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Eaeoeey: Aiaeey a XIV,XV aaeao

Ieai:

1.Eciaiaiey a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie

2.Aeaeaeaiea ca ?aoi?io oea?eae

3.Ainoaiea e?anoueyi iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Oioa Oaeea?a

4.Nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Aiaeee a XV aaea

5.Ainoaiea Aeaeaea Eyaea

6.Aieia Aeie e Aaeie ?icu

7.Ia/aei oi?ie?iaaiey aiaeeeneie iaoeee

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1.Ea?eiia E.A. «Iaoa aeaaiay oeaeue aeaiie?aoecaoeey e iaiiaeaiea
iauanoaa, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea e iiaea?iecaoeey no?aiu» O «Ocaaeenoai 2005»

2.Ea?eiia E.A. Ocaaeenoai: 16 eao iacaaeneiiai ?acaeoey O «Ocaaeenoai
2007»

3.Aeaei?i AEai: Iniiaiua niauoey n?aaeiaaaeiauey I.Ano.Ano?aeue2004

4.Enoi?ey: Aa?iiu yiioa aic?iaeaeaiey –Ii.: Oa?aano.I Ano. 2000.

5.E?ieanaa?aa? ?.?. N?aaeiaaaeiaay Aa?iia ,400-1500 aiaeu I. «Aaeue
ie?», 2001

6.Einieinee? A.A. Enneaaeiaaiey ii aa?a?iie enoi?ee AiaeeeXIII A. I,I,
1947.

7.Eaaeoneee ss.A.Ai?iae e oaiaeaioi a Aiaeee I.1887

8.Ii?oii A.E. Enoi?ey Aiaeee. I. 1950.

9. Nai?ueei TH. I.Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu aiaeeeneiai
e?anoueyinoaa a XIV-XVII,1972.

10.ssa?iaa I.I.Ca?iaeaeaiea ?aiiaeaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee a
aiaeeeneii ai?iaea «Eiiaeii XIV ia/aei XVI aaea» Na?aoia 1883.

Iniiaiua iiiyoey e oa?ieiu

1.Eiiiooaoeey – «io eao. Commutation- ia?aiaia», a n?aaeiea aaea caiaia
aa?ueiu e i?iaeoeoiaiai ia?iea aeaiaaeiui ia?ieii.

2.I?aeiiainu-o?aioe.-ordonnances, i?eeac a ?yaea ei?ieaanoa Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu a XII-XIXaa. Ei?ieaaneea oeacu.

3.Noaooo – «io eao statuo-iinoiiaaeyth», a iaeioi?uo no?aiao Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu iacaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia iauaii?iaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Aii?inu aeey cae?aieaiey

1.Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea a Aiaeee IV aaea?

2.Eoi oaeea eeiea?aeu?

3. Iniiaiua i?e/eiu ainnoaiey 1381 a. aAiaeee?

4.Eiaaea i?iecioei ainnoaiea Aeaeaea Eyaea?

5.Eaeiau auee i?e/eiu aieiu Aeie e Aaeie ?ic?

6.Eiaaea ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny Aiaeeeneay iaoeey?

1.Eciaiaiey a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIII e iniaaiii XIV a aaea Aiaeey ia?aaeeaaea au?
aieaa cia/eoaeueiua naeaeae a naiae yeiiiieea.

?acaeoea aeaiaaeiiai oicyenoaa i?eaaei e ?aceiaeaieth aiaeeeneiai
e?aiinoiiai iiianouey- iaii?a. Ei?aeu iaoiaeeee aieaa auaiaeiui
caiaiyoue «eiiiooe?iaaoue» aa?ueio aeaiaaeiui ia?ieii. A oaeii neo/aa
naith ainiiaeneoth caieth «aeiiai» iie ia?aaaouaaee o?oaeii oaea ia?iiuo
?aai/eo ec iaeicaiaeueiuo e?anoueyi. I?aaeeiaeaiea ia?iiie ?aai/ae neeu
ia/eiaao ionoaaaoue io ni?ina io/anoe aneaaenoaea oauee ianaeaiey,
aucaaiiie oyae?eie yenieoaoaoeeae e o?iie/aneei iaaeiaaeaieai
e?anoueyinoaa, io/anoe aneaaenoaea ooiaea e?anoueyineie aaaeiiou a
ai?iaea e naaa?iua ?aeiiu no?aiu, aaea caaeneiinoue e?anoueyinoaa auea
neaaaa.

No?aoiay /oia 1348-1349 aiaeia (oaeaea iacaaiiay «*??iay nia?oue»)
i?iecaaea aieueoea iionoioaiey ii anae Aa?iia, a oii /enea e a Aiaeee.
Ni?in ia ?aai/ea ?oee au? aieueoa aic?in, ?acei au?inea e ca?aaioiay
ieaoa.

A eioa?anao iaieiaoaeae ei?ieue e ia?eaiaio i?iaaee ?yae caeiiii
aeaoaeueiuo ia?, eioi?ua ieacaeenue iaauaiaeiuie aeey naeueneeo
aao?aeia, neoa, iiaeianoa?ueaa e anao eeoe, iieo/aaoeo ca?aaioioth ieaoo
.Iie ecaanoiu iiae iauei iacaaieai «?aai/aai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa»

A1349aiaeo i?aaeoaeuenoai ei?iey Yaeoa?aea i?aeiiain, i?aaeienuaaaoee
anai ac?ineui ethaeyi iaiaai iiea io 12 aei 60 eao, ia eiathueo
nianoaaiiie caiee ae?oaeo n?aaenoa e aeecie. Iaieiaoueny ia ?aaioo ca oo
ieaoo, eioi?ay auea iau/ia aei yieaeaiee /oiu. Ca ooiae io iaieiaoaey
aei enoa/aiey n?iea eee ca ioeac io iaeia ia oaeeo oneiaeyoa?iceea
oth?ueia. Iaieiaoaee e ?aai/ea , eioi?ua oieaoeee eee iieo/eee aieaa
aunieoth ieaoo, iaeacuaaeenue oo?aoii. Ia?eaiaioneea noaooou 1351e-1361
aiaeia iiaeoaa?aeaeaee ei?ieaaneee oeac e onoaiaaeeaaee aeanoieea
iaeacaiey ca ioeac e naiiaieueiue ooiae n ?aaiou.

«Noaooo i ?aai/eo» 1351 aiaea, i?aaeienuaae caaeaaoue a eieiaeee e
naaeaoue a oth?ueio oao, eoi ia?ooee i?aaeea iaeia. I?e yoii iaieiaoaee
i?iaeieaeaee iaeacuaaoueny oieueei oo?aoii. Niaeanii noaoooo 1361 aiaea
?aai/ea ca ooiae io iaieiaoaey iauyaeyeenue oaea aia caeiia e
eeaeieeenue ?aneae?iiui aeaeacii.

Oeaeueth «?aai/aai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa» auei iaania/aiea oaiaeaeia e
ai?iaeneie aa?oooee aeioaaao ?aai/ae neeie n iiiiuueth aiayeiiiie/aneiai
i?eioaeaeaiey. «?aai/aa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai» aicaoaeeei i?ioea naay
anaiauoth iaiaaenoue, eae ni noi?iiu aea?aaaineie aaaeiiou, oae e ni
noi?iiu ai?iaeneeo ieaaaeneeo yeaiaioia-iiaeianoa?ueaa, ?aai/eo
iiaeaiueeia, ii?oiauo ?aai/eo e ae?.

Ia ia?aie/eaaynue yoei iiiaea ei?aeu i?eiyeenue aica?auaoue ia aa?ueio
aeeeaiia, ia?aaaae?iiuo eie ?aiaa aeaiaaeiue ia?ie.

Yoi auea ianoiyuay naiuei?eaeueiay ?aaeoeey, cao?aaeaathuay anth
aea?aaith a oeaeii. Aaaenoaey ia?iaeiuo iann oneeeaaeenue Noieaoiae
aieiie. Aieia o?aaiaaea aieueoeo ?anoiaeia, eioi?ua ainiieiyeenue ca
n/ao an? aic?anoaaoeo iaeiaia e ?aeaeceoeee, iaaeaaoeo a iniiaiii ia
o?oaeyueany neie ianaeaiey e aucuaaaoea eo iinoiyiiue i?ioano.

A1377aiaeo, a ia?aue aiae i?aaeaiey iiaiai ei?iey, ?e/a?aea II (aioea
Yaeoa?aea III), ia?eaiaio aaae iiaeooiue (iiaieiaiue) iaeia, /aai ?aiaa
ieeiaaea ia i?aeoeeiaaeinue a Aiaeee. Eaaeaeue ioae/eia e eaaeaeay
aeaiueia a aic?anoa 14 eao e auoa iaycaiu Auee auiea/eaaoue aai
iacaaeneii io naiaai eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey.

Iiaieiaiue iaeia eiaeeeny anae oyaeanoueth ia e?anoueyineea iannu. Ii
aucaae i?ioea naay aeoaieia aiciouaiea a aea?aaia e iineoaeee iineaaeiei
oie/eii , i?eaaaeoei aiaeeeneia e?anoueyinoai e ainnoaieth 1381a.

2.Aeaeaeaiea ca ?aoi?io oea?eae

I?ienoiaeyuea ia?aiaiu a Aiaeee io?aceeenue e a iaeanoe eaeaieiaee. Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XIV aaea a Aiaeee ?aca??ouaaaony oe?ieia aeaeaeaiea ca
?aoi?io eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Ei?ieaaneay aeanoue a Aiaeee au? c eiioea
XIII aaea oyaioeeanue caaeneiinoueth io iainoaa, i?eciaiiie Eiaiiii
Aaccaiaeueiui. A?aaeaeaaiay ii ioiioaieth e Aiaeee iieeoeea iai,
eioi?ua, iaoiaeynue n 1309a. a Aaeiuei/a, iiaeaea?aeeaaee O?aioeeth a
Noieaoiae aieia aeoeaece?iaaea aeaenoaey Aiaeeeneeo ei?ieae a yoii
iai?aaeaiee. I?eaeai?iay ciaoue e e?oiiua oaiaeaeu ?ann/eouaaee
?anoe?eoue naie aeaaeaiey e oaaee/eoue aeioiaeu ca n/?o eiioeneaoeee
oea?eiaiuo caiaeue. Ai?iaeaia a?aaeaeaaii niio?aee ia aiaaooth
oea?eiaue. Iie o?aaiaaee oaeaoaaeoue a?, oi?inoeoue ia?yaeiinoue.
Iniaaiii aeoaieia iaaeiaieuenoai eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth ia?anoaei a
60-70 o aa. XIV aaea a n?aaea e?anoueyinoaa e ai?iaeneie aaaeiiou.
Oea?eiaiua oaiaeaeu oii?ii aea?aeaeenue ca aa?ueio e ee/ioth
caaeneiinoue e?anoueyi. Oea?eiaue aeiieiaea e?anoueyi naieie aeanyoeiaie
e ae?oaeie iiai?aie.

Au?aceoaeai yoeo ?aoi?iaoi?neeo eaeae aue i?ioanni? Ienoi?aeneiai
oieaa?neoaoa Aeaeii Aeeeeo (1320-1384)

Ii, cayaee, /oi ainoaea?noai ia caaeneo io oea?eae. Iaiai?io oea?eiaue
iaycaia iiae/eiyony a a?aaeaeaineeo aeaeao naaoneie aeanoe.

Aeeeeo i?aaeeaaae caiaieoue ea?a?oeth niiauanoaii aa?othueo, a ia
aeiaiaoe/aneii o?iaia io?eoeae o/aiea i i?ainouanoaeaiee. Niaeanii
oea?eiaiiio aeiaiaoo i i?ainouanoaeaiee ai a?aiy i?e/anoey oeaa e aeii
noaiiayony oaeii e e?iaueth O?enoiaie aeaaiaea?y iniaui aeooiaiui neeai,
eioi?ua O?enoin aea?iaae oea?eae, e oaeinoao nayuainoaa.

Aa?a a oaeinoai i?e/anoey ninoaaeyao iniiao o/aiey i ee/iii nianaiee.
Noieo eeoue iiaenoaaeoue iiae niiiaiea ?aaeueiinoue i?ainouanoaeaiey e
ia/eiaao oaoaoueny naia iniiaa aeooiaiie ?iee oea?eae e nayuainoaa eae
aaeeinoaaiiuo iin?aaeieeia iaaeaeo ethaeueie e oea?noaii iaaaniui.

Aeeeeo i?iaicaeanee nayuaiiia ienaiea aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii
aa?io/aiey. Ii oioae naeaeaoue aai iauaaeinooiiui. Aeey yoiai ii i?eiye
o/anoea a ia?aaiaea Aeaeee n eaoeineiai ycuea ia aiaeeeneee.

A oa/aiea aeaoo iineaaeothueo noieaoee o/aiea Aeeeeoa ieacaei caiaoiia
aeeyiea ia o/aiea anao ?aoi?iaoi?ia oea?eae.

O/aiea Aeeeeoa i?iiaaaiaee?iaaee ainnoaaoea e?anoueyia a1381 aiaeo.
Iaeaieaa aeaiie?aoe/ii iano?iaiiua ec aai o/aieeia, oae iacuaaaiua
eeiea?aeu, oi anoue «aaaeiua nayuaiieee» i?aaeaee o/aieth Aeeeeoa aieaa
?aaeeeaeueiuiue oa?aeoa?.

Anee o/aiea Aeeeeoa ia auoiaeeei ca i?aaeaeu o?aaiaaiee oea?eiaiie
?aoi?iu a ?aieao nouanoaothuae nenoaiu, oi eeiea?aeu ioe?uoi aunooiaee
i?ioea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa e no?aieeenue oie/oiaeeoue
nouanoaothuee no?ie. Naiei oaeaioii e neeie oaaaeaeaiey n?aaee ia?iaeiuo
i?iiiaaaeieeia iniaaiii auaeaeyeny Aeaeii Aie. I?iiiaaaee Aeaeiia Aiea e
eeiea?aeia au?aaeaee eioa?anu ai?iaeneie e e?anoueyineie aaaeiiou.

3.Ainoaiea e?anoueyi iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Oioa Oaeea?a.

E eiioeo XIV a. Iieiaeaiea aiaeeeneiai e?anoueyinoaa cia/eoaeueii
oooaeoaaony.

I?e ?e/a?aea II (1377-1399) aiciaiiaeeanue aieia n O?aioeeae. Yoi
i?eaaei e iiaui iaeiaiaui o?aaiaaieyi, eioi?ua aucaaee neeueiaeoaa
aiciouaiea. Iniaaiii ieacaeenue i?yiua iaeiae, cao?aaeaaaoea aieueoia
eiee/anoai ethaeae, iai?eia? iiaeooiua iaeiae 1377 e 1380 aa., eioi?ua
iineoaeeee iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iiaiaeii aeey e?anoueyineiai ainnoaiey 1381
aiaea.

Ainnoaiea n?aco aea i?eiyei y?ei au?aaeaiiue aioe oaiaeaeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Aniuoioa ia THai-ainoiea Aiaeee, a a?aonoaa Ynnaen, iii auno?i ioaaoeei
25 ec 40 a?aonoa Aiaeee. E?anoueyia a?iieee onaaeueau e iiianou?e,
oaiaeeee neio, oiineee eiouanoai e aeaee aeieoiaiou, a eioi?uo auee
caienaiu e?anoueyineea iiaeiiinoe. A ?yaea a?aonoa e?anoueyi
iiaeaea?aeaea ai?iaeneay aaaeiioa.

Iaeaieueoae i?aaieciaaiiinoueth ainnoaiea ioee/aeinue a ninaaeieo n
Eiiaeiiii a?aanoaao-Ynnaena e Eaioa. Eaioneea e?anoueyia inaiaiaeeee ec
oth?ueiu Aeaeiia Aiea, iacaaeieai aei yoiai a?anoiaaiiiai oea?eiaiuie
aeanoyie, e naeaeaee aai iaeiei ec naieo aiaeaeae.

I?aaeaiaeeoaeai ainnoaiey noae aea?aaaineee e?iaaeueuee Oio Oaeea?. Ii
aai eiaie iau/ii e iacuaatho ainnoaiea 1381 aiaea. E?anoueyia Ynnaena e
Eaioa aeaoiy io?yaeaie iiaenooieee e Eiiaeiio.

Ai?iaeneea aeanoe Eiiaeiia ia niiaee aini?aiyonoaiaaoue e?anoueyiai
i?ieoe /a?ac eiiaeiineee iino e aieoe /a?ac ai?iaeneea ai?ioa a
eiiaeiineia Neoe.

A oa/aiea o??o aeiae-13, 14 e 15 ethiy 1381a. Ainnoaaoea e?anoueyia auee
oicyaaaie iieiaeaiey a Eiiaeiia. Iaeioi?ua ei?ieaaneea ieieno?u- n?aaee
ieo eaioeea? ei?ieaanoaa Neiii Nyaeaa?e (ii aea a?oeaieneii
Eaioa?aa?eeneee) e ei?ae- eacia/ae Oaeen- auee eaciaiu. Iianoaioeaie
auee ?aca?iieaiu ana ai?iaeneea oth?ueiu. Iie caoaaoeee e niaeaee
aeaaiue eiiaeiineee noaeaaiue a?oea.

E?anoueyia iio?aaiaaee, /oiau ei?ieue ?e/a?ae II yaeeny e iei aeey
ia?aaiai?ia. E ei?ieue, aue auioaeaeai niaeaneony ia yoi o?aaiaaiea.
Naeaeaiey ninoiyeinue a Iaee-Yoaea- i?aaeianouea Eiiaeiia. E?anoueyia
i?aaeuyaeee ei?ieth o?aaiaaiey, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea «Iaee-Yiaeneay
i?ia?aiia». A iae iie aeiaeaaeenue ioiaiu aeeeaineiai noaoona e aa?ueiu,
onoaiiaeaiey aaeeiiia?aciie iaaunieie aeaiaaeiie ?aiou (4 iaina n ae?a),
naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee ai anao ai?iaeao e ianoa/eao Aiaeee e aiienoee aeey
i?eiyaoeo o/anoea a ainnoaiee. I?ia?aiia io?aaeaea eioa?anu aieaa
caaeeoi/iie e oia?aiii iano?iaiiie /anoe e?anoueyinoaa.

Ei?ieth i?eoeinue niaeaneony n eo o?aaiaaieyie. Ii niaeaneeny ni anae
e?anoueyineie i?ia?aiiie e i?eeacae auaeaoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaaoea yoi
a?aiiou.

Ei?ieaaneiio neiao e?anoueyia a iniiaiie naiae ianna iiaa?eee, iieeioee
Eiiaeii e ioi?aaeeenue ii aeiiai. Ii iiiaea ec e?anoueyi iniaaiii
iaeieiouea ia auee oaeiaeaoai?aiu yoeie onooieaie. Yoe ethaee aianoa n
Oioii Oaeea?ii e Aeaeiiii Aieii inoaeenue a Eiiaeiia.

Ei?ieue Aiaeee iieo/ee iiaia o?aaiaaiea ono?ieoue naeaeaiea. Ei?ieue
auioaeaeai aoi?e/ii yaeony ia naeaeaiea n e?anoueyiaie a Nieooeeae.
O?aaiaaiey ecaanoiua, eae «Nieooeeaeneay i?ia?aiia», oee cia/eoaeueii
aeaeueoa Iaee-Yiaeneeo.

E?anoueyia o?aaiaaee ia oieueei ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa , ii e
eiioeneaoeee caiaeue o aieneiiia, iiianou?ae e nayuaiieeia e ?acaeaea
yoeo caiaeue iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie. Iie o?aaiaaee ioiaiu anao i?eaeeaaee
naiuei?ia, oi?aaeaiey nineiaee e aica?auaiey e?anoueyiai caoaa/aiiuo
naiuei?aie iaueiiuo oaiaeee. Oaeiau auee o?aaiaaiey e?anoueyineie
aaaeiiou. Ai a?aiy ia?aaiai?ia a Nieooeeaea Oio Oaeea? aue
i?aaeaoaeuenee oaeo iy?ii Eiiaeiia. Iiaeioaaeoea e yoiio a?aiaie a
Eiiaeii ?uoea?neea io?yaeu ec oao a?aoia, aaea iieiaeaiea auei aieaa
niieieiui, ia?aciaaee aeinoaoi/iia aienei, eioi?ia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaei
iai?aaeoue ia iiaeaaeaiea ainnoaiey.

Iinea yoiai ainnoaiea auei iiaeaaeaii ai anao ae?oaeo ianoao
ei?ieaanoaa. AEanoieie eacie aue i?aaeai Aeaeii Aiee e ae?oaea aiaeaee
ia?iaea. Ei?ieue ioeacaaoenue io anao naieo iaauaiee, ?acineae i?eeac i
aani?aeineiaiii auiieiaiee e?anoueyiaie anao iiaeiiinoae a iieueco
naiuei?ia, eioi?ua iie ianee aei ainnoaiey.

Ia?eaiaio iaeia?ee aeaenoaey ei?iey. Iniaaiii ona?aenoaiaaee /eaiu
ieaeiae iaeaou.

Iie cayaeee, /oi aioiau nei?aa oia?aoue a iaeei aeaiue, /ai niaeaneoueny
ia inaiaiaeaeaiea aeeeaiia.

Ainnoaiea 1381a. Iioa?iaei ii?aaeaiea a neeo oao aea iaueo i?e/ei, /oi e
AEaea?ey. Noeoeeiinoue, iaaeinoaoi/iay i?aaieciaaiiinoue ainnoaiey,
i?aiaeaaeaiea o aai o/anoieeia eieaeueiuo eioa?ania i?eaaee e oiio, /oi
iianoaioeu aieueoeinoaa ?aeiiia no?aiu ia i?eiyee o/anoey a iioiaea ia
Eiiaeii. Aiaeeeneea e?anoueyia iaeaii aa?eee, /oi ei?ieue ia eo noi?iia.
Oaeaea niinianoaiaaei ii?aaeaieth ainnoaiey i?aaeaoaeuenoai Eiiaeiineie
ai?iaeneie aa?oooee, i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo aaaeiui e caaeeoi/iui
e?anoueyinoaii.

Ii ianiio?y ia nai? ii?aaeaiea, ainnoaiea 1381a. ieacaei aieueoia
aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoea noaeueau aiaeeeneiai e?anoueyinoaa. Ainnoaiea
auei noieue oe?ieei e iiuiui, /oi aeoiaoue i na?ue?ciii ainnoaiiaeaiee
aa?ueiu oaiaeaeaie iinea yoiai oaea ia i?eoiaeeeinue. E?anoueyineea
aieiaiey i?iaeieaeaeenue a ?aciuo /anoyo no?aiu. Aeeeaiu oii?ii
ioeacuaaeenue ioauaaoue aa?ueio e ieaoeoue iiauoaiioth ?aioo.
Ainoaea?noao i?eoeinue an?-oaee iieoe ia onooiee e inouanoaeoue ia
i?aeoeea ?yae e?anoueyineeo o?aaiaaiee. A eiioea XIIV e a XV a.
aieueoeinoai aeeeaiia aueoieeinue ia aieth.

N iaaeaieai aa?ueiiiai oicyenoaa e?anoueyia noaee aeaaiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie oiaa?ia aeey aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai ?uiea.

4.Nioeeaeueii yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Aiaeee a XV

A oa/aiea XV aaea ?aceiaeaiea oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee a Aiaeee caoei au?
aeaeueoa. Noa?eiiay oaiaeaeueiay naiuei?ey, eioi?ay oaea a XIII -ia/aea
XIV a. Ia/aea ?ac?ooaoueny oaia?ue iieiinoueth o?ainoi?ie?iaaeanue:
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu i?aa?aoeeenue a ?aiouea, o?oaeiaua iiaeiiinoe en/acee,
e n ieie e en/ac noaoon e?anoueyineie caaeneiinoe. E?anoueyia noaee
aea?aeaoaeyie iinoiyiiuo ia?aaeaaaaiuo ii ianeaaenoao o/anoeia eee
a?aiaiiuo, ii, eae i?aaeei, aeieain?i/iuo iaaeaeia. Ia ia?auo ii?ao
e?anoueyineea oicyenoaa ia iiaee aicianoeoue na??ouaaiey aeiiaieaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. A nayce n yoei a no?aia n eiioea XIV a. noaiiaeony
caiaoiuie iaeioi?ua i?eciaee yeiiiie/aneiai oiaaeea: iauaa nie?auaiea
ia?aaaouaaaiie caiee, ?ino ianoaeu ca n/ao iaoie, nieaeaiea oiaa?iie
i?iaeoeoeee aea?aaie, a /anoiinoe nie?auaiea yenii?oa oa?noe.
Aneaaenoaea iaaeaiey /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey, eioi?ia niiaa ia/aei ?anoe
oieueei e eiioeo XV a., a oaeaea ?inoa e?anoueyineiai caieaaeaaeaiey
ianeieueei nie?auaaony ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth naeueneiai oicyenoaa. A
neeo yoiai oeaiu ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou oiaee, a ca?aaioiay
ieaoa ia?iiuo ?aai/eo inoaeanue ioiineoaeueii aunieie. Ii?iaeae?iiua
e?ecenii noa?iai aa?ueiiiai iioi?a, yoe yaeaiey ninouanoaiaaee n
oneeeaathueieny, aieaa i?ia?anneaiuie oi?iaie
i?iecaiaenoaa-iaeeioiaa?iui e?anoueyineei oicyenoaii, a oae aea
iiiaue/ueei oicyenoaii iiaiai oeia, iineoaeeaoeie a aeaeueiaeoai aacie
aeey ca?iaeaeaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee a aea?aaia. Yoe i?ioeannu
ii?iaeaeaee e nioeeaeueiua naeaeae a Aiaeeeneii iauanoaa. Aiaeeeneia
e?anoueyinoai aeaeeeinue oaia?ue a th?eaee/aneii ioiioaiee ia aeaa
iniiaiua eaoaai?ee. Iioiiee i?aaeieo aeeeaiia iacuaaeenue
eiieaieueaea?aie (aea?aeaoaeyie ii eiiee) oae eae aeieoiaioii ia
aeaaeaiea iaaeaeii o ieo auea auienea, eee «eiiey», ec i?ioieieia
iaii?eaeueiiai noaea.

Iie auee ee/ii naiaiaeiuie ethaeueie e ca naie iaaeaeu ieaoeee ei?aeo
iaaunieoth oeene?iaaiioth aeaiaaeioth ?aioo e ianee iaeioi?ua
iiaeiiinoe. Aeaaiui ia?aaeeoeii ia naiaiaeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
eiieaieueaea?ia auei oi, /oi eo i?aaa ia iaaeae ia io?aiyeenue
ei?ieaaneeie noaeaie, e iie inoaaaeenue nineiaii ia?aaiii?aaiuie.

Naiaiaeiua aea?aeaoaee- o?eaieueaea?u auee oaeoe/anee nianoaaiieeaie
caiee e oie/eaaee ca ia? eeoue iacia/eoaeueioth aeaiaaeioth ?aioo.
O?eaieueaea?neia aeaaeaiea iieueciaaeinue caueoie ei?ieaaneeo noaeia, a
aai aea?aeaoaeue eiae i?aai eiae i?aai o/anoaiaaouea auai?ao a
ia?eaiaio, oiaaea eae eiieaieueaea?u yoiai i?aaa auee eeoaiu.

?acaiaaoaaoea e?anoueyia ec /enea naiaiaeiuo iieo/eee iacaaiea eiiaiia.
Eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeeee e aioo?e eeanna oaiaeaeia. *anoue oaiaeaeia,
ninoiyaoay ec iioiieia i?aaeiae ciaoe, oii?ii aea?aeauayny ca aa?ueio e
e?aiinoioth caaeneiinoue iieo/eea iacaaiea «noa?iai aeai?yinoaa». A aai
ninoaa aoiaeeea e cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ?uoea?noaa- oa iaeeea e n?aaeiea
oaiaeaeu, eioi?ui e?ecen aa?ueiiie nenoaiu i?n ?aci?aiea, e eioi?ua
aeeee ca n/?o neoaeau a naeoao e i?e aeai?ao oaiaeaeueiuo iaaiaoia,
anaaaea aioiaua e aieia e a?aaaaeo.

Ae?oaay /anoue oaiaeaeia, /eneaiii aic?anoaaoay, auea naycaia n iiauie
i?ia?anneaiuie yaeaieyie a yeiiiieea no?aiu, yoi o.i. «iiaia
aeai?yinoai». Iii ia?acoaony ec iaeei – e n?aaeiaaio/eiiuo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa – ?uoea?noaa XIII-XV aa., eioi?ua e a iiauo oneiaeyo
caieiaeenue aeoeaiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, io/anoe ec
?acaiaaoaaoeo e?anoueyi e ai?iaeai, aeeaaeuaaaoeo aeaiueae a caieth e
iieo/aaoeo aeai?yineea caaiey. «Iiaia aeai?yinoai» auei oanii e
iianaaeiaaii naycaii n ?uieii.

Ai?ueaa iiaiai ni noa?ui oa?aeoa?ia e aeey aiaeeeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
oi?aiaee. A XV aaea aaaeouae io?aneueth aiaeeeneie oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Anee i?aaeaea a iniiaiii auaiceeanue oa?noue, oi e
na?aaeeia XIV aaea an? aieueooth ?ieue a auaica ia/aei ea?aoue noeii.

Noa?ua ai?iaea n eo oeaoiaie nenoaiie noaniyee ?acaeoea e?oiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii yoiio ia/aeinue ia?aiauaiea i?aoniaaathueo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?aaeaea anaai noeiiaeaeey a aea?aaaineea ie?oaa. A
aea?aaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aue aeeaea e enoi/ieeai nu?uey e ia
/oanoaiaae noaniaiey oeaoiauie i?aaeienaieyie.

Oaeei ia?acii, aia noa?uo ai?iaeia n eo oeaoiauie ia?aie/aieyie
ca?iaeaeathony ia?aiia/aeueiua oi?iu eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa a
aeaea ?annayiiie iaiooaeoo?u. A XV aaea aiaeeeneea eoioeu ia/aee oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiyoue naith oi?aiaeth ia ?acee/iuo ii?yo. A nayce n yoei
ia/aei oneeaiii ?acaeaaoueny aiaeeeneia ei?aaeano?iaiea. *anoue e?oiiuo
eoioeia, aaaeoueo caii?neoth oi?aiaeth ia?aciaaea a 70-o aiaeao XV aaea
ia?aoth caii?neoth eiiiaieth – aaaioth?enoia, eioi?ay iiiiiieece?iaaea a
naieo ?oeao i?aaeaea anaai anth oi?aiaeth noeiaie a Ea-Iaioa e Naaa?iii
ii?a , oniaoii eiieo?e?iaaaoath n Aaicie.

5. Ainnoaiea Aeaeaea Eyaea.

I?e ei?iea Aai?eoa V (1413-1422) n iiaie neeie aiciaiiaeeanue aieia
O?aioeeae. Aiaee/aia oa?iaee iaoaea/o ca iaoaea/ae e iinoaiaiii iioa?yee
ii/oe ana naie oa??eoi?eaeueiua caaiaaaiey ai O?aioeee, e?iia ii?oa
Eaea. Iici?iua iaoaea/e a aieia, oicyeie/aiuey a no?aia oaiaeaeueiuo
yeeo, iaiiia?iue ?ino iaeiaia, ?anoeuaiea eaciu aucuaaee anaiauaa
iaaeiaieuenoai, iniaaiii n?aaee e?anoueyineiai ianaeaiey Aiaeee.

A 1450 aiaeo tha Aiaeee ioaaoeei iiaia ainnoaiea, oeaio?ii aai yaeeinue
a?aonoai Eyio. Ainnoaiea aicaeaaee Aeaeae Eyae, iaeei ec aannaeia
aa?oeiaa Ei?eneiai. Iniiaioth ianno ainnoaaoeo ninoaaeee e?anoueyia, e
iei i?eniaaeeieeinue iiiai ?uoea?ae e ai?iaeai.

Ainnoaaoea (2 ethiy 1450 a.) i?eoee a Eiiaeii e i?aaeuyaeee
i?aaeoaeuenoao ?yae o?aaiaaiee, naiaeeaoeony a iniiaiii e oaeaeaieth
aeo?iuo niaaoieeia ei?iey, oii?yaei/aieth oeaio?aeueiiai e ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey, ia?aie/aieth i?iecaiea ei?aeia ia ianoao. Ainnoaaoea oaeaea
o?aaiaaee ioiaiu noaoooia i ?aai/eo (eiaeinue a aeaeo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
Yaeoa?aea III e ?e/a?aea II, ioeoeeaeueii oae e ia ioiai?iiia au? a
XIVaaea). Yoi o?aaiaaiea oeacuaaei ia o/anoea a aeaeaeaiee aao?aeia,
ai?iaeneeo iiaeianoa?ueaa.

N?aaee aunoaaeaiiuo o?aaiaaiee oeao?e?iaaei oaeaea o?aaiaaiea i
aeeth/aiee aa?oeiaa Ei?eneiai a ninoaa Ei?ieaaneiai Niaaoa. Eae e ai
a?aiy ainnoaiey 1381 aiaea i?aaeoaeuenoai aia/aea iioei auei ia onooiee.
Ii, eiaaea o/anoieee ainnoaiey iinea aeaiiuo ei iaauaiee inoaaeee
Eiiaeii, ei?ieaaneea aienea iaiaee ia iooiaeeaoeo iianoaioeaa e ia/aee
ecaeaaoue eo. Eyae i?iaeieaeae au? iaeioi?ia a?aiy ai?ueao aianoa n
inoaaoeieny naieie noi?iiieeaie. Ii 12 ethiy ii aue ?aiai a nou/ea n
ei?ieaaneeie nieaeaoaie, acyo a ieai, caoai eaci?i. ?ac?iciaiiua iiiuoee
ainnoaiey a ae?oaeo a?aonoaao auee auno?i iiaeaaeaiu. I?aaeoaeuenoai
ono?ieei iaae ainnoaaoeie no?aoioth ?ani?aao, inoaaoothny a ia?iaeiie
iaiyoe iiae iacaaieai «aeaoau aieia»

6. aieia Aeie e Aaeie ?icu

Aiaaouo ai?iaeai e «iiaia aeai?yinoai» ainnoaiea Eyaea canoaaeei
aiceiaeeoue ana naie iaaeaaeaeu ia neeueioth ei?ieaaneoth aeanoue,
eioi?ay i?ioeainoiyea au n iaeiie noi?iiu, ia?iaeiie noeoee, a n ae?oaie
noi?iiu naea?aeeaaea au naiaaieea naiuei?ia. A i?ioeaiaan aeeianoee
Eaieanoa?ia iie noaee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aa?oeiaia Ei?eneeo. Yoi auee
?iaenoaaiieee ei?ieaaneiai aeiia, e?oiiaeoea caieaaeaaeaeueoeu Aiaeee.
Iie cayaeee i naieo i?aaao ia i?anoie. Aicieeee aeaa a?aaeaeothuea
a?oiie?iaee, eioi?ua noaee aioiaeoueny e ioe?uoie ai?ueaa. A 1455 aiaeo
aa?oeia Ei?eneee aue iauyaeai ?aaaioii ei?ieaanoaa aaeaeo aieacie
Aai?eoaVI (1422-1461). Iaeiaei i?eaa?aeaioeu Eaieanoa?ia. Aeaaiui
iieioii eioi?uo aue ionoaeue caiaae e thai-caiaae, anei?a ono?aieee aai
io aeieaeiinoe ?aaaioa. A ia/aaoaeny a oii aea aiaeo aieia Eaieanoa?ia n
Ei?eaie nia/aea ia?aaan aue ia noi?iia Eaieanoa?ia. Iaaeaeioniaiay aieia
aeeeeanue n ia?a?uaaie n 1455 ii 1485 aiae. Iia iieo/eea iacaaiea aieia
Aeie e Aaeie ?icu. A aa?aa Eaieanoa?ia auea aeay ?ica, a a aa?aa Ei?eia
aaeay. Aeey a?oiie?iaie oie e ae?oaie noi?iiu yoa aieia auea au? e
i?aaeeiaii aeey a?aaaaea, ?acaiy e oneeaiey naiae iieeoe/aneie
iacaaeneiinoe. Ieii/aiea Noieaoiae aieiu oaaee/eei aiaiiua neeu
ioaeaeueiuo naiuei?ia, eioi?ua naie io?yaeu iiiieiyee inoaaoeieny aac
aeaea ia?iieeaie.

Aieia Aeie e Aaeie ?icu auea a?aiaiai iaeaieueoaai ?acaoea e aaccaeiiey
aiaeeeneie a?enoie?aoee. Iie eaaei ia?aoiaeeee ec iaeiiai eaaa?y a
ae?oaie iinea eaaeaeie ia?aiaiu aiaiiiai n/anouey. Iaaeaeo iaaeie
ia?oeyie i?iecioei ?yae e?iaaauo noieeiiaaiee.

A 1460 aiaeo ?e/a?ae Ei?eneee aue oaeo a iaeiie ec i?iea?aiiuo ei aeoa.
Aai io?oaeaiiay aieiaa n aoiaaeiie ei?iiie auea aunoaaeaia ia iaeiie ec
noai ai?iaea Ei?ea. Ii ai aeaaa Ei?eneie ia?oee noae nui oaeoiai
?e/a?aea Ei?eneiai-Yaeoa?ae. Eioi?ue a 1461 aiaeo aeaaaeaeu ?acaee
Eaieanoa?ia, caoaaoee Eiiaeii e aue i?iaicaeaoai ei?ie?i iiae eiaiai
Yaeoa?aea IV (1461-1483). Aioea?aiea Yaeoa?aea IV ia i?ae?aoeei aieio
Aeie e Aaeie ?icu, eioi?ay iaiaeiie?aoii aiciaiiaeyeanue ai a?aiy aai
i?aaeaiey. Yaeoa?aea IV aeanoiei ?ani?aaeeny n n aa?iiaie-Eaieanoa?aie.
Ii ii ia aeiaa?ye e aa?iiai – ei?eenoai i?eaeeaeae e naaa ethaeae ec
n?aaeiaai neiy ?uoea?noaa, ?acaeaaae ei oeooeu e aeaaeaiey.

Iaaeiaa?/eai ioiineeny Yaeoa?aea IV e e ia?eaiaioo, auai?u a eioi?ue ii
i?aaeiaio iaoiaeeeenue iiae aeeyieai oaiaeaeueiie a?enoie?aoee. Ii
noa?aeny ii aiciiaeiinoe iaoiaeeony aac ia?eaiaioa, iniaaiii a
oeiainiauo aii?inao, i?aaeii/eoay i?eaaaaoue e oae iacuaaaiui
aeia?iaieueiui aea?ai e i?eioaeeoaeueiui caeiai n ai?iaeia. Ii canoaaee
ia?eaiaio i?aaenoaaeoue aio iiaeeciaiiia i?aai nai?a oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei.
An? yoi aeaaaei ei?ieth cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa, aeaeaei eeoiei nicua
ia?eaiaioa e ?acaycuaaei aio ?oee a aii?inao oi?aaeaiey e
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Yaeoa?aea IV iiiu?ye ?acaeoea aiaeeeneie oi?aiaee,
iie?iaeoaeuenoaoy aiaeeeneiio oi?aiaiio oeioo e niaeaenoaoy oi?aiaie
eiiiaiee ii oi?aiaea ca a?aieoeae eoioeia-aaaioth?enoia.

Iinea nia?oe Yaeoa?aea IV i?anoie ia?aoae e aai nuio iaeieaoiaio
Yaeoa?aeo V. Ii oio aue naa?aioo naiei aeyaeae ?e/a?aeii, a iioii ii aai
i?eeacaieth caaeooai a oth?ueia Nao aea ?e/a?ae, caoaaoea aeanoue, noae
i?aaeoue iiae eiaiai ?e/a?aea III (1483-1485). Noi?iiieee naiuee
Yaeoa?aeo IV iauaaeeieeenue n inoaoeaie eaieanoa?neie ia?oee e naa?aee
?e/a?aea III. ?aoathuay aeoaa i?iecioea aeec ianoa/ea Ainai?o 22 aaaonoa
1485 aiaea. ?e/a?aea III iae a aeoaa. Aai?eo Othaei?, aeaeueiee
?iaenoaaiiee eaieanoa?neiai aeiia aue i?iaicaeaoai ei?ie?i Aiaeee iiae
eiaiai Aai?eoa VII (1485-1503). Ii aeaieeny ia aei/a?e Yaeoa?aea IV-
Aeecaaaoa Ei?e, iauaaeeiea, oaeei ia?acii aeaa a?aaeaeothuea
oaiaeaeueiua a?oiie?iaee.

Aai?eoa VII i?iaeieaeae iineaaeiaaoaeueioth ai?ueao n
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth aa?iiia, ca oe?aieaiea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe. Aio oai
eaa/a auei i?iaiaeeoue yoo iieeoeeo , /oi aieia Aeie e Aaeie ?icu
i?eaaea e aeaaee cia/eoaeueiie /anoe oaiaeaeueiie a?enoie?aoee e
iiaeiyea nioeeaeueiia cia/aiea «iiaiai aeai?yinoaa» e ca?iaeaeaaoeony
ao?aeoaciuo yeaiaioia, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a oneeaiee ei?ieaaneie aeanoe.

I?e Othiaei?ao ei?ieaaneay aeanoue a Aiaeee ieii/aoaeueii i?eiyea oi?io
ianiethoecia.

7. Ia/aei oi?ie?iaaiey aiaeeeneie iaoeee

A Aiaeee XIII-XV aaeia i?iaeieaeaeny i?ioeann ?acaeoey aiaeeeneie
ia?iaeiinoe, iineoaeeaoae iniiaie oi?ie?iaaiey aoaeouae aiaeeeneie
iaoeee. A yoio ia?eiae ii?aaeaeyaony a iniiaiii ycueiaay e
oa??eoi?eaeueiay iauiinoue Aiaeee.

Ia/eiay n Ii?iaiaeneiai caaiaaaiey a Aiaeee iieueciaaeenue aeaoiy
ycueaie, io?aaeaaoeie ?acee/ue iaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa aiaeeeneiai
iauanoaa. Ei?ieue, aeai? , aieueoay /anoue ciaoe aiai?eee ia
O?aioeocneii ycuea. Iniiaiay ianna ianaeaiey- e?anoueyinoai e ai?iaeaia,
n?aaeiea e iaeeea oaiaeaeu aiai?eee ia aiaeeeneii ycuea, aeaeeaoeiny au?
ia iiiaeanoai aeeaeaeoia, aaaeouei ec eioi?uo aue Eiiaeiineee aeeaeaeo.

Iinoaiaiii aiaeeeneee ycue- ycue iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey-
an? aea auoaniee o?aioeoceee ycue eae a /anoiie, oae e a ioaee/iie
aeecie. Oaea a 1258 aiaeo ei?ieue Aai?eoa III aeieaeai aue ia?aoeoueny e
ianaeaieth Aiaeee n aiccaaieai ia Aiaeeeneii ycuea (ia eiiaeiineii
aeeaeaeoa). A 1362 aiaeo Yaeoa?aea III a ioaao ia iaoeoeeth Eiiaeiia
iinoaiiaee, /oiau aeaea a noaeao ?acae?aeenue ia aiaeeeneii ycuea aaeaeo
oiai, /oi «o?aioeocneee ycue neeoeii iaei ecaanoai»

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIV a., a Aiaeee, iiyaeeenue e?oiiaeoea eeoa?aoo?iua
i?iecaaaeaiey, a eioi?uo ?acaeaoeeny ia iniiaa eiiaeiineiai aeeaeaeoa
aiaeeeneee ycue aunooiaao oaea a ea/anoaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea ni anaie aai oa?aeoa?iuie neiaa?ii – a?aiiaoe/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie.

Ii aiaeeeneee ycue ii eieoeeaoeaa Aeeeeoa ia?aaiaeeoueny Aeaeey, ia i?i
ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIV a. ieoao naie iiyiu e?anoueyineee iiyo Oeeueyi
Eaiaeaiae.

A ioi?ieaiee aiaeeeneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea aieueooth ?ieue nua?aee
i?iecaaaeaiey ciaiaieoiai iiyoa Aeaeao?e Oina?a (1340-1400), iniaaiii
aai «Eaioa?aa?eeneea ?anneacu», iaienaiiua ei a naiii eiioea (90- a
aiaeu) XIV a.

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