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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

Iiaineae?neee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oaoie/aneee

Oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a oece/aneiai ainieoaiey

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

Ianoieueiue oaiien – enoi?ey, i?aaeea,

iieiaeaiea a ie?iaii nii?oa.

Auiieieea: nooaeaioea a?oiiu OAY 93

Ai?iaue?aa Eey Aeaenaiae?iaia

I?iaa?ee:

Iiaineae?ne 2001

Enoi?ey.

Nae/an ieeoi ia iiaeao neacaoue eoi, eiaaea e aaea ia?aui ia/ae ea?aoue
a ianoieueiue oaiien. Aieueoeinoai niaoeeaeenoia n/eoaao, /oi
ianoieueiue oaiien iiyaeeny a Aiaeee, eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue Ei?ieaaneiai
Oaiiena. A XVI aaea a Aiaeee e O?aioeee aicieeea caaaaiay ea?a aac
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee. Nio?aieeenue ?enoiee, ia eioi?uo iiaeii oaeaeaoue
ea?o aeaaieo a?aiai, eiaaea ea?aee ?aeaoeaie ni no?oiaie, iioiaeeie ia
oa, eioi?ua iuia i?eiyou a iau/iii, oae iacuaaaiii, aieueoii oaiiena.

Aiciiaeii, /oi ianoieueiue oaiien aiciee a NOA, Eiaeee eee THaeiie
Ao?eea (i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi a iineaaeieo aeaoo no?aiao a ianoieueiue
oaiien ia/aee ea?aoue eiiaiaee?iaaiiua ooaea A?eoaineea ioeoea?u).

Aeiaieueii nei?i ea?a n ioe?uoiai aicaeooa ia?aoea a iiiauaiea – ea?aee
ia iieo. Iicaeiaa iiaeeanue ea?a ia noieao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia iaeioi?ii
?annoiyiee iaeei io ae?oaiai. I?ioei aua iaiiiai a?aiaie, e aeaa
iieiaeiee noiea auee naeaeioou, iaaeaeo ieie iaoyioee naoeo.

I?inoie eiaaioa?ue, a aeaaiia iaaieueoea ?acia?u ieiuaaeee iicaieyee
ea?aoue aaea oaiaeii. Ianoieueiue oaiien iieo/ee ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

Oiaaea ia auei ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee. Iy/e aeaeaeenue ec ieoae; eieae,
?annoaaeaiiua ia noiea, auee naoeie, a eonee oienoiai ea?oiia yaeyeenue
?aeaoeaie.

Aeiaieueii aeieai ea?a eniieueciaaeanue ia eae aeae nii?oa, a oieueei
eae n?aaenoai aeey i?iaaaeaiey naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie e aeoeaiiai ioaeuoa.
Oieueei a 1920 aiaeo.

A eiioea ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia XIX aaea ea?a noaea iiioey?iie ai iiiaii
ec-ca eiieo?aioeee n?aaee ecaioiaeoaeae eiaaioa?y, eioi?ay
niaeaenoaiaaea niaa?oainoaiaaieth ?aeaoie e iy/ae. Iniiaiui eo
i?iecaiaeeoaeai auea aia?eeaineay oaa?eea a?aoueaa Ia?ea?, ooao
Ianna/onaon. Yoa oaa?eea i?iecaiaeeea e yenii?oe?iaaea a Aiaeeth ana
aeey ea?u a “Oaiien aeey iiiauaiee”. Iaeiaei aiaeeeneea eiiiaiee, oaeea
eae Ayres Ltd. (iie ?aeeaie?iaaee yoio aeae nii?oa eae “Ieieaoth?iay
ea?a a eaoi-oaiien a iiiauaieyo”), iieo/eee nianoaaiiua iaoaiou.

A XIX aaea ii iiyaeeny e a ?innee. A 1860 aiaeo a Iaoa?ao?aa ioe?ueny
eeoa”E?eeao e eaoi-oaiien”, ii ii-i?aaeiaio ethaeiaeoeie a iai auee
ea?u: aieai, eaioa, e oaiao?ei. Ea?o oaiao?ei, eee, eae aa aua iacuaaee,
“aea aea iii” (n ?aeaoeaie e?oaeie oi?iu, aac ?o/ee), a ecaanoiie
noaiaie iiaeii n/eoaoue i?aaeoanoaaiieoeae ianoieueiiai oaiiena.

Iy/e ecaioaaeeaaee ec ?aceiu eee i?iaee, eo /anoi caoeaaee a oeaiue.
?aeaoee ia auee noaiaea?oece?iaaiu (enoaoe, aei neo ii? ?aeaoee
auioneatho ?aciuo oi?iu, ?acia?a e iaoa?eaeia). Ianiiiaiii, aeaaiui
oniaa?oainoaiaaieai aue iieue iy/. Aio iaeia ec aa?nee aai
aicieeiiaaiey:

A 1900 aiaeo ea?ie ii eiaie Aeaeaein Aeaa a Aia?eea iaoieeioeny ia
iaeaiueeea iieua oeaaoiua oa?eee – aeaoneea ea?ooee. Ii aica?auaiee a
Aiaeeth ii iii?iaiaae iiaeiaiue iieue oa?ee ia noiea e iaia?oaeee, /oi
ii eiaao ia?iiiia i?aeiouanoai ia?aae oeaeueiui.

Eioa?ania auea oi?ia o/anoieeia. No?iaay aa/a?iyy: aeaiueiu – a aeeeiiuo
ieaoueyo; ioae/eiu – a niieeiaao.

Iinoaiaiii noaea eciaiyoueny oi?ia ?aeaoee. Iiyaeeenue oaia?iua, aan
oaaaeeny ii/oe a o?ia.

Oei?i/aiiay ?o/ea aucaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ii-iiaiio aea?aeaoue
?aeaoeo(i?aaeii?aaeaeeea iiaoth oaaoeo, eae iu aiai?ei naaiaeiy).

Noaee i?eiaiyoueny e iiaua iaoa?eaeu aeey ieeaeaaiey ea?iaie
iiaa?oiinoe: ia?aaiaio, eiaea, aaeth? e ae?. Aaoi?ii oaeeo iiaeeoeeaoeee
?aeaoie iiaeii n/eoaoue aiaee/aieia A.Aoaea.

Aeaaiaea?y ao?iiio ?anoeaaoo i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iiyaeaieth iiauo
iaoa?eaeia, iaoiaeyueo naia i?eiaiaiea e a nii?oa, eciaiyeny nii?oeaiue
eiaaioa?ue. A yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, ia iiaei ia ieacaoue i?yiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia oaoieeo e oaeoeeo ea?u. Iaiyeenue e i?aaeea ea?u.

Iniaaiii caiaoiue oie/ie ?acaeoeth ianoieueiiai oaiiena aeaei iiyaeaiea
ii?enoie, aoa/aoie ?aceiu(aoaee), eioi?oth noaee i?eiaiyoue eae
iaeeaaeeo ia ?aeaoeo.

Aei oiai ea?a oea a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io noiea, ieineeie
oaea?aie. N iiyaeaieai aoaee(1930a.) ea?a noaea ?aciiia?aciaa. Iii e
iiiyoii: aeaaiaea?y ieioiiio noeaieaieth ?aeaoee n iy/ii noaei
aiciiaeiui i?eaeaaaoue aio neeueiua a?auaiey.

Eciaieeanue o?aaeoi?ey iieaoa iy/a, ioe?ueanue aiciiaeiinoue ea?aoue
aeoeaii e oiaaea, eiaaea ii oaea iioneaeny ieaea naoee.

Nii?oniaiu, ea?athuea a caueoiii noeea, oaia?ue aeieaeiu auee aeaeaei
iooiaeeoue io noiea e auno?i aica?auaoueny e iaio. Ea?a noaiiaeeanue ana
aeeiaie/iaa.

Iiiai oeaiiiai aian a oaoieeo e oaeoeeo ianoieueiiai oaiiena iyoee?aoiue
/aiieii ie?a (1930-1935aa.) aiaee/aiei Aeeoi? Aa?ia. Aeaaiaea?y aio ea?a
noaea oaeaeaoaeueiui, caoaaouaathuei c?aeeuai. Eioa?an c?eoaeae e
ni?aaiiaaieyi cia/eoaeueii au?in. Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue, /oi ni?aaiiaaiey
ia ia?aainoai ie?a a eiiaeiia a 1935 aiaeo aaeaaeiaaii iaaethaeaee aei
10 ouny/ /aeiaae.

Ea?a noaea eciaeeiaaoue auno?uie ia?aaeaeaeaieyie, no?aieoaeueiuie
a?ineaie, ?aceeie iaeeii/iuie e na?eeiuie oaea?aie. A ?acoeueoaoa a 1936
aiaeo eiia?ann ITTF i?eiye ?aoaiea eciaieoue iacaaiea ea?u. Aianoi
noa?iai iacaaiey ieia-iiia iiyaeeinue iaoieueiue oaiien.

Eoae, ia niaio ia?aiio ia?eiaeo, ioee/aaoaiony i?inoioie oaoie/aneeo
yeeiaioia, iniiaaiiuo ia aeeeoaeueiie ia?aeeaeea iy/a, i?eoae aoi?ie –
ia?eiae ianooiaoaeueiie ea?u, iiiaiieaiiaue ii n?aaenoaai aoaee e
iai?iiu. Ii oae eae neeueiaeoeie a oi a?aiy ana aea inoaaaeenue ea?iee
caueoiiai noeey, oi aeey oiai, /oiau auea?aoue i/ei ii?ie o?aaiaaeinue
i/aiue iiiai a?aiaie.

Iaeiaei aeaaiui eciaiaieai a i?aaeeao ea?u iiaeii n/eoaoue nieaeaiea
auniou naoee(n 17 aei 15,25 naioeiao?ia), a oaeaea onoaiiaeaiea no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiie auniou ea?iaie iiaa?oiinoe noiea – 76 naioeiao?ia io iiea.
Auei oaeaea cai?auaii i?e iiaea/a iiaee?o/eaaoue iy/ iaeueoeaie.

Ana yoe eciaiaiey aeaaaee cia/eoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa iaiaaeaieth.
Anoanoaaiii, iiyaeeenue ea?iee iiaiai ieaia, oaeea eae E.Aiae?eaaeen,
Ooeiee, Aeaiaiianeee (*aoineiaaeey), eioi?ua oaea iiaee aoaeiaaoue
oaea?aie n?aaeiae neeu neaaa e ni?aaa, aanoe eiio?ea?o n i?iiaaeooi/iie
caueoie a n?aaeiae ciia (i?aaaea, aac neeueiuo caaa?oathueo oaea?ia).

A Aiaeee ieia-iiia eae nii?o i?eciaee aua a ia/aea 1900 aiaea, eiaaea
auei i?iaaaeaii ia?aia ioeoeeaeueiia ni?aaiiaaiea.

Ec Aiaeee ea?a i?eoea a Aano?i-Aaia?eth, a oo /anoue Aa?iiu, eioi?ay
naaiaeiy yaeyaony Aaia?eae, caoai a Aa?iaieth, *aoineieaaeeth. A Aa?eeia
ia Aeeoi?ey-ieaooe ioe?ueinue eaoa “Ieia-iiia”. *ooue iicaeiaa oaeea
caaaaeaiey iiyaeeenue a Aaia, I?aaa e ae?oaeo ai?iaeao Aa?iiu.

Caoai a 1901 aiaeo ioeoeeaeueiue oo?ie? ninoiyeny a Eiaeee. Aai iiaeii
n/eoaoue ia?aui iaaeaeoia?iaeiui ni?aaiiaaieai. Iiaaaeee iaeei ec eo/oeo
ea?ieia oiai a?aiaie eiaeeeneee nii?oniai Iaiaei.

Iacaaiea “ieia-iiia” auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii a 1901 aiaeo (iii i?eoei ia
niaio oaeei iacaaieyi eae Gossima, Flim-Flam e Whif-Whaf) Aeaeiiii
Aeaeaeaanii e i?iaeaii a?aoueyi Ia?ea?. Iii iieo/eeinue ec ni/aoaiey
aeaoo caoeia: Ieia – caoe, ecaeaaaaiue iy/ii, eiaaea ii oaea?yaony i
?aeaoeo, e Iiia – eiaaea iy/ ioneaeeaaao io noiea.

A 1902 aiaeo A.E. Aoae ieeaee naith ?aeaoeo ?aceiie, /oi iicaieeei aio
cae?o/eaaoue iy/.

N 1904 ii 1921 aiae iiioey?iinoue ianoieueiiai oaiiena a Aa?iia e
Aia?eea nieaeaaony, ai iiiaii ec-ca iiiiiieee a?aoueaa Ia?ea? e Aeaeiia
Aeaeaeaana ia eiaaioa?ue e i?aaeea ea?u.

A 1921 aiaeo ianoieueiue oaiien aica?auaaony a Aa?iio iiae nia?aiaiiui
iacaaieai.

A 1926 aiaeo iniiaaia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay Oaaea?aoeey Ianoieueiiai Oaiiena
(ITTF).

A 1930 aiaeo aeaaiaea?y iiyaeaieth aoa/aoie ?aceiu, eniieuecoaiie eae
iaeeaaeee ia ?aeaoee, ea?a noaea ?aciiia?aciaa. Iaeiaei a 30-o aiaeao
aua i?aiaeaaeaee ea?iee, ea?aaoea a caueoiii noeea, /oi eiiaaea
i?eaiaeeei e eo?ueacai. A iao/a ia ia?aainoai ie?a Y?eeo (O?aioeey) e
Iaiao (?oiuiey) ca 2 /ana 10 ieioo noiaee aeieoe aei n/aoa… 1:0 a
ia?aie ia?oee. A 1934 aiaeo ia ia?aainoaa ie?a a Ia?eaea auea i?ae?auaia
ano?a/a iaaeaeo Oaaaiaoy?ii (O?aioeey) e Oieaeaiaa?aii (?oiuiey),
eioi?ay i?iaeieaeaeanue 8 /ania. A ?acoeueoaoa a 1936 aiaeo ITTF
ia?aie/eea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?oee iaeiei /anii. Iaeiaei yoi
iiaiaaaaeaiea, eae anei?a auynieeinue, ieacaeinue iaaeinoaoi/iui –
nii?oniaiu ia oniaee ia?ano?ieony. Oaea a neaaeothuai aiaeo oeiaeueiua
iao/e aeaiuei ia auyaeee iiaaaeeoaeueieoeu. I?e/eiie oiio iineoaeeea
aeeneaaeeoeeaoeey oeiaeenoie I?eooeu(Aano?ey) e A?iin(NOA) ca ianneaiia
aaaeaiea ea?u. Ioaeii auei ai?ioueny ca aa aeoeaecaoeeth e aeaeueoa. E
aio a?aiy iaeiie ano?a/e auei nie?auaii aei 20 ieioo.

N 1952 aiaea, n ia?aainoaa ie?a a Aiiaaa, ia/aeanue iiaay yiioa
ianoieueiiai oaiiena. Naycaia iia n auoiaeii ia iaaeaeoia?iaeioth a?aio
yiiineeo nii?oniaiia.

ssiiioeu aaaee ia oieueei iiaue aeae iie?uoey ?aeaoee e naiaia?aciue
oaao. Naia, ii e nenoaia aaaeaiey ea?u ieacaeanue iaiau/iie. Ii
nouanoao, iie auiieiyee iaeei iniiaiie yeeiaio oaoieee – iaeao ni?aaa,
ii aeiaaaeai ii aue aei ae?ooiciie oi/iinoe. E aio, ii/oe ia iieuecoynue
ieeaeeie ae?oaeie oaea?aie, yiiioeu oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacaee naia
i?aainoiaenoai.

A /ai aea iii au?aaeaeinue? Ia?aia – ioee/iia aeaaeaiea iiaea/aie.
Iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia iiaea/ao yiiineea ea?iee a eaaeaeie ia?oee
auea?uaaee io 4 aei 10 i/eia. Aoi?ia – aunieay oece/aneay
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoue, iicaieythuay no?aieoaeueii ia?aiauaoueny, iaiiaaiii
iaiineoue oaea?u. A ionthaea oaa?aiiinoue a naieo neeao, oiaiea /aoei
inouanoaeyoue iaia/aiiue ieai.

A Aiiaaa /aiieiiii ie?a n?aaee ioae/ei noae Naoi. Ioaeneea ia?iua
ni?aaiiaaiey auea?aee Ooaeaee e Oayne. A aeaineeo ia?iuo ninoycaieyo –
Ia?aoa?a e Ieneio?a. A iauae neiaeiinoe yiiineea nii?oniaiu oaacee
aeiiie /aou?a ia?auo i?eca ec naie.

A 1953 aiaeo yiiineea oaiienenou ia o/anoaiaaee a ia?aainoaa ie?a, a a
1954 a Eiiaeiia aiiaue ioee/eeenue: caaiaaaee iaa eiiaiaeiuo i?eca –
ioaeneie e aeaineee. A ee/iii ca/aoa iiaaaeee Iaeio?a.

N 1954 ii 1957 aiae aeinoieiia nii?ioeaeaiaa yiiineei oaiienenoai
ieacuaaee, iiaeaeoe, oieueei i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaineie eiiaiaeu ?oiuiee. A
aiaua a ee/iuo ni?aaiiaaieyo ca yoio ia?eiae caaiea /aiieiiia ie?a
i?enoaeaeaeinue 30 ?ac. 12 ?ac aai caaiaauaaee oaiienenou ssiiiee, 6 –
?oiuiee, 3 – Aaia?ee, 3 – *aoineiaaeee, 2 – THaineaaee, 2 – Aiaeee, 2 –
NOA.

Iiiaea aaaeouea o?aia?u Aa?iiu a oi a?aiy ioeai/ii n/eoaee, /oi oniao
yiiineeo oaiienenoia – yoi a?aiaiiia yaeaiea, e niioaaonoaothueo
na?ueaciuo auaiaeia ia aeaeaee. E ana aea noeeue aa?iiaeneeo nii?oniaiia
noae iaiyoueny. I?aaaea, aieueoeinoai ea?ieia aua i?eaea?aeeaaeinue
caueoiie iaia?u, ii oai ia iaiaa ea?a noaiiaeony ana aieaa yia?ae/iie,
ecia?aoaoaeueiie. Ia?anoaao eiee/anoai eio?aoaeothueo i?eaiia.

Ii yiiineea nii?oniaiu ia naeatho naieo iiceoeee. Iie niiaa e niiaa
?aoeoaeueii cayaeytho i naaa. A 1961 aiaeo ia ie?iaii /aiieiiaoa
oaiienenou No?aiu Ainoiaeyuaai nieioea i?eiaiytho iiaue oaea? – oae
iacuaaaiue oii-niei, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea “aeueyaieueneee iy/ ec Oieei”

Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea: oiaaea aea iiyaeeenue yeaiaiou “oaeooi” a aieaeaiea,
“oeueo?a-ne” a aeiianoeea.

A nii?oa ana acaeiinacaii, e ia aeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoea iioei ii eeiee
oneiaeiaie oaoieee, iiae/an ae?ooiciie, aeeceie e o?theo. A yoii
iai?aaeaiee ianoieueiue oaiien ?acaeaaaony e iiiuia.

I?aaeea ea?u

Ia?aua i?aaeea ea?u auee nicaeaiu a Aiaeee. Iaeia ia?oey aaeanue aei 30,
a ia aei 21 i/ea, eae nae/an.

Ea?a

Ianoieueiue oaiien – yoi ea?a aeaoo ea?ieia (iaeei i?ioea iaeiiai) eee
aeaoo ia? (aeaia i?ioea aeaoo), noiyueo ca noieii e iii/a?aaeii
oaea?ythueo ii oeaeeoeieaeiiio eee ieanoeeiaiio oa?eeo. Oaea? ii oa?eeo
i?iecaiaeeony /a?ac naoeo n iiiiuueth iaeaiueeeo ?aeaoie oae, /oiau
oa?ee i?ecaieeeny ia iieiaeia noiea i?ioeaieea, e i?ioeaiee ia iia aai
aa?iooue.

Iiaen/ao i/eia

Oeaeue ea?u – aea?aeaoue iy/ a ea?a, iii/a?aaeii ioaeaay aai, iiea
iaeiie ec noi?ii ia oaeanony ioaeoue oa?ee iacaae. Oaea? ii oa?eeo
aeieaeai iaiineoueny oieueei iinea oiai, eae ii iaeei ?ac ionei/eo io
iieiaeiu noiea ea?iea. I/ei ca?aaaouaaao oa noi?iia, eioi?ay iineaaeiae
iaianao oaea/iue oaea? a yoii ?icua?uoa i/ea.

Oio ea?ie eee eiiaiaea, eiio oaeaeinue auno?aa iaa?aoue 21 i/ei
auea?uaaao ea?o, anee oieueei n/ao ia aue 20-20 eee ?aaiue iinea
i?aaeuaeouaai i/ea. Ea?a aeieaeia auoue auea?aia n ?acieoeae a 2 i/ea.
Iiyoiio

i?e ea?a n ?aaiui n/aoii aeaa noi?iiu i?iaeieaeatho ea?o, iii/a?aaeii
onooiay ae?oa ae?oao i?aai ia iiaea/o, iiea i?aeiouanoai iaeiie ec
noi?ii ia

aeinoeaiao 2-o i/eia.

Iiaea/a

Eaaeaeue ?icua?uo i/ea ia/eiaaony n iiaea/e. Oa?ee e ?aeaoea aeieaeia
aaoue iicaaee eeiee e?ay noiea e auoa o?iaiy noiea. Ea?ie aea?aeeo oa?ee
ia ioe?uoie eaaeiie naiaiaeiie ?oee, iiaeeeaeuaaao aai aaa?o eae ieieioi
ia aunioo 16 naioeiao?ia e iaiineo ii iaio oaea? a oi a?aiy, eiaaea ii
iaaeaao. Oa?ee aeieaeai ionei/eoue io iieiaeiu noiea iiaeathuaai ia?aae
oai, eae ii ia?aeaoeo /a?ac naoeo. Anee oa?ee eanaaony naoee, oi
i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai iiaoi?iie iiaea/e.

Iiaea/a iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny n ethaie /anoe iieiaeiu noiea iiaeathuaai
e auoue iai?aaeaia ia ethaoth /anoue iieiaeiu noiea niia?ieea, anee
?a/ue eaeao ia ea?a iaeei ia iaeei. Anee aea ni?aaiothony ia?u, oi
iiaea/a aeieaeia anaaaea inouanoaeyoueny n i?aaiai oaea e auoue
iai?aaeaia a i?aaue oaie noiea eiiaiaeu niia?ieeia.

Ia?aoiae iiaea/e i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac eaaeaeua 5 i/eia. A ia?iii ninoycaiee
i?eieiathuee oa?ee noaiiaeony iiaeathuei. A ia i?eaia noieo ia?oia?
auaoaai iiaeathuaai ii eiiaiaea.

Ae?oaea i?aaeea

* Aica?ao oa?eea, i?e eioi?ii ii eanaaony naoee, ii i?ecaieyaony ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeioth noi?iio can/eouaaaony;

* Oaea?, i?e eioi?ii oa?ee oaea?yaony i e?ae i?ioeaiiieiaeiie iieiaeiu
noiea, can/eouaaaony

* Ea?ie i?iea?uaaao i/ei, anee ii eee iia ai a?aiy ea?u eanaaony noiea,
naoee eee noieee naoee naiaiaeiie ?oeie.

* Anee oa?ee oaea?yaony i ethaoth /anoue oaea eee iaeaaeaeu ea?iea,
eiaaea oa?ee ca i?aaeaeaie noiea, yoi n/eoaaony ia?ooaieai, e ia?ooeaoee
ea?ie oa?yao i/ei.

* Ea?iee ia aeieaeiu oaea?youe n eaoa eee ioaeaaoue oa?ee aei oao ii?,
iiea ii ia ionei/eo.

* Ea?ie, niaa?oeaoee aeaieiie oaea?, oa?yao i/ei.

* Ea?ie, oaea?eaoeeny i noie n oaeie neeie, /oi naeaeioe aai, oa?yao
i/ei.

Iai?oaeiaaiea

Noie

?aai/ay iiaa?oiinoue noiea aeey ea?u a oaiien 2,74 i a aeeeio e 1, 525 i
a oe?eio, ?aniieiaeaia ai?eciioaeueii ia aunioa 76 naioeiao?ia iaae
iieii. Iia iiaeao auoue auiieiaia ec ethaiai iaoa?eaea, ii aeieaeia
auoue iaoiaie.

Aieiaua eeiee e e?aaaua eeiee, oe?eiie 2 ni, oyioony aaeieue eaaeaeiai
e?ay noiea. Aeey ia?iie ea?u eaaeaeay iieiaeia noiea ?acaeaeaia iiiieai
eeieae, oe?eiie 3 ii, i?ioiaeyuae ia?aeeaeueii n aieiauie eeieyie. Yoi
inouanoaeaii n oeaeueth auaeaeaiey i?aaie /anoe eaaeaeie iieiaeiu noiea,
eioi?ay aaaeia i?e inouanoaeaiee iiaea/e a ia?iie ea?a.

Naoea, 15,25 ni. iaae noieii, ?acaeaeyao ?aai/oth iiaa?oiinoue noiea ia
aeaa ?aaiua /anoe. Iia i?ee?aieaia e aeaoi noieeai, oie aea auniou, /oi
e naoea.

Oa?ee

Oa?ee aeieaeai auoue aaeiai eee i?aiaeaaiai oeaaoa, iaoiaue, a aeeaiao?a
38 ii e aaneoue 2,5 a. Eaaeaeue ec ea?ieia auae?aao ianeieueei oa?eeia
ia?aae oai, eae aieoe ia ea?iaoth ieiuaaeeo, e noaeuey auae?aao oio
oa?ee, eioi?ue e aoaeao eniieueciaai ai a?aiy ea?u.

?aeaoea

Aeey ?aeaoie ia nouanoaoao ia?aie/aiee ii oi?ia e ?acia?o, ii i?aaeea,
o?aaothuea, /oiau “?aai/ay iiaa?oiinoue” inoaaaeanue aeanoeie e ieineie,
n aea?aayiiie na?aeoeaaeiie, ninoaaeythuae 85% eo oieueiu, aa?aioe?otho
oi, /oi iie inoathony iaeaiueeeo ?acia?ia.

Niaoeeoeeaoeey aeey ?aceiiauo iiaa?oiinoae ?aeaoie i?aaeaeueii
niaoeeoe/ia. Ea?ieai ?ac?aoaaony eniieueciaaoue ioiu?/aooth eee neiaioth
?aceio, oioy eenou ioiu?/aoie ?aceiu aeieaeiu auoue ia oieua 2-o ii, a
neiaiie – ia oieua 4-o ii. Ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaeu eeay, iicaieythuea
oaaee/eoue nei?inoue oa?eea, cai?auaiu i?aaeeaie Ieeiieeneeo ninoycaiee.

Ai a?aiy ia/aea iao/a e a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ea?iee iaiytho ?aeaoee ai
a?aiy iao/a, iie aeieaeiu aeaaaoue aiciiaeiinoue naiei niia?ieeai e
noaeuea i?iaa?eoue eo ?aeaoee.

Oi?iao ni?aaiiaaiey

E a iaeeii/iuo e a ia?iuo ninoycaieyo, ioai? i?ienoiaeeo iooai
ionaeaaiey i?iea?aaoeo ii iaeiiio. Ea?iee, ioia?aiiua ii aea?aaueaaea
(16 ia iaeeii/iuo ninoycaieyo, ainaiue a ia?iuo) ia?aoiaeyo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii e aeaaiiio ioai?i/iiio ninoycaieth, a oi a?aiy eae
ae?oaea nia/aea ni?aaiothony a a?oiiao ii o?e, iaeei ec eioi?uo
i?ioiaeeo ioai?. Ii ?acoeueoaoai yoeo a?oiiiauo ninoycaiee aua 16
ea?ieia i?eioo o/anoea a iaeeii/iuo ni?aaiiaaieyo e aua ainaiue ia?iuo
eiiaiae.

N 1930 ii1951 aiae n?aaee iiaaaeeoaeae ni?aaiiaaiee i?aiaeaaeatho
i?aaenoaaeoaee Aaia?ee. N 1951 aiaea eo/oea ?acoeueoaou iieacuaatho
i?aaenoaaeoaee Aceaoneeo no?ai (ssiiiey, Ei?ay, Eeoae).

A 1961 aiaeo ia /aiieiiaoa ie?a yiiineea nii?oniaiu i?eiaiytho iiaue
oaea? – oii-niei.

A 1988 aiaeo ianoieueiue oaiien noaiiaeony Ieeiieeneei aeaeii nii?oa
(Naoe, THaeiay Ei?ay).

Naaiaeiy aieaa /ai 40 ieeeeiiia ea?ieia aaeaaiaeii i?eieiatho o/anoea a
ioeoeeaeueiuo oo?ie?ao ai anai ie?a.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay Oaaea?aoeey Ianoieueiiai Oaiiena

A ia/aea XX aaea ianoieueiue oaiien ia/ae ao?ii ?ani?ino?aiyony. Ii noae
ecaanoai a ssiiiee, Ei?aa, Eeoaa, Eiaeee e THaeiie Ao?eea. E 1921 aiaeo
ianoieueiue oaiien noae iiioey?ai e a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia. A
aeaaaeoeaouo aiaeao XX aaea a aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao ia/aee oi?ie?iaaoueny
Iaoeeiiaeueiua Annioeeaoeee ianoieueiiai oaiiena.

Auno?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ianoieueiiai oaiiena i?eaaei e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nicaeaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeioth i?aaiecaoeeth e onoaiiaeoue aaeeiua i?aaeea
ea?u. Aeaaiaea?y yia?ae/iie aeayoaeueiinoe aeieoi?a Aai?aa Eaiaia
(Aa?iaiey) a Aa?eeia 15 yiaa?y 1926 aiaea auea iniiaaia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
Oaaea?aoeey Ianoieueiiai Oaiiena (ITTF International Table Tennis
Federation). I?aaenaaeaoaeai aa noae Aeai? Iiioaath – aeaeiue aiaeeeneee
eeoa?aoi?, i?ia?anneaiue iauanoaaiiue aeayoaeue.

E aeaeaa?th 1926 aiaea eiinoeoooeey e i?aaeea ITTF auee ooaa?aeaeaiu.

Ia?aue eiia?ann ITTF e ia?aue /aiieiiao ie?a ninoiyeny a Eiiaeiia a
aeaeaa?a 1927 aiaea. A ninoycaiee o/anoaiaaee nii?oniaiu Aiaeee,
Aano?ee, *aoineiaaeee, Aa?iaiee, Aaia?ee, Aeaiee, Oaaoeee, Oyena,
Eiaeee.

Ai?ueaa oea a /aou?ao ?ac?yaeao: iaeeii/iuo – ioae/eiu e aeaiueiu e
ia?iuo – ioaeneeo e niaoaiuo. A 1928 aiaeo a ni?aaiiaaieyo noaee
o/anoaiaaoue aeaineea ia?u.

N oao ii? ia?aainoaa ie?a i?iaiaeeeenue eaaeaeue aiae, ca eneeth/aieai
1940-1946 aiaeia.

N 1957 aiaea ia?aainoai ie?a noaee i?iaiaeeoue ?ac a aeaa aiaea, caoi
oaea a neaaeothuai aiaeo ia/aee ?acua?uaaoue ia?aainoai Aa?iiu. Noaee
i?iaiaeeony e eioeiaioaeueiua /aiieiiaou Acee e Ao?eee.

A ITTF ca?aaeno?e?iaaii ieiei 130 no?ai. *aiieiiaou ie?a ii ianoieueiiio
oaiieno i?iaiaeeeenue eaaeaeue aiae n 1926 (ca eneeth/aieai 1940-1946
aiaeia), a n 1957 aiaea noaee i?iaiaeeoueny ?ac a aeaa aiaea. *aiieiiaou
Aa?iiu i?iaiaeyony n 1958. A i?ia?aiia Ieeiieeneeo ea? ianoieueiue
oaiien n 1988.

Oaea?u, i?eiaiyaiua a ianoieueiii oaiiena

Nouanoaoao aeaa niiniaa ioaeoue iy/ ?aeaoeie. Ia?aue – iiaenoaaeyy
?aeaoeo (oieie eee iiaenoaaea). A yoii neo/aa iaaiciiaeii
i?aaeoaaaeaoue, eae iieaoeo iy/. Yoio niinia eniieuecoao aieueoeinoai
iiae/eia.

Aoi?ie niinia – eniieuecoy a?auaiea iy/a. Aeey yoiai ioaeii oaea?eoue
iy/ ii eanaoaeueiie, /oiau ?aceia aaoae ?aeaoee niiaea caoaaoeoue iy/ e
canoaaeoue aai a?auaoueny. Oei a?auaiey caaeneo io oaea ?aeaoee e
iai?aaeaiey aa aeaeaeaiey a iiiaio nii?eeiniiaaiey n iy/ii. ?acee/atho
ianeieueei oeiia oaea?ia, iniiaiua – iaeao, iiae?acea e oii-niei. Aeey
oiai, /oiau aeiaeoueny oniaoa a ianoieueiii oaiiena, au aeieaeiu
inaieoue ?aciua oeiu oaea?ia e iao/eoueny i?eiaiyoue eo a caaeneiinoe io
a?auaiey iy/a.

Oie/ie

Oaea? ii iy/o iaiinyo iinea oiai, eae iy/ iiaeieiaaony auoa noiea. I?e
yoii niiniaa ?aeaoeo iiaenoaaeytho ia iooe iieaoa iy/a (iia ia?aeeaeueia
naoea), ia?acoy eae au noaieo. Iy/, oaea?yynue i noaieo, ioeaoaao /a?ac
naoeo ia?aoii ia noi?iio i?ioeaieea. I?e auiieiaiee oaea?a ?oeo
aui?yieytho a eieoaaii nonoaaa a noi?iio iieaoa iy/a.

Ianeieueei caiyoee ioaeii iinayoeoue iaeaaeaieth oaea?ii oie/ie. Iaeiaei
yoio oaea? eiaao iaaeinoaoee: ei ia oaeaaony i?eaeaoue iy/o aieueooth
nei?inoue e neeo. E?iia oiai, anee iy/ iinea oaea?a i?ioeaieea ionei/eo
ca i?aaeaeu noiea, oi iieueciaaoueny yoei i?eaiii iaaiciiaeii. Iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii iaeaaeaoue e ae?oaeie aeaeaie oaea?ia.

Iiaenoaaea

Iiaenoaaea oiaea ioiineony e /eneo ianeiaeiuo oaea?ia. Ath iieuecothony
a ?acee/iuo ea?iauo neooaoeeyo. Yoio niinia oaea?a oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai,
/oi iy/ n?aco aea iinea aai ioneiea io noiea (n iieoeaoa) io?aaeaaony io
?aeaoee e ia?aeaoaao ia?aoii ia noi?iio i?ioeaieea. Iai?aaeaiea
ia?aoiiai iieaoa iy/a ia noi?iio i?ioeaieea caaeneo io noaiaie iaeeiia
?aeaoee. Anee i?ioeaiee naeaeae ieineee oaea?, oi ea?iaay iiaa?oiinoue
?aeaoee i?e io?aaeaiee oaea?a aeieaeia auoue aa?oeeaeueiie, i?e i?eaia
?acaiiai iy/a – ioeeiiaia iacaae (ea?iaay iiaa?oiinoue ?aeaoee eae au
ioe?uoa), i?e i?eaia e?o/aiiai iy/a – ianeieueei iaeeiiaia aia?aae
(cae?uoa). Iiaenoaaeie /aua anaai iieuecothony i?e caueoiii aa?eaioa
ea?u.

Iaeao

*oiau iaeaoeoue, ioaeii ai a?aiy eiioaeoa n iy/ii aanoe ?aeaoeo nieco
aaa?o. Iinea iaeaoa iy/ eiaao yooaeo iia?oaeaiey aiec, iiyoiio
iaeaouaaoue iiaeii n ethaie neeie, iineieueeo a?auaiea canoaaeo iy/
iionoeoueny e iiianoue ia noie.

Iaeao Ioe?uoie ?aeaoeie (ni?aaa)

Iaeao ni?aaa – yoi iaeei ec iniiaiuo aoaeothueo oaea?ia. ?aeaoea i?e
yoii aeaeaeaony aaa?o e aia?aae e iaiineo oaea? ii aa?oiae aieiaie
iieiaeia iy/a.

Aio iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey oaea?a. Iiae ia oe?eia iea/,
iaiiiai niaioou a eieaiyo. Eaaay iiaa /ooue auaeaeiooa aia?aae. Aan oaea
?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeai ia iaa iiae. Ooeiaeua neaaea iaeeiiaii aeaai e
noieo, ?oea n ?aeaoeie ioaaaeaia iacaae ai?aai aeey caiaoa. Iia ia/eiaao
aeaeaeaiea, eiaaea iiae, ?aeaoea e i?eaeeaeathueeny iy/ ia?acotho eae au
?aaiinoi?iiiee o?aoaieueiee. Oaea? iaiineony a aunoae oi/ea ioneiea
iy/a, iinea /aai ?oeo ioaiaeyo aeaai-aaa?o.

A iiiaio eiioaeoa ?aeaoee n iy/ii i?aaeiea/uea eae au iaaiiyao iy/.
?aeaoea aeaeaeaony ii aeoaa, iinoaiaiii iaiyy oaie iaeeiia, a
?acoeueoaoa iieo/aaony eae au iaeaouaaiea iy/a naa?oo. Eenoue i?e iaeaoa
?aceei aeaeaeaieai i?eaeaao iy/o a?auaiea. I?e oaea?a oyaeanoue oaea
ia?aiauaaony ia eaaoth iiao. Iinea auiieiaiey iaeaoa neaaeoao
iaiaaeeaiii caiyoue enoiaeiia iieiaeaiea.

Iaeao Cae?uoie ?aeaoeie (neaaa)

Aeaeaeaiea iy/a a iniiaiii oaeia aea, eae i?e iaeaoa ni?aaa.
Iaiaoiaeeiia a?auaiea i?eaeaaony iy/o i?e aeaeaeaiee aaa?o-aia?aae.

Aio iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey oaea?a. Iiae ia oe?eia iea/, /ooue
niaioou, eaaay /ooue auaeaeiooa aia?aae, oeaio? oyaeanoe ?aaiiia?ii
?ani?aaeaeai ia iaa iiae. ?oea ia o?iaia iiyna niaiooa a eieoa e
ioaaaeaia aeaai-iacaae, i?aaeiea/uea ia?aeeaeueii iiaa?oiinoe noiea.

I?e oaea?a i?aaeiea/uea ?acei eaeao aia?aae, ?aeaoea eae au iaeaouaaao
iy/ naa?oo, iinea /aai ?oea naiaiaeii ooiaeeo ai?aai-aaa?o. Oeaio?
oyaeanoe niauaaony ia i?aaoth iiao, ?oea aica?auaaony a enoiaeiia
iieiaeaiea.

?en. 1

Anee cae?o/aiiue iy/ iinea iaeaoa iiiaaeao ia aa?oeeaeueii
?aniieiaeaiioth ?aeaoeo, oi ii ionei/eo aaa?o (?en. 1).

?en. 2

*oiau neiiiaine?iaaoue e?o/aiea, e i?aaeeueii ioaeoue iy/ neaaeoao
iaeaoeoue (?en. 2).

Iiae?acea

*oiau iiae?acaoue, ioaeii ai a?aiy eiioaeoa n iy/ii aanoe ?aeaoeo naa?oo
aiec. Iinea iiae?acee iy/ iiaeieiaaony aaa?o, iiyoiio, /ai neeueiaa au
cae?ooeoa iy/, oai aeaeueoa ii aoaeao oeaoaoue. Iiae?acea n/eoaaony
iai?iieoaeueiui oaea?ii. N iiae?acaiiiai iy/a neiaeiaa aoaeiaaoue.

Iiae?acea Ioe?uoie ?aeaoeie (ni?aaa)

Auiieiaiea oaea?a. A enoiaeiii iieiaeaiee ea?ie noieo ii/oe eeoeii e
noieo, neaaea aunoaaea aia?aae eaaoth iiao, ?oea aeaeaao caiao
iacaae-aaa?o e caoai eaeao aia?aae-aiec. A iiiaio oaea?a iy/a i ?aeaoeo,
eioi?ay ia?auaia ioe?uoie noi?iiie aaa?o, ?oea neaaea niaiooa. Iinea
oaea?a ?aeaoea iaiiiai nii?iaiaeaeaao iy/ e caoai ooiaeeo aeaai-aia?aae
aiec. Neea oaea?a i?e iiae?acea nouanoaaiii caaeneo io ano?a/iie
nei?inoe iy/a e ?annoiyiey io noiea, ia eioi?ii aai i?eieiatho.

Iiae?acea Cae?uoie ?aeaoeie (neaaa)

Enoiaeiay noieea oeie/ia aeey ea?u neaaa: i?aaay iiaa iaiiiai aia?aaee,
ooeiaeua /ooue iiaa?iooi aeaai. Aeaeaeaiea ?oee, neeueii niaiooie a
eieoa e ioaaaeaiiie iaeaai-aaa?o-iacaae aeey caiaoa, i?ienoiaeeo nia/aea
aia?aae-aiec, i?e/ai ia yoii yoaia ?oea a eieoa ia ?acaeaaaony. A
i?ioeanna aeaeaeaiey ooeiaeua iaiiiai iiai?a/eaaaony e oeaio? oyaeanoe
ia?aiineony ia i?aaoth iiao.

?en. 3

Anee cae?o/aiiue iy/ iinea iiae?acee iiiaaeao ia aa?oeeaeueii
?aniieiaeaiioth ?aeaoeo, oi ii ionei/eo aiec (?en. 3).

?en. 4

*oiau neiiiaine?iaaoue e?o/aiea, e i?aaeeueii ioaeoue iy/ neaaeoao
iiae?acaoue (?en. 4).

Oii-niei

Iacia/aiea yoiai aoaeothuaai i?eaia – i?eaeaoue iy/o naa?oneeueiia
aa?oiaa a?auaiea. Nei?inoue aai iaiiiai aieueoa, /ai i?e iaeaoa, /oi
i/aiue oneiaeiyao niia?ieeo ioaaoiua aeaenoaey.

Ai-ia?auo, naiui iaiaeeaeaiiui auaaao ioneie iy/a io noiea. Ai aoi?uo,
aeaaea oaea i?eiyoue ?aeaoeie iy/ inoaaony iaiineooiui, e iai?aaeoue aai
ii caaeoiaiiiio iai?aaeaieth i/aiue e i/aiue ia i?inoi.

Oi?io oii-niei e iioiio, /oi neeueii cae?o/aiiue iy/ auniei i?ieaoaao
iaae naoeie e yoi i?eaeaao niaeinoe aoaeothuaio. N/eoaaony, /oi
i?eiaiyoue oii-niei iiaeii anaaaea, ii i?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi yoi ia
oae.

Oii-niei ni?aaa

Aeey oii-nieia oa?aeoa?ai aieueoie caiao, eae i?aaeei, auoyiooie ?oeie.
Aui?yieaiea aa a ia/aea aeaeaeaiey iicaieyao oaaee/eoue e nai caiao, e
nei?inoue ?aeaoee n iiiiuueth oneeey i?aaeiea/uey e eenoe. Aeaeaeaiea
?oee i?e oii-nieia a ioee/ea io oaea?a iaeaoii ii/oe iieiinoueth
iai?aaeaii aaa?o, a oaea? ii iy/o iineo neieuecyuee oa?aeoa?.

Enoiaeiay noieea: eaaay iiaa /ooue auaeaeiooa aia?aae, i?aaay ?oea
aui?yieaia e ioaaaeaia ca nieio ai?aai-iacaae. Ooeiaeua ?acaa?iooi a
i?aaoth noi?iio, /oiau oaaee/eoue caiao. Iiae niaioou a eieaiyo, ana
oaei ?anneaaeaii.

Oii-niei ia/eiaaony n aeoeaiiai iiai?ioa a iai?aaeaiee oaea?a. I?aaay
?oea eaeao aia?aae-aeaai-aaa?o. Aan oaea ia?aiinyo n i?aaie iiae ia
eaaoth. Ii eia?oeee ooeiaeua e ?oea iiaoo aeaaea ooiaeeoue aeaeaei
aeaai. A iiiaio nii?eeiniiaaiey n iy/ii ?aeaoea aeieaeia eae au
neieueciooue ii iaio. I?e yoii neea i?yiiai oaea?a iy/a i ?aeaoeo
ieieiaeueia. Iaeiaei eenoue i?eaeaao aio caeeth/eoaeueiia onei?aiea.
Anoue aua aa?eaio oii-nieia ni?aaa, eioi?ue iacuaatho aieiaui. ?acieoea
a auiieiaiee i?yiiai oii-nieia e aieiaiai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ?oeo n
?aeaoeie caaiaeyo e iy/o naieo, eenoue iiouaia /ooue aieueoa.

Oii-niei neaaa

I?aeoeeoaony ai?acaei ?aaea, /ai ni?aaa. Eeanne/aneee eaaue oii-niei ia
auiieiyaony, yoi iauyniyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oaaee/eoue caiao i?e
oaea?a, /oi iau/ii i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth iiieii aa?oiaai a?auaiey
iy/a aua e aieiaiai.

Nienie eniieuecoaiuo enoi/ieeia.

Aiaeei A. I., Iaoiei A. A. Ianoieueiue oaiien–ecae. 2-a, aeii.–
Oeceoeueoo?a e nii?o, 1985.

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