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Aeia-Aoa (eacao. Aeiaou; aei 1921 aiaea — Aa?iue) — e?oiiaeoee ai?iae
Eacaonoaia. N 1927 ii 1936 noieeoea Eacaeneie ANN?, n 1936 ii 1991 aiaea
noieeoea Eacaoneie NN?, n 1991 ii 1997 noieeoea ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.
Aeia-Aoa auea iineaaeiae noieeoeae e e?oiiaeoei ai?iaeii Eacaoneie NN?,
caoai noaea ia?aie noieeoeae e e?oiiaeoei iaaaiieenii ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai. Ianiio?y ia oo?aoo noaoona iieeoeei-aaeieieno?aoeaiie
noieeoeu, ai?iae yaeyaony eoeueoo?iui e oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneei oeaio?ii
?anioaeeee e inoa?ony aaeeinoaaiiui ai?iaeii-ieeeeiiieeii no?aiu. Ai?iae
?aniieiaeai o iiaeiiaeey ai? Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao ia e?aeiai thai-ainoiea
?anioaeeee e eiaao naiaia?aciue, aeiaieueii iyaeee eeeiaoe/aneee ?aaeei
n iai?inoie yeieiae/aneie neooaoeeae.

A ethia 2007 aiaea ai?iae aue aeiaaaeai a nienie naiuo aei?iaeo ai?iaeia
ie?a.[1] N eiioea 90-o ai?iae ia?aaeeaaao ia?eiae ianoiyuaai
yeiiiie/aneiai e eiaanoeoeeiiiiai aoia, a oaeaea eioaineaiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Iacaaiea

A iicaeiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea a yoii ?aeiia nouanoaiaaea noiyiea oth?eneeo
e iiiaieueneeo ei/aaieeia — Aeiaoo?, 1854 — ia ianoa eacaoneiai
iinaeaiey Aeiaoui caeiaeaii aiaiiia oe?aieaiea Caeeeieneia, caoai
Aai?iia, 1867 — Aeiaoeiineia, 1867—1921 — Aai?iue, n 1921 — Aeiai-Aoai,
n 1993 a nayce n ia?aeiaiiaaieai a ioeoeeaeueiii oiio?aaeaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie Eacaonoaia ia ?onneii e eacaoneii ycueao
ai?iae iacuaaaony «Aeiaoui». A ?innee ai?iae ii i?aaeiaio iacuaatho
«Aeia-Aoa»: 17 aaaonoa 1995 a. iioaeeeiaaii ?anii?yaeaiea
Aaeieieno?aoeee I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ? 1495 «I iaienaiee
iacaaiee ainoaea?noa — auaoeo ?anioaeee NNN? e eo noieeoe», a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui a neoaeaaiie ia?aienea e ioeoeeaeueiuo
ia?aaiai?ao i?aaenoaaeoaee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eiaiotho auaooth
noieeoeo Eacaonoaia eiaiii eae «Aeia-Aoa».

Aii?aee ?ani?ino?ai?iiiio caaeoaeaeaieth, «Aeia-Aoa» — yoi ia
i?iecaiaeiia io eacaoneiai «Aeiaou» /?lm??t?/, eioi?ia aeey ?onneiai
cao/eo ii/oe eae «Aeiaoai». Yoi niaa?oaiii eiia iacaaiea ai?iaea. Ieo i
i?ienoiaeaeaiee iacaaiey io eacaoneeo neia «aeiai» /?l?m?/ (yaeiei) e
«aoai» /??t?/ (aeaae) iiyaeeny a iiiuoea iauynieoue yoeiieiaeth
iacaaiey, i?eaeoiaiiiai 5 oaa?aey 1921 aiaea ia nia?aiee I?aceaeeoia
OeEE Oo?eanoaineie ANN? a oiaaeaoiai Aa?iii.[2] Iacaaiea «Aeia-Aoa», /oi
iiaeii ia?aaanoe eae «ssaeiei-Aeaae», a eacaoneii niaa?oaiii
aanniuneaiii, oae aea, ai?i/ai, eae e a ?onneii. Iacaaiea «Aeiaou»
ia?aaiaeeony eae «ssaeiiaaue».

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a yioeeeeiiaaee/aneii neiaa?a A?ieaaoca e Ao?iia,
caaeieai aei aieueoaaeeia, a noaouea i a. Aa?iue /eoaai[3]:

Aa?iue — iaeanoiie ai?iae Naie?a/aineie iaeanoe, ?aniieiaeaiiue ia ?a/ee
Aeiaoeiea,… a 1854 aiaeo auei iniiaaii oe?aieaiea A., aeey caueou
iineaaeieo io iaaaaia ai?iuo ea?a-ee?aecia, ia ianoa auaoaai caeanue
i?aaeaea iinaeaiey Aeia-Aou (ssaeiiiia)… Oocaioeu, a io/anoe e ?onneea,
/anoi iacuaatho Aa?iue ii-noa?iio — Aeia-Aou… Ai?iae Aa?iue ninoieo ec
Aeia-Aoeineie noaieoeu (noa?ay /anoue ai?iaea), Aeia-Aoeineiai aunaeea,
Oaoa?neie neiaiaeee e ec Iiaiai ai?iaea (nianoa. A.), aicieeoaai a
ia/aea 1870-o aiaeia

Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea

Ai?iae Aeia-Aoa ?aniieiaeai a oeaio?a Aa?aceeneiai eiioeiaioa, ia
thai-ainoiea ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, ia 77° ainoi/iie aeieaiou e 43°
naaa?iie oe?iou, o iiaeiiaeuey ai? Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao — naiiai naaa?iiai
o?aaoa Oyiue-Oaiy ia aunioa io 600 aei 1650 iao?ia iaae o?iaiai ii?y. Ia
iaeiie oe?ioa n iei iaoiaeyony Aaa?u e Aeaaeeainoie.

Eeeiao a ai?iaea ?acei-eiioeiaioaeueiue, n aieueoeie eieaaaieyie
oaiia?aoo? ia oieueei a oa/aiea aiaea, ii e nooie. N auniou iaiaa 600 i
ai?iaeneea oeeoeu oaaaatho ia naaa?, a noaiue, a iieoionouith, oie?aynue
a aea?eea I?eeaneaeaineea Iothieoiu. A thaeiuo aeeeuo ianneaao ia aunioa
1500—1700 i iaae o?iaiai ii?y a o?i/eua Iaaeai e ia Eaiaineii Ieaoi
/oanoaoaony aeuoaiea eaaeieeia.

Aiaao e ?aciiia?acai aeeaioiue e ?anoeoaeueiue ie? Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao.
Ie?anoiinoe Aeia-Aou yaeythony /anoueth Eea-Aeaoaoneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ia?ea, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?iai i?aaieciaaiu i?e?iaeiua caeacieee e
caiiaaaeiee. Iiiaea ?aaeeea ioeoeu e caa?e, iaeoathuea caeanue, caianaiu
a E?anioth eieao Eacaonoaia. N?aaee ieo — niaaeiue aa?n, eee e?aen, iuia
oe?aoathuee aa?a Aeia-Aou.

O iiaeiiaeuey ai? ca?iiaua, aao/aaua, oaaa/iua ieaioaoeee e
aeiia?aaeieee niaiythony ia o?oeoiaua naaeu e yaiaeieee. Nauoa 8000 aa
ai?iaeneie oa??eoi?ee caieiatho naaeu e ia?ee, neaa?u e aoeueaa?u.
Eiaiii caeanue ia??e naith ?iaeeio ciaiaieoue aeiaoeineee aii?o.

Ai?iae ?aniieiaeai ia auiina ae?aaieo e iieiaeuo ioeiaeaiee ?ae Aieueoie
e Iaeie Aeiaoeiie e eo i?eoieia. Ai?iua ?aee e ic??a yaeythony iniiaiui
enoi/ieeii aeey aiaeiniaaaeaiey ai?iaea.

Eeeiao oia?aiii-eiioeiaioaeueiue, iaeiaei cia/eoaeueii iya/a, /ai a
aieueoeinoaa ai?iaeia Eacaonoaia. N?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y ?8 °C,
ethey 22,3°C. Eeeiao a ai?iaea iineo ai?acaei aieaa iyaeee oa?aeoa?, /ai
a Naaa?iii e Oeaio?aeueiii Eacaonoaia. Eaoithth aea?o a ai?iaea niya/aao
aai aieaa aicauoaiiia iieiaeaiea (650—950 iao?ia auoa o?iaiy ii?y),
i?ioeaaeiue ii/iie a?ec n aeeceaaeaueo ai?, iie?uouo eaaeieeaie aeaaea
eaoii, iaeeea caeaie e iiiaeanoai iaeeeo ?o/ue?a, a?ueia e ?a/ooae,
e?oiiaeoea ec eioi?uo — Aieueoay Aeiaoeiea, Iaeay Aeiaoeiea e Anaioae
(Aaniiaea). Ceiie e inaiueth eeeiao ianeieueei niya/?i o?ieuie
aioeoeeeeiiaie n noao?iie/aneeo ionouiue N?aaeiae Acee. Ceia a iaea.
ai?iuo ?aeiiao ai?iaea cia/eoaeueii iya/a, ia aun.1700iao?ia iaae o?.i.
n?aae.oaii. yiaa?y ?aaiyaony ?4 ?5a?.oeaeueney. Oiaaea eae ia aun.
600iao?ia iaae o?.i. n?aae.oaii. yiaa?y ?aaia ?9 ?10 a?. oeaeueney.
Aianoa n oai, aieaa aunieia ?aniieiaeaiea ai?iaea ia o?iaiai ii?y
niinianoaoao iaeioi?iio ionoaaaieth a i?eoiaea aaniu. Aieaa oiai,
neeueiua niaaiiaaeu a ?acoeueoaoa ioeaaeaeaiey aicaeooiuo iann a ai?ao
aiciiaeiu e aeiaieueii /anou a Aeia-Aoa aeaaea a ia/aea iay, /oi
ia?aaeei i?eaiaeeo e aeaaee cia/eoaeueiie /anoe o?iaeay ieiaeiauo,
oeaaooueo eae ?ac a yoio ia?eiae.

N?aaeiaaiaeiaay nei?inoue aao?a — 1,2 i/n

N?aaeiaaiaeiaay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa — 9,0 C°

N?aaeiaaiaeiaay aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa — 62 %Eeeiao Aeia-aoa

Iieacaoaeue

ssia Oaa Ia? Ai? Iae Ethi Ethe Aaa Nai Ieo Iiy Aeae Aiae

Aaniethoiue iaeneioi, °C

18 20 28 33 35 40 42 41 38 31 25 19 42

N?aaeiee iaeneioi, °C

?1 0 7 17 22 27 30 29 24 16 7 1 15

N?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a, °C

?6 ?5 2 11 16 21 24 22 17 9 2 ?4 9

N?aaeiee ieieioi, °C

?12 ?9 ?2 6 11 15 18 16 11 4 ?3 ?8 4

Aaniethoiue ieieioi, °C

?30 ?38 ?25 ?11 ?7 2 7 5 ?3 ?12 ?34 ?32 ?38

Ii?ia inaaeeia, ii

32 37 71 104 107 64 32 26 30 62 55 33 653

Enoi/iee: Iiaiaea e eeeiao

Yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey

Aeia-Aoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeiaieueii neiaeiie yeieiae/aneie neooaoeeae
ec-ca naiaai ?aniieiaeaiey a i?aaeai?iie eioeiaeia. Eae e eiathuea
iiaeiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aeueaoa Aoeiu e Ein-Aiaeaeaean, Aeia-Aoa
no?aaeaao ec-ca neeueiie caaaciaaiiinoe aicaeooa, aeaoeoeeoa
no?ieoaeueiuo ieiuaaeie a ai?iaeneie /a?oa, no?aieaieai ianaeaiey aeeoue
aeeaea e oeaio?o ai?iaea, a ia ia aai ie?aeiao, iaeioi?ie
ia?aianae?iiinoe, ianniaie iea?aoeee naeueneiai ianaeaiey a ai?iae e
ae?. Ai?iae ecia/aeueii aue ?ann/eoai i?iaeoe?iaueeaie ia 400 oun.
aeeoaeae, iaeiaei a ianoiyuee iiiaio oieueei ioeoeeaeueii
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiia ianaeaiea ai?iaea ninoaaeyao 1,26 ieeeeiia, a
aeeth/ay a?aiaiiuo e iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo iea?aioia ec iaeanoe e ae?oaeo
?aaeiiia Eacaonoaia, ninoaaeyao 1,5 ieeeeiia.

Ia?aiin noieeoeu a Anoaio iicaieee ianeieueei oiaiueoeoue
aeeni?ii?ioeeiiaeueiia iea?aoeeiiiia aeaaeaiea ia Aeia-Aoo, iai?aaea
ii/oe 300,000 aioo?aiieo iea?aioia a iiaoth noieeoeo, ii i?iaeaio ii aei
eiioea ia ?aoee. A ai?iaea iuouaaony aeaoeoeeo no?ieieiuaaeie. Ii neiaai
i?aceaeaioa Eacaonoaia, e iaio oaea iinooieei iiiaeanoai i?aaeeiaeaiee
io no?ieoaeueiuo oe?i nianoe oa eee eiua iauaeou e ia yoeo ieiuaaeeao
iino?ieoue iiaua eiiieaenu, aeeeuea e ioenu, ia?aianoe oieaa?neoaou,
ia?aianoe «Eacaooeeuei», aiaiiue einoeooo, ainieoaeue e o. ae. Ii
i?aceaeaio aunooiee n i?aaeeiaeaieai cai?aoeoue ethaia no?ieoaeuenoai a
Aeia-Aoa e ia?aianoe ana i?iaeou e iniiaiia ?acaeoea a i?eai?iaeu e
ai?iaea niooieee aie?oa noieeoeu. [2].

Ai?iaea-niooieee Aeia-Aou

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth niooieeiaiai ?acaeoey Aeia-Aou yaeyaony aai
aaa?iia?aciay i?eaioe?iaaiiinoue ia naaa?, caiaae e ainoie, e
i?aeoe/anee iieiia ionoonoaea no?ieoaeuenoaa ia thaa, aaea ?aniieiaeai
aunieiai?iue o?aaao Caeeeeneee Aeaoao. Iniiaiuie niooieeaie ai?iaea a
?aaeeona 50 eeeiiao?ia yaeythony ai?iaea e iin?eee.

Enoi?ey Aeia-Aou

Yiioa n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iinaeaiey

Ii naeaeaoaeuenoaai a?oaieiaia ia?aua iinaeaiey ?aiieo caieaaeaeueoeaa e
neioiaiaeia ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie Aeia-Aou iiyaeeenue au? a X—IX
aaeao aei i. y.

Na?aa?yiue aee?oai, /aeaiaiiue a ai?iaea Aeiaoo 684 a. Oeaeae?u (1285-86
a i. y.).

A VI—III aaeao aei i. y. a yoeo ianoao iaeoaee naeneea e iicaeiaa
onoiueneea ieaiaia. Eiaiii e yoiio a?aiaie ioiinyony eo?aaiu naeia,
iaia?oaeaiiua ia oa??eoi?ee Aeia-Aou e i?eeaaathueo e iae ?aeiiia. Naiua
e?oiiua ec ieo aunioie aei 20 iao?ia e aeeaiao?ii o iniiaaiey nauoa 100
iao?ia ?aniieaaaeenue ii aa?aaai ?ae Aieueoie e Iaeie Aeiaoeiie,
Aaniiaee, Aenay. Naaiaeiy aieueoeinoai eo?aaiia iia?aaaiu iiae aeeeie
cano?ieeie.

Aieaa iicaeiea naeaeaoaeuenoaa aeaoe?othony VIII—X aaeaie i. y. Ii
naeaeaoaeuenoao aaioycneeo eoioeia a ie?anoiinoyo Aeia-Aou iaoiaeeeenue
ianeieueei ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee. Iaeii ec ieo iacuaaeinue Aeiaoo (ii
eaaaiaeai iiiao, /aeaieaoeony a yoii ai?iaea) e iaoiaeeeinue ia oi?aiaii
iooe ec Aa?iiu a Eeoae — Aaeeeii O?eeiaii iooe.

Ia/aei XIII aaea e iiiaieueneia caaiaaaiea i?eianei oyae?eua eniuoaiey
ai?iaeai Eeeeneie aeieeiu, e /eneo eioi?uo ioiineeinue Aeiaoo. Iaaaoeaii
ia ?acaeoee ai?iaea neacaeinue e oaanaiea Aaeeeiai O?eeiaiai iooe. E
eiioeo XVI aaea io Aeiaoo inoaeanue eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue a aeaea
e?oiiiai aoea.

Ia/aei nia?aiaiiiio ai?iaeo auei iieiaeaii 4 oaa?aey 1854, eiaaea
?onneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea iino?ieoue ia eaaii aa?aao
?aee Iaeay Aeiaoeiea aiaiiia oe?aieaiea. Aaniie 1854 a. aaeece ?acaaeei
ae?aaiaai Aeiaoo ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai Caeeeeneiai oe?aieaiey,
iicaeiaa iacaaiiiai Aa?iia. No?ieoaeuenoaii ?oeiaiaeee iaei?
Ia?aiuoaeueneee e eiaeaia? — ii?o/ee Aeaenaiae?ianeee. E inaie oiai aea
aiaea no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou auee caaa?oaiu. A a?aaai/aouo aea?aayiiuo
aeiiao e eaca?iao ?acianoeeenue 470 nieaeao e ioeoea?ia Caeeeeneiai
io?yaea.

C na?aaeeiu 1855 a oe?aieaiea ia/eiatho i?eauaaoue ?onneea ia?anaeaioeu.
N eo i?eauoeai Aa?iue ia/eiaao auno?i ?acaeaaoueny. ?yaeii n oe?aieaieai
aicieeatho Aieueoay e Iaeay Aeiaoeineea noaieoeu, Oaoa?neay neiaiaeea. A
1856 a. aue caeiaeai Eacaiiue naae (iuia Oeaio?aeueiue ia?e eoeueoo?u e
ioaeuoa), a a 1857 a. a ?aeiia Oaoa?neie neiaiaeee auea iino?iaia ia?aay
aiaeyiay iaeueieoea. Aioaaeoee a no?ie a 1858 a. ia?aue ieaiaa?aiiue
caaiae iieiaeee ia/aei ianoiie ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. E iath
1859 a. a oe?aieaiee oaea ian/eouaaeinue 5 oun. aeeoaeae, a a 1860 a.
ioe?uaathony ia?aia ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea e ainieoaeue.

11 ai?aey 1867 a. ai?iae Aa?iue noaiiaeony oeaio?ii Naie?a/aineie
iaeanoe a ninoaaa Oo?eanoaineiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noaa. 13 ethey 1867
a. o/?aaeaeaaony Naie?a/aineia eaca/uea aienei. Iaeiia?aiaiii aue
ooaa?aeae?i aa?a Naie?a/aineie iaeanoe: ueo, iaaeoue ae?eyiaeie
yaeiiaauo aaoie n ieiaeaie, ?acaeoue ia o?e iiey. Aa?oiaa — ecia?aaeaiea
e?aiinoe, ieaeiaa: neaaa — e?ano, ni?aaa- iieoianyoe. Noaa oeaio?ii
Naie?a/aineie iaeanoe, Aa?iue ia/ae ?acaeaaoue i?iiuoeaiiinoue e
?ai?nea. Iiyaeeenue nie?oiaiaei/iue e ieaiaa?aiiue caaiaeu, oaa?eea ii
auaeaeea a?oai-oa?noyiiai noeia. Naiuie e?oiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie ai?iaea
auee oaaa/iua oaa?eee Aaa?eeiaa (1875 a) e Eaaeeeia (1900). A ai?iaea
auee ioe?uou aeaineia e ioaeneia o/eeeua, i?eoiaeneea e ?aianeaiiua
oeieu, a iicaeiaa e ioaeneay e aeaineay aeiiacee. I?e ia/aoyo
aeaenoaiaaee ionoeueiaineea oeieu.

28 iay 1887 a. i?iecioei neeueiaeoaa caieao?ynaiea, a eioi?ii iiaeaei
322 /aeiaaea, auei ?ac?ooaii 1798 ee?ie/iuo aeiiia. Iaiueoa iino?aaeaee
no?iaiey Aieueoae e Iaeie noaieoe, aicaaae?iiua ec aea?aaa.
Aiineaaenoaee a ai?iaea auea i?aaieciaaia naenie/aneay e
iaoai?ieiae/aneay noaioeey iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii a?oeoaeoi?a A. I. Caieiaa
e ?ac?aaioaia nenoaia o/?oa naenie/iinoe i?e iino?ieea caeaiee. Iinea
caieao?ynaiey aeey cano?ieee ai?iaea noaei eniieueciaaoueny a iniiaiii
aea?aai. Ec iaai auee nii?oaeaiu e?oiiua caeaiey ai?iaea — Aeii iieea
aiaiiiai nia?aiey, Eaoaae?aeueiue niai?, Aeii iauanoaaiiiai nia?aiey e
ae?. Iaeioi?ua iino?ieee oiai ia?eiaea nio?aieeenue e nae/an yaeythony
iaiyoieeaie enoi?ee, a?oeoaeoo?u e io?aiythony ainoaea?noaii. A iaiyoue
i o?aaaaeee ai?iaeaia iinoaaeee /aniaith, eioi?ay auea nianaia a 1927 a.

Iaeaioia 1913 a. a ai?iaea i?iaeeaaei aieaa 41 oun. /aeiaae, eiaeinue 59
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Niaaoneee ia?eiae

A 1918 a. a Aa?iii onoaiiaeaia Niaaoneay aeanoue. Ai?iae n iaeanoueth
aioee a ninoaa Oo?eanoaineie aaoiiiiee ?NON?. A 1921 Aa?iue aue
ia?aeiaiiaai a Aeia-Aoo. 3 ai?aey 1927 aiaea ec Eucuei?aeu a Aeia-Aoo
ia?aianaia noieeoea Eacaeneie ANN? a ninoaaa ?NON?. Yoi noaei
aeiiieieoaeueiui oie/eii e eioaineaiie cano?ieea. N 1936 aiaea (n
iiiaioa ia?aciaaiey Eacaoneie NN?) Aeia-Aoa auea noieeoeae nia/aea
EacNN?, a caoai e iacaaeneiiai Eacaonoaia.

Eiaeono?eaeecaoeey a ia?eiae NNN?

Iinea 1941 aiaea, aeaaiaea?y ianniaie yaaeoaoeee caaiaeia e ?aai/eo ec
aa?iiaeneie /anoe NNN? ai a?aiy Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie Aieiu, Aeia-Aoa ec
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aiaiai ioieoa n i?ea?aie/ii-io?aiiui iacia/aieai e
neaai?acaeoie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth i?aa?aoeeanue a iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo
i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia Niaaoneiai Nithca. Iniaoth ?ieue a yoii i?ioeanna
nua?aei ?aniieiaeaiea ai?iaea, iaoiaeeaoaainy a aeoaieii oueo. Ca
1941—1945 aiaeu i?iiuoeaiiue iioaioeeae ai?iaea oaaee/eeny a ?acu.
Yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiia ianaeaiea ai?iaea au?inei n 104 ouny/ /aeiaae a
1919 aei 365 ouny/ a 1968. A 1967 aiaeo a ai?iaea ian/eouaaeinue 145
i?aaei?eyoee, i?e/?i iniiaiay eo ianna — i?aaei?eyoey eaaeie e ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, /oi ianeieueei ioee/aei ai?iae io oeie/iiai niaaoneiai
oeeiia a noi?iio oyae?eie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaaiuie io?aneyie i?iiuoeaiiinoe yaeyeenue — ieuaaay (36
% aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe), aace?othuayny a iniiaiii ia
ianoiii iaeeueiii ieiaeiiaiuiii nu?uea, e e?aeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue (31 %).
Iniiaiua caaiaeu e i?aaei?eyoey ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe: iynieiina?aiue,
ioeiiieueii-e?oiyiie (n iaea?iiiie oaa?eeie), iiei/iue, oaiiaineeo aei,
ieiaeieiina?aiue, oaaa/iue eiiaeiaou, eiiaeeoa?neay oaa?eea, caaiaeu
eee??i-aiaei/iue, aeiiue, ieaiaa?aiiue, ae?iaeaeaaie, /aa?acaani/iay
oaa?eea; e?aeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe: oaenoeeueiue e iaoiaie eiiaeiaou,
oaa?eee oeiieii?yaeeeueiay, o?eeioaaeiay, iaoaiua, oaaeiua,
iieea?aoe/aneee eiiaeiao. Oyae?eay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ninoaaeyea 33 %
i?iecaiaenoaa e auea i?aaenoaaeaia i?aaei?eyoeyie oyae?eiai
iaoeiino?iaiey, eiathony caaiaeu yeaeo?ioaoie/aneee,
eeoaeii-iaoaie/aneee, aaaiii?aiiioiue, ?aiiioii-iiaeoeiieeiaue,
no?ieiaoa?eaeia, aea?aaiiaaeaei/iue, aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee e
no?ieoaeueiuo aeaoaeae, aeiiino?ieoaeueiue eiiaeiao.
Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneay aaca Aeia-Aou oaeaea auea nicaeaia a yoio
ia?eiae e aace?iaaeanue a iniiaiii ia oaea Eocaanna e Ea?aaaiaeeineiai
aannaeia, a ai?iaea auee iino?iaiu ?yae oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeee (OYOe)
ia oaea e iacooa, caaa?oaii no?ieoaeuenoai eaneaaea AYN ia ?aea Aieueoie
Aeiaoeiea; e naaa?o — ia ?aea Eee a 1969—1970 auea aicaaaeaia
Eai/aaaeneay AYN.

Nia?aiaiiay Aeia-Aoa

A 1997 aiaeo Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai Io?noeoaia
Iaca?aaaaa noieeoea auea ia?aianaia a Anoaio. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio Aeia-Aoa
yaeyaony iao/iui, eoeueoo?iui, enoi?e/aneei, i?iecaiaenoaaiiui e
oeiainiaui oeaio?ii no?aiu. A Aeia-Aoa iiea inoathony Iaoeeiiaeueiue
aaie Eacaonoaia e iaeioi?ua iinieuenoaa, inoaeueiua i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey ia?aaaaeaiu a Anoaio. 1 ethey 1998 aiaea aue i?eiyo Caeii
ia iniaii noaoona ai?iaea. Aeia-Aoo iaioeoeeaeueii iacuaatho «THaeiie
noieeoeae».

A 10-9 aaeao aei iaoae y?u a yiioo a?iicu ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai
ai?iaea iiyaeeenue ia?aua iinaeaiey ?aiieo caieaaeaeueoeaa e
neioiaiaeia. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho neaaeu ae?aaieo iinaeaiee
Oa?aiea?a e Aooaeou, ?aniieaaathueany ia oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea. Iaeaeaiu
ea?aieea, eaiaiiua i?oaeey, ecaeaeey ec einoe e iaoaeea.

7 a. aei iaoae y?u — ?oaaae i. y. A yiioo naeia ?aeii Aeia-Aoa noaea
ianoii iaeoaiey naeneeo e iicaeiaa onoiueneeo ieaiai. Io yoiai a?aiaie
inoaeenue iiiai/eneaiiua eo?aaiiua iiaeeueieee e iinaeaiey; n?aaee ieo
auaeaeythony ia?iiiua eo?aaiu ciaoe «naeneeo oea?ae». Iaeaieaa
ecaanoiuie iaoiaeeaie yaeythony «Cieioie /aeiaae» ec Ennueneiai eo?aaia,
AEaeaoeeineee eeaae , Ea?aaeeineay aeeaaeaia, naie?a/aineay
«ooaeiaeanoaaiiay a?iica»- naaoeeueieee, aea?oaaiieee, eioeu. A yiioo
naeia e onoiae oa??eoi?ey Aeiaou noaiiaeony oeaio?ii
?aiiaainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia.

8-10 aa. i. y. Neaaeothuee yoai aeecie ia oa??eoi?ee Aeia-Aou naycai n
yiioie n?aaeieo aaeia, a?aiaiai ?acaeoey ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u,
ia?aoiaeii e inaaeeinoe, ?acaeoeai caieaaeaeey e ?aianea, iiyaeaieai ia
oa??eoi?ee Naie?a/uey iiiai/eneaiiuo ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee, ?aneiiee
eioi?uo auyaeee iiiai/eneaiiua iaoiaeee ea?aieee, ecaeaeee ec iaoaeea e
einoe.

A 10-14 aa. ai?iaea, iaoiaeyueany ia oa??eoi?ee «Aieueoie Aeia-Aou»,
aoyaeaathony a i?aeoo oi?aiauo naycae, ooieoeeiie?iaaaoeo ia o?anna
Aaeeeiai Oaeeiaiai iooe. Aeia-aoa noaiiaeony iaeiei ec oi?aiauo,
?aianeaiiuo e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oeaio?ia ia Aaeeeii Oaeeiaii iooe,
eiathueo iiiaoiue aeai?. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaoiaeea ia
oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiaai iia?aio/eeeua aeaoe?oaiuo 13 aaeii aeaoo na?aa?yiuo
aee?oaiia, aaea aia?aua oiiieiaaony iacaaiea ai?iaea Aeiaoo.

15 a. — 18a. A nayce n oaanaieai Aaeeeiai Oaeeiaiai iooe ia aeaiiie
oa??eoi?ee i?ienoiaeeo aeaa?aaeaoeey ai?iaeneie aeecie. Oai ia iaiaa,
yoio ia?eiae aue ianuuai aaaeiuie iieeoe/aneeie niauoeyie, ieacaaoeie
aieueoia aeeyiea ia enoi?eth ?aeiia Aeia-Aou e Eacaonoaia a oeaeii.
Caeanue i?ioiaeyo aaaeiua yoiiiieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu, oi?ie?iaaiea
naiiauoiie eoeueoo?u AEaouno.

4 oaa?aey 1854 aiaea. Iiaay enoi?ey ai?iaea naycaia n iniiaaieai a
i?aaeai?ueyo Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao, a iaaeaeo?a/uea aeaoo Aeiaaoeiie
aiaiiiai oe?aieaiey ?inneeneie eiia?ee e?aiinoe Aa?iia.

E inaie 1854 aiaea aiaiiia oe?aieaiea Aa?iia a iniiaiii auei aioiai.
Oe?aieaiea Aa?iia i?aaenoaaeyei niaie a ieaia iai?aaeeueiue, iaianaiiue
/anoieieii iyoeoaieueiee, iaeia noi?iia eioi?iai ?aniieaaaeanue aaeieue
Iaeie Aeiaoeiee. Aiineaaenoaee aea?aayiiue /anoieie aue caiaiai noaiie
ec nu?oeiaiai ee?ie/a n aieieoeaie. Iniiaiua no?iaiey aicaiaeeeenue
aie?oa aieueoiai ieaoea aeey aiaiiuo niio?ia e o/aiee.

A 1855 aiaeo i?eauee ia?aua iinaeaioeu ec Oeaio?aeueiie ?innee,
caeiaeeaoea iniiaaiea Aieueoie, Iaeie Aeiaoeineeo noaieoe e Oaoa?neie
neiaiaeee. A yoii aea aiaeo a Aa?iia ia?aian?i aaeieieno?aoeaiue oeaio?
Aeaoaoneiai ie?oaa.

A 1856 aiaeo caeiaeai Eacaiiue naae. Caaacaiu ia?aua 5 i/aeeiuo naiae
(oeueaa), iieiaeeaoeo ia/aei i/aeiaiaenoao a Naie?a/uea.

A 1857 aiaeo a ?aeiia Oaoa?neie neiaiaeee iino?iaia ia?aay aiaeyiay
iaeueieoea. A 1858 aiaeo a oe?aieaiee iiyaeeny ieaiaa?aiiue caaiae.

20-21 ieoya?y 1860 aiaea Ocoi-Aaa/neay aeoaa, ieii/eaoayny iiaaaeie
niaaeei?iiuo nee ?onneeo, eacaoia e ee?aecia iaae eieaiaeneeie aieneaie.

A yoii aea aiaeo a oe?aieaiee ioe?uou ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea e ainieoaeue,
ia/aoi iniii?eaeaaiea ianoiiai ianaeaiey.

A iiya?a 1862 aiaea caaa?oaii no?ieoaeuenoai oaeaa?aoiie eeiee Aa?iue —
Ieoiae.

11 ai?aey 1867 aiaea oe?aieaiea Aa?iia ia?aeiaiiaaii a ai?iae Aa?iue —
aaeieieno?aoeaiue oeaio? aiiaue nicaeaiiie Naie?a/aineie iaeanoe.

13 ethey Oeacii Aeaenaiae?a II ec 9-ai e 10-ai iieeiauo ie?oaia
Neae?neiai Eaca/ueaai aienea o/?aaeaeaii Naie?a/aineia eaca/uea aienei.

A naioya?a ioe?uoi i?eoiaeneia aeaooeeanniia o/eeeua aeey iaeue/eeia e
iaeiieeanniia aeey aeaai/ae. Ianaeaiea ai?iaea a yoi a?aiy ninoaaeyao
aeaayoue ouny/ /aeiaae. 20 aeaeaa?y a Aa?iii ia?aciaai «Eiieoao ii
ono?ienoao ai?iaea Aa?iiai».

A 1868 aiaeo ninoaaeai ia?aue i?iaeoiue ieai no?ieoaeuenoaa ai?iaea.
I?aaieciaai Naie?a/aineee iaeanoiie eiieoao «Iauanoaa iiia/eoaeuenoaa i
oi?aiaea».

A 1869 aiaeo a Aa?iii ioe?uoa ia?aay oeiia?aoey Naie?a/aineiai
iaeanoiiai i?aaeaiey.

A ia?oa 1870 aiaea i?e Eacaiiii naaea ioe?uoi o/eeeua naaeiaiaenoaa.
Ia/aea auoiaeeoue aacaoa «Naie?a/aineea iaeanoiua aaaeiiinoe».

A 1872 aiaeo a Aa?iii ioe?uou ia?aay aioaea e ethaeoaeueneee oaao?.

A 1874 aiaeo e?anoueyiei-ia?anaeaiaoe Aai? ?aaeueei i?eaac ec oeaio?a
?innee yaeiie, eioi?ua i?eaeeeenue ia ianoiinoe. Aea?eae n aeeeie
ianoiie yaeiiae e noae i?a?iaeeoaeai ciaiaieoiai aeiaoeineiai aii?oa.

A 1876 aiaeo a ai?iaea ioe?uou ioaeneay e aeaineay aeiiacee.

17 iiya?y 1877 aiaea a Aa?iii ia/aea ?aaioaoue Ai?iaeneay aeoia e
oi?aaa. Ia?aue «Ai?iaeneie aieiaa» aue I. I. Caieia.

A 1878 aiaeo o/?aaeaeaia Iauaineay oi?aaa. I?aaieciaaiu
iaoai?ieiae/aneea iaaethaeaiey.

A 1879 aiaeo a ai?iaea Aa?iii 43 oeeoeai aeaiu iacaaiey. I?aaieciaai
Noaoenoe/aneee eiieoao, i?iaaaeaia ia?aay ia?aienue ianaeaiey. A ieoya?a
ioe?uo ia?aue aeaoneee i?etho, ninoiyuee a aaaeiinoaa O/?aaeaeaiee
Eiia?ao?eoeu Ia?ee.

27 iay 1887 aiaea a Aa?iii i?iecioei caieao?ynaiea ia?iiiie neeu.
Iaoa?eaeueiua oauoee ninoaaeee 2548208 ?oaeae. Oiaaea aea aue
i?aaieciaai naeniieiae/aneee ioieo.

A 1883 aiaeo «caiiuaia eaiiai» ia?aay oeeoea ai?iaea — Oi?aiaay (iuia
AEeaae-AEieu).

A 1894 aiaeo caeiaeaia ai?iaeneay ?iua iiae iacaaieai Aeoa?ianeay (iuia
— ?iua eiaie Aaoia).

A 1897 aiaeo a Aa?iii ioe?uo coaia?a/aaiue eaaeiao. A 1899 — caeii/aii
no?ieoaeuenoai iaaeno?aeueiiai a?uea.

A 1900 aiaeo a Aa?iii i?aaieciaaia ia?aay iaeanoiay
naeueneioicyenoaaiiay e i?iiuoeaiiay aunoaaea Naie?a/uey.

A 1902 aiaeo a ai?iaea ia?aciaaii Naie?a/aineia ioaeaeaiea «?onneiai
aaia?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa». I?aaenaaeaoaeai i?aaeaiey noae A. I.
Aeiieo?ia, oiaa?euai i?aaenaaeaoaey — A. A. Iaaecaaoeeee.

A 1909 aiaeo a Aa?iii ioe?uoa ianoa?neay, ecaioaaeeaathuay aayeee,
ia?aia i?aaei?eyoea a Naie?a/uea ii i?iecaiaenoao naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
iaoei.

A 1910 aiaeo a ai?iaea anooieee a no?ie oaa?eee: noeiiiay «Oaoai?inoia n
nuiiaueyie e Ianoia» e iaie?iniay «Ianoia e ?aaeeiiia». 22 aeaeaa?y
i?iecioei caieao?ynaiea aieueoie ?ac?ooeoaeueiie neeu.

A 1912 aiaeo a ai?iaea ioe?ueanue aeeueciaay oaa?eea «Oieii». Ia?aue
oaeaoiiiue caiiie ?acaeaeny a iaeiii ec caeaiee ia oeeoea Eaiaeueneie
(iuia Ae. Eoiaaaa).

A 1913 aiaeo a Aa?iii ioe?ueanue aeaeeioaea eiaie E. I. Oienoiai. A yoi
a?aiy a ai?iaea ian/eouaaaony 10 a?a/ae, 10 oaeueaeoa?ia, 3 coaiuo
oaoieea, ai?iaeneay aieueieoea ia 25 eiae.

Ni 2 ii 13 yiaa?y 1918 aiaea a Aa?iii ninoiyeny Aoi?ie iaeanoiie nuacae
Niaaoia e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia, ia eioi?ii i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i ia?aaea/e
aeanoe a ai?iaea Niaaoai. 22 ia?oa Niaia?eii Naie?a/aineie iaeanoe
eeeaeaee?iaae i?aaiu ia?anaeai/aneiai oi?aaeaiey e i?eiye ?aoaiea
ioaeeeiaaoue ioeoeeaeueiua iinoaiiaeaiey ia ?onneii e eacaoneii ycueao.
A iaa iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiu i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaiai aeiia «Ieeeoa Ioaania e
nuiiauey».

A 1918 aiaeo a Aa?iii auea ia?aciaaia Ia?iaeiay eiina?aaoi?ey.

A iaa 1919 aiaea a Aa?iii i?iaaae?i iaeanoiie ne?o aeuiia, a eioi?ii
aeoeaiia o/anoea i?eieiae AEaiaue AEaaaaa.

Ia ia/aei 1920 aiaea a ai?iaea ian/eouaaeinue iyoue eiioea?oiuo caeia e
oee?e-oaieoi ia Ainoeiiaeai?neie ieiuaaee. 24 iay 1920 aiaea ii
eieoeeaoeaa Ae.Oo?iaiiaa a Aa?iii ioe?uou Eacaoneea iaaeaaiae/aneea
eo?nu.

5 oaa?aey 1921 aiaea ia canaaeaiee iaeanoiuo ai?iaeneeo i?aaiecaoeee
ai?iae Aa?iue ia?aeiaiiaai e iacaai Aeia-Aoie.

A ii/ue n 8 ia 9 ethey ia ai?iae ii ?oneo ?aee Iaeay Aeiaoeiea ia?ooeeny
aeaaioneee a?ycaeaiaiiue iioie. Ii/oe o?e ieeeeiia eoae/aneeo iao?ia
naeaaie iannu ?ac?ooeee 65 e iia?aaeeee 82 aeeeuo aeiia, 18 iaeueieoe,
177 oicyenoaaiiuo iino?iae, 2 eiaeaaaiiuo caaiaea, oaaa/ioth oaa?eeo.

28 ia?oa 1927 aiaea VI Anaeacaonoaineee nuacae Niaaoia i?eiye ?aoaiea i
ia?aiina noieeoeu ec Ecue-I?aeu a Aeia-Aoo.

A 1929 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoo ec Ecue-I?aeu ia?aianaia noieeoea Eacaonoaia,
ioooaea aea aue ia?aaaae?i eacaoneee oaao?.

Ia?aiai iay 1930 aiaea a Aeia-Aoo i?eaue ia?aue iiacae ec Iineau.

Iniiaaia ?anioaeeeaineay ioaee/iay aeaeeioaea eiaie A. N. Iooeeia.

A 1931 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa iniiaai Eacaoneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeeoeeineee
einoeooo.

A ia?oa 1932 aiaea a ai?iaea anooieea a no?ie oaaeiay oaa?eea ? 1.
Iniiaaii Aeia-Aoeineia iocueaeueiia o/eeeua eiaie I.*aeeianeiai.

A 1933 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa i?aaieciaai Eacaoneee iocueaeueiue oaao?,
iieiaeeaoee ia/aei iia?iiio oaao?o. Ioe?ueny ?onneee ae?aiaoe/aneee
oaao?. Anooieee a no?ie oa?iaioaoeeiiiue e «XX eao ieoya?y» caaiaeu.

N 12 ii 20 ethiy 1934 aiaea a Aeia-Aoa i?ioiaeee ia?aue nuacae ienaoaeae
Eacaonoaia. A yoii aea aiaeo ioe?ueny oaao?aeueiue oaoieeoi. Anooiee a
no?ie Aeia-Aoeineee iaoaie/aneee caaiae. Nicaeai Eacaoneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie N.Ee?iaa. Iniiaai iocueaeueiue
oeao?neee oaao?. Nicaeai Ai?iiiaoaeeo?ae/aneee einoeooo (iuia —
Oaoie/aneay aeaaeaiey). Anooiee a no?ie ia?aue aeeeeuiue eiiaeiao.

A 1935 aiaeo a ai?iaea iouaia ia?aay i/a?aaeue OeYN iiuiinoueth 3 ouny/e
eeeiaaoo. Ioe?uo ia?e eoeueoo?u e ioaeuoa eiaie I.Ai?ueeiai. Iniiaaia
Eacaoneay ainoaea?noaaiiay oeea?iiiey eiaie Aeaeaiaoea. Nicaeaia ?onneay
iia?iay a?oiia. A ai?iaea iiyaeeinue 5 oaeniiioi?ia.

A 1936 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa i?iaaaeaii ?aeiie?iaaiea, ia?aciaaii 3 ?aeiia:
Eaieineee, Niaaoneee e O?oicaineee. A yoii aea aiaeo anooieee a no?ie:
ieiaeieiina?aiue eiiaeiao, oaaa/iay e naiiaiaaeyeueiay oaa?eee,
ee?ie/iue e iiei/iue caaiaeu. Nicaeai o?ano «Caeaino?ie», ioe?uou
Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay aaea?ay eiaie O.Oaa/aiei, oe?o?ae/aneee ei?ion
ai?iaeneie aieueieoeu, i?aaieciaai ciieiae/aneee naae.

A 1938 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa iniiaaii oaao?aeueii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiia o/eeeua,
i?aia?aciaaiiia a 1953 aiaeo a ooaeiaeanoaaiiia.

A 1939 aiaeo a ai?iaea anooiee a no?ie oa?eeiiiaeoeiieeiaue caaiae.

A 1941 aiaeo anooieee a no?ie oaaeiay ? 2 e iaoiaay oaa?eee. A ethea
noi?ie?iaaia 316 no?aeeiaay aeeaecey, eiiaiaee?ii eioi?ie iacia/ai
aaia?ae-iaei? E. A. Iaioeeia. Ca aa?ieci e ioaeanoai a ai?ueaa n
aeoea?iaoeaie iiae Iineaie aeeaecey ia?aeiaiiaaia a 8-th aaa?aeaeneoth
no?aeeiaoth. 23.11.1941 aiaea aeeaecee i?enaiaii eiy aaia?ae-iaei?a E.
A. Iaioeeiaa. A aeaeaa?a a Aeia-Aoa noi?ie?iaaia 38-y aeeaecey, eioi?ay
ca ioaeanoai e aa?ieci ia?aeiaiiaaia a 73-th aaa?aeaeneoth
Noaeeia?aaeneoth no?aeeiaoth aeeaeceth.

7 iiya?y a Aeia-Aoa ninoiyeinue ioe?uoea iiaiai caeaiey oaao?a iia?u e
aaeaoa. O/?aaeaeaia Aeia-Aoeineay eeiinooaeey ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oeeueiia.
A yoii aea aiaeo anooieee a no?ie oeiieii?yaeeeueiay oaa?eea, iniiaaiiay
ia aaca iai?oaeiaaiey, yaaeoe?iaaiiiai n ?aooianeie oeiieii?yaeeeueiie
oaa?eee e o?eeioaaeiay oaa?eea ia aaca iai?oaeiaaiey yaaeoe?iaaiiie a
Aeia-Aoo Eaaiianeie o?eeioaaeiie oaa?eee.

A 1942 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa anooieee a no?ie: iynieiiaeiao, iaoaie/aneee e
oo?ieoo?iue caaiaeu, oeaaicaaiae ? 1, eiiaeeoa?neay oaa?eea.
I?iaeieaeaia o?aiaaeiay eeiey, niaaeeiythuay noaioeeth Aeia-Aoa-2 ni
noaioeeae Aeia-Aoa-1. Nicaeaia a?oaeue «Eiaeeiiaeiao», i?aia?aciaaiiay a
1953 aiaeo a Aeiaoeineee eiaeiaoaueeiiaeiao, a caoai a eiaeaaaiiue
caaiae. Anooiee a no?ie aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee Aeia-Aoeineee caaiae
oyaeaeiai iaoeiino?iaiey, iniiaaiiue ia aaca eino?oiaioaeueiiai e
eocia/iii?anniaiai oeaoia Eoaaineiai ia?iaicino?ieoaeueiiai caaiaea.
Ca?aaioaea eiaeaaeaioa?aeiay oaa?eea.

A 1943 aiaeo a ai?iaea anooieee a no?ie /aa?acaani/iay e noeiiiay
oaa?eee, iai?oaeiaaiea iineaaeiae auei yaaeoe?iaaii n Iineianeie
noeiiiie oaa?eee. A Aeia-Aoa ?acaa?ioeinue aeaeaeaiea ca nicaeaiea
iniaiai oiiaea aeaaiiai eiiaiaeiaaiey Niaaoneie A?iee. Oiiae ia?aciaaeny
ca n/?o naa?oieaiiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a iaai auei io/eneaii 12 ieeeeiiia
?oaeae.

A 1944 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa anooiee a no?ie eeoaeii-iaoaie/aneee caaiae. A
yoii aea aiaeo iniiaaia Aeia-Aoeineay ainoaea?noaaiiay eiina?aaoi?ey.

A 1945 aiaeo a ai?iaea ioe?uo oaao? thiiai c?eoaey.

2 ethiy 1946 aiaea iioaeeeiaaii iinoaiiaeaiea I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai
Niaaoa. Niaaoa Ieieno?ia ?anioaeeee e OeE EI (a) Eacaonoaia «Ia
o/?aaeaeaiee a Aeia-Aoa Eacaoneie Aeaaeaiee iaoe». A yoii aea aiaeo
iniiaaia ai?ii-oece/aneay iana?aaoi?ey.

A 1950 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa anooiee a no?ie caaiae oaiiaineeo aei. A yoii
aea aiaeo a ai?iaea onoaiiaeai iaiyoiee Aiaiaaeueaeu Eiaiiao.

A 1952 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa noae aeaenoaiaaoue caaiae yiaee?iaaiiie iinoaeu
e iaaaeueiay oaa?eea.

A 1953 aiaeo a ai?iaea naeaia a yenieoaoaoeeth AYN ? 1. Iniiaai
Ai?oeieiiaeiao, i?aia?aciaaiiue a 1955 a “Eiaeiaoaueeiiaeiao, a a 1959 —
a iaoaioth oaa?eeo ? 2.

A 1955 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa anooieea a no?ie o?eeioaaeiay oaa?eea.

A 1957 aiaeo anooiee a no?ie Aeia-Aoeineee iaoiaie eiiaeiao, nicaeaiiue
ia aaca oi?ii-nu?iiyoiiai caaiaea. Iino?iaii iiaia caeaiea Aeiia
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, Aeii iieeoe/aneiai i?inaauaiey, caeaiea Aeaaeaiee iaoe
Eacaonoaia. Anooieea a no?ie ia?aay i/a?aaeue Oeaio?aeueiiai
?anioaeeeaineiai noaaeeiia.

A 1959 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa anooieea a no?ie ia?aay i/a?aaeue Aeia-Aoeineiai
oaeaoeaio?a. Ia aaca Aeia-Aoeineie oaaa/iie oaa?eee e oa?icaaiaea
nicaeai Aeia-Aoeineee oaaa/iue eiiaeiao. A yoii aea aiaeo anooieea a
no?ie AYN ? 2.

A 1960 aiaeo a Aeia-Aoa onoaiiaeai iaiyoiee Aaath. A yoii aea aiaeo
anooiee a no?ie oe?ieiye?aiiue eeiioaao? «Oeaeeiiue».

18 ethiy 1961 aiaea a Aeia-Aoa ioe?ueanue aunoaaea aeinoeaeaiee
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa Eacaonoaia. I?aaieciaai aeiiino?ieoaeueiue eiiaeiao
(AAeE) ia aaca caaiaea aeaeaciaaoiiiuo ecaeaeee.

A 1962 aiaeo a /a?oo ai?iaea Aeia-Aou aioee ianae?iiua ioieou Iaeay
noaieoea e Ii?o-A?oo? Eeeeneiai ?aeiia. Anooieee a yenieoaoaoeeth iiaua
caeaiey Eacaoneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeaaeaie/aneiai i?aeaia O?oaeiaiai
E?aniiai Ciaiaie oaao?a eiaie Aoyciaa, Oeaio?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
a?oeaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, ai?iaeneiai Aeai?oea ieiia?ia, oieaa?iaaa
«Aeaoneee ie?», «Aeiia nithcia», Einoeoooa aaieiae/aneee iaoe AI
Eacaonoaia.

A 1963 aiaeo ia/aea ooieoeeiie?iaaoue ?aaeei?aeaeiay eeiey Aeia-Aoa —
O?oica — Oaoeaio, eioi?ay a 1966 aiaeo auea niaaeeiaia n Iineaie.
Iino?iaii iiaia caeaiea ?anioaeeeaineiai aeeniaina?a.

A 1964 aiaeo a ai?iaea iino?iaiu caeaiea iieeeeeieee O?oicaineiai
?aeiia, iaii?aiiiai eeiioaao?a «Oeaeeiiue» ia 1600 iano,
yia?aino?ieoaeueiiai oaoieeoia.

A 1965 aiaeo naeaii a yenieoaoaoeeth iiaia caeaiea Einoeoooa
oeceoeueoo?u, caeaiea Eacaoneiai iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa
aeaciuo aieaciae, ia?aay i/a?aaeue oeii/aoiaoiaaeiiai eiiaeiaoa.

Ieiuaaeue ai?iaea ia 2003 aiae ninoaaeyao aieaa 320 ei?[4].

Oa??eoi?ey ai?iaea aeaeeony ia 7 ?aeiiia:

Aeiaeeineee — 19,0 ei?

Aoycianeee — 77,2ei?

Ainoaiaeueneee — 27,3 ei?

AEaounoneee — 51,0 ei?

Iaaeaoneee — 83,8 ei?

Oo?eneaneee — 66,5 ei?^

Aeaoaoneee (auaeaeai ec Aoycianeiai — ethiue 2008).

?aeiiu ai?iaea ia?aciaaiu n o/?oii aaia?aoe/aneeo, a?aaeino?ieoaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae niioaaonoaothueo oa??eoi?ee, /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey,
nioeeaeueii — yeiiiie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee, ?aniieiaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo
eiiioieeaoeee, iaee/ey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

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