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Расчет зануления. Вентиляция на рабочем месте монтажника.

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IO?AIA O?OAeA

?an/ao caioeaiey.

Aaioeeyoeey ia ?aai/ai ianoa iiioaaeieea.

Nooaeaio: Ieeeoeia A.I.

A?oiia: AN-1-93

Eiinoeueoaio: Neaiiaa A.E.

Iineaa 1998

?ac?aaioea ia?ii?eyoee ii io?aia o?oaea i?e iiioaaea naoe.

A aeaiiii aeeieiiiii i?iaeoa i?iecaiaeeony ?ac?aaioea au/eneeoaeueiie
naoe, a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeeo 64 YAI, niaaeeiaiea iaaeaeo eioi?uie
?aaeecoaony i?e iiiiue eaaaeae. A iniiaiii, ?aaiou ii iiioaaeo naoe
caeeth/athony nai?ea caeoieaiiuo eiiiiiaio naoe, eo iiaeeeth/aiee e
yeaeo?inaoe.

Iiioaae, iaeaaeea, eniuoaiey, a oaeaea iineaaeothuay ?aaioa n
onoaiiaeie i?iecaiaeeony niaianoii n enoi/ieeaie ieoaiey,
ecia?eoaeueiuie i?eai?aie, ?aaioathueie io naoe ia?aiaiiiai oiea
iai?yaeaieai 220 A /anoioie 50 Aoe n aeooicacaieaiiie iaeo?aeueth.

Aeey iaania/aiey yeaeo?iaaciianiinoe i?e iiioaaea, iaeaaeea e ?aaioa n
naoueth iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea ia nicaeaiea caueoiuo ia?
io iiiaaeaiey iieueciaaoaeae e ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea iiae
iai?yaeaiea, aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey yeaeo?io?aaiaoecia i?e ?aaioa n
naoueth.

Iie?uoea ?aai/aai ianoa iiioaaeieea aeieaeii auoue auiieiaii ec
ecieyoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia, i?e iaa?aaaiee ia auaeaeythueo a?aaeiuo
aauanoa.

Ia ?aai/ai ianoa iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea caioeaiey. Ana yeaeo?iiiua
ono?ienoaa iaiaoiaeeii caioeeoue.

Yeaeo?iieoaiea ?aai/aai ianoa aeieaeii auoue iiaeeeth/aii /a?ac
?oaeeueiee, onoaiiaeaiiue a ianoa, oaeiaiii aeey auno?iai ioeeth/aiey
ieoaiey ?aai/aai ianoa, aeieaeiu auoue i?aaei?eiyou ia?u aeey

iaanoi/eaaiey ?aai/aai ianoa a aaa?eeiuo ?aaeeiao. Iau/ii noaaeony
aaoiiaoe/aneee aueeth/aoaeue n caueoie io ei?ioeiai caiueaiey.

I?e ?aaioa iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue ?yae i?aaeio?aieoaeueiuo ia? ii
i?aaeioa?auaieth yeaeo?io?aaiaoecia, aeey ioeeth/aiey iia?aaeaeaiiiai
yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey eniieuecoaony aaoiiaoe/aneee aueeth/aoaeue,
ioeeth/athuee ?aai/aa ianoi io naoe. I?e ?aaioa iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue eino?oiaio n eciee?othueie ?o/eaie.

?an/ao caioeaiey.

Ana ?aaiou, naycaiiua n iaeaaeeie e yenieoaoaoeeae naoe aaaeoony a
iiiauaiee, ioiinyuaiony e eaoaai?ee “aac iiauoaiiie iianiinoe”
ii?aaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneei oieii.

Aeey ieoaiey ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia e ono?ienoaa ia ?aai/ai ianoa
eniieuecoaony naoue ia?aiaiiiai oiea iai?yaeaieai 220 A, /anoioie 50
Aoe.

A naoe n aeooicacaieaiiie iaeo?aeueth i?e iaeiioaciii caiueaiee ia
ei?ion iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue aaoiiaoe/aneia ioeeth/aiea
iia?aaeaeaiiiai yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey. I?e e?aoeia?aiaiiii aaa?eeiii
?aaeeia nicaeaaony aaciianiinoue ianeoaeeaaiey e nio?aiiinoue
yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey. Iaeiaei e?aoeia?aiaiiinoue iiaeao auoue iaania/aia
oieueei nicaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiie e?aoiinoe oiea ei?ioeiai caiueaiey ia
ei?ion ii ioiioaieth e iiieiaeueiiio oieo caueoiiai aiia?aoa. Yoiai
iiaeii aeiaeoueny oieueei i?ieeaaeeie niaoeeaeueiiai i?iaiaea
aeinoaoi/iie i?iaiaeeiinoe – ioeaaiai i?iaiaea, e eioi?iio
i?eniaaeeiythony ei?iona yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey.

Noaia caueoiiai caioeaiey iieacaia ia ?en.3.1.

Iiieii cacaieaiey iaeo?aee, ia noaia i?aaenoaaeaiu iiaoi?iua cacaieaiey
ioeaaiai i?iaiaea, eioi?ua nieaeatho iai?yaeaiea ia cacaieaiiuo ei?ionao
yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey a neo/aa ia?uaa ioeaaiai i?iaiaea.

Aeey oiai, /oiau nieceoue iianiua iioaioeeaeu i?e caiueaiee ia ei?ion,
eniieuecothony iiaoi?iua cacaieeoaee n nii?ioeaeaieai cacaieeoaey ia
aieaa 10 Ii.

A iiiauaiee, aaea i?iecaiaeeony iiioaae naoe, ieoaiea yeaeo?ionoaiiaie
inouanoaeyaony io iiaenoaioeee n o?ainoi?iaoi?ii P=600 eAo, oaeaeaiiie
io ?aai/aai ianoa ia 300 i. Ieoaiea e ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiio ueoo
iiaeaiaeeony aethieieaaui i?iaiaeii na/aieai 25 ii¤, a ?ieue ioeaaiai
i?iaiaeieea auiieiyao noaeueiay iieina na/aieai 50 ii.

I?e eniieueciaaiee caioeaiey aeieaeiu auoue auiieiaiu neaaeothuea
oneiaey :

Iec => k*Iiii , (3.1)

aaea – eiyooeoeeaio e?aoiinoe iiieiaeueiiai oiea Iiii (A) ieaaeie
anoaaee i?aaeio?aieoaey, k=3.

Iiieiaeueiui oieii ieaaeie anoaaee Iiii iacuaaaony oie, cia/aiea
eioi?iai oeacaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia anoaaea caaiaeii-ecaioiaeoaeai.
Iiieiaeueiue oie Iiii a iiiauaiee 40 A. Cia/aiea Iec caaeneo io oaciiai
iai?yaeaiey naoe e nii?ioeaeaiey oeaie, a oii /enea io iieiiai
nii?ioeaeaiey o?ainoi?iaoi?a Zo, oaciiai i?iaiaeieea Zo, ioeaaiai
caueoiiai i?iaiaeieea Zic, aiaoiaai eiaeoeoeaiiai nii?ioeaeaiey iaoee
“oaciue i?iaiae – ioeaaie caueoiue i?iaiae” (iaoee “oaca-ioeue”) Xi,
aeoeaiiai nii?ioeaeaiey cacaieaiee iaeo?aee iaiioie o?ainoi?iaoi?a Ri e
iiaoi?iiai cacaieaiey ioeaaiai caueoiiai i?iaiaeieea Ri. Iineieueeo Ri
e Ri, eae i?aaeei, aaeeee ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie nii?ioeaeaieyie, eie
iiaeii i?aiaa?a/ue.

Au?aaeaiea aeey Iec aoaeao eiaoue aeae :

Uo

Iec = ———– , (3.2)

Zo/3 + Zi

aaea Zi = Zo + Zic + Xi – eiiieaeniia iieiia nii?ioeaeaiea iaoee
“oaca-ioeue”.

Oaeaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea oaciiai i?iaiaea : p = 0,028
(Ii*ii2)/i , Sna/ = 25 ii2,

ionthaea nii?ioeaeaiea oaciiai i?iaiaea :

ro = ? * (Lo / So) = 0,028 * 300 / 25 = 0,336 Ii.

Oaeaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea ioeaaiai i?iaiaea: p = 0,058 (Ii*ii2)/i ,
Sna/ = 50 (ii2 ),

ionthaea nii?ioeaeaiea ioeaaiai i?iaiaea :

Ric = p * (L / S) = 0,058 * 300 / 50 = 0,348(Ii).

Cia/aiey Xo e Xic iaeu, eie iiaeii i?aiaa?a/ue.

Cia/aiea Xi iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii oi?ioea :

2

dn?

Xi = 0,145*lg———- , (3.3)

2

k * do

aaea k = 0,3894,

dn? – ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo i?iaiaeieeaie,

do – aaiiao?e/aneee aeeaiao?.

?an/aou aeatho cia/aiea Xi = 0,556 Ii.

Nii?ioeaeaiea yeaeo?e/aneie aeoae aa?ai ?aaiie

rae = 0,02 (Ii), Xae = 0.

A niioaaonoaee n iiuiinoueth o?ainoi?iaoi?a

ro = 0,0044 (Ii), Xo = 0,0127 (Ii)

Iieiia nii?ioeaeaiea iaoee “oaca-ioeue” :

_______________

/ 2

Zi = ( (Ric+Ro+Rae) +Xi (3.5)

Zi = 0,716 (Ii).

I?e eniieueciaaiee caioeaiey ii o?aaiaaieyi IOY (i?aaeea ono?ienoaa
yeaeo?ionoaiiaie)

Ric/Ro = 0,348/0,336 k*Iiii

301,6 => 3*40 = 120

Caueoiia caioeaiea auiieiaii i?aaeeueii, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioeeth/athuay
niiniaiinoue nenoaiu iaania/aia.

Ii?aaeaeei iai?yaeaiea i?eeiniiaaiey e oie /a?ac /aeiaaea aei
n?aaaouaaiey caueou :

Ui? = Iech * Rh

Iec*Rii 1/Rh

____________ _________

Iech = * (3.6)

Rh*Ric 1 1

——- + Ri — + —

Rh Ric Rh Ric

Noaia caiauaiey i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.3.2.

?en.3.2. Noaia caiauaiey.

Ric = 0,348 (Ii), Rii = 10 (Ii), Ri = 4 (Ii)

Rh = 1 (eIi)

Ui? = 29,9 (A)

Oaeia iai?yaeaiea aaciianii aeey /aeiaaea i?e a?aiaie aicaeaenoaey :

50

taeii 1,4

Iiii

300

K = ——– = 7,5 >> 1,4

40

Aaioeeyoeey ia ?aai/ai ianoa iiioaaeieea.

?an/ao aaioeeyoeee i?iaiaeeony aeey iaeaieaa iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee:
o?ieue ia?eiae aiaea, a iiiauaiee aeeth/aiu ana IYAI (3 oo. iiuiinoueth
500 Ao eaaeaeay). A iiiauaiee ?aaioatho o?e iiioaaeieea. O/eouaay,
/oi iaeei /aeiaae auaeaeyao 90 Ao oaiea, iauea oaieiauaeaeaiey io
ethaeae ninoaayo

Q1 = 90 * 3 = 270 Ao.

Oaieiauaeaeaiey io IYAI e enoi/ieeia eneonnoaaiiiai inaauaiey
ii?aaeaeythony ii oi?ioea:

Q = N * n, (3.7) aaea
Q – oaieiauaeaeaiey, Ao;

N – noiia?iay iiuiinoue ono?ienoa, Ao;

n – eiyooeoeeaio oaieiauo iioa?ue ( n=0,7 aeey IYAI, n=0,55 aeey
ethieianoeaioiuo eaii).

Oaieiauaeaeaiey io 3-o IYAI ninoaayo

Q2 = 1500 * 0,7 = 1050 Ao.

Oaieiauaeaeaiey io 4-o eaii EA-65 ninoaayo

Q3 = 260 * 0,55 = 143 Ao.

A o?ieue ia?eiae aiaea iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea o/eouaaoue oaieiauaeaeaiey io
nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee. ?anniao?eaaaiia iiiauaiea iaoiaeeony ia ia?aii
yoaaea aeaooyoaaeiiai caeaiey, ieia i?eaioe?iaaiu ia thai-caiaae e
eiatho aeaieiia inoaeeaiea a aea?aayiiie ?aia. Iiyoiio oaieiauaeaeaiey
io nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii oi?ioea:

Q4 = Fino * q * Aino (3.8) aaea Q4 –
oaieiauaeaeaiey io nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee, Ao;

Fino – ieiuaaeue inoaeeaiey, i2;

q – oaieiauaeaeaiey /a?ac 1 i2 iiaa?oiinoe inoaeeaiey, Ao/i2;

Aino – eiyooeoeeaio o/?oa oa?aeoa?a inoaeeaiey.

A ?anniao?eaaaiii neo/aa Fino = 4 i2, q = 145 Ao/i2, Aino = 1,15.
Oiaaea ii (3.3)

Q4  = 4 * 145 * 1,15 = 667 Ao.

Noiia?iua ecauoi/iua oaieiauaeaeaiey

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 =

= 270 + 1050 + 143 + 667 = 2130 Ao.

Iau?i i?eoi/iiai aicaeooa, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey iiaeiuaiey ecauoeia
oaiea ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

  3600 * Q

G = ——————- (3.9)

C? * ( * (toae – ti?)

aaea G – iau?i i?eoi/iiai aicaeooa,  i3//;

Q – oaieiecauoee, Ao;

C?  – oaeaeueiay oaiei?ieinoue aicaeooa (1000 Aeae/(ea*oN));

( – ieioiinoue aicaeooa (1,2 ea/i3);

toae – oaiia?aoo?a oaeaeyaiiai aicaeooa, oN;

ti? – oaiia?aoo?a i?eoi/iiai aicaeooa, oN.

Oaiia?aoo?a i?eoi/iiai aicaeooa a o?ieue ia?eiae aiaea aeey oe?iou
Iineau i?eieiaaony ?aaiie 20 oN. Oaiia?aoo?a oaeaeyaiiai aicaeooa
ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

toae = t?c + a * (H-2), (3.10)

aaea toae  – oaiia?aoo?a oaeaeyaiiai aicaeooa,  oN;

t?c  – iioeiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa a ?aai/ae ciia (23 oN);

a – oaiia?aoo?iue a?aaeeaio ( 1 oN/i);

H – aunioa iiiauaiey (3,5 i).

toae  = 23 + 1 * (3,5-2) = 24,5  oN.

Oiaaea ii (3.9):

3600 * 2130

G = ——————— = 1420 i3//.

1000 * 1,2 * (24,5-20)

 

I?iaaae?i ?an/?o i?eioaeeoaeueiie aiaoiaiaiaiiie i?eoi/iie aaioeeyoeee
aeey oeacaiiiai iiiauaiey. Aaioeeyoeeiiiay nenoaia ninoieo ec
neaaeothueo yeaiaioia:

– i?eoi/iie eaia?u, a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeyo aaioeeyoi? n
yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeai, eaei?eoa? aeey iiaeia?aaa aicaeooa a oieiaeiia
a?aiy aiaea e aeaethceeiay ?ao?oea aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey iau?ia
iinooiathuaai aicaeooa;

– e?oaeiai noaeueiiai aicaeooiaiaea aeeeiie 1,5 i;

– aicaeooi?ani?aaeaeeoaey AI aeey iiaea/e aicaeooa a iiiauaiea.

Iioa?e aeaaeaiey a aaioeeyoeeiiiie nenoaia ii?aaeaeythony ii oi?ioea:

  V2 * (

H = R * l * ( * —— , (3.11)

2

aaea H – iioa?e aeaaeaiey, Ia;

R – oaeaeueiua iioa?e aeaaeaiey ia o?aiea a aicaeooiaiaea, Ia/i;

l – aeeeia aicaeooiaiaea, i;

( – noiia?iue eiyooeoeeaio ianoiuo iioa?ue a nenoaia;

V – nei?inoue aicaeooa (V=3 i/n);

( – ieioiinoue aicaeooa ( (=1,2 ea/i3).

Iaiaoiaeeiue aeeaiao? aicaeooiaiaea aeey aeaiiie

aaioeeyoeeiiiie nenoaiu:

_________ ___________

  / G / 1420

d = ( ——— = ( ———– = 0,41 i.

900*V*( 900*3*3,14

I?eieiaai a ea/anoaa aeeaiao?a aeeaeaeooth aieueooth coaiaea?oioth
aaee/eio – 0,45 i. Aeey aicaeooiaiaea aeaiiiai aeeaiao?a oaeaeueiua
iioa?e aeaaeaiey ia o?aiea R=0,24 Ia/i.

Ianoiua iioa?e aicieeatho a aeaethceeiie ?ao?oea ((=1,2),
aicaeooi?ani?aaeaeeoaea ((=1,4) e eaei?eoa?a ((=2,2). Oiaaea
noiia?iue eiyooeoeeaio  ( = 1,2+1,4+2,2 = 4,8.

Oiaaea ii (3.11): 

9 * 1,2

H = 0,24 * 1,5 + 4,8 * ——- = 26,28Ia.

2

 N o/?oii 10%-iai caiana

H = 1,1 * 26,28 = 28,91 Ia,

a G = 1,1 * 1420 = 1562 i3//.

Ii eaoaeiao auae?aai aaioeeyoi? inaaie na?ee IOe ?4: ?anoiae aicaeooa
1600 i3//, aeaaeaiea 40 Ia, EIAe 65%, nei?inoue a?auaiey 960 ia/iei,
aeeaiao? eieana 400 ii, iiuiinoue yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaey 0,032 eAo
(aeaeaaoaeue niaaeei?i ia iaeiie ine n aaioeeyoi?ii).

Auaiae.

A aeaiiii ?acaeaea ?anniao?eaaeny aii?in iaania/aiey
yeaeo?iaaciianiinoe i?e eniuoaiee e iaeaaeea ono?ienoaa, ia?a/eneaiu
o?aaiaaiey e eino?oiaioo, yeaeo?iaiia?aoo?a, i?iecaaaeai ?an/ao
cacaieaiey, i?aaeoniio?aia caueoa ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea io
ii?aaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneei oieii. Oaeaea i?iecaaaeai ?an/ao aaioeeyoeee ia
?aai/ai ianoa iiioaaeieea n oeaeueth iaania/aiey eiioi?oiuo oneiaee
?aaiou.

TT

A

Zo

Zo/3

.

.

Zii

Uo

Zh

ro

Zic

?en.3.1. Noaia caioeaiey.

.

.

Ic

ro

rn

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