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Антропогенная динамика ландшафта

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?aoa?ao ii i?aaeiaoo: Eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea.

Oaia: «Aio?iiiaaiiay aeeiaieea eaiaeoaooa. Onoie/eainoue eaiaeoaooa».

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Iiiyoea aeeiaieee e onoie/eainoe

2. Noeoeanney eaiaeoaooa

3. Enoi?ey e iai?aaeaiey aio?iiiaaiecaoeee eaiaeoaooiie noa?u Caiee

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia.

1. Iiiyoea aeeiaieee e onoie/eainoe

Iiae ninoiyieai i?e?iaeiie aainenoaiu iau/ii iiieiatho ii?aaeaeaiiue oei
aa no?oeoo?u e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, ia?aie/aiiue iaeioi?ui io?aceii
a?aiaie. Ionthaea eiae/anee neaaeoao, /oi aeeiaieea i?e?iaeiie
aainenoaiu — yoi niaia aa ninoiyiee. ssnii, /oi aio?iiiaaiiay aeeiaieea
aainenoai iaoneiaeaia oicyenoaaiiie (a oe?ieii iiieiaiee –
aio?iiiaaiiie) iaa?oceie ia iaa: onei?aiiie y?iceae e aeaoeyoeeae ii/a,
aoi?e/iui canieaieai ii/a ia i?ioaaiuo o/anoeao a a?eaeiuo ?aaeiiao,
aeea?anneae ianoaeu, au?oaeie eania, caaiea/eaaieai e iiaeoiieaieai
iiaa?aaeee aiaeio?aieeeu, iionouieaaieai, aao?ioeeaoeeae (caa?yciaieai)
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

A oeaeii aeeiaieea i?e?iaeiuo ?aaeeiia e ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo noeoeannee –
yoi aeaeu noaaeeece?othuae aeeiaieee eaiaeoaooa, inoaeueiua aeaeu
aeeiaieee aaaeoo eeoue e iaia?aoeiiio ea/anoaaiiiio eciaiaieth eee
aeaaea ?ac?ooaieth eaiaeoaooa. Iiae onoie/eainoueth eaiaeoaooa
iiieiaaony aai niiniaiinoue nio?aiyoue naith no?oeoo?o e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea a ?aaeeia ii?iaeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?eoiia e a ianoaiiaea
eciaiythuaeny aiaoiae n?aaeu eee iiae aicaeaenoaeai aio?iiiaaiiuo
iaa?ocie.

Onoie/eainoue eaiaeoaooiie noa?u, eae e a oeaeii aainenoaiu,
iiae/eiyaony i?eioeeio ioiineoaeueiinoe, a /anoiinoe:

1) e iaeiei iaa?oceai eaiaeoaoou onoie/eau, e ae?oaei iao;

2) ?aciui aainenoaiai (eaiaeoaooai a oii /enea) naienoaaiiu ?aciua
iioaioeeaeu onoie/eainoe e iaeiei e oai aea aicaeaenoaeyi. Oa?aeoa?iue
i?eia? yoiai: aa?oiea caaiuey noaiiie eaoaiu eo/oa ia?aiinyo
caa?yciaiey, /ai ieaeiea, a ieaeiea eo/oa aa?oieo ia?aiinyo y?iceth.

Onoaiiaeaii oaeaea, /oi ioiineoaeueii iaeay onoie/eainoue e aiciouathuei
aiaoiei aicaeaenoaeyi oa?aeoa?ia aeey iiiaeo ?aeeeoiauo aainenoai
(iai?eia?, aeey eaniuo ianneaia a noaiyo). Oaeea ?aeeeou iaoiaeyony a
ecaanoiie aeenaa?iiiee n ie?oaeathuae eo aiaoiae n?aaeie. Iaonoie/eau e
aainenoaiu ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo naiaai oi?ie?iaaiey, iai?eia?, oieueei
ia/eiathuea ca?anoaoue ianee. A n?aaiaiee n oaeeie nenoaiaie iaiiiai
aieaa onoie/eau eeeiaeniaua aainenoaiu.

Onoie/eainoue eaiaeoaooia ai iiiaii caaeneo io oiai, eaeie aeae
aeeiaieee o ieo i?aiaeaaeaao. A /anoiinoe, anee ainiiaenoaoao
noaaeeece?othuay aeeiaieea, onoie/eainoue cia/eoaeueii iiauoaaony.
Iaeiaei iia neeueii iaaeaao a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeeiaie/aneee o?aiae
(iai?aaeaiea iaa?ocie) onoaoaeyaony iaeiaeaieai iaeiiiai?aaeaiiuo
aio?iiiaaiiuo iaa?ocie.

A yoeo neo/ayo e i?ienoiaeeo oae iacuaaaiue eaiaeoaooiue ?aciiain –
yaeaiea oneeaiey aioo?aiieo eieaaaiee aainenoaiu aiaoieie eieaaaieyie.
Aanueia ecaanoiue i?eia? caeanue – iionouieaaiea Naoaee (iaeanoe ia
naaa?a Ao?eee), eioi?ia ec-ca canooe oneeeeinue oaeaea iiiaieaoiei
ia?aauianii neioa.

?acee/athony o?e iniiaiuo iaoaiecia eaiaeoaooiie onoie/eainoe.

1. Onoie/eainoue eia?oeeiiiay – yoi oaeie iaoaieci onoie/eainoe, eiaaea
ionoonoaotho ?aaeoeee ia iaa?ocee aei eaeeo-oi ii?aaeaeaiiuo ii?iaiauo
cia/aiee. Oaeie onoie/eainoueth iaeaaeatho i?aeiouanoaaiii eaiaeoaoou a
n?aaeeiiuo /anoyo i?e?iaeiuo cii, oae iacuaaaiua eaacenoaoeeiia?iua
eaiaeoaoou.

2. Onoie/eainoue ?acenoaioiay (oi?oaay). Iia naienoaaiia aeaaiui ia?acii
nenoaiai n iiuiui ?anoeoaeueiui iie?iaii, iioiio /oi eiaiii
?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia i?aaeaea anaai iaania/eaaao ainnoaiiaeoaeueioth
noeoeanneth aainenoaiu.

3. Onoie/eainoue aaeaioeaiay, eee onoie/eainoue i?eniiniaeaiey
(oiea?aioiinoe, oa?ieiinoe, ieanoe/iinoe). Nouiinoue yoiai iaoaiecia
onoie/eainoe a oii, /oi aainenoaiu (e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaiaeoaoou)
niiniaiu /ooei i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e e iaiythueiny oneiaeyi aiaoiae
n?aaeu, e e aio?iiiaaiiui iaa?oceai, ii a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?aieao
oa?ieiinoe (oiea?aioiinoe).

Aaeaioeaiay, o. a. ieanoe/iay, onoie/eainoue ii?aaeaeyaony oe?ioie
aeeaiaciia iaaeaeo iaeneiaeueiui e ieieiaeueiui cia/aieai oaeoi?ia, a
i?aaeaeao eioi?iai eaiaeoaoo niiniaai nio?aiyoue oa?aeoa?iua aeey iaai
no?oeoo?iua e ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe. Yoi iieiaeaiea niioiineony n
ecaanoiui caeiiii oiea?aioiinoe A. Oaeoi?aea.

Ioiaoei oaeaea, /oi /ai iaiaa ?aciiia?acia ai?eciioaeueiay no?oeoo?a
eaiaeoaooa, oai aieaa neaau aa iaoaieciu eiiiainaoeee e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oai neaaaa aa onoie/eainoue. I/aaeaeii e oi, /oi
eieaeueiua aio?iiiaaiiua iaa?ocee /aua anaai ia neacuaathony eee ii/oe
ia neacuaathony ia e?oiiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo ea?a?oe/aneeo aaeeieoeao:
i?iaeioeeyo, ciiao e o.i.

2. Noeoeanney eaiaeoaooa

Noeoeanney eaiaeoaooa (io eao. successio – i?aainoaaiiinoue,
ianeaaeiaaiea) – oa?iei ia?aiia/aeueii aue i?eiaiai a aaiaioaieea aeey
iaicia/aiey niaiu a?aiaiiuo, ianoaaeeueiuo ?anoeoaeueiuo niiauanoa i?e
oi?ie?iaaiee eee ?ac?ooaiee onoie/eaiai oeoioeaiica. I?e/eiu – eae
naii?acaeoea aeiaaioeaiicia, oae e aiaoiea i?e?iaeiua e aio?iiiaaiiua
oaeoi?u (?oaee, iiaea?u, auoaiouaaiea e ae?.).

I?aaenoaaeaiea i noeoeanneyo auei aianaii E. O?ieeai a noa?o
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey aeey iaicia/aiey iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo niai ninoiyiee a
?aieao iaeiiai eiaa?eaioa. Yoi iaoei naia au?aaeaiea i?e aiaeeca
aeeiaie/aneie iiaeaee yieoaoeee – na?eeiuo ?yaeia oaoeee,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii naycaiiuo n ei?aiiie oaoeeae. Yoi iaeia ec
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo oi?i io?aaeaiey eiaiii noeoeannee eaiaeoaooa. Iiae
noeoeanneae eaiaeoaooa iiaeii iiieiaoue oaeaea e i?ioeann niaiu aai
ia?aiaiiuo ninoiyiee a iai?aaeaiee e ei?aiiiio eee aeeceiai e iaio
aeeiaie/aneiio ninoiyieth.

Iu oaea aeinoaoi/ii ciaai i oii, /oi iiae aicaeaenoaeai eeeiaoe/aneiai e
aaieiai-aaiii?oieiae/aneiai oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu i?ienoiaeeo
yaiethoeey i?e?iaeiuo aainenoai. Iiieii oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu ia iaiaa
aaaeiui aeey yaiethoeee i?e?iaeiuo aainenoai yaeyaony oaeoi?
naii?acaeoey, eee oaeoi? niiioaiiiai ?acaeoey. Ethaay neiaeiay nenoaia,
a oii /enea e aainenoaia, eaeie au ioe?uoie ii ioiioaieth e aiaoiae
n?aaea iia ie auea, iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth e naii?acaeoeth, iaeaaeaao
niiioaiiinoueth. I?eia?u: ?acaeoea eaiaeoaooiie iaiei/ee, ca?anoaiea
i?aniiai aiaeiaia. Iai?aaeaiiinoue naii?acaeoey aainenoai, enoi?e/aneay
iaiiaoi?eiinoue eo i?e?iaeu – /?acau/aeii aaaeiia naienoai aainenoai. A
oiaea niiioaiiiai ?acaeoey i?e?iaeiay aainenoaia i?ioiaeeo ?yae
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo noaaeee. Naiua aaaeiua ec ieo:

1) ca?iaeaeaiea aainenoaiu. Iau/ii i?ienoiaeeo aicieeiiaaiea iiaie
eeoiaaiiie iniiau;

2) noaiiaeaiea aainenoaiu. Iiyaeythony ii/aa e ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, – ieiia?iua a?oiie?iaee iaeiieaoieo yen-iea?aioiuo
?anoaiee (ni?iyee, «oaeaeu» ?anoeoaeueiiai ie?a). Iie aioiayo yeioii
aeey aieaa o?aaiaaoaeueiuo iiiaieaoieo ?anoaiee;

3) c?aeinoue aainenoaiu. Iiyaeythony iiiaieaoiea ?anoaiey. Iie ia?acotho
onoie/eaua oeoioeaiicu. Nenoaia iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee iaeneiaeueiiai
?aaiiaaney, eee eeeiaena (oa?iei aaaaeai Eeaiainii). I?eia?u eeeiaeniauo
nenoai: niaoaiiua eana ia ii?aiiie ?aaieia, noaeeieao n aea?iiauie
ii/aaie, aiaaoi ?aciio?aaiua noaie ia /a?iicaiao;

4) ioie?aiea aainenoaiu. I?e yoii ia aa ianoa ca?iaeaeaaony iiaay
aainenoaia. Iai?eia?, ia ianoa ica?a iiyaeyaony ieceiiia aieioi, ia
ianoa ieceiiiai aieioa – aa?oiaia, ia ianoa aa?oiaiai aieioa – ean.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiay caeiiiia?iay niaia noaaeee a i?ioeanna ca?iaeaeaiey e
oi?ie?iaaiey i?e?iaeiie aainenoaiu e iacuaaaony noeoeanneae eaiaeoaooa.

Anee aainenoaia ia?ooaia /ai-oi e no?aieony e ?aaiiaaneth, oi a yoii
neo/aa aiai?yo i ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noeoeannee.

3. Enoi?ey e iai?aaeaiey aio?iiiaaiecaoeee eaiaeoaooiie noa?u Caiee

Iiiaieaoiea enneaaeiaaiey nia?aiaiiuo eaiaeoaooia i?eaaee e auaiaeo, /oi
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou – yoi enoi?e/aneea ia?aciaaiey.
Iiiaea ec ieo ia?aaeeee e i?iaeieaeatho ia?aaeeaaoue iuia aeeeoaeueioth
yaiethoeeth, i?e/ai ia oieueei i?e?iaeioth, ii e oicyenoaaiioth. A eo
no?oeoo?a nin?aaeioi/aiu yeaiaiou aueuo yiio oicyenoaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey. Iiaeii iaiaoeoue iniiaiua yoaiu yaiethoeee eaiaeoaooiie
iaiei/ee Caiee.

1. Aeiaeinoa?iue (aaeoe/aneee) – aanue e?eioicie.

2. Aeinoa?iue yoai – oaia?icie. Ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?acaeoeai aeiou,
o?ainoi?iaoeeae aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa iiae aa aicaeaenoaeai, a oaeaea
anao i?e?iaeiuo aiae, eeoiaaiiie iniiau eaiaeoaooia.

3. Oi?ie?iaaiea ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa. A naiii eiioea aeinoa?iiai yoaia
onoaiaaeeaaaony iiyaeaiea /aeiaaea oiaeiai.

4. Aio?iiiaaiiue yoai ia/aeny 40 ouny/ eao iacaae, n iiyaeaieai Iimi
sapiens (/aeiaaea ?acoiiiai). Ii noae aeoeaii iieueciaaoueny iaiai,
i?oaeeyie o?oaea, caieiaoueny ioioie. I?e yoii neeueii nie?aoeeinue
eiee/anoai iiiaeo ieaeiieoathueo, /oi a eoiaa i?eaaei e ianooieaieth
yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena iacieeoa. Auoiaeii ec yoiai e?ecena aue ia?aoiae
io i?enaaeaathuaai niiniaa iio?aaeaiey e i?iecaiaeyuaio, /oi a ?aiiae
enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa iaicia/aaony eae iaieeoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey.
Ca?iaeeeinue caieaaeaeea e aeeaioiiaiaenoai.

5. Oaoiinoa?iue yoai aeaoe?oaony na?aaeeiie XIX – eiioeii XX noieaoey. A
ia/aea XXI aaea io/aoeeai iaicia/ai ia?aoiae e iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiio
iauanoao.

6. Iiinoa?iue yoai eeoue ia/eiaaony. Iiinoa?a, a iiieiaiee A.E.
Aa?iaaeneiai, – yoi oaeia aiciiaeiia a aoaeouai ninoiyiea eaiaeoaooiie
noa?u, eiaaea aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea oeaeaiai?aaeaiii
?aaoee?oaony ?acoiii /aeiaa/anoaa aeey nio?aiaiey /aeiaa/aneie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Eiioeaioeey onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey auea ?anniio?aia e
i?eiyoa ia iaeiii ec iineaaeieo aaia?aoe/aneeo eiia?annia a
?ei-aea-AEaiae?i a 1992 a. Nooue eiioeaioeee – a ?acoiiii nioai?/anoaa
/aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu n oeaeueth nicaeaiey nenoaiu eoeueoo?iuo eaiaeoaooia
eae no?oeoo?iuo aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia iiinoa?u. Iooai iino?iaiey
iiinoa?u, oaeei ia?acii, e yaeyaony oiiiyiooay eiioeaioeey onoie/eaiai
?acaeoee. A iinoeiaeono?eaeueiii ie?iaii niiauanoaa i?ei?eoaou aeieaeiu
auoue ioaeaiu oaea ia oaoieea, a yeieiaee, a oii /enea eaiaeoaooiie.

Aio?iiiaaiecaoeey eaiaeoaooiie noa?u Caiee i?ienoiaeeo ia oieueei a
?acoeueoaoa oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii e a
?acoeueoaoa aiciiaeiuo, aeanoaaeeece?othueo i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo
i?ioeannia – oae iacuaaaiuo oeaiiuo ?aaeoeee.

Ia?a/eneei aeaeu aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey, ?anniao?eaaaiua iuia a
ea/anoaa iniiaiuo i?aeoe/anee aeey anae caiiie nooe:

– onei?aiiay y?icey ii/a e aio?iiiaaiiay aeaioaeaoeey;

– iaaneanaiea nooe;

– aio?iiiaaiiia iionouieaaiea;

– aio?iiiaaiiay aao?ioeeaoeey (caa?yciaiea) i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu;

– o?aaiecaoeey Caiee;

– nicaeaiea ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa;

– iaoaeeecaoeey eaiaeoaooiie noa?u;

-ia?ooaiea anoanoaaiiuo aeioeie/aneeo e?oaiai?ioia aauanoa e yia?aee a
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooao;

-aio?iiiaaiiia eciaiaiea eioi?iaoeaiinoe eaiaeoaooia aneaaenoaea eo
oieoeeaoeee.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa iaeei ec aeaeia aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey –
iaoaieci e ianooaaiinoue iaoaeeecaoeee eaiaeoaooiie noa?u. A ea/anoaa
i?eia?a eniieueciaaiu aeaiiua i o?ainoi?iaoeee aiae a i?iiuoeaiiii
eaiaeoaooa – oa?aeoa?iue i?eia? ia?ooaiey aeiaaioeie/aneeo e?oaiai?ioia
aauanoa e yia?aee a i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooao.

A.E. Ia?aeueiai iaeei ec ia?auo iainiiaae iiiyoea i ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo
eaiaeoaooao, iieiinoueth oaycaa eo ia?aciaaiea, a ?aieao enoi?e/aneie
aaioeiee eaiaeoaooia, n oaoiiaaiacii. Anee, ii aai aeaiiui (1975, 1989),
i?ineaaeeoue yoaiu enoi?e/aneie aaioeiee, oi oaoiiaaiac, ianiiiaiii, –
naiue iieiaeie ii a?aiaie aicieeiiaaiey. E oioy, ii iaeioi?ui
naaaeaieyi, ia/aei yiioe oaoiiaaiaca ionoieo io iaoeo aeiae ia 8000 eao,
aai i/aaeaeiia, i?eoii aeiaaeueiia ?acaeoea iniaaiii aeoeaii e iiuii
i?iyaeaii iuia.

Nia?aiaiiue ai?iii?iiuoeaiiue O?ae iiaeao n/eoaoueny yoaeiiiie
iaeanoueth ia?aciaaiey e ?acaeoey ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo eaiaeoaooia, n
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth eo oi?ie?iaaiey i?eia?ii 300 eao;

iaeaieaa aeoeaii a iineaaeiea 70 – 80 eao – niaaoneay e iinoniaaoneay
yiioe. A ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo eaiaeoaooao i?aaeaea anaai iuooeiu eciaiaiey
aeae?iaaieiae/aneiai ?aaeeia (iniaaiii a iaeanoyo iiiaieaoiaai
aiaeiioeeaa e oi?ie?iaaiey aeai?anneiiiuo cii i?e ?ac?aaioea e inooaiee
ianoi?iaeaeaiee, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oaea aeinoeaoeo a?aieoe
niioaaonoaothueo iaeanoae oeeueo?aoeee), ai iiiaeo neo/ayo i?iecioei
caaiea/eaaiea, eciaieeenue oneiaey aiaeiniaaaeaiey a nayce ni niaiie
o?iaiae iiaecaiiuo aiae e o.ae.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi aeoaieay o?ainoi?iaoeey ieacaeanue iaecaaaeiie aeey
aaioeie/aneie e aeae?iaaioeie/aneie ianoaiiaee, i?eoii, /oi iineaaeiyy
yaeyaony iniaaiii /ooeei, eiio?anoiui e aeinoiaa?iui eiaeeeaoi?ii oaeeo
eciaiaiee. Ia O?aea, aoieaeiie iaeanoe n iieiiaiaeiuie ?aeaie e
iiiaeanoaii ica?, anoue iiiai i?eia?ia neeueiiai oaiaoaiey e aeaaea
iieiiai oie/oiaeaiey ?anoeoaeueiinoe a ?aeiiao aeaenoaothueo eee oaea
i?ae?aoeaoeo oicyenoaaiiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ?oaeieeia, oaoo, ?ac?acia,
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee. A ?yaea neo/aaa noi?ie?iaaeenue
oa?aeoa?iua aeey yoeo oneiaee na?iieeneua ai?iii?iiuoeaiiua oaoiiaaiiua
eaiaeoaoou, ia iiiaeo o/anoeao eioi?uo oaea auyaeaiu naiaia?aciua
oaoiiaaiiua caeaaee ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, a oii /enea e oaeea, eioi?ua
iiaeii ioianoe e e eaoaai?ee oaoiiaaiiuo aeae?iieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia.

Iaeaieaa oeie/iuie /a?oaie aeae?iaaioeiee yoeo eaiaeoaooia,
noi?ie?iaaaoeieny a i?aeiouanoaaiii na?iieeneuo oneiaeyo, yaeythony:
neeueiieeneua (?I 1,7-3) ?oaeie/iua aiaeu (aei 98 – 99 yeaeaaeaioiuo %
SO42-), naiaiaeiay na?iay eeneioa, iaeay, ii/oe iacaiaoiay
eiioeaio?aoeey Nl (a oeaeii iaeioei?eaeiua nenoaiu), aunieea
niaea?aeaiey Fa3+ eae aeaaiie n?aaee oi?i Fa e i?iaeoeoia aai ieeneaiey,
aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee Zn, Ne, A1, In, Ni, Nd e caiaoiua, /anoi aunieea
eiioeaio?aoeee (aei 0,01; 0,1 e aeaaea e ia/aei3) oeueo?aiaeuo (Hf e W e
ae?.) e ?aaeeicaiaeueiuo (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho, Tm, Yb e ae?.)
yeaiaioia, oi?ie?iaaiea iiiaeo nenoai n I2S (oaae. 1).

Eiie?aoiay ea?oeia iaia?aoeiie aeae?iaaioeie/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee
ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo eaiaeoaooia iaeaieaa iuooeia a i?aaeaeao na?iieeneuo
iieae i?e aeeeoaeueiie ?ac?aaioea iaaeiieie/aaeaiiuo caeaaeae, io/anoe a
eaiaeoaooao oaeaea aeoaiei o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo e aeeeoaeueii
io?aaaouaaaoeony (iuia oaea ia yenieoaoe?oaiuo)
neeueiinoeueoeaeece?iaaiiuo oaieueiuo iieae (Eecaeianeee aannaei).

Oaaeeoea 1. Annioeeaoeee yeaiaioia a aiaeao ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia iaaeii?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee

Iaeiieaiea

yeaiaioiaAiaeina?inu
ianoi?iaeaeaieeO/aeeineiaiAaineiaiAeaaoy?neiaiEiiianeiaiE?aeoeE?aniiaaa?
aeaeneiai> 100 000Zn, Nu,

CdNe,Zn,

Nd, Ni—Nu100 000-10 000Fa, Zn

Ci, InNi, Sn,

Zn, CdNu, ZnNuNu, ZnNu10 000-1 000In, Ni,

?b. SbIn, Ni,

YFa, ZnNu, Zn,

Cd, YbNu, Zn,

Cd, FeNu, Zn, Fa,

Ni, As

1 000-100?b, Ni?b, RbFaNi, Ni,

Fe, Mn,

Al, Pb,

Y, YbNi, Co,

Al, Pb,

Zn, Sn,

YbZn, Cd,

Mn, Fe100- 10Li, AsRbNuPb, As,

TiMn, Sc,

YbPb, Ni, As,

Rb10-1-Sb, LiFe, CuSnPb, Al,

AsAl, Sr, Ti,

As, LiSr, CsAs, Sr,

CsSr, Li,

Rb, CsSr, Li,

Rb, CsNs

Iaiaa iiaeaa?aeaiiuie aeae?iaaioeie/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee ieacaeenue
aiaeu aeaeaci?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee O?aea, oioy a?aiy eo o?ainoi?iaoeee
niecia?eii, a ai iiiaii e i?aauoaao oaeiaia i?e i?iiuoeaiiii inaiaiee
iaaeii?oaeiuo iauaeoia (oaae. 2). Iauea /a?ou eo aeae?iaaioeiee: a
oeaeii ceaaiieia?aeeciaaiiua (io iaiaa 0,5 – ?aaeei aei 2-3 a/aei3),
aeae?iea?aiiaoiua eaeueoeeaaua e/eee iaaieaai-eaeueoeeaaua, iaeo?aeueiua
eee neaaieeneua aiaeu (7 3).

?anniao?eaay aiciiaeiinoue ioeaiee noaiaie oaoiiaaiiie iiaeeecaoeee
iaoe?iie iaoaeeiiiniie «iaa?ocee» ?oaeie/iuo e oaooiuo aiae eae
iniiaiiai ?acoeueoaoa eo aaioeie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey, iu ?acee/aee
i?aaeaea anaai iaeaieaa neeueii eciaiaiiua aiaeina?inu caeaaeae
iaaeiieie/aaeaiiie a?oiiu (e eo ?aceeaia a i?aaeaeao aeec?aniieiaeaiiuo
io enoi/ieeia ?annayiey /anoyo eaiaeoaooia), a oaeaea iaoe?iie a?oiiu
ianoi?iaeaeaiee ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, aiaeu eioi?uo i?aia?aciaaiu
oaoiiaaiacii iaiaa eiio?anoii eee ii/oe ia o?ainoi?ie?iaaiu. Yoi aiaeu
aeaeaci?oaeiuo, ieeaeaauo, aieneoiauo e eiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee.

Oaaeeoea 2. Annioeeaoeee yeaiaioia a aiaeao ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia aeaeaci?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee

Iaeiieaiea

yeaiaioia EiAiaeina?inu
ianoi?iaeaeaieeAnothieineiaiAaeoaaceiaiAi?iaeaaiaeaoneiaiNaaa?i-Ian/aine
iaiIa?aiiaeneiaiAi?iioeianeiai100- 10-Sr, II,

CsPb, Sr, F?bNu, ?b-10- 1Ie, V,

Ce, Co,

Sr, Ti, Ga

Zn, Ne,

MnMn, Ce,

Sr, AsMn, Zn, V,

Cr, Sr, AsMn, V, Cr,

Zn, As, SrMn, Ni,

Cu, Zn, Sr1-0,1Zn, NiFc, Zn,

Ni, TiMn, Fe,

Zn, AsMn, Ni, MoNi, Ti,

Zn, MoMn, Ti, Cr,

Zn, Sr 10
000-Fe, F, Cd,

As, Zn-AsFe, Zn10 000-1 000-Cu, Zn, Cd,

As-Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd,

SbCu, Zn1 000-100-Fe, Cu, Co,

SbZn, Cu, CoCo, Ti-100-10SrMn, Ni, Co,

V, Pb, Zn,

Sr, FMn. Ni, Co,

V, Ti, SrMn, Ni, V,

Mo, SrNu10-1Ni, V, Cu,

Mo, SrCr, Li, MoSr, Li, Mn,

Ti–1-0,1Mn, Zn, Ti-LiLi-105Nu, Zn, OR*?acau/aeii
aunieay105-104Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, TRAanueia aunieay104- 103Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd,
Co, TRAunieay103-102Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni, TRN?aaeiyy102- 10Fe,
Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, TRIacia/eoaeueiay10-1Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni,
Co, Cd,

Sb, La, CeIaeay1-0,1Fe, Al, Mn, Ni, Co, Sb, La, Mn,

LaE?aeia iaeay0,1-0,01Fe, Mn, LaIeaeoiaeiay

Ii yoiio iieacaoaeth iaeneiaeueiay «iaa?ocea» auyaeyaony ia eaiaeoaoou o
iaaeii?oaeiuo iauaeoia (i?eioaaeueiua e ia?ooaiiua ciiu, ea?uea?u), ia
o/anoee neiieaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo noieia. Iia iaiueoa a eaiaeoaooao o
aeaeaci?oaeiuo caeaaeae. Ii aaee/eiai Ei ioia/aaony e iaeioi?ay
niaoeeaeecaoeey ?anniio?aiiuo aaioeie/aneeo eaiaeoaooia.

Iaeneiaeueiua Ei aeey Ga, Cs, Sr, F auyaeaiu a aiaeao (e eaiaeoaooao)
aeaeaci?oaeiuo, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, Sn – aeey ?oaeie/iuo aiae (e
eaiaeoaooia) iaaeii?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee, a iaeaunoea iaeiieaiey e
naiay eioaineaiay iea?aoeey Ni, Co. Mn, V, Sc, ?yaea ?C iaaethaeaeenue a
i?eioaaeueiuo, ea?uea?iuo e aiaeao cii ia?ooaiey oao aea
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. A ieo aea aanueia io/aoeeau niaeo?u Pb, Mo, Cd, Ti, Sb
. Iiaeii, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioiaoeoue oi?ie?iaaiea yaiie aaioeie/aneie
niaoeeaeecaoeee aio?iiiaaiiuo ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo eaiaeoaooia e
eiio?anoiinoue iiiaeo yeaiaioia a eo iaoaeeiiiniuo annioeeaoeeyo.

Iineaaeiee i?eciae e yaeyaony, aeaeeii, iieacaoaeai niaoeeoeee iauaeoia,
a ii iieiaeaieth yeaiaioia a annioeeaoeee e o?iaiyi eo iaeiieaiey iiaeii
noaeeoue i iiuiinoe enoi/ieea caa?yciaiey e aai aeeeoaeueiinoe.

A?aaeaoeee iaeiieaiey e iea?aoeee yeaiaioia (ni. oaae. 1 – 4) a
ecaanoiie ia?a oneiaiu. Iaeiaei iie iiae/a?eeaatho ianiiiaiii
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiioth e eiio?anoioth (a aeaiiie n?aaea – oaoiiaaiioth)
aiiiaeueiinoue i?aeoe/anee anao aeae?iaaioeie/aneeo annioeeaoeee e
iieacuaatho o?iaaiue yoie aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoe e eiio?anoiinoe.
Oeie/aneea yeaiaiou a aeaiiie niaoeeoe/iie n?aaea eiatho aunieoth
oaoiioeeueiinoue e ieceoth aeioeeueiinoue, e a neeo yoiai o ieo
iaaethaeaaony aunieay aeano?oeoeeiiiay aeoeaiinoue. Yoi aeaeaao eo
iianiuie aeey aeeaiai aauanoaa, a /anoiinoe, a ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo
eaiaeoaooao.

Ia ana eiiiiiaiou eaiaeoaooa eniuouaatho ia naaa iaeeiaeiai neeueiia
i?aia?acothuaa aeeyiea /aeiaaea. A eoeueoo?iii eaiaeoaooa inoathony
i?aeoe/anee iaeciaiaiiuie aaieiae/aneee ooiaeaiaio, oei ?aeueaoa,
aaaeiaeoea /a?ou eeeiaoa. *aeiaae iiea aua ia a ninoiyiee eciaieoue
iniiaiua (ciiaeueiua e aciiaeueiua) oneiaey ?acaeoey eaiaeoaooa. Iiyoiio
a neo/aa i?ae?auaiey aiaoaoaeuenoaa /aeiaaea eaiaeoaoo no?aieony
aa?iooueny e naiaio ia?aiia/aeueiiio ninoiyieth, ii eniuoaaoee ia naaa
aicaeaenoaea /aeiaaea, ii ia aoaeao aiieia ia?aoeiui. Noaiaiue
ia?aoeiinoe eee iaia?aoeiinoe caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a e eioaineaiinoe
aicaeaenoaey.

Neaaenoaey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea eiatho a eaiaeoaooa
aeaiyeee oa?aeoa?. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii iie au?aaeathony aeaaiui ia?acii a
eciaiaiee ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia e a iiyaeaiee i?iecaiaeiuo
iiaeeoeeaoeee yeaiaioa?iuo aaieiiieaenia. I?yiiio aicaeaenoaeth
iiaeaa?aathony ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia, aeeaioiue ie?, ii/au, io/anoe
aeae?ia?aoe/aneay naoue. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eciaiythony ioaeaeueiua
oaiaeuey, o. a. ii?oieiae/aneea /anoe eaiaeoaooa, aiaea/aiiua a
oicyenoaaiiia eniieueciaaiea. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oneeaieth
aioo?e-eaiaeoaooiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ca n/ao aicieeiiaaiey ?aciiai
?iaea iiaeeoeeaoeee, oneeeaathueo iano?ioo a eaiaeoaooa, ii eiathueo a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ia?aoeiue oa?aeoa?. A i?aaeaeao iaeiiai e oiai aea
eaiaeoaooa iiaoo i?enoonoaiaaoue iaeiia?aiaiii ii?oieiae/anee
ioaeaeueiua /anoe, eciaiaiiua /aeiaaeii a ?aciie noaiaie, – io iaei
cao?iioouo oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth (iai?eia?, ianneau aieio) aei
ei?aiiui ia?acii i?aia?aciaaiiuo (iaoie, naaeu ia ianoa inooaiiuo aieio,
?an/euaiiuo eania e o. ae.), n iiiai/eneaiiuie noaaeeaeueiuie
ia?aoiaeaie.

Iiieii i?yiuo ?acoeueoaoia aiaoaoaeuenoai /aeiaaea aucuaaao e ?yae
iaiaeeaeaiiuo neaaenoaee, naycaiiuo n i?ioeannaie, aicieeathueie eee
oneeeaathueieny i?e ia?ooaiee aaia?aoe/aneeo acaeiinaycae. Yoe
neaaenoaey /anoi iaia?aoeiu e i?e iaeiinoi?iiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa eiatho
iaaeaeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oae, oie/oiaeaiea eania e anoanoaaiiiai
o?aayiiai iie?iaa, ?aniaoea i?eaiaeyo e ?acaeoeth y?icee e niuaa ii/a, e
caeeeaaieth aiaeiaiia; auian eiaao naiei /anoui neaaenoaeai ?acaaaaiea
ianeia eee auoaniaiea i?iaeoeoeaiuo ?anoeoaeueiuo niiauanoa
iai?iaeoeoeaiuie; eneonnoaaiiia i?ioaiea i?eaiaeeo e iiaeiyoeth o?iaiy
a?oioiauo aiae, caaiea/eaaieth, canieaieth.

Iiaeiaiua i?ioeannu a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oaeaea aaaeoo e oneeaieth
ii?oieiae/aneie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee eaiaeoaooa aeaaiaea?y iiyaeaieth
«iai?ioaiiuo» ii?oieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe (iai?eia?, ia?aaia, aoi?e/iuo
nieii/aeia, caaiei/aiiuo oaoeee). Iaia?aoeiia iai?aaeaiea aio?iiiaaiiuo
i?ioeannia /anoi niioaaonoaoao oaeaea anoanoaaiiiio ?acaeoeth eaiaeoaooa
e onei?yao aai (iai?eia?, oayiea eneiiaaiuo eueaeia e ia?aciaaiea aeania
a yeooneie oaeaa a ?acoeueoaoa auaeeaaiey eania).

Aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea ana aea ia anaaaea onoaoaeyao
aioo?e-eaiaeoaooiua ?acee/ey. Ecaanoiu i?eia?u ae?oaiai ?iaea, eiaaea
iooai iaeei?aoeee e iiauoaiey ieiaei?iaeey iaeii?iaeoeoeaiuo caiaeue,
i?ioaiey, nicaeaiey iaoe?iuo iaoioiuo ieiuaaeae naeaaeeaathony eiio?anou
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie oaoeeyie e o?i/euaie.

A eaiaeoaooa iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue e au?aaieaaiea ii?oieiae/aneeo
eiio?anoia, e oneiaeiaiea ii?oieiae/aneiai no?iaiey, iai?eia?, eiaaea ia
nieioiii ieaei?iii ianneaa a noaie nicaeathony iiey, naaeu,
eneonnoaaiiua eaniianaaeaeaiey, i?oaeu (Ae.E. A?iaiae, 1955).
Aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, ioia/aao Ae.E. A?iaiae, noe?aao iaeie
i?e?iaeiua a?aieoeu, nicaeaao ae?oaea, eciaiyao ?aceinoue o?aoueeo.
A?aieoeu i?aia?aciaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia au?aaeaiu cia/eoaeueii aieaa ?acei,
/ai anoanoaaiiua ?oaaaee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaeaiea eaiaeoaooia ia
anoanoaaiiua e eoeueoo?iua eiaao oi?iuaiiue oa?aeoa? e ia io?aaeaao
iiiaiia?acey oi?i eaiaeoaooia, eciaiaiiuo /aeiaaeii.

I?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea anoanoaaiiuo e eoeueoo?iuo eaiaeoaooia eae au
eneeth/aao eaiaeoaoou, eciaiaiiua /aeiaaeii, ec noa?u aeaenoaey
i?e?iaeiuo caeiiia. Ii iiaieth iiiaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae, i?aaeeueiaa auei
au ?acaeaeeoue nia?aiaiiua eaiaeoaoou ia ?yae eaoaai?ee ii noaiaie e
oa?aeoa?o eo eciaiaiey a ?acoeueoaoa aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea. Oaeea
eaoaai?ee iaia/aiu aaia?aoaie (A.E Eioaeueieeiaui, Ae.A. Aiaaeaiiaui,
NA. Eaeanieeii, A.A. Ena/aiei, E.I. Caaaeeiui), ii iiae?iaiay
eeanneoeeaoeey eaiaeoaooia n o/aoii aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea aua ia
?ac?aaioaia.

A ia?aii i?eaeeaeaiee iaia/aiu neaaeothuea iniiaiua eaoaai?ee
eaiaeoaooia.

1. Iaeciaiaiiua, eee ia?aiauoiua, eaiaeoaoou, ia iinauaaiua eee ec?aaeea
iinauaaiua /aeiaaeii (iai?eia?, eaiaeoaoou Aioa?eoeaeu).

2. Neaaieciaiaiiua eaiaeoaoou, a eioi?uo /aeiaaeii cao?iioou ioaeaeueiua
eiiiiiaiou (iai?eia?, aeeaioiue ie? a ?acoeueoaoa ioiou), ii iniiaiua
i?e?iaeiua nayce ia ia?ooaiu; nthaea ioiinyo iaeioi?ua oaaaeiua e
ionouiiua eaiaeoaoou, aua ia aiaea/aiiua a aeoeaiia oicyenoaaiiia
eniieueciaaiea.

3. Ia?ooaiiua (neeueii eciaiaiiua) eaiaeoaoou, iiaeaa?aoeany
aeeeoaeueiiio, ii noeoeeiiio, ia?aoeeiiaeueiiio aicaeaenoaeth, eioi?ia
i?eaaei e nouanoaaiiiio ia?ooaieth i?e?iaeiuo naycae e eciaiaieth
no?oeoo?u eaiaeoaooa a iai?aaeaiee, iau/ii iaaeaaii?eyoiii aeey
/aeiaaea. Eaiaeoaoou yoie a?oiiu iniaaiii iiiaiia?aciu. Iie
?ani?ino?aiaiu e a ooiae?a, aaea iaoia?aiiue auian ieaiae i?eaiaeeo e
niaia yaaeueiiai iie?iaa iai?iaeoeoeaiuie ionoioaie, e a oaeaa, aaea
eiaea ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiaena/iay nenoaia caieaaeaeey e i?iaeieaeaaony
eanieno?aaeaiea, e a ae?oaeo ciiao.

4. I?aia?aciaaiiua, eee nianoaaiii eoeueoo?iua, eaiaeoaoou, ‘a eioi?uo
i?e?iaeiua nayce eciaiaiu ia iao/iie iniiaa (iooai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey oaiaeee, eneonnoaaiiuo eaniianaaeaeaiee, iaeei?aoeee,
i?aia?aciaaiey noiea e iee?ieeeiaoa) n oai, /oiau iaania/eoue iaeaieaa
iieiia e yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, eo io?aio e
aini?iecaiaenoai.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

1. Ni/aaa A. A. Aaaaeaiea a o/aiea i aainenoaiao. Iiaineae?ne: Iaoea,
1978.

2. Oaaaenaeao E. N. Iniiau ii/aiaaaeaiea e aaioeiee eaiaeoaooa.
Aeaoa?eiao?a, 2002.

3. Ia?aeueiai A. E. Aaioeiee eaiaeoaooa. I.: Aunoay oeiea, 1975.

4. I?aia?aaeaineee A. N. Eaiaeoaoou a iaoea e i?aeoeea. I.: Ciaiea.
1981.

5. A?iaiae Ae. E. Iaoea i eaiaeoaooa. I.: Iuneue, 1975.

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