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Антропогенный ландшафт

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Aio?iiiaaiiia eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea a nai?i nia?aiaiiii aeaea –
ioiineoaeueii iieiaeay iao/iay aeenoeeieeia, neiaeeaoayny ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia OO aaea e iaoiaeyuayny a noaaeee noaiiaeaiey. A? oai?aoe/aneea
iniiau – ?ac?aaaouaathony, iiiaea aii?inu oai?ee iinyo aeeneonneiiiue
oa?aeoa?. Aei neo ii? iao iieiie yniinoe e a ioiioaiee naieo iauaeoia
enneaaeiaaiey – aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia: /oi iiae ieie
iiae?acoiaaaaony, aaea i?ioiaeeo a?aiue iaaeaeo anoanoaaiiuie e
aio?iiiaaiiuie eaiaeoaooiuie eiiieaenaie, eaeiau eo ioee/eoaeueiua
i?eciaee. Eae yoi naeaeaoue, anee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii/oe ia inoaeinue
eaiaeoaooia, eioi?ua ia eniuoaee au i?yiiai eee einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey
/aeiaaea, i?iyaeythuaainy a naiuo ?aciuo oi?iao e a aanueia
?aciiia?aciie noaiaie. Aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea ieacaea aieaa eee iaiaa
neeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia naienoaa anao eaiaeoaooiuo eiiiiiaioia e
eaiaeoaooiuo eiiieaenia a oeaeii, a ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iaoneiaeea
aicieeiiaaiea iiauo aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia. Ii aeaaea iaeaieaa
neeueii i?aia?aciaaiiue eaiaeoaoo inoa?ony /anoueth i?e?iaeu, oae eae
?acaeaaaony ii anoanoaaiiui caeiiai. A naiii iauai aeaea iiae
aio?iiiaaiiuie eaiaeoaooaie iiieiaaony iaeei ec aaiaoe/aneeo oeiia
aaia?aoe/aneiai eaiaeoaooa, ia?aciaaaoaainy a ?acoeueoaoa
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea eee a oiaea iai?aaeiaia?aiiiai
eciaiaiey i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooa. Oa?iei “aio?iii-aaiiue eaiaeoaoo”
ia?aciaai io a?a/. anthropos – /aeiaae e genes – ?iaeae?iiue.

E aio?iiiaaiiui eaiaeoaooai ioiineony aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia Caiee, nouanoaoao iiiai eo ?aciiaeaeiinoae, nicaeaii iiiai
aa?eaioia eeanneoeeaoeee, iino?iaiiuo ia iniiaa o/?oa noaiaie
aio?iiiaaiiie eciai?iiinoe i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooa, aaiacena, oeaeae
eniieueciaaiey, oicyenoaaiiie oeaiiinoe, aeeeoaeueiinoe nouanoaiaaiey e
noaiaie ?aaoee?oaiinoe e ae?. Iai?eia?, A.A. Ena/aiei (1965) iaia/aao
/aou?a a?oiiu eaiaeoaooia ii noaiaie eciaiaiey eo oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth: 1) oneiaii eciai?iiua, eee ia?aiauoiua; 2) neaai
eciai?iiua; 3) ia?ooaiiua (neeueii eciai?iiua); 4) nianoaaiii
eoeueoo?iua, eee ?aoeeiiaeueii i?aia?aciaaiiua, eaiaeoaoou.
Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eaiaeoaooia iineaaeiae a?oiiu “aeieaeii iinoiyiii
?aaoee?iaaoueny /aeiaaeii a niioaaonoaee n ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiui
ieaiii”.

A caaeneiinoe io ?iaea aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, oi?ie?othuaai
aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou, ?acee/atho (Ieeueeia, 1973):
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua, i?iiuoeaiiua, eeiaeii-aei?iaeiua, eaniua
aio?iiiaaiiua, aiaeiua aio?iiiaaiiua, naeeoaaiua, ?ae?aaoeeiiiua e
aaeeeaa?aoeaiua eaiaeoaoou (naycaiiua n aiaiiuie aeaenoaeyie; io eao.
belligero – aanoe aieio). Ii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei ooieoeeyi
auaeaeytho ?ano?niaini?iecaiaeyuea (i?iiuoeaiiua, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua,
eanioicyenoaaiiua), n?aaeiia?acothuea (naeeoaaiua, ?ae?aaoeeiiiua),
caiiaaaeiua, n?aaeicaueoiua (i?e?iaeiio?aiiua) e ae?. A caaeneiinoe io
aaiacena aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou aeaeyo ia oaoiiaaiiua, ie?iaaiiua,
aeea?anneiiiua, iaoaiiua e ae?oaea aaiaoe/aneea eaoaai?ee. Ii oa?aeoa?o
iineaaenoaee i?eiyoi ?acee/aoue aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou eoeueoo?iue e
aeoeueoo?iue, aicieeathuee a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aoeeiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
eee iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aicaeaenoaee ninaaeieo eaiaeoaooia. E?aeiei /eaiii a
yoii ?yaeo aunooiatho aeaa?aaee?iaaiiua eaiaeoaoou (aaaeeaiaeu). Iieiay
eeanneoeeaoeey aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia iiaeao auoue ?ac?aaioaia
oieueei ia iniiaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey ianeieueeeo
iniiaaiee aeaeaiey.

Aii?inu acaeiiioiioaiee /aeiaa/anoaa e i?e?iaeu, /aeiaaea e eaiaeoaooa n
ia/aeueiuo yoaiia ?acaeoey oece/aneie aaia?aoee iinoiyiii auee a oeaio?a
aieiaiey i?aeoe/anee anao o/?iuo. A oi aea a?aiy a iiaeaaeythuai
aieueoeinoaa nianoaaiii eaiaeoaooiaaae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee eaiaeoaoo
?anniao?eaaeny eae /enoi i?e?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea. E oieueei eiaaea a
60–70-o aiaeao i?ioeiai noieaoey ?acei aic?inei /enei ?aaio, iinayu?iiuo
i?iaeaiai i?aa?auaiey i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia a aio?iiiaaiiua, aioo?e
eiiieaeniie oece/aneie aaia?aoee auaeaeeeinue aio?iiiaaiiia
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea. Ioia/ay aaaeiinoue aeaaii iaeeaeaaiiai niauoey,
iaeioi?ua ecaanoiua aaia?aou iiniaoeee ioiaoeoue, /oi iiyaeeanue “iiaay
io?aneue ciaiee” (Iaeoieia, 1974). Oai ia iaiaa, eae ni?aaaaeeeai
caiaoee iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia yoiai iai?aaeaiey O.I. Ieeueeia,
aio?iiiaaiiia eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea – yoi iaeei ec ?acaeaeia
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey, aeaeathuee “oaa aia??ae ia iooe
nicaeaiey iiaeeeiii aaiaoe/aneiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey” (Ieeueeia, 1977,
n. 12).

Ecaanoii, /oi eaiaeoaooiia iuoeaiea ia/aei oi?ie?iaaoueny a eiioea XIX
a., niioaaonoaaiii, e enoiee aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey ioiinyony
e yoiio a?aiaie. Ei?ie aai iiaeii iaeoe a eeanne/aneeo o?oaeao A.A.
Aeieo/aaaa “Iaoe noaie i?aaeaea e oaia?ue” (1892), A.A. Eciaeeueneiai
“Eae aunioea iaoa noaiue” (1893), A.E. Aiaeeiaa “Aicaeaenoaea /aeiaaea
ia i?e?iaeo” (1894), aaea i?eaaaeaiu ia oieueei i?ae?aniua ia?acoeu
aiaeeca oeaeinoiie i?e?iaeu, ii e oeacaii ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue
enneaaeiaaiey aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeo aio?iiiaaiiiai oaeoi?a. Iniaay
caneoaa a yoii i?eiaaeeaaeeo A.A. Aeieo/aaao, eioi?ue a 1898 a. auneacae
iunee ii iiaiaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey iiaie neioace?othuae iaoee i
i?e?iaea (aianoi neiaeeaoaainy anoanoaiciaiey, i?aaenoaaeyaoaai a oi
a?aiy eiiaeiia?ao ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae, a oii /enea e aaia?aoee) e
ioia/ae “…Eco/aeenue, aeaaiui ia?acii, ioaeaeueiua oaea – ieia?aeu,
ai?iua ii?iaeu, ?anoaiey e aeeaioiua, e yaeaiey, ioaeaeueiua noeoee –
iaiiue (aoeeaieci), aiaea, caiey, aicaeoo, a /?i … iaoea e aeinoeaea …
oaeeaeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia, ii ia eo niioiioaiey, ia oa aaiaoe/aneay,
aaeiaa/iay, e anaaaea caeiiiia?iay naycue, eaeay nouanoaoao iaaeaeo
neeaie, oaeaie e yaeaieyie, iaaeaeo i??oaie e aeeaie i?e?iaeie, iaaeaeo
?anoeoaeueiuie, aeeaioiuie e ieia?aeueiuie oea?noaaie, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
/aeiaaeii, aai auoii e aeaaea aeooiaiui ie?ii – n ae?oaie. A iaaeaeo
oai, eiaiii yoe niioiioaiey, yoe caeiiiia?iua acaeiiaeaenoaey e
ninoaaeytho nouiinoue iiciaiey anoanoaa, yae?i enoeiiie iaoo?oeeinioee –
eo/ooth e aunooth i?aeanoue anoanoaiciaiey”… (1899, n. 5). Oioy A.A.
Aeieo/aaa e ia oniae ?ac?aaioaoue yoo iiaoth iaoeo, aeaaea ia aeae ae
iacaaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiiay ei oi?ioea i nayce e aaeeinoaa i?e?iaeu e
/aeiaaea auea iieiaeaia a iniiao i?aaenoaaeaiee ioa/anoaaiiuo o/?iuo i
aaia?aoe/aneeo eiiieaenao e caaea/ao eiiieaeniuo enneaaeiaaiee. Oaea a
ia/aea neaaeothuaai aaea noaei neeaaeuaaoueny i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aaia?aoe/aneeo i?ino?ainoaao – anoanoaaiiuo iaeanoyo (eiiieaenao), a
eioi?uo nouanoaoao oaniay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie i?e?iaeu e
/aeiaaeii, /oi, nianoaaiii, e iaoneaaeeaaao aaeeinoai yoeo oa??eoi?ee.
Iiaeiaiua iunee iiaeii iaeoe a ?aaioao A.E. Oaioeeueaaa, oeacuaaaoaai,
/oi “naycue iaaeaeo oneiaeyie anoanoaaiiuie e iiiaeie /a?oaie oicyenoaa
au?aaeaaony aeinoaoi/ii ynii” (1897, n 20), A.A. E?oaa?a (1899) e
ae?oaeo o/?iuo. Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi a ?onneie oece/aneie aaia?aoee a
XIX aaea neiaeeeinue o?aaeeoeeiiiia eiiieaeniia iienaiea eco/aaiuo
oa??eoi?ee, niaea?aeauaa, ia?yaeo n i?e?iaeiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie,
ienaiea oicyenoaaiiie aeecie e auoa ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey. Aeinoaoi/ii
i?eaanoe eiaia oaeeo ciaiaieouo iooaoanoaaiieeia, eae I.I.
Nai?iia-Oyiue-Oaineee e I.I. I?aeaaaeueneee.

A ia/aea OO a. oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiyaony acaeyae ia eaiaeoaoo eae iauaeo
aaia?aoee, a ninoaa eioi?iai iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee aeeth/atho /aeiaaea n
aai oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Caeanue iiaeii ioiaoeoue ieiia?iua
?aaiou a yoii iai?aaeaiee A.A. Ai?ciaa, iaiaeiie?aoii iiae/a?eeaaaoaai,
/oi aaia?aoey – yoi iaoea i eaiaeoaooao, a a ninoaa eaiaeoaooa
aeeth/athony ia oieueei “iiaa?oiinoue caiee a oaniii niunea neiaa” e
i?aaie/aneee ie?, ii e /aeiaae “ni anae neiaeiinoueth aai nioeeaeueiie
aeecie” (1908, n. 9). Ii aea a naiuo iaueo /a?oao ii?aaeaeee e caaea/e
eco/aiey eaiaeoaooa.

A 1910a. a ?aaioa, iinayu?iiie eaiaeoaooai Aieuineie aoaa?iee, I.A.
Oooeianeee iiae/??eeaaao eiiieaeniue oa?aeoa? aaeeinoaa yeaiaioia
eaiaeoaooa e aeeyiea ia eoeueoo?o e yeiiiie/aneoth aeecie /aeiaaea:
“*a?ac iin?aaenoai ?aeueaoa, aeae?ia?aoee e ii/a iiaa?oiinoiua …
ioeiaeaiey ieacuaatho ianiiiaiiia aeeyiea ia oei?o e oaoio no?aiu, a
/a?ac iin?aaenoai anao yeaiaioia eaiaeoaooa – ia eoeueoo?o e
yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea” (1910, n. 236). ?acaeoea yoe
eaeae iieo/eee a o?oaeao E.N. Aa?aa, eioi?ue aa?e a ioa/anoaaiioth
iao/ioth eeoa?aoo?o iiiyoea “eoeueoo?iue eaiaeoaoo”. A 1915a. a
i?ia?aiiiie noaouea “I?aaeiao e caaea/e aaia?aoee” ii i?aaeeiaeee
aaia?aoai eco/aoue ia oieueei anoanoaaiiua, ii e eoeueoo?iua eaiaeoaoou.
A ioee/ea io i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooa, a nicaeaiee eioi?iai /aeiaae
o/anoey ia i?eieiaao, a eoeueoo?iii eaiaeoaooa /aeiaae e i?iecaaaeaiey
aai aeayoaeueiinoe ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue. Eoeueoo?iuie ii iacuaae ana
eaiaeoaoou, oeaeaiai?aaeaiii i?aia?aciaaiiua, nicaeaiiua /aeiaaeii – yoi
e ai?iaeneea, e naeueneea, e naeueneioicyenoaaiiua, e ae?oaea
eaiaeoaoou.

30-a aiaeu OO a. n/eoathony ioi?aaiui yoaiii a ca?iaeaeaiee
aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey a aai nia?aiaiiii i?aaenoaaeaiee. Yoi
naycaii n oeaeui ?yaeii ioaeeeaoeee, iinayu?iiuo aio?iiiaaiiiio oaeoi?o
a ?acaeoee eaiaeoaooia. Oiaaea aea eaieia?aaeneeie aaia?aoaie A.Ae.
Aiaeaaui e A.I. Ai?iaeeiaui aue i?aaeeiaeai oa?iei “aio?iiiaaiiue
eaiaeoaoo”, aiineaaenoaee caauoue aei ia/aea 60-o. Aiaeaa (1929)
eniieueciaae yoio oa?iei i?e oa?aeoa?enoeea oeiia oa??eoi?ee ian/aiuo
ianneaia N?aaeiaai Aeiia, eiaiii /aeiaaeo ii ioaiaeee aieueooth ?ieue a
i?ioeanna eciaiaiey eaiaeoaooa e oeacuaae ia aaaeiinoue a eaiaeoaooiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo o/?oa ?iee oaoieee, oa?aeoa? aeaenoaey eioi?ie ia
i?e?iaeo caaeneo io i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee iauanoaa. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
ii ia?aue ia?aoee aieiaiea ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue auaeaeaiey “aio?iiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia”, ii?aaeaeaiey a?aieoe eaiaeoaooa e eco/aiey enoi?ee aai
?acaeoey.

Iniiau oai?ee eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey auee caeiaeaiu a eaieoaeueiii o?oaea
“Eaiaeoaooii-aaia?aoe/aneea ciiu NNN?” (Aa?a, 1931). Caeanue ai
aaaaeaiee aia?aua auei eceiaeaii o/aiea i eaiaeoaooa e caeiaeaiu iniiau
aaiaoe/aneiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey. A /anoiinoe, ii i?aaeeiaeee n/eoaoue
eaiaeoaoo iniiaiie aaeeieoeae a aaia?aoee e aeae neaaeothuaa
ii?aaeaeaiea eco/aaiiio iauaeoo: “Aaia?aoe/aneee eaiaeoaoo anoue oaeay
niaieoiiinoue, eee a?oiie?iaea, i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee, a eioi?ie
iniaaiiinoe ?aeueaoa, eeeiaoa, aiae, ii/aaiiiai e ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa
e aeeaioiiai ie?a, a oaeaea aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea neeaathony a aaeeiia
aa?iiie/aneia oeaeia, oeie/anee iiaoi?ythuaany ia i?ioyaeaiee ecaanoiie
ciiu Caiee” (1931, n. 5). Eco/aieth aio?iiiaaiiiai oaeoi?a a
oi?ie?iaaiee eaiaeoaooia iiiai aieiaiey oaeaeyao iaeei ec
iniiaiiieiaeieeia o/aiey i ii?oieiaee eaiaeoaooa E.A. ?aioineee (1935,
1938). Iiae/??eeaay, /oi iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey aeieaeiu auoue ia
oieueei anoanoaaiiua, ii e eciai?iiua /aeiaaeii, e caiiai nicaeaiiua ei
eoeueoo?iua eaiaeoaoou, ?aieineee ia?aui iieacae niioiioaiea
aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia n anoanoaaiiuie, eo ianoi a oeia i?e?iaeiiai
eiiieaena. Eoeueoo?iua iiaeeoeeaoeee oeia caiaeue ii i?aaenoaaeye eae
a?eiaiiua i?aia?aciaaiey oa??eoi?ee, aicieeathuea iiae aeeyieai
eoeueoo?u, a aaaeiaeoae oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie eoeueoo?iuo iiaeeoeeaoeee –
eo i?aeoe/aneoth ia?aoeiinoue, eiaaea iiae aeeyieai ii?aaeae?iiiai
eoeueoo?iiai ?aaeeia iiaeeoeeaoeey o?ainoi?ie?oaony a ae?oaoth eee
aica?auaaony e enoiaeiiio, ei?aiiiio oeio. Enoiaeiie aaeeieoeae
oeiieiaee caiaeue, eae e eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey, ii n/eoae aaia?aoe/aneoth
oaoeeth.

Eoae, e eiioeo 1930-o aiaeia i?iecioei noaiiaeaiea eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey
eae iaoee. Iiaeaiaey eoiae a? noaiiaeaiey, I.A. Ia?aooei a aeoaieie e
ianoiyoaeueiie ?aaioa “Eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea a NNN?” eiinoaoe?oao
“iiauoaiea eioa?ana o anoanoaaiieeia-eaiaeoaooiaaaeia e i?aia?acothuae
eaiaeoaoo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe” e ioia/aao, /oi “cia/eoaeueiue
iaoa?eae ii ?iee /aeiaaea a nicaeaiee eoeueoo?iuo e aiiaua aio?iiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia au? aeaeao naiaai iaiauaiey” (1938, n. 72).

Iiaue yoai a ?acaeoee aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey a iineaaiaiiua
aiaeu aue aucaai ia/aeii iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee e iaauaaei
aic?inoei aicaeaenoaeai /aeiaaea ia i?e?iaeo (Ieeueeia, 1977).
Iiyaeyaony oeaeue ?yae ?aaio (Naooeei, 1946, 1947, 1951; Eioaeueieeia,
1950, Aiaaeaiia 1951), iinayu?iiuo iniaaiiinoyi naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
aio?iiiaaiiuo (eoeueoo?iuo e eciai?iiuo) eaiaeoaooia. A ia/aea 50-o a
no?aia ?acai?aaony ia?aay aeeneonney ii iiaiaeo eoeueoo?iiai eaiaeoaooa.
Neeaaeuaaaony aeaa acaeyaea ia aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou. Nooue eo a
neaaeothuai: 1) eoeueoo?iua eaiaeoaoou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eeoue /anoue
aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia e 2) ana aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou – yoi
?acoeueoao /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u. Ii aieueoae /anoe (io E.N. Aa?aa aei
TH.A. Naooeeia) oa?iei “eoeueoo?iue eaiaeoaoo” aue i?aeoe/anee neiiieiii
aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooa, oae eae i?eiaiyeny e ethaiio eaiaeoaooo,
eciai?iiiio oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

50-a e 60-a aiaeu ioia/aiu auoiaeii niaoeeaeueiuo ?aaio, ?ane?uaathueo
?ieue aio?iiiaaiiiai oaeoi?a a oi?ie?iaaiee eaiaeoaooiuo eiiieaenia. E.
I. Caaaeei a iaci?iie iiiia?aoee “Oai?ey oece/aneie aaia?aoee” (1959)
niiaa aica?auaaony e caauoiio oa?ieio “aio?iiiaaiiue eaiaeoaoo” e
i?aaeeaaaao aeaeeoue eo ia ianeieueei a?oii, a oii /enea
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiua e eoeueoo?iua. A 70-a aiaeu ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii
iiyaeyaony ianeieueei ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo ?aaio, iinayu?iiuo aio?iiiaaiiui
eaiaeoaooai. N?aaee ieo neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iiiia?aoeth A.I. ?ya/eeiaa
(1972), aaea iaiauaiu ?acoeueoaou eco/aiey aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia
ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai; ?aaeiiaeueioth ?aaioo I.A. Aaicaeaoeeiai (1977) ii
eco/aieth aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia noao?iieeia Caeaaeacuey e
n?aaeiaaceaoneeo ionouiue; eo?n eaeoeee “Aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou” E.E.
Eo?aeiaie (1976) e iiiaea ae?oaea. Caneoaeeaatho aieiaiey enneaaeiaaiey
A.A. Oa?eoiiu/aaa (1960), A.N. AEaeoeeia (1961, 1972), A.A. Ieeieaaaa
(1977) a iaeanoe enoi?e/aneie aaia?aoee eaiaeoaooia, a eioi?uo
?anniio?aiu aii?inu aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea ia eaiaeoaoou a enoi?e/aneii
i?ioeii e i?aaei?eiyou iiiuoee ?ao?i?aeiino?oeoeee eciaiaiee eaiaeoaooia
a ?acoeueoaoa yoeo aicaeaenoaee. Eioa?aniua ?aaiou ii eco/aieth
aaioaoie/aneeo e ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo nenoai (iniauo aeaeia aio?iiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia) i?iaiaeee eieeaeoea nio?oaeieeia Einoeoooa aaia?aoee AI
NNN? iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii A.N. I?aia?aaeaineiai (?aoathi, Aeueyeiiia,
Eoieoeui, 1972; Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau ?ae?aaoeeiiiie aaia?aoee, 1975;
I?e?iaea, oaoieea, aaioaoie/aneea nenoaiu, 1978 e ae?.). Eiioeaioeey
aaioaoie/aneie nenoaiu aiineaaenoaee auea iieiaeaia a iniiao
iaoiaeieiae/aneiai aacena eco/aiey e i?iaeoe?iaaiey aio?iiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia.

Oeeee ?aaio ii eco/aieth aicaeaenoaey ?aciuo aeaeia i?iecaiaenoa ia
eaiaeoaoou inouanoae?i a Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa: aeeyiea ia eaiaeoaoou
aiaeio?aieeeu, ?aeiiia iaooaaeiau/e (Aeueyeiiia, 1970, 1974),
iaaeii-ieeaeaaiai i?iecaiaenoaa (Aeii/aaa, 1979), /??iie iaoaeeo?aee
(Eaeooeeia, 1976), oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeee (Eacaeia, 1977) e ae?. A
iauai, eco/aiea aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea ia eaiaeoaoou a yoio ia?eiae
i?iaiaeeeinue iaiau/aeii oe?iei, /oi e iineoaeeei ooiaeaiaioii aeey
auaeaeaiey aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey a ea/anoaa
naiinoiyoaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey.

Aaciaiai?i/iui eeaea?ii e, ii nooe, ?iaeiia/aeueieeii aio?iiiaaiiiai
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey noaiiaeony ?oeiaiaeeoaeue Ai?iiaaeneie oeieu
eaiaeoaooiaaaeia O.I. Ieeueeia. N eiioea 40-o aiaeia a oeaio?a aai
aieiaiey iaeciaiii noiyee aii?inu aicaeaenoaey aio?iiiaaiiiai oaeoi?a ia
eaiaeoaoou, ei iioaeeeiaaia na?ey o?oaeia ii yoie oaiaoeea, aeaaiui ec
eioi?uo noaea iiiia?aoey “*aeiaae e eaiaeoaoou” (1973). Ii aai iiaieth,
i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey neoaeao i?e?iaeiua
eiiieaenu, oi?ie?othueany iiae aeeyieai oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea – aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou, iiieiaaiua eae “eiiieaenu, a
eioi?uo ia anae eee ia aieueoae eo ieiuaaee ei?aiiiio eciaiaieth iiae
aicaeaenoaeai /aeiaaea iiaeaa?any ethaie ec eiiiiiaioia eaiaeoaooa”. Ii
oaeaea iainiiaae i?eioeei enneaaeiaaiey aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia,
iacaaiiue ei i?eioeeiii i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiie niaianoeiinoe,
?ac?aaioae iiaua iiaeoiaeu e eeanneoeeaoeee aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia,
ii?aaeaeee aiciiaeiinoe e ia?niaeoeau i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey
?acoeueoaoia eo enneaaeiaaiee. Yoi iai?aaeaiea aeoeaii ?acaeaaee aai
o/aieee – aaia?aou Ai?iiaaeneiai oieaa?neoaoa: A.A. Aoou?oeaaa, A.E.
Aoeaoia, I.E. Aeoaeiee, A.A Ieoii, A.E. Ianoa?ia, A.E. Oaaeioia e ae?.
Ia?yaeo n oai?aoe/aneeie ?ac?aaioeaie iiiai aieiaiey oaeaeyee eco/aieth
oaoiiaaiiuo, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e ai?iaeneeo eaiaeoaooia ?aciuo
?aeiiia ?onneie ?aaieiu.

A ?aieao yoie oeieu neiaeeeinue neaaeothuaa i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooao. Iiae aio?iiiaaiiuie iiieiatho eaiaeoaoou,
i?aaenoaaeythuea niaith (eae e anoanoaaiiua) “eiiiiiaioioth nenoaio,
aaeeiue eiiieaen ?aaiicia/iuo eiiiiiaioia, ?acaeaathueony a niioaaonoaee
n i?e?iaeiuie caeiiiia?iinoyie” (Ieeueeia, 1981, n. 62). Aio?iiiaaiiua
eaiaeoaoou, iiaeiaii anoanoaaiiui, iiaoo auoue ia?aoeiuie e
iaia?aoeiuie. Iaia?aoeiua eaiaeoaoou aicieeatho a neo/aa eciaiaiey
eeoiaaiiie iniiau (ea?uea?u, ioaaeu, ai?iiee inaaaeiea?noa, ?acee/iiai
?iaea ianuie e ae?.), a oaeaea i?e ia?ooaiee oeaeinoiinoe oeiia
?anoeoaeueiinoe, iaoiaeyueony a yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo (a ionouiyo,
ooiae?a, a noaiiie ciia; naaaeaiea eania, iniaaiii niniiauo ai?ia;
au?oaea caaiei/aiiuo eania a oaeaa n iineaaeothuei ia?aciaaieai ia eo
ianoa aieio). Ana aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou ioaeaeathony a iinoiyiiii
ooiaea e ?aaoee?iaaiee, aac iiaeaea?aeee iie aee/atho. Caa?ioaiiua
/aeiaaeii, iie, eae i?aaeei, no?aiyony aa?iooueny e naiaio
ia?aiia/aeueiiio ninoiyieth. Iai?eia?, caa?ioaiiay iaoiy a noaie ni
a?aiaiai i?aa?auaaony a caeaaeue, e ia iae oi?ie?oaony aoi?inoaiaiiay
noaiue, i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/athuayny io noaiiie oeaeeiu. Noaeeeaaynue n
i?iaeaiie ?aoaiey aii?ina ia?aoeiinoe eee iaia?aoeiinoe aio?iiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia, A.N. I?aia?aaeaineee e O.Ae. Aeaenaiae?iaa (1975)
i?aaeeiaeeee eniieueciaaoue iiiyoea yoaeiia a?aiaie. Ii eo iiaieth, aeey
oeaeae i?iaiice?iaaiey ia 15–20 eao eee ia n?ie aeecie iaeiiai iieieaiey
(70–80 eao) eaiaeoaoou n aio?iiiaaiiui iai?ioii io iaeiie aei
ianeieueeeo nioai eao i?aeoe/anee i?eoiaeeony ?anniao?eaaoue eae
iaia?aoeiua.

O.I. Ieeueeia auaeaeyao aeaa noaaeee eo ?acaeoey: ?aiiyy (iaonoie/eaay)
e c?aeay (onoie/eaay). A ia?aoth (?aiithth) noaaeeth i?ienoiaeyo
n?aaieoaeueii auno?ay ia?ano?ieea e i?eniiniaeaiea anao eiiiiiaioia
eaiaeoaooiiai eiiieaena e iiaie neooaoeee. I?e yoii oiae i?e?iaeiuo
i?ioeannia a ?aciuo eaiaeoaooiuo eiiieaenao ?aciue: a iaeieo onei?aiiui
oiaeii eaeoo aaiii?oieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, a ae?oaeo – auno?i niaiythony
?anoeoaeueiinoue e aeeaioiue ie?, a o?aoueeo – iaiyaony iee?ieeeiao e o.
ae. A c?aeoth noaaeeth i?ienoiaeeo yaiethoeeiiiia ?acaeoea aio?iiiaaiiuo
eiiieaenia, iie i?eia?aoatho onoie/eaua /a?ou, oi?ie?oaony
ii?oieiae/aneay no?oeoo?a, ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia i?eia?aoaao
ciiaeueiua /a?ou. Ioia/aii oaeaea, /oi nouanoaoao a?oiia aio?iiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia, ioee/athueony iaonoie/eainoueth a ?aiiae noaaeee ?acaeoey e
cia/eoaeueiie, ia?aoiaeyuae a iaia?aoeiinoue noaaeeueiinoueth a c?aeie
noaaeee. Oaeiau iaeioi?ua iieacaueoiua eaniua iieinu a noaie n oaea/ii
iiaeia?aiiui ninoaaii ae?aaanii-eonoa?ieeiauo ii?iae. I?eia?ii ia?aua
iieoi?a–aeaa aeanyoeeaoey eaniay iinaaeea ioaeaeaaony ai aieiaoaeueiii
ooiaea, caoai iia i?eia?aoaao /a?ou oi?ioi noi?ie?iaaaoaainy eaniiai
aeiaaioeaiica n “naii/eiii” i?iieeoeie a iaai eonoa?ieeaie, o?aaaie,
ioaie, a?eaaie, iiiaeie aeaeaie ioeoe, ianaeiiuo, a?ucoiia. Eaniie
aeiaaioeaiic anooiaao a oanioth ia?aaeeiaie/aneoth acaeiinaycue n
i?eeaaathueie iieyie (noaiueth), ia?acoy n ieie onoie/eaoth nenoaio,
eiiaaea n oaiaeaioeeae e naiiiaeanaieth niaaeiuo o/anoeia caiee. A
Eaiaiiie noaie naiiiaeanaiea iaeineiie caeaaee iiae aeeyieai eaniuo
iiein i?ioaeaei noieue yia?ae/ii, /oi aiciee aii?in i auai?a ia? ii a?
nio?aiaieth aieioue aei i?iaaaeaiey eneonnoaaiiie au?oaee ?ac?inoaainy
eana.

Eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiiua e eaiaeoaooii-eiaeaia?iua nenoaiu (a ioee/ea io
aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia) i?aaenoaaeytho aeieiaua nenoaiu, ninoiyuea ec
i?e?iaeiiai e oaoie/aneiai aeieia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo a nai?i ?acaeoee
iiae/eiyaony aeaoi ?aciui caeiiiia?iinoyi – i?e?iaeiui e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei. I?e?iaeiue aeie aeeth/aao anoanoaaiiua e
aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou, oaoie/aneee ninoieo ec ianneaiiai oaoiiaaiiiai
iie?iaa (eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiiua nenoaiu) e aeoeaiuo eiaeaia?iuo
nii?oaeaiee (eaiaeoaooii-eiaeaia?iua nenoaiu).

Ii iiaieth O.I. Ieeueeiaa, aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iaeei ec aaiaoe/aneeo ?yaeia eaiaeoaooiuo eiiieaenia, iiyoiio i?e?iu e
iaoiaeu eo enneaaeiaaiey ai iiiaii noiaeiu n i?e?iaie e iaoiaeaie,
i?eiaiyaiuie a eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiee. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia iiae/eiyaony caeiio oe?ioiie ciiaeueiinoe,
eciaiyy naie oei a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a eaiaeoaooiie ciiu. A oi aea
a?aiy, iaeuecy oioneaoue ec aeaea e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
oi?ie?iaaiea, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e aeeiaieea aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia
oaniaeoei ia?acii naycaiu n nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie oneiaeyie.
Enneaaeiaaiea aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia, eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiiuo e
eaiaeoaooii-eiaeaia?iuo nenoai i?aaeeiaeaii i?iaiaeeoue ia “o??o
o?iaiyo:

• oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneii, ia?aie/eaathuainy auyaeaieai i?e?iaeiuo
caeiiiia?iinoae;

• aaia?aoe/aneii, eiaaea i?e?iaeiua caeiiiia?iinoe aeiiieiythony
yeiiiie/aneei aiaeecii eiiieaenia e nenoai;

• aaioaoie/aneii, eiaaea ciaiey aaia?aoe/aneeo naienoa iauaeoia
iaiaauathony eo eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie” (1981, n. 62).

Iiaeiaiua i?aaenoaaeaiey ia aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooao aucaaee
iaiaeiicia/ioth ?aaeoeeth iao/iie iauanoaaiiinoe, ?acai?aeanue
aeeneonney. A ?yaea noaoae e a eieaa “I?eeeaaeiia eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea”
(Ena/aiei, 1976) iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey
auee iiaeaa?aioou nouanoaaiiie e?eoeea. Iacaiaaeeeoaeueii iineaaeiaaee
ioaaou O.I. Ieeueeiaa, ia no?aieoeao aaia?aoe/aneie ia/aoe auea
?aca??iooa iieaieea.

Ia aaeaaaynue a a? aeaoaee, ioiaoei naiua aeaaiua i?eioeeieaeueiua
?anoiaeaeaiey iiiiiaioia ii nouanoao aii?ina (eae yoi ie no?aiii, yoe
aii?inu aeooaeueiu e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, oae eae iaeiicia/iiai ?aoaiey
oae e ia neiaeeeinue). Iaeei ec iniiaiuo ia?ao?iiuo aii?inia aeeneonnee:
aeinoaoi/ii ee aeey ea?aeeiaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaiey eaiaeoaooa
iaycaoaeueiiai eciaiaiey anao aai eiiiiiaioia eee, eae n/eoaee O.I.
Ieeueeia e A.I. ?ya/eeia (1972), aeinoaoi/ii ?acei eciaieoue iaeei ec
ieo, e ?aaiiaanea acaeiinaycae a nenoaia aoaeao ia?ooaii, aicieeiao
iiaue oei eaiaeoaooa. Niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi ia eaaeaeia aio?iiiaaiiia
aicaeaenoaea aaae?o e ei?aiiie ia?ano?ieea eaiaeoaooa. Aei neo ii?
inoaeny e o?aaoao aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioee aii?in i ?aca?aie/aiee
nianoaaiii aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia e eaiaeoaooia anoanoaaiiuo,
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo aio?iiiaaiiuie aicaeaenoaeyie.

Ii A.A. Ena/aiei, aii?inu aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea ia eaiaeoaoou
?anniao?eaatho a ?aieao i?eeeaaeiiai, a ia aio?iiiaaiiiai,
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey, e a ea/anoaa iniauo iai?aaeaiee i?eeeaaeiiai
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey iacuaatho naeueneioicyenoaaiiia, eiaeaia?iia,
iaaeeoeeineia, ?ae?aaoeeiiiia, a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iia. Iauay,
aeaaiay caaea/a i?eeeaaeiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey caeeth/aaony a
?ac?aaioea iao/iuo iniia i?iaeoe?iaaiey eoeueoo?iiai eaiaeoaooa:
“Eiioeaioeey eoeueoo?iiai eaiaeoaooa aeieaeia neoaeeoue iauaaeeiythuei
ooiaeaiaioii aeey ?aciuo io?aneae e iai?aaeaiee i?eeeaaeiiai
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey” (1976, n. 4). O.I. Ieeueeia, ia io?eoeay aaaeiinoue
i?iaeoe?iaaiey eoeueoo?iiai (iioeiece?iaaiiiai) eaiaeoaooa, n/eoae, /oi
yoi aaaeiay, ii aeaeaei ia aaeeinoaaiiay caaea/a i?eeeaaeiiai
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey e i?aaeeaaae eiaiiaaoue yoio ?acaeae i?eeeaaeiiai
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey “eiino?oeoeaiui eaiaeoaooiaaaeaieai” (a naii yoi
iiiyoea auoaeaao ec i?aaeeiaeaiiie ?aiaa eeanneoeeaoeee aio?iiiaaiiuo
eiiieaenia ii eo oicyenoaaiiie oeaiiinoe ia eaiaeoaoou eoeueoo?iua, eee
eiino?oeoeaiua, e aeoeueoo?iua, eee aeano?oeoeaiua (1973), iiae
i?eeeaaeiui eaiaeoaooiaaaeaieai ii iiae?acoiaaaao “i?aeoe/aneee aniaeo
eaiaeoaooiuo enneaaeiaaiee, eniieueciaaiea iaoeo ciaiee i eaiaeoaooiuo
eiiieaenao, aeeth/ay aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaooiua eiiieaenu,
eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiiua e eaiaeoaooii-eiaeaia?iua nenoaiu, aeey ?aoaiey
eiie?aoiuo ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo caaea/” (1981, n. 66).

Aeaaiua aea ?anoiaeaeaiey yoeo enneaaeiaaoaeae caeeth/athony a iiaeoiaea
e ii?aaeaeaieth naiiao iiiyoey eaiaeoaooa. O O.I. Ieeueeiaa eaiaeoaoo –
e i?e?iaeiia, e nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneia aaeeinoai; ii iiaieth A.A.
Ena/aiei, yoi eneeth/eoaeueii i?e?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi aeeneonney oae e inoaeanue iacaaa?o?iiie. Aieaa oiai, a
iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea iia ?acai?aeanue n iiaie neeie. A ea/anoaa
i?eia?ia iiaeii ioiaoeoue aeieeaae ia O eaiaeoaooiie eiioa?aioeee
(I?aia?aaeaineee, 1997), aaea ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea ia
auaeeaao, anee aoaeao n/eoaoueny ia iauaaaia?aoe/aneie, a eeoue
oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneie iaoeie e ia noaiao ?anniao?eaaoue /aeiaaea ii
ioiioaieth e eaiaeoaooo ia eae aiaoithth neeo, a eae aai eiiiiiaio. Ia
neaaeothuae XI eaiaeoaooiie eiioa?aioeee A.A. Ena/aiei ioaa/ae: “/aeiaae
– iaiouaieaiay /anoue i?e?iaeu, ii a oi aea a?aiy ii i?ioeainoieo anae
inoaeueiie a? /anoe eae iuneyuaa nouanoai e noauaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii ia iiae/eiyaony eaiaeoaooo, iiaeiaii ii/aa eee
aeeaioiiio ianaeaieth, e aai iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue ia?aaia n
i?e?iaeiuie eiiiiiaioaie eaiaeoaooa. Nia?aiaiiia eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea
eco/aao eaiaeoaoou ni anaie eciaiaieyie, aian?iiuie /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, o. a. eae aio?iiiaaiii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua … nenoaiu.
Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi yoe nenoaiu inoathony i?e?iaeiuie
ia?aciaaieyie, ana aio?iiiaaiiua yeaiaiou eaiaeoaooa ooieoeeiie?otho a
i?i ii i?e?iaeiui caeiiai, e eaiaeoaooiaaae aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoue eo
eeoue a eiioaenoa i?e?iaeiuo naycae, ia eanaynue eo nioeeaeueiuo,
yeiiiie/aneeo e ae?. ooieoeee (2006, n. 5). Aieaa oiai, iiyaeeinue
aeiaieueii eaoaai?e/iia iiaiea (Iaiae, 2006), /oi “Aio?iiiaaiiia
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea auiieieei naith caaea/o – i?eaeaeei aieiaiea
aaia?aoia e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?enoaeueiiai eco/aiey aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea
ia i?e?iaeo. A oii aeaea, eae iii nae/an nouanoaoao, aio?iiiaaiiia
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea ia/eiaao oi?iiceoue ?acaeoea anaai
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey. Oa eneonnoaaiiua aa?uea?u, eioi?ua aicaeaeaathony
iaaeaeo i?e?iaeiuie e aio?iiiaaiiuie /a?oaie eaiaeoaooa, a?icyo
iiaoaeoue naioth nooue eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey”.

Ianiio?y ia ia?ao?iiinoue iiiaeo aii?inia a ?aieao aio?iiiaaiiiai
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey iiyaeeinue iiiai
oai?aoe/aneeo ?aaio, ?aaio i?aeoe/aneiai naienoaa e ?aaeiiaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey.

Noi?ie?iaaeenue e oniaoii ?acaeaathony oaeea iai?aaeaiey aio?iiiaaiiiai
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey eae o/aiea ia aa?i-, ai?iaeneeo, eanioicyenoaaiiuo,
eoeueoo?iuo eaiaeoaooao e ae?. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
oneeeyie A.A. Ieeieaaaa (2004) oi?ie?othony aeaa eiioeaioeee a eco/aiee
aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia: 1) aaiyeieiae/aneay, i?e eioi?ie
aio?iiiaaiiue eaiaeoaoo ?anniao?eaaaony n oi/ee c?aiey yeieiae/aneie
i?eaiaeiinoe eae n?aaea iaeoaiey /aeiaaea e noa?a aai aeayoaeueiinoe e
2) enoi?eei-eoeueoo?ieiae/aneay, aaea aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou
enneaaeotho n oi/ee c?aiey enoi?ee eo oi?ie?iaaiey eae i?iaeoeo
aeayoaeueiinoe eoeueoo?u.

A nia?aiaiiie eaiaeoaooiie a?oeoaeoo?a auaeaeytho iiiyoey i?e?iaeiiai e
aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooa.

I?e?iaeiue eaiaeoaoo – cia/eoaeueiua ii ?acia?ai ioe?uoua i?ino?ainoaa,
nio?aieaoea naie anoanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, iai?eia?, eaniua ianneau,
aeieeiu ?ae, aicauoaiiinoe, iaoe?iua aeaaoi?ee. Iie aanueia /ooee e
eciaiaieyi, aucuaaaiui i?ioeannii o?aaiecaoeee, i?iiuoeaiiiai e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai inaiaiey, iiyoiio iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue i
/anoe/iii nio?aiaiee iao?iiooiai eaiaeoaooa a a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa.

A i?aeoeea a?aaeino?ieoaeueiiai e eaiaeoaooiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiae
oa?ieiii «i?e?iaeiue» iiieiatho acaeiinaycaiiua yeaiaiou i?e?iaeu,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaiua cano?ieea, eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneei nenoaiai ai?iaea,
a oii /enea e oa, eioi?ua eiatho aio?iiiaaiiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea
(eaniia?ee, aiaeio?aieeeua, naaeu, eiiiiceoeee ec ?anoeoaeueiinoe e
eaiiae, aaciiiua iie?uoey e o. i.).

Nayce ai?iae-i?e?iaea aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny eae enoiaeiay e
?aoathuay, a ia aoi?inoaiaiiay iiceoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey (iinea ?aoaiey
naeeoaaiuo, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, o?ainii?oiuo, eiiioiaeueii-oicyenoaaiiuo,
ia?aaeii-?ai?acaioaoeaiuo aii?inia).

Ii e?eoa?eth acaeiinayce n i?e?iaeie ai?iaea iaoiaeyony a iaiaeeiaeiauo
oneiaeyo. Iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey acaeiinaycae
nicaeathony a ai?iaeao-eo?i?oao (Ni/e, Eeneiaiaene, sseoa),
ai?iaeao-iiaino?ieeao ia caean?iiuo oa??eoi?eyo (Niniiaue Ai?,
Iiaineae?neee Aeaaeaiai?iaeie, Einoiioeoa). A iaaieueoii ai?iaea io?ua
io i?e?iaeu iaeicaiaoai: i?e?iaeiua oaeoi?u aoiaeyo caeanue a
iianaaeiaaiue ?aaeei aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. A aieueoeo e e?oiiuo –
aicieeaao i?iaeaia ecieyoeee oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiia io i?e?iaeiiai
ie?oaeaiey, eioi?ay n ?inoii eo e ?acaeoeai aoaeao onoaoaeyoueny
(ss?ineaaeue, E?aniiaea?, Ano?aoaiue, Eaeeiei, Aieaia?aae,
?inoia-ia-Aeiio, Ooa, Oaaa?iane). Iaeaieueoae ino?iou yoa i?iaeaia
aeinoeaaao a e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeao e aaeiia?aoeeyo.

I?e?iaeiua oneiaey iiaoo a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aeeyoue ia
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua ?aoaiey, iai?eia?, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe nio?aiaiey
anao nouanoaothueo eaniuo ianneaia e aiaeiuo i?ino?ainoa a oneiaeyo
iaaeinoaoea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e
ai?iaea i?iyaeyaony a ynoaoe/aneii ia?aca ai?iaeneiai eaiaeoaooa e aai
aini?eyoee /aeiaaeii eae eiioi?oiiai eee aeeneiioi?oiiai.

A i?e?iaeiii eaiaeoaooa, aaea au? ia ioia/aii aeeyiea nia?aiaiiie
eoeueoo?u, i?aiaeaaeatho e?oiiua aeaeaiey – eaniua ianneau, noaie eee
aiaeiua i?ino?ainoaa. Inaiaiea /aeiaaeii oa??eoi?ee aucuaaao ae?iaeaiea
eaiaeoaooa ia /anoe. Iiyaeythony iiaua oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia iaeee
eaiaeoaooa: aeeth/aiea a iaai, ai-ia?auo, yeaiaioia, eciaiythueo
iiaa?oiinoue caiee, – naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ieiuaaeae, aiaeiaiia,
aaoiiiaeeueiuo e aeaeaciuo aei?ia, ioaaeia ionoie ii?iaeu, caa?ioaiiuo
ea?uea?ia e i?i/eo iaoaeiaiuo caiaeue. Ai-aoi?uo, yeaiaioia, eciaiythueo
iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiioth no?oeoo?o eaiaeoaooa, – ianaeaiiuo ioieoia,
i?iiuoeaiiuo nii?oaeaiee, naoe yeaeo?iia?aaea/ e i?i/eo nii?oaeaiee. Yoe
oaeoi?u neeueii eciaiytho i?e?iaeiue eaiaeoaoo. *anoi, ia?acoiiia
eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo aiaaonoa, i?eaiaeeo e iaacia?aaeeaaieth
ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia eaiaeoaooa, a ii?ie e e iieiiio ?ac?ooaieth
anoanoaaiiiai iaeeea oeaeuo ?aeiiia.

Oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea i?eaaea e iiyaeaieth a i?e?iaeiie
n?aaea ieaiaou ia naienoaaiiuo ae eaiaeoaooia; oa?aeoa?ecoaiuo eae
aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou. E iei ioiinyony:

· ai?iaeneea eaiaeoaoou e eo eiiiiiaiou, aeeth/athuea aeeeua e
eiaeono?eaeueiua ?aeiiu. Iniaaiiinoueth oaeeo eaiaeoaooia yaeyaony
eciaiaiea e caa?yciaiea a ?acoeueoaoa oaoiiaaiiie o?aaiecaoeee
eiiiiiaioia i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia e oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey iiaa?oiinoiiai
noiea, iauaa nie?auaiea ieiuaaeae, caiyouo ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, iaee/ea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noa?, ieacuaathueo ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo a?aaeiia
aicaeaenoaea

· naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou, ioee/athueany io i?e?iaeiuo
iaeiiia?aceai, aneaaenoaea aicaeaeuaaiey iiiieoeueoo?, eiaaea ii/au
iaaaeiaiu yeaiaioaie ieoaiey, anoanoaaiiua i?e?iaeiua niiauanoaa
oaiaoaiu

· eaiaeoaoou, ia?aciaaiiua a ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe
ai?iiaeiauaathueo i?aaei?eyoee, oa?aeoa?ecoaiua eciaiaieai aa?oeeaeueiie
ieaie?iaee ianoiinoe e nicaeaiey ea?uea?ia, ioaaeia, oa??eeiiia

· eaiaeoaoou, noi?ie?iaaiiua a oiaea iaooaaeiau/e, ioee/athueany
eciaiaieai ninoaaa ii/a e a?oioiauo aiae, a oaeaea eneaaeaieai iooae
iea?aoeee nooiiooiuo aeeaioiuo

Aieueoay /anoue ethaeae aeea?o a ai?iaeao, iiyoiio iaoiaeyueany a
?aaiiaanee n i?e?iaeie ai?iaea – yoi oeaeue aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/anoaa.
Iaeiie ec caaea/ a aeinoeaeaiee yoie oeaee yaeyaony ?acoiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue a ieaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee eoeueoo?iuo
eaiaeoaooia.

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