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Aaoiiiiiay ?anioaeeea E?ui ia?aciaaia eae E?uineay iaeanoue 30 ethiy
1945 aiaea, noaoon ?anioaeeee iieo/eea a 1991 aiaeo. Aa ieiuaaeue
ninoaaeyao 26,1 oun. ea. ei (4,3% io oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu). *eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey – 2134,7 oun. /aeiaae (4,3% ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu), a oii /enea
ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea – 1338,3 oun. /aeiaae (62,7%), naeueneia – 796,4
oun. /aeiaae (37,3%). Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey – 81,8 /ae. ia ea. ei.

?aniieiaeaia ia E?uineii iieoino?iaa e yaeyaony naiui thaeiui ?aaeiiii
Oe?aeiu. Ia caiaaea e thaa iiuaaaony *a?iui, ia ainoiea – Acianeei
ii?yie. Ea?/aineei i?ieeaii ioaeaeyaony io ?innee. I?ioyaeaiiinoue
aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee n naaa?a ia tha ninoaaeyao 210 ei, n caiaaea ia
ainoie – ieiei 325 ei. Ii nooa a?aie/eo n Oa?niineie iaeanoueth. N
iaoa?eeii E?ui niaaeeiai oceei (8 ei) Ia?aeiineei ia?aoaeeii, ii
eioi?iio i?ioiaeyo aeaeaciay e aaoiiiaeeueiay aei?iae. Aoi?ie
o?ainii?oiue auoiae n oa??eoi?ee E?uia – ii eneonnoaaiiie ianuie /a?ac
Neaao. Aeaenoaoao oaeaea ia?iiiay ia?ai?aaa “Eaaeac” iaaeaeo Ea?/ueth e
Oaiaineei iieoino?iaii ?innee.

A aaeieieno?aoeaiii ioiioaiee ?anioaeeea aeeth/aao a naay 14
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aeiiia, 16 ai?iaeia, a oii /enea 11 ai?iaeia
iaeanoiiai iiae/eiaiey, 56 iinaeeia ai?iaeneiai oeia, 957 naeueneeo
ianaeaiiuo ioieoia.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiue oeaio? – ai?iae Neioa?iiieue, ia?aia oiiieiaiea
aeaoe?iaaii XVI aaeii, ai?iaeii yaeyaony n 1784 aiaea. Ianaeaiea ai?iaea
ian/eouaaao 338,9 oun. /aeiaae.

Oa??eoi?ey E?uia ioee/aaony cia/eoaeueiui i?e?iaeiui ?aciiia?aceai.
E?uineea ai?u, ?aniieiaeaiiua a thaeiie /anoe iieoino?iaa, ii?aaeaeytho
?acaeaeaiea oa??eoi?ee ia naaa?ioth – ?aaieiioth (o.i. Noaiiie E?ui) e
thaeioth ai?ioth (Ai?iue E?ui). Aaeieue thaeiiai iiaeiiaeey E?uineeo ai?
i?inoe?aaony oceay aaea/ieeiaay iieina THaeiiai aa?aaa E?uia. Iieaciua
eneiiaaiua i?aaenoaaeaiu aeaeaciuie ?oaeaie, ianoi?iaeaeaieyie
i?e?iaeiiai aaca ia oaeueoa Aciaa, a oaeaea ianoi?iaeaeaieyie
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia. A ?aeiia Ea?aaeaaa ianoi?iaeaeaiey
iieoae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae. THaeiue aa?aa E?uia – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo
eo?i?oiuo cii NIA (eeeiaoioa?aiey, ii?neea eoiaiey n ethiy ii ieoya?ue,
a?yce, aeiia?aaeiea/aiea).

Eeeiao naaa?iie /anoe oia?aiii eiioeiaioaeueiue, nooie; thaeiie –
noao?iie/aneee n?aaeecaiiiii?neiai oeia.

?aee E?uia iaaaeeee e iaeiaiaeiu (?. Naeae?, Aaeueaae, *a?iay, Ea/a, e
ae?.), ia naiuo e?oiiuo ec ieo nicaeaiu aiaeio?aieeeua, neoaeauea
enoi/ieeaie aiaeiniaaaeaiey ai?iaeia. E?oiiaeoae aiaeiie a?oa?eae
yaeyaony Naaa?i-E?uineee eaiae, aiaeaie eioi?iai i?ioathony iiey. A
E?uio aieueoia eiee/anoai eeiaiiuo nieaiuo ica? (ic. Nanue, E?aniia,
Naeneia e ae?.).

E?uineee iieoino?ia yaeyaony ecae?aaea neaayineie caieae (neaayia
i?iieeatho e naeyony caeanue oaea a VIII aaea). Naiuie ae?aaieie
iaeoaoaeyie iieoino?iaa n/eoathony eeiia?eeoeu, eioi?ua a iniiaiii aeeee
a Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea e naeeeenue a E?uio. A aiaeu n?aaeiaaaeiauey
/anoue E?uineiai XII aa.). Niieoino?iaa aoiaeeea a ae?aaia?onneia
Oiooa?aeaineia eiyaeanoai (X 1475 ii 1774 aa. iii yaeyeinue aannaeii
Iniaineie eiia?ee.

A 1783 a. E?ui aioae a ninoaa ?innee. A 1784 a. auea ia?aciaaia
Oaa?e/aneay iaeanoue, a ninoaa eioi?ie aioee E?uineee iieoino?ia,
Oaiaiue e caiee e naaa?o io Ia?aeiia aei Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai
iaianoie/anoaa. *a?ac 12 eao aa oa??eoi?ey aioea a ninoaa Iiai?inneeneie
aoaa?iee. A eiioea XVIII aaea E?ui noae eioaineaii canaeyoueny
auoiaeoeaie ec oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiia ?innee. 18 ieoya?y 1921 a.
ia?aciaaia E?uineay ANN?. A 1944 a. ec E?uia auee aunaeaiu e?uineea
oaoa?u e i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo ianeaayineeo ia?iaeia. Iinea ieii/aiey
aieiu nthaea ia/aeinue ia?anaeaiea ianaeaiey n oa??eoi?ee NNN?, eioi?ua
iniaaiii neeueii iino?aaeaee. A ethia 1945 a. E?uineay ANN? auea
i?aia?aciaaia a E?uineoth iaeanoue. A 1954 a. E?uineay iaeanoue ec
ninoaaa ?NON? auea ia?aaeaia a ninoaa Oe?aeineie NN?. A 1991 a. E?uineay
iaeanoue auea i?aia?aciaaia a ?anioaeeeo E?ui, eioi?ay aoiaeeo a ninoaa
Oe?aeiu.

E?ui i?aaenoaaeyao niaie y?eee i?eia? neiaeiie ioeueoeiaoeeiiaeueiie e
ioeueoeeoeueoo?iie nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu. A oa/aiea 1990-o aiaeia a
oeaeii ii E?uio oeene?oaony noaaeeueiay oaiaeaioeey nieaeaiey
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey. Niaae /eneaiiinoe ?aaeiia ii?aaeaeyaony eae
anoanoaaiiie oaueueth, oae e iea?aoeeiiiui iooieii, i?e/ai eo
niioiioaiea a E?uio i?aeoe/anee ?aaiia.

Aic?anoiie ninoaa ianaeaiey ?anioaeeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony aieaa aunieie
aeieae eeoe o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa ii n?aaiaieth ni
n?aaeiaoe?aeineeie iieacaoaeyie e ianeieueei iiauoaiiui oaeaeueiui aanii
ieaaeoeo aic?anoiuo a?oii.

Enoi?e/anee a E?uio neiaeeeanue neiaeiay yoie/aneay no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey.
Oe?aeineay ?aaeiiaeueiay iaueia E?uia – naiay iaei/eneaiiay a Oe?aeia.
Iaeaieueoay aeiey ianaeaiey E?uia i?aaenoaaeaia ?onneeie (ia eo aeieth a
iauae neiaeiinoe i?eoiaeeeinue aieaa 2/3 anaai ianaeaiey), a oi a?aiy
eae oe?aeioeu ninoaaeyee /ooue aieaa /aoaa?oe aai aeeoaeae. A oa/aiea
1990-o aiaeia a yoie/aneie no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey E?uia iaiaoeeenue
iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey. Iie naycaiu, ai-ia?auo, n iea?aoeeiiiui i?eoieii
e?uineeo oaoa? e iooieii i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo yoiinia (i?aaeaea anaai
?onneeo) ca i?aaeaeu ?anioaeeee. Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai e?uineeo oaoa?
caoeene?iaaii a oeaio?aeueiuo e caiaaeiuo ?aeiiao ?anioaeeee, a
iaeioi?uo ec ieo aeiey e?uineeo oaoa? ninoaaeyao aieaa 25%.

N?aaee ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaiecaoeee i?aiaeaaeatho iaueiu Oe?aeineie
i?aaineaaiie oea?eae Iineianeiai Iao?ea?oaoa, oaeaea aeiaieueii caiaoiia
aeeyiea eiatho ionoeueiaineea i?aaiecaoeee.

Oa??eoi?ey canaeaia e?aeia ia?aaiiia?ii. I?e n?aaeiae ieioiinoe
ianaeaiey 81,8 /ae. ia ea. ei ia oa??eoi?ee eo?i?oiuo thaeiiaa?aaeiuo
ai?niaaoia ii iiaeieiaaony aei 100 /ae. ia ea. ei. Aeey E?uineiai
iieoino?iaa oa?aeoa?ia niaoeeoe/aneay no?oeoo?a ?annaeaiey. Aa iniiao
ninoaaeytho ianeieueei aaciauo yeaiaioia. Ai-ia?auo, yoi aeaa e?oiiuo
oeaio?a Neioa?iiieue e Naaanoiiieue e, ai-aoi?uo, aeaa “eo?i?oiua”
a?oiiiaua oi?iu ?annaeaiey – THaeiiaa?aaeiay e Naenei-Aaiaoi?eeneay.
N?aaieoaeueii ?aaiiia?iay e aeinoaoi/ii i?ioyaeaiiay iaeii?iaeiay naoue
?annaeaiey iaaethaeaaony a noaiiie /anoe iieoino?iaa. A aeaoo oeaio?ao
?annaeaiey E?uia e oyaioathueo e iei ianaeaiiuo ioieoao a iauae
neiaeiinoe i?iaeeaaao ieiei o?aoe anaai ianaeaiey E?uia. A i?aaeaeao
THaeiiaa?aaeiie eaioiia?aciie a?oiiu ai?niaaoia eiioeaio?e?oaony a iauae
neiaeiinoe ii/oe aieaa 17% anaai ianaeaiey ?anioaeeee, eee ii/oe 15%
anaai ianaeaiey iieoino?iaa, aeeth/ay Naaanoiiieue. A caiaaeiie
eo?i?oiie ciia, a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeyo ai?iaea Naee e Aaiaoi?ey, a
oaeaea aeeceea ianaeaiiua ioieou, noiia?iay /eneaiiinoue iaee/iiai
ianaeaiey ninoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 9% ianaeaiey ?anioaeeee.

I?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey iieoino?iaa ii?aaeaeeee aaaeouaa
?acaeoea naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai oicyenoaa, eioi?ia eiaao iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
cia/aiea. A cia/eoaeueiie ia?a n yoie noa?ie aeayoaeueiinoe naycaia
niaoeeaeecaoeey e ae?oaeo io?aneae noa?u oneoa. A io?aneaaie no?oeoo?a
i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena aaaeouaa ianoi caieiaao ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia ia?a?aaioeo ianoiiai nu?uey. N?aaee aa io?aneae
iauaoe?aeineia cia/aiea ea?atho aeiiaeaeue/aneay (Iannaiae?a),
?uaiia?aaaouaathuay (Ea?/ue, sseoa), eiina?aiay (Neioa?iiieue),
yoe?iianeaie/iay (Neioa?iiieue, Aao/ena?ae, Aeoooa, Noaeae) e
oaaa/ii-oa?iaioaoeeiiiay (sseoa, Neioa?iiieue, Oaiaeiney). A E?uio
ooieoeeiie?oao oeie/aneee eiiieaen, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeai
Neioa?iiieueneei caaiaeii ieanoiann, Naeneei oeie/aneei caaiaeii e
ae?oaeie.

Naeueneia oicyenoai iiiaiio?aneaaia. Iaeiaei aaaeouay ?ieue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ca?iiaiio oicyenoao. Ia iieeaiuo caieyo aicaeaeuaathony
?en e oaoie/aneea eoeueoo?u. ?acaeoi naaeiaiaenoai e aeiia?aaea?noai,
au?aueaaiea yoe?ii-ianeaie/iuo eoeueoo?.

Iniiaiua aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoe: ainoaea?noaaiiue
a?oeoaeoo?ii-enoi?e/aneee caiiaaaeiee “Noaeaoeeay e?aiinoue” a a.
Noaeae, ainoaea?noaaiiue enoi?eei-a?oeoaeoo?iue caiiaaaeiee a a.
Aao/ena?ae, Aeoieeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue aeai?oeiai-ia?eiaue
iocae-caiiaaaeiee.

Auaiaeiia yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee E?ui
iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi aaoiiiiey caieiaao oa??eoi?eth E?uineiai
iieoino?iaa, ?aniieiaeaiiiai ia thaa Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu iaaeaeo
46°15’–44°23’ naaa?iie oe?iou e 32°29’–36°39’ ainoi/iie aeieaiou.
Ieiuaaeue Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee E?ui caieiaao 26,1 oun. ei2, /oi
ninoaaeyao 4,3% oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu.

E?ui ?aniieiaeai a oe?ioiii iiyna Caiiiai oa?a, ionoiyuai ia ?aaiuo
?annoiyieyo io yeaaoi?a e Naaa?iiai iiethna.

Ia naaa?a iieoino?ia niaaeeiai n iaoa?eeii oceei (7—23 ei) Ia?aeiineei
ia?aoaeeii. N caiaaea e thaa iieoino?ia iiuaatho *a?iia ii?a, n ainoiea
— Ea?/aineee i?ieea, a n naaa?i-ainoiea — aiaeu Acianeiai ii?y e aai
caeeaa Neaaoa.

*a?iia ii?a — aanueia aeoaieee (aei 2245 i), ii/oe caieiooue, iaaeueiie
oi?iu, aiaeiai. Ii ieiuaaee naiae aiaeiie iiaa?oiinoe (413488 ei2) yoa
ieineiaeiiiay eioeiaeia aieaa /ai a 15 ?ac i?aainoiaeeo ieiuaaeue
E?uineiai iieoino?iaa.

Acianeia ii?a, iaiai?io, i/aiue iaeeiaiaeii. Iaeaieueoay aeoaeia aai ia
i?aauoaao 13,5 i. Iaiiiai onooiaao iii *a?iiio ii?th e ii ieiuaaee (37
600 ei2).

N naaa?a ia tha iieoino?ia i?ioyioeny ia 180 ei, a n caiaaea ia ainoie —
ia 360 ei. A?aie/eo n Oa?niineie e Caii?iaeneie iaeanoyie Oe?aeiu,
E?aniiaea?neei e?aai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. A E?uio i?aiaeaaeatho
ii?neea a?aieoeu, i?ioyaeaiiinoue aa?aaiaie eeiee ninoaaeyao ieiei 1500
ei.

Aiaaonoaii E?uia yaeyaony aai iyaeee, aeeceee e n?aaeecaiiiii?neiio,
eeeiao, aeey eioi?iai oa?aeoa?ii eciaeeea nieioea, oaiea e naaoa.

Eeeiao E?uia ii?aaeaeyaony aai aaia?aoe/aneei iieiaeaieai, ?aeueaoii e
aeeyieai iiuaathueo iieoino?ia ii?ae. Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?ii aieueoia
/enei /ania nieia/iiai neyiey, ii aianoa n oai aeey aieueoeinoaa ?aeiiia
— iaaeinoaoie aeaae. Iaeeea nieia/iuo aeiae (2180-2470 /ania a aiae),
oaieia ii?a, oia?aiii aeaaeiue aicaeoo, ianuuaiiue nieyie ii?y,
i?ae?aniua ieia?aeueiua enoi/ieee, yooaeoeaiua ea/aaiua a?yce – ana yoi
aeaeaao iacaauaaaiui i?aauaaiea ia iieoino?iaa. Eeeiao naaa?iie
?aaieiiie /anoe E?uia oia?aiii-eiioeiaioaeueiue n ei?ioeie iaeiniaaeiie
ceiie e oia?aiii aea?eei canooeeaui eaoii.

Ii eiee/anoao oaiea e aeaae E?ui ioiineony e /eneo ioiineoaeueii
aeaaii?eyoiuo ?aeiiia aeey ?acaeoey caieaaeaeey. I?ienoiaeeo aeoeaiay
aaaaoaoeey ioaieoeu, eoeo?ocu, aieueoeinoaa ieiaeiauo eoeueoo? e
aeiia?aaea.

E?ui ii i?aao iacuaatho i?e?iaeiie aeai/oaeeiie Aa?iiu. Caeanue, ia
nouea oia?aiiuo e noao?iie/aneeo oe?io, naiua ?aciiia?aciua i?e?iaeiua
eaiaeoaoou: ai?u e ?aaieiu, ae?aaiea aoeeaiu e nia?aiaiiua a?ycaaua
niiee, ii?y e ica?a, eana e noaie, i?e?iaea E?uineiai
noan?aaeecaiiiii?uey e iieoionouie I?eneaaouey…

Ianeo/aeii yoio oaieie oieeaeueiie caiee ecaeaaia i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea
ethaeae, a a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey noae ianoiyuae «iaeeie» aeey
ieeeeiiia eo?i?oieeia e oo?enoia.

N auniou ioe/ueaai iieaoa, eee i?e acaeyaea ia oece/aneoth ea?oo E?uia,
iiaeii oi?ioi i?aaenoaaeoue naaa iniiaiua /a?ou aaia?aoee iieoino?iaa.
Neiaii ae?aaiaa oaiy einoyea Oaa?eaeu, auneony ia thaa Ai?iue E?ui. E
naaa?o io iaai i?inoe?athony ?aaieiu, ia ainoiea ?aneeioeinue Ea?/aineia
oieiiai?uea. E?uineea ai?u eniieeineei eaiaiiui ?oaoeii ionaeatho
i?eaeaaoeeny e *a?iiio ii?th noan?aaeecaiiiii?neee THaeiue aa?aa E?uia,
a naaa?iaa eo, ?aa?aie eoynoiauo a?yae, i?inoe?aaony eaninoaiiia
i?aaeai?uea.

E?uineea ai?u ioaaniie noaiie ia?uaathony a noi?iio ii?neiai
iiaa?aaeuey, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiua eo neeiiu iieiae. Naiua aunieea aa?oeiu
– ?iiai-Eio (1545 i), Ae-Iao?e (1232 i), *aou?-Aeaa (1527 i), Naaa?iay
Aeaia?aeaee (1356 i), Ioaaniua noaiu, aunioie io 200 aei 400 iao?ia,
i?inoe?athony aaeieue iiaa?aaeuey io iuna Aey aei iinaeea Ao?coo.

Ii oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee i?ioaeaao 257 ?ae aeeeiie aieaa 5 ei. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiay – Naeae?, aeeeiie 220 ei, a iaeaieaa iieiiaiaeiay – Aaeueaae
(?anoiae aiaeu aei 150 eeo?ia a naeoiaeo).

Ia iieoino?iaa, aeaaiui ia?acii, aaeieue iiaa?aaeee, ian/eouaaaony aieaa
50 nieaiuo ica?, eniieuecoaiuo aeey iieo/aiey nieae e ea/aaiuo a?ycae:
Naeneia, Nanue, Aeiioceaa, Aaeae, Noa?ia ica?i, E?aniia ica?i,
Aeoaoneia, *ie?aeneia, Ocoiea?neia e ae?.

A E?ui n eaaeaeui aiaeii ono?aieyaony ana aieueoa ioaeuoathueo e
oo?enoia: ca iineaaeiea 70 eao iioie ?ae?aaioia aic?in a 100 ?ac! A yoeo
oneiaeyo iniaoth oeaiiinoue e iao/ii-yeieiae/aneee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
i?e?iaeii-caiiaaaeiue oiiae E?uia.

Ia aeieth caiiaaaeiiai oiiaea i?eoiaeeony aieaa 135 ouny/ aaeoa?
oa??eoi?ee iieoino?iaa, /oi ninoaaeyao 5,2% aai ieiuaaee. Caiiaaaeiue
oiiae ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a nio?aiaiee oai?aiee iaaeeaie e aeeaie
i?e?iaeu, noaaeeece?oao yeieiae/aneoth neooaoeeth ia iieoino?iaa.

E?ui yaeyaony oieeaeueiui ?aaeiiii Oe?aeiu, aaea ia n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoie oa??eoi?ee ?aniieiaeaii 152 iauaeoa i?e?iaeii-caiiaaaeiiai
oiiaea, a oii /enea: 6 i?e?iaeiuo caiiaaaeieeia, 30 caeacieeia, 69
iaiyoieeia i?e?iaeu, 2 aioaie/aneeo naaea, 1 aeaiae?ieiae/aneee ia?e, 31
ia?e-iaiyoiee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai eneonnoaa, 8 caiiaaaeiuo o?i/eu, 1
ciiia?e.

A E?uio ecaanoii aieaa 200 ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo.
Iauaainoaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea eiatho aeaeaciua ?oaeu (Ea?/aineee
aeaeaci?oaeiue aannaei), niee Neaaoa e i?eii?neeo ica? (Noa?ia, E?aniia
e ae?.), i?e?iaeiue aac (*a?iiii?neea ianoi?iaeaeaiey), oethniaua
ecaanoiyee (Aaeaeeaaneia, Ea?/aineia ianoi?iaeaeaiey e ae?.), oeaiaioiua
ia?aaee (Aao/ena?ae), aii/a?iua e ioaaeeaathuea aeeiu (i?aaeai?uea).
Aeey ea/aaiuo e ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo oeaeae eniieuecothony ea/aaiua a?yce e
ieia?aeueiua enoi/ieee (Naee, Aaiaoi?ey, Oaiaeiney e ae?.), ian/aiua e
aaea/iua ieyaee (caiaaeiia e thaeiia iiaa?aaeuea, I?eaciauea).

Eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey E?uia i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu. E?ui ie?oaeai aiaeiui
aannaeiii, ia?ana/ai ai?iui ieaoi, n iieiaeie neeiiaie e naaa?o e aieaa
e?ooui – e thao (e *a?iiio ii?th), eioi?ue caueuai io aeeyiey naaa?iuo
aao?ia. Ai?u i?i?acaiu aeieeiaie. Ia ?acee/iuo aunioao iaae o?iaiai ii?y
ano?a/athony naie oneiaey, aeeythuea ia oa?aeoa? eeeiaoa.

Eaaeaeue neeii e?uineeo ai? eiaao naie eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey, eai
iiaeaa?aaaony a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie aeeyieth oao eee ae?oaeo
ainiiaenoaothueo aao?ia. Naiie oaieie /anoueth THaeiiai aa?aaa yaeyaony
i?ino?ainoai io iuna Aey aei iuna Ae-Oiaei?, oae eae yoa /anoue
iiaa?aaeuey iaoiaeeony eae au a aao?iaie oaie io oieiaeiuo naaa?iuo e
naaa?i-ainoi/iuo aao?ia. Io Ae-Oiaei?a oaea noaiiaeony caiaoiui aeeyiea
ainoi/iuo aao?ia e, oaeei ia?acii, aoi?ia ianoi ii oaieioa caieiaao
/anoue THaeiiai aa?aaa io Ae-Oiaei?a aei Aeooou, a o?aouea ianoi ii
oaieioa – io Aeooou aei Eieoaaaey, i?e/ai noaiaiue iinoaiaiiiai
ia?aoiaea io oaieiai eeeiaoa e aieaa oieiaeiiio eae au neaaeoao
ia?aeeaeueii n iinoaiaiiui iiieaeaieai aunio ai? io Aeooou e Oaiaeinee.
Oaiaeiney oaea ioe?uoa naaa?iui e naaa?i-ainoi/iui aao?ai, e aa eeeiao,
eiathuee naie ianoiua iniaaiiinoe, aeeaea iiaeoiaeeo e eeeiaoo
Ea?/aineiai iieoino?iaa.

Oaieue aicaeoo, i?eoiaeyuee a E?ui n thaa, ioiineoaeueii naiaiaeii
i?iieeaao /a?ac iaaunieea E?uineea ai?u a noaiiua ?aeiiu iieoino?iaa.
I?e aoi?aeaiee aea oieiaeiiai ieioiiai a?eoe/aneiai aicaeooa ai?u
i?aiyonoaotho aai i?iieeiiaaieth ia THAE. A yoii ieaia i/aiue
iieacaoaeueii n?aaiaiea n?aaeiae yiaa?neie oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ?aaieiiiai E?uia (iao. E?aniiaaa?aeaeneia) e a sseoa
– niioaaonoaaiii –2°N e +4°N. Anee au a E?uio ia auei ai?, oi THaeiue
aa?aa iaei /ai ioee/aeny au io noaiiiai iiaa?aaeuey *a?iiai e Acianeiai
ii?ae. I?e yoii aaeeea ?ieue ia noieueei auniou E?uineeo ai?, neieueei
eo iauaai iai?aaeaiey – n caiaaea ia ainoie, ia?aeeaeueii iiaa?aaeueth.

E?ui ioiineony e /eneo iaeaieaa nieia/iuo ?aeiiia aa?iiaeneie /anoe NIA.
Aiaeiaay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue nieia/iiai neyiey caeanue eciaiyaony a
i?aaeaeao 2180 – 2470 /ania. Iniaaiii iia aaeeea ia ii?neii iiaa?aaeuea,
aaea a?ec i?aiyonoaoao ia?aciaaieth iaeaeia. Ec aiaeiaie noiiu
?aaeeaoeee E?ui iieo/aao ceiie i?eia?ii 10%, aaniie – 30%, eaoii – 40% e
inaiueth – 20%. Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai nieia/iiai oaiea iieoino?ia
iieo/aao oiaea eaoii. Ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai i?eoiaeeony ia ai?iua
?aeiiu, a iaeneiaeueiia – ia caiaaeiia iiaa?aaeuea. Ii eae au oai ie
auei, a aeaeaa?a e yiaa?a ia aaeeieoeo caiiie iiaa?oiinoe ca nooee
iinooiaao oaiea a 8 –10 ?ac aieueoa, /ai, iai?eia?, a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa.

Ceiie iaae thaeiie /anoueth aa?iiaeneie oa??eoi?ee NIA a oe?ioiii
iai?aaeaiee /anoi onoaiaaeeaaaony inue iiauoaiiiai aoiinoa?iiai
aeaaeaiey, a iaae *a?iui ii?ai – ciia iiieaeaiiiai aeaaeaiey.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai a E?ui /anoi aoi?aathony oieiaeiue e nooie
eiioeiaioaeueiue aicaeoo oia?aiiuo oe?io eee a?eoe/aneee aicaeoo. N yoei
naycaiu ?aceea iiieaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u e neeueiua naaa?i-ainoi/iua aao?u.
A oio aea nacii ioiineoaeueii /anoi nthaea i?eoiaeyo oeeeeiiu ni
N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y, eioi?ua i?eiinyo oaieue aicaeoo o?iieeia.
N?aaeecaiiiii?neea oeeeeiiu, eae i?aaeei, caaea?aeeaathony a
naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe *a?iiai ii?y. Aneaaenoaea yoiai oaieue aicaeoo
aicaeaenoaoao, i?aaeaea anaai, ia thai-caiaaeioth /anoue ai?iiai E?uia.
Eiaiii iiyoiio ceia a E?uio aeaaeiay n /anoui auiaaeaieai inaaeeia e
iaeui enia?aieai. Oai ia iaiaa, ceiie inaaeeia auiaaeaao ii/oe a o?e
?aca iaiueoa, /ai eaoii.

*anoua iooaiaee ceiie i?eaiaeyo e aieueoei eieaaaieyi oaiia?aoo?u e
iaonoie/eainoe e iaeiiiuiinoe niaaeiiai iie?iaa.

Aania a E?uio i?ioaeaao auno?i aeaaiaea?y oaaee/aieth auniou nieioea e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeiy, oiaiueoaieth iaea/iinoe e i?eoieo thaeiiai
oaieiai aicaeooa. Ai aioo?aiieo ?aeiiao E?uia iaaethaeaaony
cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea oaiia?aoo?u oaea io oaa?aey e ia?oo. Aania –
iaeaieaa nooie e aao?aiue nacii aiaea n /anouie «aica?aoaie oieiaeia», n
ii/iuie ii?icaie, oo?aiieie caii?iceaie, iniaaiii a eioeiaeiao e ?a/iuo
aeieeiao i?aaeai?uey, /oi io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia ?aiiaoeaaooueo
einoi/eiauo ieiaeiauo aea?aaueyo e oaieiethaeaii aeiia?aaea.

Eaoii a E?uio i?aiaeaaeaao yniay, aea?eay e iaeiaao?aiay iiaiaea n
i?iyaeaieai ianoiuo a?ecia, ai?ii-aeieeiiuo e neeiiiuo aao?ia.
Aneaaenoaea oiai /oi eiioeiaioaeueiue aicaeoo oia?aiiuo oe?io
i?aia?acoaony caeanue a ianoiue o?iie/aneee, ia iieoino?iaa i?aiaeaaeaao
canooeeaay iiaiaea.

Ii?neea aicaeooiua iannu e aoeaioe/aneea oeeeeiiu i?eiinyo a yoi a?aiy
aiaea inaaeee. Auiaaeatho iaeeueiua, eioaineaiua, ii /aua anaai
e?aoeia?aiaiiua aeiaeaee. Eaoi a E?uio aeeeony 4 – 5 ianyoeaa.

Inaiue caeanue – eo/oee nacii aiaea. Iiaiaea oeoay, nieia/iay e oia?aiii
oaieay. Inaiue oaieaa aaniu ia 2 – 3°N a oeaio?aeueiuo e ia 4 – 5°N a
i?eii?neeo ?aeiiao. ?aceay niaia iiaiaeu i?ienoiaeeo, eae i?aaeei, ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia iiya?y.

A E?uio aiaeiaia eciaiaiea oaiia?aoo?u ii/oe niaiaaeaao n eciaiaieai
i?eoiea nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee. N?aaeiaiany/iua oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa a
iniiaiii eciaiythony n naaa?a ia tha, ca eneeth/aieai THaeiiaa?aaeuey,
aaea eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo e ainoieo e caiaaeo. *aua anaai iaeaieaa
oieiaeiui ianyoeai yaeyaony yiaa?ue eee oaa?aeue. Iaeaieaa ieceay
n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a (-4°N) a yiaa?a iaaethaeaaony a ai?ao, a iaeaieaa
aunieay (ieiei +5°N) – ia THAE. Naiay aunieay n?aaeiaiany/iay
oaiia?aoo?a /aua anaai a ethea, eiaaea iia aeinoeaaao +23+24 °N, a ai?ao
– 16 °N.

A oa/aiea nooie iaeaieaa ieceea oaiia?aoo?u iaaethaeathony ia?aae
ainoiaeii nieioea, a iaeaieaa aunieea – a 12 – 14 /ania. A?eciaua aao?u
nieaeatho aeiaaioth oaiia?aoo?o e iiauoatho ii/ioth, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
nooi/iay aiieeooaea ia ii?neii iiaa?aaeuea iaiueoa, /ai aaeaee io iaai.
Aaniethoiue ieieioi oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa auaaao i?aeiouanoaaiii a yiaa?a
– oaa?aea e ninoaaeyao a i?aaeai?uea aei -37°N.

A E?uio 80-85% aiaeiaie noiiu inaaeeia auiaaeaao a aeaea aeiaeaey. *enei
aeiae n aeiaeaeyie eieaaeaony io 80-130 a noaiiuo ?aeiiao aei 150-170 a
ai?ao. Eaoii a E?uio iaaethaeaaony ia aieaa 5-10 aeiae n aeiaeaeyie ca
ianyoe.

Iaeaieueoay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa, iaaethaeaaoayny a E?uio, 38.1° a oaie
auea ioia/aia a Naaanoiiiea. Iaeiaiueoay oaiia?aoo?a -30° iaaethaeaeanue
a E?uio a ?aeiia Neioa?iiiey e E?aniiia?aeiinea. Oaeei ia?acii
oaiia?aoo?a a E?uio eciaiyaony a i?aaeaeao 68.1°, eiay aiaeiaua n?aaeiea
cia/aiey io 10° aei 13°.

Ia 01.11.2009 aiaea a Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeea E?ui i?iaeeaaei 1966,4 oun.
/ae. A oa/aiea 2009 aiaea eiee/anoai ianaeaiey oiaiueoeeinue, ia /oi,
aeaaiui ia?acii, iiaeeyei anoanoaaiiia nie?auaiea. Aneaaenoaea
aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiie iea?aoeee a 2009 aiaeo ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea
oaaee/eeinue ca n/ao naeueneiai.

Ianaeaiea Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee E?ui ?aciauaii ii oa??eoi?ee iieoino?iaa
ia?aaiiia?ii. I?e n?aaeiae ieioiinoe ianaeaiey 75,4 /ae./ei2, ieioiinoue
a ?aaieiiie /anoe E?uia i?aauoaao 30 /ae./ei2, a ai?ao — ieiei 10
/ae./ei2, a i?aaeai?uea — ieiei 150 /ae./ei2, a ia iiaa?aaeuea — aieaa
300 /ae./ei2. Ia iiaa?aaeuea E?uia, yaeythuainy iaeaieaa oeaiiie a
?ae?aaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee oa??eoi?eae, i?iaeeaaao 50% ianaeaiey
?anioaeeee. A anee e ?ae?aaoeeiiii-oeaiiui oa??eoi?eyi ioianoe oaeaea
ai?u e i?aaeai?uey, oi iieacaoaeue aic?anoao aei 75%.

Aeey E?uia oa?aeoa?iu ?ino /enea ai?iaeia, a oaeaea iinaeeia ai?iaeneiai
oeia e ioiineoaeueiay noaaeeueiinoue naeueneeo iinaeaiee. Aaeaeo
?anoe?aiey naoe ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (naiaoi?eaa, aeiiia ioaeuoa,
iaineiiaoia e o. ae.), eiee/anoai iinaeaiee ai?iaeneiai oeia ia
iiaa?aaeuea oaaee/eeinue ca 50 eao aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca.

Naeueneea ianaeaiiua ioieou ?aciauathony ii E?uio ia?aaiiia?ii. I?e
iauai eiee/anoaa 950 naeueneeo iinaeaiee e n?aaeiae ieioiinoe 4
iinaeaiey ia 100 ei2, a Neioa?iiieueneii ?aeiia ieioiinoue naeueneeo
iinaeaiee ninoaaeyao 6, a a *a?iiii?neii ?aeiia — 2,2 iinaeaiey ia 100
ei2.

Oa??eoi?ey e eiee/anoai iaee/iiai ianaeaiey ii ?aaeiiai Aaoiiiiiie
?anioaeeee E?ui ia 01.11.2010 aiaea

Aaoiiiiiay ?anioaeeea E?ui26,0811966,4a. Aeoooa0,60052,5a.
A?iyine0,16225,1a. Aeaeaieie0,02637,5a. Aaiaoi?ey0,065123,3a.
Ea?/ue0,108147,7a. E?aniiia?aeiine0,02230,2a. Naee0,02924,7a.
Neioa?iiieue0,107360,5a. Noaeae0,53929,9a. Oaiaeiney0,350105,8a.
sseoa0,283141,2?aeiiuAao/ena?aeneee1,58990,0Aaeiai?neee1,89464,0Aeaeaiei
eneee2,66775,2Ee?ianeee1,20854,0E?aniiaaa?aeaeneee1,76690,8E?aniiia?aeii
neee1,23129,8Eaieineee2,91963,8Ieaeiaai?neee1,21251,4Ia?aiiaeneee1,47436
,1?acaeieueiaineee1,23134,6Naeneee2,25777,3Neioa?iiieueneee1,753154,9Nia
aoneee1,08034,3*a?iiii?neee1,50931,9

Ninoaa ianaeaiey Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee E?ui ii eoiaai Anaoe?aeineie
ia?aiene ianaeaiey 2001 aiaea.

Iniaaiiinoueth iaoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee
E?ui, yaeyaony aai iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiinoue. Ii aeaiiui Anaoe?aeineie
ia?aiene ianaeaiey ia oa??eoi?ee Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee E?ui i?iaeeaatho
i?aaenoaaeoaee aieaa 125 iaoeeiiaeueiinoae e ia?iaeiinoae.

Aeaiiua ioiineoaeueii iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae ii
Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeea E?ui i?eaaaeaiu ieaea:

IaoeeiiaeueiinoueEiee/anoai, oun.
/aeAnaai2024,0?onneea1180,4oe?aeioeu492,2e?uineea
oaoa?u243,4aaei?onu29,2oaoa?u11,0a?iyia8,7aa?ae4,5iieyee3,8iieaeaaaia3,7
aca?aaeaeaeaioeu3,7ocaaee2,9ei?aeoeu2,9a?aee2,8iaioeu2,5ii?aeaa2,2/oaaoe
2,1oeuaaia1,9aieaa?u1,9a?oceiu1,8ia?eeoeu1,1

A oaaeeoeo aeeth/aiu aeaiiua i iaoeeiiaeueiinoyo, aeiey eioi?uo a iauae
/eneaiiinoe iinoiyiiiai ianaeaiey A?E ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 0,1%.

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