoee
iniiaie yeiiiieee no?aiu. A 1920–1930-a aiaeu ai ana noa?u yeiiiieee
eieiiee (oo?eci, aaieianeay e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue e
i?i/.) noae i?iieeaoue eaieoae NOA.

A yiaa?a 1964 Aaaaineea Ino?iaa iieo/eee aioo?aiiaa naiioi?aaeaiea, a 10
ethey 1973 auee i?iaicaeaoaiu iacaaeneiui ainoaea?noaii a ninoaaa
Niae?oaeanoaa, aicaeaaeyaiiai Aaeeeia?eoaieae. A ieoya?a 1973 Aaaaineea
Ino?iaa auee i?eiyou a III. Yeiiiie/aneiio i?ioeaaoaieth no?aiu aanueia
niinianoaoao aa ?aiooaoeey eae e?oiiiai oo?enoe/aneiai, aaieianeiai e
oeiainiaiai oeaio?a. Iaiaeua aeioiaeu i?eiineo oaeaea ia?a?aaioea e
o?ainii?oe?iaea iaooe.

Ia?aui i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii no?aiu (iinea i?iaicaeaoaiey iacaaeneiinoe)
aue i?aaenoaaeoaeue I?ia?anneaiie eeaa?aeueiie ia?oee Eeiaeai Inea?
Ieiaeeeia; ii nio?aiye naie iino aei 19 aaaonoa 1992, eiaaea aai ia?oey
onooieea ianoi Naiaiaeiiio iaoeeiiaeueiiio aeaiie?aoe/aneiio
aeaeaeaieth, aicaeaaeyaiiio Ouethaa?oii Eia?yoyiii. Yoa ia?oey iieo/eea
aieueoeinoai aieinia (34) e ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao 1997, /oi iicaieeei
O.Eia?yoyio noi?ie?iaaoue iaeiiia?oeeiia i?aaeoaeuenoai. A no?aia
ooieoeeiie?otho aeanyoee io?aneaauo i?ionithcia, e?oiiaeoea i?ionithciua
iauaaeeiaiey – Eiia?ann i?ionithcia Niae?oaeanoaa Aaaaineeo Ino?iaia e
Iaoeeiiaeueiue eiia?ann i?ionithcia.

Ia Aaaaiao auoiaeyo ianeieueei e?oiiuo aacao: «Iannao aa?aeeai»
(iniiaaia a 1844, oe?aae 14,1 oun. yec.), «Iannao aeaeee o?eathi»
(iniiaaia a 1903, 12 oun. yec.), «O?eii?o iuethn» (iniiaaia a 1961, 4
oun. yec.). Auoiaeeo oaeaea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue aaeaiaaeaeueiee «Ioeoe
aacaoo». ?aaeei- e oaeaaauaiea aaaeaony i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eiiiaieae
«A?iaeeanoeia ei?ii?aeoi Ayoaiyn».

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020