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Йога как одна из древнейших систем оздоровления духа и тела

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I-ceee Oeeeae Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeaaeaiee Oece/aneie Eoeueoo?u

Eaoaae?a oai?aoe/aneeo aeenoeeieei

Nooaeaio(ea) … eo?na, … a?oiiu

cai/iiai oaeoeueoaoa …………..

Eiaa eae iaeia ec ae?aaiaeoeo nenoai icaei?iaeaiey aeooa e oaea

(Eo?niaay ?aaioa ii oai?ee e iaoiaeeea oece/aneie eoeueoo?u)

?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe,

aeioeaio ……

I-ne, 2001 a.

Niaea?aeaiea

Aeaaa I. Eiaa i?ioeiai e ianoiyuaai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 3

Aeaaa II. Oeceieiae/aneea iniiau eiae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 6

Aeaaa III. Ea/aiea neiaii e ecaea?aeee neiaaniiai aeeaeiaa . . . . . . .
. . .10

Aeaaa IV. I?aeoe/aneea oaae ii nooiaiyi eiae . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .15

Auaiaeu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

I?eeiaeaiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Aeaaa I

Eiaa – eneonnoai o/eoueny ieaaaoue n ?aaeinoueth ai ano?a/iuo oa/aieyo
aeecie.

Iaoaiaeaeaee.

Ouny/aeaoiea o?aaeeoeee eiaeeeneie oeeinioee, aa?ouea ia/aei n XV–X aa.
aei i. y., nio?aieaoeany aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie, aicieeee ia iniiaa
iaeaieaa ae?aaiae /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee. A Aaaeeeneee ia?eiae (n
XV–VI a. aei i.y.) iiyaeeenue /aou?a nayuaiiua eieae eiaeeeneeo
ioae?aoeia, eioi?ua iieo/eee iacaaiea “?eaaaaea”, “Aooa?aaaaaea”,
“Naiaaaaea” e “ssaeaeo?aaaea”, iauaaeeiaiiua iauei iacaaieai Aaaeu.
Eiiiaioa?ee e Aaaeai iacuaathony Oiaieoaaeaie. Iie niinianoaiaaee
?acaeoeth oeeinioneie iunee a Eiaeee, nicaeaa oeieu, e iaeiie ec eioi?uo
ioiineony nenoaia eiaia.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeii o/aiey eiaia n/eoatho ae?aaiaeiaeeeneiai ioae?aoea
Iaoaiaeaeaee, aeeaoaai ai II–I aa. aei i.y. ?acoiaaony, Iaoaiaeaeaee
auaeaeee eiao a naiinoiyoaeueioth nenoaio ia iniiaa oaea nouanoaiaaaoaai
iiuoa caiyoee ioaeaeueiuo eiaia. Ii eceaaaao oeeinioeth e i?aeoeeo
eeanne/aneie eiae a naieo 185 aoi?eciao, iacaaiiuo “Eiaanoo?a”. Eae e
ana eiaeeeneea aaoi?u, Iaoaiaeaeaee ia aeaao ee/iie oeeinioneie nenoaiu,
a eeoue niae?aao onoiua aeaiiua, aeioaaeoea aei iaai ec aeoaeiu aaeia, e
eiiiaioe?oao eo a aeooa naiae aaeeiie oeeinioee. Oeeinioneay
eioa?i?aoaoeey i?aeoeee eiaia a “Eiaanoo?a” niaeanoaony n aaoi?eoaoii
Aaae, o. e. oa?ieiieiaey oeaeeeii acyoa ec ieo. Eiaiii yoi e yaeyaony
i?e/eiie i?e/eneaiey eiae e iaeiie ec oanoe i?oiaeienaeueiuo nenoai,
oioy ii naiae nouiinoe iia ioee/aaony io ieo naiae i?aeoe/aneie
iai?aaeaiiinoueth. Iiyoiio aioo?aiiee niune yoie oeeinioee, yaeythuaeny
ieiaeii i?aeoe/aneie ?ac?aaioee, iiaeao auoue iiiyo eeoue n aa
iiiiuueth. Ii ?acee/iui niia?aaeaieyi ae?aaiea ioae?aoeu, aeaaeaaoea
i?aeoe/aneeie oi?aaeiaieyie nenoaiu eiae ecaaaaee aa iiioey?ecaoeee e
yoi i?eaaei e ienoeoeeaoeee yoiai ae?aaiaai o/aiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey nenoaiu eiaia yaeyaony i/aaeaeiie, /oi o?aaoao,
iaeiaei, ia?aeeaeueiiai iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey. Neaaeoao iiiieoue i oii,
/oi nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iai?aaeeueiuo oieeiaaiee nenoaiu eiaia
iaaeia?iniaanoiuie eioa?i?aoaoi?aie e aaoi?aie eeoa?aoo?u i eiaao.
E?eoa?eai enoeiiie eiae aeieaeia auoue oieueei i?aeoeea.

*oi aea oaeia, a nouiinoe, eiaa?

Neiai “eiaa” a ia?aaiaea n naine?eoa aoeaaeueii icia/aao “niaaeeiaiea”,
ii a aieaa oe?ieii oieeiaaiee – “oi, /oi niioaaonoaoao”, “oi, /oi
iineaaeiaaoaeueii e iaoeeiiii i?eiaiyaony”. Eiaa a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue –
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneay nenoaia, e iniiaiia aieiaiea a iae oaeaeyaony oai
n?aaenoaai e oaoie/aneei i?eaiai, eioi?ua niinianoaotho aeinoeaeaieth
eiia/iie oeaee o/aiey. ss aeoiath, /oi neaaeoao iiiieoue – eiaa
aeeth/aao a naay e oeaeue, e n?aaenoai aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee.

Nooue ie?iaicc?aiey eiaia caeeth/aaony a niaaeeiaiee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
aeooe /aeiaaea n ie?iaui aeooii, n aaniethoiie aeooie eee Aiaii. Ii
iiaieth eiaia, a yoii – oeaeue aeecie. “I/euaiea” e “niaa?oainoaiaaiea”
– yoe aeaa iiiyoey eaaeao a iniiaa o/aiey eiaia, eioi?ia e?iia oiai,
i?aaeoniao?eaaao auiieiaiea eiiieaena oece/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee, eiio?ieue
iaae aeuoaieai, niaethaeaiea aeaeaiu ieoaiey, a oaeaea niioaaonoaothueo
ii?i yoeee. TH. A. Ia?ceyeia (1994) n/eoaao, /oi eiaa – yoi ia?ac
aeecie, aaaeouee e oece/aneiio caei?iaueth, ineoe/aneie
o?aaiiaaoaiiinoe, niieieiiio e aeia?iio acaeyaeo ia ie?oaeathuee ie?.
Eiaa – yoi ia canouaoaa o/aiea, iii aeeiaie/ii e a naiae nia?aiaiiie
eiinoane ana aieueoa iooiaeeo io ?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneeo oieeiaaiee e
i?eaeeaeaaony e /enoi i?aeoe/aneei oeaeyi. Iia ia i?aaeiacia/aia aeey
eaeiai-oi oceiai e?oaa eeoe, i?aeoe/aneea ciaiey eiaia ia icia/atho, /oi
/aeiaae aeieaeai noaoue iooaeueieeii e aeeoue oaaeeiaiii a ai?ao. Yoi
naiue iaueiiaaiiue /aeiaae, aeeaouee ii?iaeueiie aeeciueth. Aeey caiyoee
eiaie ia eiaao cia/aiey nioeeaeueiue noaoon.

Ethaay iaoea a nouiinoe aaneiia/ia, iia eiaao naie acu,
iniiaiiieaaathuea i?eioeeiu. Yoi ioiineony e e eiaa. AEaeathuee
aeinoe/ue aa?oei yoiai o/aiey aeieaeai ciaoue i ninoiyiee naiaai
caei?iauey, i?ieiinoeueoe?iaaoueny o a?a/ae e iao/aoueny iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii iiuoiuo o/eoaeae eiae – ao?o. Caieiaoueny ioaeii
nenoaiaoe/anee.

A o?oaea Iaoaiaeaeaee “Eiaanoo?a” eceiaeaia eiaa, aeaeyuayny ia 8
nooiaiae, ninoaaeythuee “ainueia?e/iue iooue” eiae:

ssia – iaaeee/iinoiua acaeiiioiioaiey.

Ieyia – aioo?eee/iinoiay naiiaeenoeeieeia.

Anaia – iicu.

I?aiayia – nenoaia aeuoaoaeueiuo oi?aaeiaiee.

I?aoueyoa?a – iooiae io /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey.

Aeoa?aia – eiioeaio?aoeey iunee.

Aeoyia – iaaeeoaoeey (i?ioeann aieeaiey a nouiinoue iauaeoa
nin?aaeioi/aiey).

Naiaaeoe – naii?aaeecaoeey (ninoiyiea iieiiai aieeaiey a nouiinoue
aeaiiiai iauaeoa).

I?e/ai neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi “ainueia?e/iue iooue” eiae aeaeeony ia
iecooth nooiaiue – oaooa-eiaa, e aunooth – ?aaeaea-eiaa (iaia?aie/aiiay
aeanoue iaae naieie iuneyie e iinooieaie), noaayuoth oeaeue – iaeaaeaoue
ineoe/aneeie i?ioeannaie. A oaooa-eiao aoiaeyo /aou?a nooiaie: ssia,
Ieyia, anaiu e I?aiayia. ?aaeaea-eiaa aeeth/aao oaeaea /aou?a nooiaie –
I?aoueyoa?o, Aeoa?aio, Aeoueyio e Naiaaeoe. A aeaiiie ?aaioa y, a
iniiaiii, aoaeo ?anniao?eaaoue oaooa-eiao (oece/aneoth eiao).

Aeaaa II

Niaeanii o/aieth eiaia iaoa oaei aeeaao ca n/ao “iieiaeeoaeueiuo” e
“io?eoeaoaeueiuo” oieia, e eiaaea iie iaoiaeyony a iieiii ?aaiiaanee, oi
iiaeii aiai?eoue ia ioee/iii caei?iauea (?a/ue eaeao, aeaeeii, i
?aaiiaanee i?ioeannia anneieeyoeee e aeenneieeyoeee a iaiaia aauanoa).
Ia ycuea ae?aaiae neiaieeee “iieiaeeoaeueiue” oie iaicia/aeny neiaii
“oa” (Nieioea), a “io?eoeaoaeueiue” – neiaii “ooa” (Eoia). Neeyieai yoeo
aeaoo neia e iieo/aii neiai “oaooa”, niune eioi?iai neiaieece?oao
aaeeinoai i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae. Eae n/eoaao A. Aaoeiia (1986), i?e iiiiue
aeeeoaeueiuo e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo oi?aaeiaiee eiae aeiaeaathony
aiciiaeiinoe ?aaoee?iaaoue aaaaoaoeaiua ooieoeee. Eaaeaeia oi?aaeiaiea
oaooa-eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aaeaeaiiui iieiaeeoaeueiui aicaeaenoaeai
ia ?acee/iua i?aaiu e nenoaiu /aeiaaea. Aeinoeaaaiua i?e yoii aunieay
aeecianiiniaiinoue e eiaeinoue oaea i?e ?aaoey?iuo caiyoeyo ii nenoaia
eiaia iiaeao nio?aiyoueny aei eiioea aeecie.

E?oiiaeoee niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe oeceieiaee nii?oa aeieoi? aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe A. N. Oa?oaeue eiinoaoe?oao: “…iia ciaeiinoai n aeiianoe/aneeie
oi?aaeiaieyie iicaieyao ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi anaiu – noaoe/iua oi?aaeiaiey
eiaia – oi?ioaa n?aaenoai aeey ?acaeoey nonoaaiie aeaeinoe e /oanoaa
?aaiiaaney i?e iaaieueoie cao?aoa oece/aneie yia?aee”. A oaooa-eiaa, eae
e a ethaie nenoaia oece/aneie eoeueoo?u, iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi n caaiou i
oaea ia/eiaaony ?acaeoea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea aeaaiiai – aeooa
(“o?aie?iaaiiia oaei niinianoaoao o?aie?iaea oia”).

Iauaecaanoii, /oi iiiaea ooieoeee iaoaai i?aaiecia ?aaoee?othony
niciaieai. Iu oiaeei, aaaaai, inoaiaaeeaaainy, naaeeiny, aa?ai eiaeeo,
aeoai oaa?aeoth ieuo, i?iaeaouaaai aeeaeeoth, ioe?uaaai e cae?uaaai
aeaca e o. i. – ana yoe aeaenoaey iiaeai ia/aoue e i?a?aaoue ii
nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth. Ii a ninoiyiee ee iu iaeiei eoue aieaaui oneeeai
onei?eoue eeai caiaaeeeoue aeaiea na?aeoea? Niiniaiu ee iiaeeyoue ia
?aaioo aeaeoaeea e ia?enoaeueoeeo eeoa/ieea? Iiaeai ee iu oi?aaeyoue
ooieoeeiie?iaaieai aeaeac aioo?aiiae nae?aoeee? Eae n/eoaao I. N.
Oa?oaeianeee (1986), ia yoe aii?inu ioaaoeoue neaaeoao iieiaeeoaeueii.
Iaaieueoay niaoeeaeueiay o?aie?iaea – e iiaeii onei?youe eee caiaaeeyoue
?eoi na?aeoea. Aniiiiei eeneue aeon eeiiia, aeaaeioth io niea
iiaa?oiinoue ?ac?aca – e ai ?oo iaaaaaao nethia. Ia i/aiue neiaeii
aucaaoue iai?iecaieueioth ?aaeoeeth o ae?oaiai /aeiaaea, iai?eia?,
canoaaeoue aai iie?aniaoue, o. a. ni?iaioee?iaaoue ?aceia ?anoe?aiea
iaeue/aeoeo e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia. I?e aani?e/eiiuo eee iaaaeaeaaoiuo
no?aoao eee aanniiieoea, eiaaea aicaoaeaeaii i?aaia, “yiioeeiiaeueiia”
iieooa?ea iicaa, eiiaaea auaaao aeinoaoi/ii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
?annoaeeoaeueii naie yiioeee, o. a. “iiaeeeth/eoue” eaaia “eiae/aneia”
iieooa?ea, /oiau oniieieoueny. ?acae?aaeeoaeueiiio /aeiaaeo iiaeii
iiniaaoiaaoue a iiiaio yiioeeiiaeueiiai anieanea ianeieueei caaea?aeaoue
aeuoaiea, i?e/ai ia auaeioa. Ecauoie oaeaeeneiou nin?aaeioa/eaaao ?aaioo
iicaa ia aeuoaoaeueiii oeaio?a e aniuoea aiaaa aaniao.

Iacia/eoaeueiua o?aou yia?aee ?acei ioee/atho oaooa-eiao io aa?iiaeneie
aoeaoeee. ?anneaaeaieth oaeaeyaony aieueoa aieiaiey, /ai iai?yaeaieth
iuooe. Ia neo/aeii a iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaieyo iieooooy ioia/aaony, /oi
“eiaa – yoi aeiianoeea aeey eaioyaa”. Iaeiaei naie eiae noaayo yoi naaa
a caneoao. “…Iuoa/iia ?acaeoea ioithaeue ia oiaeaeanoaaiii
caei?iaueth… Ana aeaeaeaiey auiieiythony iaaeeaiii e ieaaii…
Iniiaiay oeaeue – a oneeaiee oee?eoeyoeee e?iae e i?eoiea eenei?iaea.
Yoi aeinoeaaaony i?e iin?aaenoaa aeaeaeaiee iicaiii/ieea e ?acee/iuo
ni/eaiaiee, i?e aeoaieii aeuoaiee, ii aac eioaineaiie ?aaiou iuooe”
(Einaiae Ae., 1968). Ae?oaia iiaiea auneacaii A. A. E?aieaeiie (1991),
eioi?ay n/eoaao, /oi aa?iiaeneay oece/aneay eoeueoo?a, ooiaeyuay ei?iyie
a eeanne/aneoth Yeeaaeo, eoaea anoanoaaiiaa e aeeaea e i?e?iaea, /ai
eiaa. Oi?aaeiaiey ia aeaeinoue oaea e neeo ioaeaeueiuo iuooe (a oaeiau
iniiaiua anaiu) oe?iei i?aeoeeothony a aa?iiaeneie aoeaoeea i?e ioai?a
iiae/eia a nii?oeaiua naeoeee.

Aeaaii caia/aii, /oi iaeioi?ua aeinoaoi/ii aeeneiioi?oiua iieiaeaiey
oaea noeioee?otho aioo?aiiea neeu i?aaiecia, aucuaatho ioaaoioth
nii?ioeaeyaiinoue. Aeaei a oii, /oi i?e oaeeo iicao i?ienoiaeyo
“caaeeiu” a i?aaiecia, nie?aao aeuoaiea, io/anoe ia?ae?uaathony
e?oiiaeoea e?iaaiiniua ninoaeu, a a ?yaea neo/aaa e eeioioie. Yoei
“aeeciaiiui nieai” i?eoiaeeony i?aiaeieaaaoue cia/eoaeueiua i?aiyonoaey
ia naiai iooe, e ninoaeu i?e yoii eae au oi?aaeiythony. ?aaoee?othuea eo
ieieaoth?iua iuooeu, niaa?oay aeiiieieoaeueioth aeoeaioth ?aaioo,
o?aaotho aieueoa eenei?iaea, ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa. Naiaia?aciia
oi?aaeiaiea aac aeaeaeaiey, a /ai-oi iiaeiaiia eciiao?e/aneie
aeiianoeea. Ioaeaeueiua o/anoee oaea ?aaioatho i?e yoii a yeno?aiaeueiuo
oneiaeyo. Aeaaeaiea e?iae a oao eee eiuo ianoao iiauoaaony ec-ca
“ia?aoyaeae”. Iia no?aieoueny ?anoa/ueny ii i?eeaaathuei iaeeei
ninoaeai, eaieeey?ai. Aeoeaiaa aeeth/athony a ?aaioo ia oieueei aeaaiua
eeioaoe/aneea ?onea, ii e iaaeoeaiaaua, iaaeeeaoi/iua i?iiaaeooee.
Ionthaea e iuouaiea oaiea a aeaiiuo ciiao.

Noaniaiiua oneiaey niinianoaotho e o?aie?iaea aeuoaoaeueiie nenoaiu.
Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iao i?aaieci iai?a?uaii
?anoiaeoao yia?aeth, eioi?oth iieo/aao i?e ?aniaaea neiaeiuo
aunieiiieaeoey?iuo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee ia niaaeeiaiey n aieaa
i?inoie no?oeoo?ie e iaiueoae iieaeoey?iie iannie. ?acee/iua
i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, anooiathuea a oeie/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea n
eenei?iaeii aicaeooa, nai?atho aei aieaa i?inouo i?iaeoeoia, e
aunaiaiaeaeatho yia?aeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeeciaiiuo
ooieoeee i?aaiecia. Eiia/iua i?iaeoeou yoiai nai?aiey, iaeaieueooth
aeieth eioi?uo ninoaaeyao aeaoieenue oaea?iaea, iai?a?uaii auaeaeythony
a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. Oaeei ia?acii, a oa/aiea anae aeecie i?aaieci,
iinoiyiii eiioaeoe?oy n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie, iinoiyiii iiaeiuaao
eenei?iae e auaeaeyao aeaoieenue oaea?iaea. Aeuoaoaeueiue i?ioeann
ninoieo ec o?ao yoaiia: aiaoiaai (eaai/iiai) aeuoaiey, o?ainii?oe?iaee
eenei?iaea ec eaaeeo e oeaiyi /a?ac eenei?iae e aioo?aiiaai
(oeaiaaiai) aeuoaiey. I?e aiaoiai aeuoaiee inouanoaeyaony iaiai aacaie
iaaeaeo e?iaueth a eaai/iuo eaieeey?ao e aoiinoa?iui aicaeooii (a
aeueaaieao). O?ainii?o aacia – ia?aiin /a?ac e?iaue eenei?iaea ec eaaeeo
e oeaiyi e aeaoieene oaea?iaea io oeaiae a eaaeea e aioo?aiiaa
aeuoaiea, aeeth/athuaa a naay ana ieeneeoaeueiua i?ioeannu. I?e
ii?iaeueiii aeuoaiee aeeao?aaia niauaaony i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 1 ni. I?e
aeuoaiee ii nenoaia eiaia yoi niauaiea aeinoeaaao 7-13 ni. N?aaiaiea
iau/iiai aeuoaiey n aeuoaoaeueiuie oi?aaeiaieyie eiaia iieacuaaao, /oi:

1. Anee iau/iia aeuoaiea inouanoaeyaony aaoiiaoe/anee e ?aaoee?oaony
aeuoaoaeueiui oeaio?ii a i?iaeieaiaaoii iicaa, oi aeuoaiea eiaia
oi?aaeyaony niciaieai.

2. I?e iau/iii aeuoaiee eiaia iaaethaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aaeioa e auaeioa e eo no?iaay ?eoie/aneay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue.

3. Iieiia aeuoaiea eiaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiaeiaoeeth o?ao oeiia
aeuoaiey: aeeao?aaiaeueiiai, a?oaeiiai e eeth/e/iiai.

4. Ai a?aiy auiieiaiey aeuoaoaeueiuo oi?aaeiaiee niciaiea
neiioeaio?e?iaaii eneeth/eoaeueii ia naiii aeuoaiee.

Aeey i?aaeeueiiai aeuoaiey ii nenoaia eiaia nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea eiaao
oi?ioay i?ioiaeeiinoue iieinoe iina e ionoonoaea iaoieiae/aneeo
eciaiaiee ia aa neecenoie. Oeaeueth eiaia yaeyaony ieacaiea i?e iiiiue
?eoie/aneiai aeuoaiey einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia oeaiaaia aeuoaiea,
/oiau iiauneoue aei iaeneioia aeiyia?aaoe/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue iaiaia
aauanoa. I?yiui neaaenoaeai yoiai yaeyaony caiaaeeaiea aeuoaiey a
?acoeueoaoa aieaa yeiiiie/iiai e ecae?aoaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey eenei?iaea.

A oeaeii aea a oeceieiae/aneii aniaeoa oaooa-eiaa aeaao neaaeothuea
?acoeueoaou:

?acaeaaao iuooeu e iiauoaao iiaeaeaeiinoue;

ianne?oao aioo?aiiea i?aaiu, /oi iaania/eaaao eo oi?iooth ?aaioo;

ono?aiyao oece/aneia iai?yaeaiea e oinoaaiiua no?annu, /oi
aaoiiaoe/anee i?eaiaeeo e ?anneaaeaieth iuooe e niyoeth no?annia e oaeei
ia?acii iaania/eaaao ia?aue oaa e niyoeth oinoaaiiiai iai?yaeaiey,
iineieueeo oece/aneiai ?anneaaeaiey iaaiciiaeii aeinoe/ue, anee /aeiaae
iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee oinoaaiiiai iai?yaeaiey.

Aeaaa III

Ii/oe ana caaieaaaiey aicieeatho aneaaenoaea i?yiuo eee einaaiiuo
ineoieiae/aneeo, ineoiyiioeeiaeueiuo i?e/ei. Io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee,
no?annu, a?aaeiua i?eau/ee, iaoi?ioea e iai?aaeeueiua iinooiee aaaeoo e
caaieaaaieyi oaea e ia?ooaieyi ineoeee. Caaieaaaiey iiaoo i?iyaeyoueny
aeaaea nionoy iiiaea ianyoeu e aiaeu iinea aicaeaenoaey oeacaiiuo auoa
oaeoi?ia.

Aeey ai?ueau n yoei e ?aeiiaiaeoaony ia?aay nooiaiue eiae – ssia.
Niaeanii eiaeeeneie ieoieiaee ssia – aia nia?oe, ionthaea e
iicaeinoaiaaii iacaaiea, /oi neiaiee/anee icia/aao “nia?oue ieioei
i?eau/eai”. Ia ia?aie nooiaie eiae o/aiee aeieaeai iaianoe nia?oaeueiue
oaea? naiei ii?ieai, iai?aaeeueiiio iiaaaeaieth e iuoeaieth. Yoa
nooiaiue aeeth/aao iyoue iniiaiuo ?acaeaeia:

1. Aoeina – ia i?e/eiyoue ie?oaeathuei a?aaea a iuneyo, neiaao e aeaeao,
enei?aiea iaiaaenoue e cei, o. a. ioiineoueny e ae?oaei ethaeyi oae, eae
iu au oioaee, /oiau ae?oaea ioiineeenue e iai. Ana inoaeueiua ?acaeaeu
eiae/ii auoaeatho ec ia?aiai e ?anoe?ytho aai niune.

2. Naouey – i?aaaeeainoue e ene?aiiinoue a iuneyo, neiaao e aeaeao,
iineieueeo i?aaaea au?aaeaao enoeio, ?aaeueiinoue. Anee i?aaaea iiaeao
iaianoe a?aae /aeiaaeo, iaiaiuaaoue aai ana aea ia noieo, eo/oa aianoi
niaaoia ieacaoue aio eiie?aoioth iiaeaea?aeeo a aai caaioao e
o?oaeiinoyo. Aeaenoaey eo/oa io?aaeatho naienoaa /aeiaaea, /ai neiaa.

3. Anoaey – ia i?enaiaiea /oaeiai a iuneyo, ia neiaao e a aeaeao,
ecaaaeaiea io anaaiciiaeiuo niaeaciia, eioi?ua aeaeatho ethaeae ieceeie,
iiaeeuie, aaaeoo e iiae?uao aeiaa?ey, eaea/ao eo niciaiea.

4. A?aoia/a?uey – aicaea?aeaiea, oia?aiiinoue ai anai, a iuneyo, neiaao
e aeaeao.

Ianiaethaeaiea yoeo i?aaee i?eaiineo oain a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie
e aeaeaao iaaiciiaeiui nicaeaiea ?aaiiaaney, aa?iiiee niciaiey /aeiaaea
e anaai iauanoaa. Eae n/eoaao ?yae aaoi?ia [1,6,8], ana a?aaeiua
i?eau/ee e iinooiee auoaeatho ec ia?ooaiee yoeo i?aaee.

A ia/aea caiyoee eiaie ioaeii caieiaoueny eco/aieai ssiu e naiiaiaeecii
oo?ii e aa/a?ii a niieieiie ianoaiiaea, ia iaiaa 15 ieioo e ia aieaa
/ana. AEaeaoaeueii eiioeaio?e?iaaoue naia aieiaiea ia oao ea/anoaao,
eioi?ua au au oioaee i?eia?anoe, a ia ia oao, io eioi?uo oioaee au
ecaaaeoueny. Caieiaoueny neaaeoao iinoaiaiii, iineaaeiaaoaeueii
ia?aoiaey io iaiaa o?oaeiiai e aieaa neiaeiiio, ?aaoey?ii. Eiaaea ana
i?aaeea ssiu aoaeoo io?aaioaiu, i?iaeieaeay eo niaa?oainoaiaaoue, iiaeii
ia?aeoe e neaaeothuae nooiaie – Ieyia. Ieyia – aic?iaeaeaiea iiaiai,
iieiaeeoaeueiiai ia?aca aeecie, iuoeaiey. Ieyia ninoieo ec 5 ?acaeaeia:

Oai/a – aioo?aiiaa e aiaoiaa i/euaiea.

Naioioa – iiaaaea iaae i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie.

Oaian – naiiaeenoeeieeia, iai?aaeaiiay ia nicaeaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai

oa?aeoa?a. Auaaao o?ao aeaeia: a) oaian ?a/e – aiai?eoue oieueei
i?aaaeo, ia oiio?aaeyoue a?aiiuo neia, ia iaeaeaoue naiae ?a/ueth
ae?oaeo, ia e?e/aoue ia ethaeae, neiaii, neaaeeoue ca eoeueoo?ie ?a/e,
eiio?iee?iaaoue naith ?a/ue. A aeaeaie/aneeo oeaeyo eiae ?aeiiaiaeotho
ia ?aaea iaeiiai aeiy a ianyoe niaethaeaoue aaniethoiia iie/aiea.
Iioeiaeueiue aa?eaio – iie/aoue iaeei aeaiue a iaaeaeth (auoiaeiie). A
yoio aeaiue ioaeii aeoiaoue i aicauoaiiii, i i?e?iaea, einiina e o. i.,
e aieueoa auaaoue ia naaaeai aicaeooa. E?iia oiai, a ?a/e ioaeii
noa?aoueny auoue e?aoeei e eiie?aoiui e ia aiai?eoue aac iaiaoiaeeiinoe.
Caeanue aoaeao oianoii aniiiieoue iineiaeoeo: “Neiai – na?aa?i, iie/aiea
– cieioi”. a) oaian oia – eoeueoeae?iaaiea niieienoaey,
o?aaiiaaoaiiinoe, oi?ioaai iano?iaiey, iieiaeeoaeueiuo iuneae, /oanoa,
yiioeee. a) oaian oaea – niaethaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo aeaeaie/aneeo
i?ioeaaeo?, i?aaeienuaaaiuo eiaie, caeaeeaaiea, o?aie?iaea.

4. Naaaeoueyy – ?aaoey?iia /oaiea, eco/aiea eeoa?aoo?u ii oeeinioee,
oeceieiaee, o. a. oie, /oi niinianoaoao naiiiiciaieth, ?anoe?aieth
e?oaici?a e ciaiee. “Iaaaaeanoai ia eiaao ia/aea, ii eiaao eiiaoe, o
ciaiey anoue ia/aei, ii iao eiioea”.

5. Eoaa?a-i?aieaeoaia – iinoiyiiia i?aauaaiea a aa?iiiee ni anae
anaeaiiie, io iee?i- aei iae?iie?a.

ss n/eoath, /oi ssio e Ieyio ia neaaeoao eco/aoue oi?iaeueii e
i?eiaiyoue i?yiieeiaeii. E yoei aniaeoai neaaeoao iiaeoiaeeoue
aaeoi/eai, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue iaueie iieiaeaieyie, i?aoai?youe eo aeeciue
niaeanii eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi e ianoiyoaeuenoaai. Anaaaea neaaeoao
iiae/eiyoue naie iunee, neiaa, iinooiee iauanoaaiiui eioa?anai, acya ia
aii?oaeaiea i?eioeeiu aoiaiecia.

*eoay iiiai/eneaiioth eeoa?aoo?o, iinayuaiioth eiaa, y caiaoeea, /oi a
iienaiee anai ano?a/athony oaeea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eae “aeoiaeoa i
i?eyoiii”, “aniiiieoa /oi-ieaoaeue oi?ioaa”, “i?aaenoaaeyeoa naay
aeia?ui, neeueiui”. E yoi ia neo/aeii, o. e. ec yoiai yanoaoao, /oi
/aeiaaeo iaiaoiaeeii niaa?oainoaiaaoueny ia oieueei oece/anee, ii e
aeooiaii. Ii aeieaeai ioeacaoueny io a?aaeiuo i?eau/ae (a oe?ieii
niunea), ia niaa?oaoue iinooieia, iaiinyueo a?aae ie?oaeathuei, ie ia
aeaea, ie a iuneyo. Aaaeue aeaenoaea iunee oae aea cia/eoaeueii, eae
aeaenoaea neiaa.

*anoi ee iu ia?auaainy ae?oa e ae?oao n aeia?uie, oi?ioeie neiaaie?
Anoue ee o ian caian yoeo neia? Aio neo/ae, eioi?ue iienuaaao E. E.
Eaoioeia (1993) ec nianoaaiiie i?aeoeee. Ia caiyoeyo oaooa-eiaie iia
i?aaeeiaeeea naiei o/aieeai nanoue ii aeaia, nieiie ae?oa e ae?oao a
iica eioina, cae?uoue aeaca, iiaeoiaoue e neacaoue naiaio ia?oia?o
oi?ioea neiaa. Ieacaeinue, /oi o o/aieeia eo ia oae oae iiiai.

Aeia?ua neiaa aeieaeiu anoanoaaiii aeeaaoueny a iaoo ?a/ue e noaoue
?oeiaiaenoaii a iaoeo iinooieao. Aaaeue aua E. I. Oienoie aiai?ee, /oi
neiai anoue iinooiie. Aeia?ia neiai e iunee ianoo iieiaeeoaeueioth
yia?aeth. Iaiaoiaeeii iiiieiyoue eo caian e uaae?i aeaeeoueny eie n
ie?oaeathueie, nicaeaaay aoiinoa?o oaiea, oi?ioaai iano?iaiey e
ae?oaeaethaey.

I/aiue aaaeii, /oiau eaaeaeia oo?i ia/eiaeinue n iieiaeeoaeueiuo
yiioeee. Ioaeii i?inuiaoueny n iuneueth, /oi aeaiue i?eianao oaea/o e
iano?aeaaoue naay oieueei ia oi?ioaa, aiooay naaa niieienoaea e aa?o a
nianoaaiiua neeu. Oo?aiiee ineoieiae/aneee iano?ie iiiiaeao i?aiaeieaoue
aicieeathuea i?aiyonoaey, ia?aaeeoue iai?/aiey, a oeuaea niiniaia
nicaeaoue e cae?aieoue oi?ioaa iano?iaiea, ia?aaeaoue aai ae?oaei
ethaeyi.

I?eiaiaiea naiiaiooaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony oi?ioei aa?eaioii ?aoaiey
i?iaeaiu i?aiaeieaiey i?aiyonoaee e cao?oaeiaiee, niyoey ineoieiae/aneeo
“caaeeiia”. Ia neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue oi?ioeu naiiaiooaiey, eiathuea
iaaaoeaioth yiioeeiiaeueioth ie?aneo. Ioaeii eiioeaio?e?iaaoue oneeey ia
i?eiaiaiee oaeeo oi?ioe, eae “aeaaea anee yoi nianai iai?inoi, y n yoei
ni?aaethnue”, “ana aoaeao oi?ioi”, “ana eciaieony e eo/oaio” e o. i.

Anee /aeiaae ia iano?iai iioeienoe/anee, eeoai aeecia?aaeinoiinoe,
aeoeaiinoe, aeeciue aai aoaeao o?oaeiie, aio anaaaea aoaeao /aai-oi ia
oaaoaoue. Iaiai?io, anee /aeiaae iano?iai iioeienoe/anee e aeaenoaoao
oaa?aiii, aio anaaaea aoaeao niioonoaiaaoue oniao. Oio, eoi iinoiyiii
aeeaao n iuneueth, /oi ioee/iia oece/aneia ninoiyiea e e?aieia
caei?iauea aeey iaai iau/iia yaeaiea, aieaao e?aeia ?aaeei, n/eoaao A.
Aaoeiia (1986). Ieeiaaea ia neaaeoao niiiaaaoueny a oii, /oi iiaeii
iaeoe iaiaoiaeeiua neeu e aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?aiaeieaiey aeeciaiiuo
i?aiyonoaee. Ia ia?aue acaeyae yoi eaaeaony ia ?aaeueiui, ii iaiaoiaeeii
ainieouaaoue a naaa oaa?aeia oaaaeaeaiea, /oi a aeecie iiaeii aeinoe/ue
anaai, /oi aeaeaaoue. A yoii niunea oianoii aniiiieoue neiaa
auaeathuaainy ienaoaey Aeaeaea Eiiaeiia: “ss no?aiethnue e oeaee n oaeei
aea iinoiyinoaii, n eaeei no?aeea eiiiana no?aieony e iiethno. ss
iaiieieaaei. Eaaeaeue, eoi eiae aiciiaeiinoue oi?ioi ociaoue iaiy,
iaaa?iyea aeaeae, /oi anaaaea aoaeao oae, eae y oi/o, ionoue aeaaea aeey
yoiai iio?aaothony aiaeu. AEeciue anoue ai?ueaa, e y aioia e iae”.

Nae?ao oiaiey auno?i iiaeaaeyoue io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee e ninoiyiey,
caiaiyoue eo iieiaeeoaeueiuie e?iaony a iiauoaiiie niiniaiinoe e
eiioeaio?aoeee. Eiioeaio?aoeey (e aa aunoay noaiaiue – iaaeeoaoeey)
?acaeaaao aieth, eioaeeaeo, ?aaoee?oao yiioeee e yiioeeiiaeueiua
ninoiyiey, onoaiaaeeaaao ineoe/aneia ?aaiiaanea. Ia neaaeoao caauaaoue,
/oi aioo?aiiyy aeenoeeieeia – iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea aeey oaooa-eiae.

Ii neiaai Aeaaeaiaiaeu: “Oaei anoue oi, /oi naeaeaea ec iaai iuneue”.

Nia?aiaiiua iae?ioeceieiae aeaenoaea naiiaiooaiey iauyniytho
aicieeiiaaieai aeiieiaioiiai i/aaa aicaoaeaeaiey ia iauai oiia
oi?iiaeaiey aeoeaiinoe ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa. I?e yoii ?acei aic?anoaao
cia/aiea neiaa, eae iniiaiiai ?acae?aaeeoaey. E nae/an aoaeao oianoii
aniiiieoue i oaeii iiiyoee, eae aooiaaiiay o?aie?iaea (AO), iineieueeo
cae?aieaiea ?aaeoeee, aicieeathueo a i?ioeanna AO, i?eaiaeeo e oiio,
/oi aeey aini?iecaaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo iuouaiee aeinoaoi/ii iiaoi?aiea
neiaaniie oi?ioeu. AO iaeaaeaao aieueoei i?aaiecothuei aicaeaenoaeai ia
yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaoth noa?o. *aeiaae nai aeoeaii aaaeao
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneee i?ioeann, aeoeaii eiio?iee?oy e ioeaieaay
?acoeueoaou aai iieiaeeoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey. A AO aieueoia ianoi
caieiaao naiioaaaeaeaiea, eae iaeei ec i?eaiia naiiaicaeaenoaey i?e
iieiii nio?aiaiee eieoeeaoeau e naiieiio?iey. Neiaaniue neaiae eee
neiaaniue ia?ac i?e AO einaaiii, ca n/ao oneiaii?aoeaeoi?iuo naycae
iicaieyao eciaiyoue eee ?aaoee?iaaoue iau/ii iaoi?aaeyaiua aaaaoaoeaiua
i?ioeannu. Iaoiae aooiaaiiie o?aie?iaee iai?aaeai ia au?aaioeo iaaueia e
oiaiee naiinoiyoaeueiiai eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey ineoioeceieiae/aneiai
ninoiyiey n oeaeueth iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe naieo aeaenoaee, iniaaiii a
iai?yaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo. Aeeaiacii eniieueciaaiey AO aanueia oe?ie, aa
oe?iei eniieuecotho i?e iiaeaioiaea nii?oniaiia, aeoa?ia.

Neiai iaeaaeaao ea/aaiui aeaenoaeai. Eae n/eoaao A. I. Nuoei (1994),
ecia?aoaiiua ei ea/aaiua “iano?ie” – ii?aaeaeaiiua oaenou, eioi?ua
iiaeii, iai?eia?, i?ineooeaaoue a caoeicaiene, iaania/eaatho yoi
aeaenoaea. I?e yoii oii eceiaeaiey aeieaeai auoue aeaeiaui, oaa?aeui,
oaaaeeoaeueiui, aac anyeiai iaoina. Aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iaaei
noa?aoueny aanoe naay eae iiaeii aeoeaiaa: oiaeeoue, aeanoeeoee?iaaoue,
e o. ae.

Caaa?oay aeaao, y oi/o ioiaoeoue, /oi iiae ianeie “iiaeciu”,
“iao?aaeeoeeiiiinoe”, “i?eaeiaeueiinoe” iiaoo auoue i?aiiaeianaiu
aanueia niiieoaeueiua aeiii?iuaiiua i?eaiu e ianoaaeaiey. Iaiaoiaeei
?acoiiue iiaeoiae ei anaio. I?eeanaynue e ae?aaiaeoae eoeueoo?a eiae, ia
neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi yoi, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue – eoeueoo?a, a aac
eoeueoo?u ie/aai ia ai?ie.

Aeaaa IV

*aeiaae, ?aoeaoee caieiaoueny eiaie, aeieaeai iiiyoue, /oi iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe a neaiie aa?a. Oaaaeaeaao oieueei nianoaaiiue iiuo.
Iaeiaei nouanoaotho ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny, iinoaiaiii “iiaeieiaynue ii nooiaiyi eiae”.Noaa ia
iooue caei?iauey, iu ia iiaeai eaii?e?iaaoue o/aiea eiaia i caei?iauea,
aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue oioy au ieieioiii i?eaiia, aeinooiiuo anai e
eaaeaeiio.

Oaooa-eiaa ia yaeyaony iaiaoeaae io anao aieaciae. E oaeei neo/ayi
ioiinyony: a?iaeaeaiiua ii?iee na?aeoea, ?iaeiaua e oece/aneea o?aaiu,
iieieiae/aneea caaieaaaiey, iaeioi?ua aeaoneea eioaeoeeiiiua aieacie e
ae?. Eeoue io/anoe aa iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue eeoeai, eiathuei
o?iie/aneea caaieaaaiey, aea e oi n iaiai?eaie: iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aoaiea
ea/auaai a?a/a ia caiyoey eiaie, i?e caiyoeyo ia aeieaeii oooaeoaoueny
ninoiyiea caei?iauey; iaeuecy caieiaoueny oece/aneeie oi?aaeiaieyie i?e
iiauoaiiie oaiia?aoo?a, aieaauo iuouaieyo, a ino?ue ia?eiae caaieaaaiey
e i?e iaino?aieyo o?iie/aneeo aieaciae. Aeaoyi aei 6 eao, ethaeyi noa?oa
60 eao neaaeoao niaethaeaoue aieueooth inoi?iaeiinoue e iinoaiaiiinoue;
aeaiueiai iaeuecy auiieiyoue oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey a ia?eiae
iaino?oaoeee, n ia/aea 4-ai ianyoea aa?aiaiiinoe e iiaeii aiciaiiaeoue
caiyoey /a?ac 3-4 ianyoea iinea ?iaeia. E?iia oiai anai, no?aaeathuei
o?iie/aneeie caaieaaaieyie, iaiaoiaeeii aieiaoaeueii iciaeiieoueny n
i?ioeaiiieacaieyie ii i?eiaiaieth ioaeaeueiuo iaoiaeia e auiieiaieth
oi?aaeiaiee.

Oaia?ue i aic?anoiuo ia?aie/aieyo.

A 7-10 eao iiaeii inaaeaaoue yeaiaiou aeuoaoaeueiie aeiianoeee
(eneeth/ea ec iaa caaea?aeee aeuoaiey), iicu ?aaiiaaney (iai?eia?, iica
aea?aaa – A?eeoanaia) e iico eioina (Iaaeianaia).

A 10-17 eao a caiyoey aeeth/athony aeoaieia aeuoaiea eiaia, iicu
?aaiiaaney, iica eioina, eaaeea oi?aaeiaiey aeey ?acaeoey nonoaaia
(iai?eia?, iica no?aeea ec eoea – Aea?ia Aeoaio?anaia).

A 17-50 eao – ana oi?aaeiaiey oaooa-eiae.

A 50-60 eao caiyoey no?iyony a caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey caei?iauey, ii
noaoe/iua oi?aaeiaiey iiaeii auiieiyoue ana aac eneeth/aiey.

A 60 eao e noa?oa caiyoey i?iaiaeyony oieueei a i?enoonoaee iiuoiiai
eino?oeoi?a e oieueei n ?ac?aoaiey a?a/a.

Anee e?iia oi?aaeiaiee eiaia i?aeoeeoaony aua eaeie-eeai aeae oece/aneie
eoeueoo?u eee nii?oa, oi niaiauaoue eo iaeuecy, eo/oa /a?aaeiaaoue –
oo?ii, iai?eia?, caieiaoueny eiaie, a aeiai eee aa/a?ii – ae?oaeie
aeaeaie oece/aneie eoeueoo?u. Ieeiaaea ia caieiaoueny: ia iieiue
aeaeoaeie, iiae y?eei nieioeai, iinea nieia/iuo aaii, aeeeoaeueiiai
i?aauaaiey ia nieioea aiiaua, /a?ac neeo eee a ninoiyiee no?anna,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae aaeie, a iaeo?aiiii iiiauaiee, ia eooia,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae niii. Ieeiaaea ia caieiaoueny eiaie aieueoa /ana
iiae?yae. Caiyoey aeaeaoaeueii ia/eiaoue e caeai/eaaoue a iaeii e oi aea
a?aiy. Caieiaoueny nenoaiaoe/anee, ia/eiay n i?inouo oi?aaeiaiee, ia
ia?ao?oaeaeay naay. “Ia/eiay n iaeiai, iinoaiaiii i?eaeaoue e aieueoaio,
ia/eiay n aieueoaai iinoaiaiii i?eaeaoue e iaeiio”. Oi?aaeiaiey
oaooa-eiae ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony auiieiyoue /anoyie, aanue oeeee iaaei
aeaeaoue n?aco. Ethaia oi?aaeiaiea eiaia ninoieo, eae ieieioi, ec o?ao
eiiiiiaioia: a) oece/aneiai – anaiu (iicu oaea); a) aeuoaoaeueiiai,
niioaaonoaothuaai oece/aneiio; a) ineoe/aneiai – iuneaiiiai
nii?iaiaeaeaiey iioiea yia?aee (i?aiu), eioi?ay aeaeaeaony a oii eee
eiii iai?aaeaiee e neaieeaaaony a ii?aaeaeaiiii i?aaia.

Caieiaoueny iaiaoiaeeii ia ionoie aeaeoaeie: ca 30-40 ieioo aei aaeu eee
/a?ac 2,5-3 /ana iinea aaeu. E?iia oiai, iaaeaeo oi?aaeiaieyie anaaaea,
aeaaea anee eaaeaony, /oi iao onoaeinoe, iaiaoiaeeiu ei?ioeee ioaeuo e
?anneaaeaiea, eioi?ia onei?eo i?ioeann ainnoaiiaeaiey. Oi?aaeiaiey
neaaeoao auiieiyoue ia /enoie iiaenoeeea eee eia?eea (ia neioaoe/aneii
eee neioaoe/aneii, iie?uoui oeii/aoiaoiaaeiie eee eueiyiie i?inouiae).
Iaeaaeaea ia aeieaeia noaniyoue aeaeaeaiee, oi?aaeiaiey eo/oa aeaeaoue
aineeii eee a iineao, ii ia a oaii/eao.

A inaiaiee oi?aaeiaiee, aea e ai anao inoaeueiuo neo/ayo aeecie iaaei
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny o?ao iniiaiuo caiiaaaeae eiaia:

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue n iinoaiaiiui ia?aoiaeii io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio

?aaoey?iinoue e nenoaiaoe/iinoue (ia?a?ua a caiyoeyo ai a?aiy
?aco/eaaiey eiiieaena aeiionoei ia aieaa, /ai ia 10 aeiae, eia/a aanue
oeeee oi?aaeiaiee i?eaeaony ia/eiaoue nia/aea). Anee /aeiaae ?aco/ee
aanue eiiieaen e auiieiyao aai oeaeeeii, ii o iaai i?iecioae ia?a?ua a
caiyoeyo nauoa 10 aeiae, oi ii iiaeao auiieieoue aanue eiiieaen
oeaeeeii, ii nia/aea eaaeaeia oi?aaeiaiea aeaeaoue ieieiaeueiia /enei
?ac.

Oia?aiiinoue ai anai.

E anaiai ioaeii iiaeoiaeeoue n o/aoii aic?anoa, oece/aneie iiaeaioiaee
e ninoiyiey caei?iauey, a ia a aeooa ni?aaiiaaiey eee niia?ie/anoaa n
ae?oaeie o/aieeaie eiae. I?aaeaeii aeaeaeaiee aeey eaaeaeiai aeieaeii
auoue iuouaiea “i?eyoiie aiee”, eniuouaaaiia i?e auiieiaiee anaiu e ia
aieaa.

Eae ?aco/eaaoue eiiieaen? Iaaei aua?aoue ianeieueei oi?aaeiaiee (1-3),
aicaeaenoaothueo ia ii?aaeaeaiioth /anoue oaea, e aeaeaoue eo a oa/aiee
10 aeiae. Yoi a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii aeey aicaeaenoaey eaaeaeiai oi?aaeiaiey
ia i?aaieci. *a?ac 10 aeiae aeiaaaeyoue aua ianeieueei oi?aaeiaiee
(1-3), e o. ae. iiea ia aoaeao inaiai aanue eiiieaen. Oi?aaeiaiey eiatho
iai?aaeaiiinoue oa?aiaaoe/aneiai aicaeaenoaey, io aieiau e iiaai.
Auiieiythony iie a neaaeothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe: nia/aea na?ey
oi?aaeiaiee a iieiaeaiee noiy, caoai – a iieiaeaiee neaey, aeaeaa – a
iieiaeaiee eaaea, e iaeiiaoe, ia?aaa?iooua iicu. *enei iiaoi?ia caaeneo
io neaaeothueo oaeoi?ia:

Anee ia oeacaii, neieueei ?ac, oi oi?aaeiaiea iaaei aeaeaoue oieueei 1
?ac.

Anee oeacaii, /oi oi?aaeiaiea iiaoi?yaony, oi aai auiieiytho aeaa ?aca.

Anee oeacaii “io” e “aei”, oi a ia?aua 10 aeiae oi?aaeiaiea auiieiyaony
ieieiaeueiia /enei ?ac eee naeoiae, a eaaeaeoth aeaeaaeo i?eaaaeyoue ii
1 ?aco eee naeoiaea, iiea ia aeinoeaee iaeneiaeueiiai.

Anee oeacaii, /oi oi?aaeiaiea auiieiyaony ia auaea?aeeo, oi yoi cia/eo,
/oi, ai-ia?auo, ai a?aiy auiieiaiey oi?aaeiaiey iaiaoiaeeii aanoe i?i
naay ?aaiiia?iue n/ao a naeoiaeao, ai-aoi?uo, neaaeoao aeaeaoue yoi
oi?aaeiaiea aei iiyaeaiey iaeaeoaai iaoaeianoaa, iaeaeoeo iai?eyoiuo
iuouaiee, iinea /aai oi?aaeiaiea i?ae?aoeoue.

Aeey oniaoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey a eiaa iaiaoiaeeii nia/aea onaieoue
e?ey-eiao. I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi ia i?i?aaioaa yoie nooiaie, o/aieee
ii ?acee/iui i?e/eiai ia iiaoo aeinoe/ue neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciuo
oniaoia a eiaa. E?ey-eiaa – ii?aeueii-yoe/aneee aniaeo eiae,
caieiathueeny aioo?aiiei e aiaoiei i/euaieai.

A ?aieao ia?aie nooiaie eiae – ssiu – aaaeii au?aaioaoue a naaa oaeea
ea/anoaa, eae ne?iiiinoue, oa?iaiea e ianoie/eainoue, ieaiiia?iinoue e
nenoaiaoe/iinoue caiyoee e oiaiea nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia iaeiie oeaee. A
ii ioiioaieth e ie?oaeathuei – oa?ieiinoue, ia iaaycuaaiea ae?oaiio ie
naiae i?aaiou, ie naiae enoeiu. Ianeeea ai eiy ethaie eaeae, ethaie
aeiaiu – yoi enoi/iee anao cie. Eae n/eoaao ?yae aaoi?ia [7,12,15], anee
iao iaiaoiaeeiuo ea/anoa oa?aeoa?a, niioaaonoaothueo o?aaiaaieyi ssiu,
ia noieo eaeoe e ae?oaei nooiaiyi eiae. Anee iie anoue eee eo iiaeii
ainieoaoue iooai ia?ainiuneaiey naieo onoaiiaie a aeecie, oi iiaeii
i?enooiaoue e neaaeothuae nooiaie.

Ieyia, aoi?ay nooiaiue eiae – aioo?eee/iinoiay aeenoeeieeia, naiae
i?aaee, eanathueony oece/aneie noi?iiu iiaeaioiaee, i/euaiea oece/aneia
e aeooiaiia. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey aunoeo nooiaiae eiae auiieiaiea anao
neiaeiuo i?aaee oece/aneie e ineoe/aneie aeaeaiu eiaia iaycaoaeueii ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae aeecie. Eiiieaen oaooa-eiae naiae eiia/iie oeaeueth
noaaeo ia ecaaaeaiea io caaieaaaiee e aeinoeaeaiea i?aeoe/aneiai
caei?iauey, a iiieiaeaiea i?aaiecia, /oi iaaiciiaeii aac iinoaiaiiiai
inaiaiaeaeaiey io iaeiieaoeony oeaeia, eceeoieo aee?iauo ioeiaeaiee,
oaaee/aiey aeaeinoe iicaiii/ieea e nonoaaia, i?aaeeueiiai e caei?iaiai
ieoaiey.

Aeaeaia iieinoe ?oa. Iinea eaaeaeiai i?eaia ieue ?io neaaeoao
i?iiieineaoue aiaeie aeey oaeaeaiey e?ioae e inoaoeia ieue. Iniiaiia
aieiaiea neaaeoao oaeaeyoue ia noieueei /enoea coaia, neieueei /enoea
aeanai, o. e. yoi oeo/oaao ieoaiea ei?iae coaia e yaeyaony i?ioeeaeoeeie
ia?aaeiioica. Oe?aieaieth ei?iae coaia, eo ooieoeeiiaeueiie nio?aiiinoe
niinianoaoao oiio?aaeaiea aeaaaoaeueiie ?aceiee iaoiuae ca 10-15 ieioo
aei i?eaia ieue.

Aeaeaia iieinoe iina. Yoi aaaeiay i?ioeaaeo?a, o. e. aac naiaiaeiiai
iiniaiai aeuoaiey iaaiciiaeiu caiyoey /aoaa?oie nooiaiueth eiae –
I?aiayiie. I/enoea iina e iaeiia?aiaiiay caeaeea neecenoie i?iecaiaeeony
ianeieueeeie niiniaaie. I?eaaaeo iaeei ec ieo. Neoiiiay i/enoea. Aeey
yoiai a 0,5 e oaieie aiaeu iaaei ?anoai?eoue 1 /aeioth eiaeeo iiaa?aiiie
niee, iionoeoue iin a aaieo e neaaea aoyiooue a naay aiaeo, cai?ieeiooue
aieiao, ii/oanoaiaaa, /oi aiaea iiiaaeaao a iieinoue iiniaeioee,
iionoeoue aieiao e n neeie auaeioiooue iinii. Iiaoi?eoue yoo i?ioeaaeo?o
8-10 ?ac ai a?aiy oo?aiiaai oiuaaiey. Iinea i?iiuaaiey iin iaaei
inooeoue, /oiau a aai iieinoe e iacooao ia inoaeinue aeeaeeinoe. *a?ac
1-2 ianyoea iiaeiaiuo i?ioeaaeo? neecenoay iina ie?aiiao, ia?oaaao, e
a?eii eee I?C oaea ia no?aoiu. En/acioo aeea?ae/aneea yaeaiey a iieinoe
iina, oeo/oeony iiniaia aeuoaiea.

Aeaeaia i?aaiia neooa. Aeey i?ioeeaeoeee ainiaeeoaeueiuo caaieaaaiee
i?aaiia n?aaeiaai ooa iaycaoaeueii aeuoaiea iinii e oiaiea i?aaeeueii
iii?iaeiyoue iin i?e ianii?ea. Neaaeoao ecaaaaoue aeeeoaeueiiai
aicaeaenoaey a?iieeo caoeia.

Aeaeaia aeac. N oeaeueth oeo/oaiey ieoaiey nao/aoee aeaca e
ii?iaeecaoeee aioo?eaeaciiai aeaaeaiey eiae ?aeiiaiaeotho neaaeothuea
oi?aaeiaiey: ca?uoue aeaca e naeaeaoue aeanyoue e?oaiauo a?auaiee
aeaciui yaeieii ii /aniaie no?aeea e aeanyoue – i?ioea, a caoai –
aeaeaeaiey naa?oo aiec e neaaa iai?aai, ii aeanyoue ?ac.

Aeaeaia i?aaiia a?thoiie iieinoe. O eiaia i/euaiea i?aaiia a?thoiie
iieinoe e anaai aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa – i?ioeaaeo?a aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeiay e ia anaaaea aeinooiiay iau/iiio /aeiaaeo. Iaeaieaa aeinooiiie
i?ioeaaeo?ie yaeyaony Aaiena?a-aeoiooe (i/euaiea iaiai). Oi?aaeiaiea
auiieiyaony oo?ii iaoiuae. Noiy ia neaaea niaioouo a eieaiyo iiaao e
oie?aynue ?oeaie a aaae?a, iinea aeoaieiai auaeioa aoyieoa aeeaio e
iaeiia?aiaiii ?acei iiaeieieoa aeeao?aaio iooai ?anoe?aiey a?oaeiie
eeaoee (iiaeiyoea ?aaa?). Ia iaeiii auaeioa naeaeaeoa 5-10, a ca iaeii
oi?aaeiaiea – 25-50 aoyaeaaiee. Oi?aaeiaiea niinianoaoao iyaeiio
iannaaeo anao i?aaiia a?thoiie iieinoe.

Ieoaiea i?e caiyoeyo eiaie. Ieua aeieaeia auoue naooae/aneie, o. a.
iaiue, o?oeou, iieiei e iiei/iua i?iaeoeou, ianei, iaae, i?aoe, ?en e
ae?oaea e?oiu. Yoa ieua, ii iiaieth eiaia, eaaei onaaeaaaony, aeaao
iiiai yia?aee e aeaeaao oi /enoui. I?aeoeeothuee eiao aeieaeai
oiio?aaeyoue oieueei naooae/aneoth ieuo, iaeiaei ?acei iaiyoue aeeaoo ia
neaaeoao. Ia?aaeaauaaoue ieuo neaaeoao iaoi?iieeai, /aeiaae aeieaeai
iieo/aoue io ieue oaeiaieuenoaea e caeai/eaaoue i?eai ieue ia iaeeaeay
iieiiai ianuuaiey.

Aeaeaia ineoeee. Ethaie oniao aicieeaao oieueei a ioaao ia
neiioeaio?e?iaaiiia oneeea. Eae n/eoaao TH. A. Ia?ceyeia (1994), eoiaii
ineoe/aneie aeaeaiu (eae io?aaeaiea ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa i?eioeeiia e
iiaeoiaeia ssiu – Ieyiu) iiaeao neoaeeoue iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi neea
ethaae aaca?aie/ia. Ethaiaue ei anaio nouaio, ethaiaue e aeecie
niceaeaoaeueia e i?iaeoeoeaia.

Eeoue i?eaey a niaeanea n i?aaeeaie ssiu e Ieyiu, inaiea iaoiaeu
oece/aneie e ineoe/aneie aeaeaiu, iiaeii i?iaeieaeaoue onaiaiea
aeaeueiaeoeo iieiaeaiee eiae e ia?aoiaeeoue e o?aoueae nooiaie eiae –
anaiai. Anai aaeeeia iiiaeanoai, aeey aeinoeaeaiey oi?ioaai caei?iauey e
i?ioeeaeoeee caaieaaaiee aeinoaoi/ii iieoi?a aeanyoea i?inouo, eaaeeo a
eniieiaiee anai.

Ioaa/ay ia aii?in, /oi oaeia anaia, Iaoaiaeaeaee neacae: “anaia – yoi
niinia neaeaoue i?eyoii, onoie/eai e aac iai?yaeaiey”. Yoi icia/aao, /oi
caieiathueny ii nenoaia eiaia aeieaeai no?aieoueny e aeinoeaeaieth
iieiiai naiieiio?iey iaae oaeii i?e eniieiaiee ?acee/iuo anai n oai,
/oiau a oa/aiee aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie iaoiaeeoueny a iaiiaeaeaeiii
iieiaeaiee e /oanoaiaaoue naay niieieii e oaeiaii. *ai oa?aeoa?ecothony
anaiu?

1. Anaiu – yoi iaaeeaiiua, oia?aiiua aeaeaeaiey, ni/aoathueany n
i?aaeeueiui aeuoaieai e ?anneaaeaieai. Ai a?aiy eniieiaiey anai na?aeoea
i?iioneaao aieueoaa eiee/anoai e?iae, /ai a ninoiyiee iieiy. Yoi
iaoneiaeaii neeueiui i?eoieii aaiiciie e?iae, aucaaiiui nie?auaieai
neaeaoiie ioneoeaoo?u.

2. Anaiu – yoi i?aeiouanoaaiii noaoe/iua oi?aaeiaiey n i?aiaeaaeaieai
eciiao?e/aneiai eiiiiiaioa. Iie iiauoatho ooieoeeiiaeueioth iaa?oceo
iuooe, ai-ia?auo, aneaaenoaea neeiaiai noaoe/aneiai nie?auaiey,
ai-aoi?uo, a ?acoeueoaoa oaeeeiaiey iuooe. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
?acae?aaeaieth i?ii?ei?aoeaioi?ia, /oi ieacuaaao aicaeaenoaea ia
oeaio?aeueioth ia?aioth nenoaio, a /a?ac iaa – ia ?aaioo na?aeoea,
i?aaiia e?iaiia?auaiey e ieoaiey.

Auiieiaiea anai ia aucuaaao aieueoiai ?anoiaea yia?aee.

4. I?e eniieiaiee anai iaiaoiaeeia ii?aaeaeaiiay eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey
ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo o/anoeao oaea, neoaeaueo iauaeoii aicaeaenoaey.

5. Aeuoaiea i?e eniieiaiee anai aeieaeii auoue anoanoaaiiui e
iai?eioaeaeaiiui.

6. I?e anaiao ia iaeaieeaaaony iiei/iay eeneioa, ia?acothuayny i?e
i/aiue iai?yaeaiiie oece/aneie ?aaioa.

7. Anaiu aeatho i?ioeeaeoe/aneee e oa?aiaaoe/aneee yooaeo, aeey caiyoee
eie ia o?aaoaony aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?eniiniaeaiee, nia?yaeia eee
niaoeeaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey.

Aeaeu anai. ?acee/atho neaaeothuea iniiaiua aeaeu anai: iaaeeoaoeaiua,
aioei?oinoaoe/aneea (iicu ia?aaa?iooiai oaea), iicu aeey iicaiii/iiai
noieaa, oi?aaeiaiey aeey iia, iicu ?aaiiaaney.

Iaaeeoaoeaiua iicu – yoi iicu, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey eiioeaio?aoeee
aieiaiey e iuoeaiey e aeey eniieiaiey aeuoaoaeueiuo oi?aaeiaiee
(iai?eia? “iica eioina”).

Aioei?oinoaoe/aneea iicu. Iie aeaaii?eyoii aicaeaenoaotho ia iica,
na?aeoea, eaaeea e aaiu ieaeieo eiia/iinoae. Eo eniieiaiea
i?ioeaiiieacaii i?e: iiauoaiiii a?oa?eaeueiii aeaaeaiee e caaieaaaieyo
na?aeoea, iai?eia? “noieea ia aieiaa”.

Iicu aeey iicaiii/iiai noieaa. Oaeea iicu iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 4
a?oiiu: iicu n iaeeiiii aia?aae, iicu n iaeeiiii iacaae, iicu n iaeeiiii
a noi?iiu, e ne?o/aiiua iicu. Iai?eia?, ec anai n iaeeiiii aia?aae
oa?aeoa?iie yaeyaony “iica ieoaa”, iacaae – “iica na?ai/e”, n iaeeiiii a
noi?iiu – “iica o?aoaieueieea”. Anaiaie ne?o/eaaiey iicaiii/ieea
yaeythony iieoiica eiaa Iaonueaiae?u (“A?aeoa Iaonueaiae?anaia”).

Oi?aaeiaiey aeey iia iiiai/eneaiiu e ?aciiia?aciu, e iaeaieaa
oa?aeoa?iui ec ieo iiaeii ioianoe oo aea “iico eioina”.

Ec aieueoiai /enea ?aciiia?aciuo iic ?aaiiaaney iiaeii ia?a/eneeoue
oaeea, eae “iica iaaeeia”, “iica ai?iiu”.

E ?yaeo iic iiuoiui eniieieoaeyi iiaeii i?enooiaoue oieueei iinea
iniiaaoaeueiiai onaiaiey eo i?e aaeaaeiaaiie i?aeoeea.

I?ioeaiiieacaiey e eniieiaieth anai. I?ioeaiiieacaiey iiaoo auoue
iaueie, o. a. ioiinyueieny aiiaua e caiyoeyi oaooa-eiaie, eee
?ani?ino?aiyoueny eeoue ia ioaeaeueiua anaiu. Iie iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoueny
aic?anoii, ninoiyieai caei?iauey. Iicu eiaia ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?e
caaieaaaieyo na?aeoea n oyaeaeuie ii?ieaie, a oaeaea i?e aunieii eee
iiieaeaiiii a?oa?eaeueiii aeaaeaiee. ?acoiaaony, yoi ia aaniethoiia
i?ioeaiiieacaiea – oaeei eeoeai ioaeii i?ieoe iaaeeoeeineia
ianeaaeiaaiea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae. *oi
eanaaony oae iacuaaaiuo /anoiuo i?ioeaiiieacaiee, ?ani?ino?aiythueony
ia ii?aaeaeaiiua oi?aaeiaiey, oi iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iie eiatho
aieueoia cia/aiea. Eiinoeueoaoeey ni niaoeeaeenoii ii nenoaia eiaia, a
oaeaea n a?a/ii iiiiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue aa?eaio caiyoee
oi?aaeiaieyie.

Eiioeaio?aoeey i?e eniieiaiee anai. Iau/ii ?acee/atho aeaa aeaea
eiioeaio?aoeee. Ai a?aiy aeeiaie/aneie oacu oi?aaeiaiey e ai a?aiy
noaoe/aneie oacu. Eiioeaio?aoeey ai a?aiy aeeiaie/aneie oacu aeeth/aao a
naay neaaeothuea yoaiu:

1. Eiioeaio?aoeey ia i?aaeeueiii eniieiaiee anaiu. Iia iaiaoiaeeia
aieueoa anaai ia/eiathuaio eniieieoaeth, eioi?ue aia/aea aeieaeai
iai?aaeyoue naia aieiaiea eneeth/eoaeueii ia i?aaeeueioth oaoieeo iicu.

2. Eiioeaio?aoeey ia ?anneaaeaiee (?aeaenaoeey). Aeey ia?aiai yoaia
auaaao aeinoaoi/ii ianeieueeeo aeiae. Eniieieoaeue aeieaeai no?aieoueny
e iiaeaea?aeaieth a ?anneaaeaiiii ninoiyiee a?oii iuooe, ia ianoueo
iaa?ocee.

3. Eiioeaio?aoeey ia aeuoaiee. Iinea oiai, eae caieiathueeny niiaeao
i?iaeaeaoue oi?aaeiaiey aac iai?yaeaiey, iiaeii ia?aoiaeeoue e
nin?aaeioi/aieth aieiaiey ia i?ioeanna aeuoaiey n oai, /oiau aeuoaoue
ii?iaeueii e iai?a?uaii i?e eniieiaiee oi?aaeiaiee.

4. Eiioeaio?aoeey ia ?aaiiia?iii eniieiaiee anai. Eiae ia aeiioneatho
ia?aaiiia?iinoe – onei?aiey eee /?acia?iiai caiaaeeaiey aeaeaeaiee.
Eiioeaio?aoeey noaiiaeony aaoiiaoe/aneie, iineieueeo neio?iiecaoeey
aeaeaeaiee e iiaeaea?aeaiea ?aaiiia?iiai caiaaeeaiey nei?inoe
iieiinoueth iiaeiuaao aieiaiea eniieieoaey.

Eiioeaio?aoeey ai a?aiy noaoe/aneie oacu.

1. Eiioeaio?aoeey ia ?aeaenaoeee a iieia (iinea i?eiyoey iicu).
Ia/eiathuei ioaeii eiioeaio?e?iaaoueny ia iiaeaea?aeaiee aaniethoiie
iaiiaeaeaeiinoe, naycaiiie n oaeianoaii aeaiiie iicu.

2. Eiioeaio?aoeey ia “no?aoaae/aneeo” oi/eao aicaeaenoaey anai. Eiaaea
eniieieoaeue oaea i?eo/ee naay inoaaaoueny iaiiaeaeaeiui e ?anneaaeaiiui
a aeaiiie iica, aeuoeo aac cao?oaeiaiey, ii iiaeao ia/eiaoue
eiioeaio?e?iaaoueny ia oi/eao aicaeaenoaey aeaiiie anaiu. Yoe oi/ee
oeacaiu a ae?aaieo o?oaeao eiaia e oaeoe/anee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaeea
o/anoee oaea, aaea a ia/aea i?e eniieiaiee anai /oanoaoaony
iaeneiaeueiia ?anoyaeaiea e aieue. Eaaeaeay anaia ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
aicaeaenoaoao ia aeaiiua o/anoee oaea. Iie e yaeythony oi/eaie, ia
eioi?uo eniieieoaeue nin?aaeioa/eaaao naia aieiaiea. I?aaeea
eiioeaio?aoeee niaea?aeao oeacaiey aeey eniieieoaey iacaaeneii io o?iaiy
aai eaaeeoeeaoeee.

*aoaa?oay nooiaiue eiae – I?aiayia. Yoeiieiae/anee neiai “i?aiayia”
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?iecaiaeiia io neeyiey neia “i?aia” e “yia”.
A yoii neo/aa I?aiayia icia/aao aeaenoaea, iai?aaeaiiia ia iiae/eiaiea
niciaieth i?aaiia, ?aaoee?othueo iinooieaiea (aaeio) e auaeaeaiea
(auaeio) noanoaioeee, iacaaiiie eiaaie “i?aia”. Iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi
I?aiayia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iinoeaaaiia a i?ioeanna oi?aaeiaiee
eneonnoai i?aaeeueii aeuoaoue. Ia?aue aniaeo I?aiayiu a iniiaiii
yecioa?e/aneee (aiaoiee), i?e eioi?ii aieiaiea iai?aaeaii aeaaiui
ia?acii ia iieiaeaiea e aeaenoaea o/anoaothueo a aeuoaiee iuooe e
i?aaiia, oiaaea eae aoi?ie, yiaeioa?e/aneee (aioo?aiiee), i?e eioi?ii
aani?ae?iaaiiay iin?aaenoaii niciaoaeueii eiio?iee?oaiuo aeaeaeaiee
eaaeeo “yia?aey” (i?aia) aeaeaeaony ii ii?aaeaeaiiui iooyi e
eiioeaio?e?oaony a eca?aiiii o/anoea oaea. Yoe aeaa aniaeoa I?aiayiu
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaeeiue i?ioeann. Aeey eiaia “i?aia” – yoi oa
aeeciaiiay yia?aey, aac eioi?ie /aeiaae ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue. Aeey
eiae “i?aia” – yoi oi aea naiia, /oi yeaeo?e/anoai aeey iaoae
oeeaeeecaoeee. Oeaeueth eiaia yaeyaony ieacaiea, i?e iiiiue ?eoie/aneiai
aeuoaiey, einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia oeaiaaia aeuoaiea, /oiau iiauneoue
aei iaeneioia aeiyia?aaoe/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue iaiaia aauanoa. I?yiui
neaaenoaeai yoiai yaeyaony caiaaeeaiea aeuoaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa aieaa
yeiiiie/iiai e ecae?aoaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey eenei?iaea, yoi e anoue
I?aiayia – oi?aaeaiea aeiyia?aaoe/aneeie acaeiiioiioaieyie a i?aaiecia
/a?ac aeuoaiea. Ana oi?aaeiaiey eiaia, ia oieueei aeuoaoaeueiay oaoieea,
i?aneaaeotho yoo oeaeue. Eiae n/eoatho, /oi “i?aia” iiaeiuaaony oieueei
i?e iieiii aeuoaiee /a?ac iin. Iaoeie onoaiiaeaii, /oi a aicaeooa
niaea?aeaony ?aaeeeaeu iieaeoe, aac eioi?uo aeeciue /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo
iaaiciiaeia. Yoi oae iacuaaaiua io?eoeaoaeueiua eiiu aicaeooa.
Aiciiaeii, /oi “i?aia” aicaeooa e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie io?eoeaoaeueiua
eiiu. O/aiua oaea aeaaii caieiathony iieneii “i?aiu”. Ii iiaieth iaeieo,
“i?aia” – yoi icii, ii iiaieth ae?oaeo – acio, ii iiaieth o?aoueeo, yoi
– oaeaeeneue aac (CO2), a naie eiae n/eoatho, /oi “i?aia” – yoi
einie/aneea oetheaeu, eioi?ua a ni/aoaiee n nieia/iie yia?aeae aeatho
aeeciue. Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai “i?aiu”, ooaa?aeaeatho iie, niaea?aeeony
a aicaeooa ?aii oo?ii, n?aco aea iinea ainoiaea nieioea, a iaeiaiueoaa –
a i?aaeaa/a?iaa a?aiy. Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai “i?aiu” eiaaony aaeece
aiaeiiaaea, a ai?ao, o aa?aaa ii?y, iaeiaiueoaa – a aoiinoa?a ai?iaeneeo
oeeoe, a cae?uouo e iai?iaao?aiiuo iiiauaieyo. Aio ii/aio i?e
aeeeoaeueiii i?aauaaiee a oaeeo ianoao iaaethaeaaony onoaeinoue,
iiyaeythony neaainoue, aieiaiay aieue, aicieeaao ia?aiciinoue. Ii
iiaieth eiaia, “i?aia” anaaaea caiieiyao /aeiaa/aneia oaei, eioi?ia
neaaeoao n/eoaoue aeeoioeyoi?ii e o?ainoi?iaoi?ii “i?aiu”. Eae n/eoaao
?yae aaoi?ia [ ], aeecianiiniaiinoue e caei?iauea /aeiaaea
caaenyo io eiee/anoaa aeeoioee?iaaiiie i?aiu e io i?aaeeueiiai aa
eniieueciaaiey i?aaieciii (a nouiinoe, aeeaua i?aaiu aaia?e?otho,
aeeoioee?otho aeioeie/aneoth yia?aeth e o?ainoi?ie?otho aa a ?acee/iua
ae?oaea oi?iu yia?aee). I?aiayia i?aaeeaaaao ineoioeceieiae/aneea
iaoiaeeee o?aie?iaie, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeinoeaeaiey eiio?iey iaae
i?aaiaie e niciaoaeueiiai aeeoioee?iaaiey i?aiu.

Eiae ?acee/atho o?e aeaea aeuoaiey: a?thoiia, ?aaa?iia e eeth/e/iia.
Iieiia aeuoaiea eiaia yaeyaony eiiaeiaoeeae yoeo o?ao aeaeia.

A?thoiia aeuoaiea. Ec anao aeaeia aeuoaiey a?thoiia aeuoaiea a iieia
iaania/eaaao iaeaieueoee aeuoaoaeueiue iauai aicaeooa. I?e yoii
iniiaaiea eaaeeo (ieaeiyy e n?aaeiyy eo /anoue) iaiieiyaony aicaeooii.

?aaa?iia aeuoaiea. I?e yoii aeaea aeuoaiey iaiieiyaony n?aaeiyy /anoue
eaaeeo, yoi – oae iacuaaaiia “aoeaoe/aneia aeuoaiea”.

Aa?oiaa aeuoaiea. Iaania/eaaao iaiieiaiea aicaeooii eeoue naiie aa?oiae
/anoe eaaeeo. Naiue iaiieiioeaiiue aeae aeuoaiey – ii o?aaoao
iaeaieueoeo oneeee e i?eiineo iaeiaiueooth iieueco.

Iieiia aeuoaiea. Oaeia aeuoaiea aeeth/aao a naay ana o?e aeaea,
iauaaeeiyy eo a iaeii oeaeia. A i?ioeanna oaeiai eiiaeie?iaaiiiai
aeuoaiey ie iaeei o/anoie eaaeeo ia inoaaony iacaiieiaiiui aicaeooii.

Eiae aiai?yo, /oi eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo io ?iaeaeaiey ioiouaii
ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei aeuoaiee e ioaeii aa?a/ue yoio caian. A oaeie
i?eaeiaeueiie oi?ia iie i?ecuaatho oiaiueoeoue /anoioo aeuoaiey.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eaaeaeue i?aai, eaaeaeay eeaoea eiaao aaiaoe/anee
caeiaeaiioth i?ia?aiio ?aaiou n ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeaeii. Iioeiaeueiia
auiieiaiea yoie i?ia?aiiu i?eianao /aeiaaeo caei?iauea e aeieaieaoea
(ianeieueei iicaieeo aaiaoe/aneee eiae). I?aiaa?aaeaiea ath, ia?ooaiey
caeiiia i?e?iaeu aaaeoo e aieaciyi e i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie nia?oe.

Auaiaeu

Oece/aneiai ?anneaaeaiey iaaiciiaeii aeinoe/ue i?e oinoaaiiii
iai?yaeaiee, eiaa iaania/eaaao ia?aue oaa aeey ono?aiaiey oinoaaiiiai
iai?yaeaiey.

I?e caiyoeyo ssiie (ia?aay nooiaiue oaooa-eiae) naia aieiaiea
eiioeaio?e?otho ia oao ea/anoaao, eioi?ua oioaee au i?eia?anoe, a ia io
eioi?uo oioaeinue au ecaaaeoueny.

Oaei anoue oi, /oi naeaeaea ec iaai iuneue.

Oaooa-eiaa ia yaeyaony iaiaoeaae io anao aieaciae.

I?e caiyoeyo oaooa-eiaie ioaeii neaaeiaaoue cae?aaiio niuneo, auoue
inoi?iaeiui, aieiaoaeueiui, ia aiaoueny ca auno?uie ?acoeueoaoaie.
Eiaeeeneay iineiaeoea aiai?eo: “ionoue o/aiee eaeao naiei iooai n
oa?iaieai, eee aai ooiaeaiaio e aai neeoeii iiniaoii aicaeaeaiooia
caeaiea ia?ooeony ia iaai”.

Ia eniieueciaaoue oi?aaeiaiey e i?eaiu oaooa-eiae aeey aeaiiino?aoeee
o?theia e oieonia, oae eae yoi ?aii eee iicaeii i?eaaaeao e
io?eoeaoaeueiui ?acoeueoaoai ia iooe naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey.

Eiaa aeeth/aao a naay e oeaeue, e n?aaenoai aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee.

I?eeiaeaiea. I?eia?iue eiiieaen anai aeey oe?aieaiey caei?iauey.

Aeey i?ioeeaeoeee caaieaaaiee e oe?aieaiey naiaai caei?iauey
?aeiiaiaeoaony auiieiyoue ana anaiu a oii ii?yaeea, a eaeii iie aeaiu.
Aeey inaiaiey aieaa neiaeiuo anai e i?aiayi, a oaeaea aeey oaeoaeaiiiai
eco/aiey ?aaeaea-eiae o?aaoaony ?oeiaiaenoai iiuoiiai o/eoaey – ao?o.

Neaeoanaia (?en. 2). Yoa anaia yaeyaony ia/aeueiie a eiiieaena caiyoee e
ioiineony e a?oiia iaaeeoaoeeiiiuo iic.

Eniieiaiea: auiieiyaony neaey ii-oo?aoeee. Iiae ne?auaiu. I?aaay nooiiy
eaaeeo ia eaaii aaae?a (/anoe/ii). Iicaiii/iee aui?yieai. ?oee,
iiouaiiua eaaeiiyie aiec, ia eieaiyo. Aeaca cae?uou. Aaaeii nicaeaoue o
naay /oanoai aioo?aiiaai iieiy e ioa?ineoue iaieuaathuea iunee, ii ia
ai?ioueny n ieie. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iicu 2-3 iei.

Eiaa-ioae?a (?en. 3).

Eniieiaiea: noaoue ia eieaie e nanoue ia iyoee, eioi?ua neaaea
?acaaaeaiu a noi?iiu. ?oee ca nieiie. Caiynouea i?aaie ?oee naeaoue
eenoueth eaaie. N auaeioii iaaeeaiii iaeeiieoueny aia?aae e einiooueny
eaii iiea ia?aae eieaiyie. A yoii iieiaeaiee inoaoueny noieueei a?aiaie,
ianeieueei oaaoeo aicaeooa. Caoai iaaeeaiii n aaeioii aui?yieoueny.
Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – iaaeaeo a?iayie eee ia nieia/iii nieaoaiee.
Oi?aaeiaiea iiaoi?youe 5 ?ac.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: i?ienoiaeeoue iannaae i?aaiia a?thoiie
iieinoe e eae neaaenoaea oeo/oaiea eo ?aaiou, oeo/oaaony ieoaiea eeaoie
aieiaiiai iicaa, ii?iaeecoaony AAe, i?ienoiaeeo noeioeyoeey anao
aeeciaiiuo nee i?aaiecia ca n/ao oeo/oaiey ?aaiou aeiioeca e ei?u
iaaeii/a/ieeia.

I?ioeaiiieacaiey: aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue 2A e 2A noaiaie.

Aeia?aoa ea?aie-ioae?a (?en. 4) ioiineony e a?oiia iiieaaeeaathueo,
ia?aaa?ioouo iic, i?e eioi?uo aieiaa ?aniieiaeaia ieaea ooeiaeua.

Eniieiaiea: ea/ue ia nieio. Iaaeeaiii iiaeiyoue aui?yieaiiua iiae,
caaanoe eo ca aieiao. ?uaeii ioi?aaoue oac io iiea e iieiaeeoue aai ia
niaiooua iiae i?yiui oaeii (a eieoyo) ?oee. Aaeio iinii, auaeio ?oii. A
oaeii iieiaeaiee neaaeoao iaoiaeeoueny aia/aea 15 n, caoai
aaeaiaaeaeueii i?eaaaeyoue ii 5 n e iauaa a?aiy aeiaanoe aei 2-3 iei.
Caoai iaaeeaiii iionoeoue iiae. Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – i?eeea e?iae,
yia?aee (i?aiu) e ueoiaeaeiie aeaeaca.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: oneeeaaao ooieoeeth ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e
aeiioeca. Niinianoaoao ?acaeaaeeaaieth ii?uei ia eeoea. Iieacia i?e
caii?ao, o?iie/aneii aano?eoa, caaieaaaieyo ia/aie e iiaeaeaeoaei/iie
aeaeacu. Iieacia i?e aanniiieoea, oeo/oaao iaiyoue.

Oaeanaia (?en. 5) oaeaea ioiineony e na?ee ia?aaa?ioouo iic.

Eniieiaiea: ia/aei auiieiaiey oaeia aea, eae e Aeia?aoa ea?aie, iaeiaei
iiae i?e caianaiee eo ca aieiao i?iaeieaeatho i?iaeaeaaoueny aeaeueoa,
iiea eo iaeueoeu ia einioony iiea. ?oee i?e yoii auoyioou, eaaeiie
oie?athony a iie. Eiaaea iaeueoeu iia einioony iiea, ?oee iiaeii caaanoe
ca aieiao. Aeuoaiea – aaeio iinii, auaeio ?oii. Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey
– ia ueoiaeaeiie aeaeaca e nieia/iii nieaoaiee. A?aiy auiieiaiey 10 n.
Caoai aaeaiaaeaeueii aeiaaaeyoue ii 1n e iauaa a?aiy aeiaanoe aei 2-3
iei.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: aeaaiaea?y ?anoyaeaieth caaeiae /anoe
iicaiii/ieea e naeaoeth aioo?aiiae oeo/oaaony aai e?iainiaaaeaiea, /oi
niinianoaoao eeeaeaeaoeee nieaauo ioeiaeaiee. Aeaaioai?ii aeaenoaoao i?e
aeeaaaoa, oiaiueoaao aee?iaua ioeiaeaiey ia aeeaioa. Iiiiaaao i?e
aieiaiuo aieyo, i?e ia?ooaieyo iicaiaiai e?iaiia?auaiey.

I?ioeaiiieacaiey: aeia?ooieoeey ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e iaino?aiey
o?iie/aneiai ?aaeeeoeeoa.

Noioa-aaaeae?anaia (?en. 6).

Eniieiaiea: noaoue ia eieaie, i?e oii iie aeieaeiu auoue niieioou. Iyoee
?acaaaeaiu oae, /oiau iaaeaeo noiiaie iiaeii auei nanoue ia iie. Caoai
iaaeeaiii, iiiiaay naaa ?oeaie, ioeeiooueny iacaae, auaiooue aeoaie
aia?aae a?oaeue e iaeooeie aieiau einiooueny iiea. Eieoyie ?oe
oia?aoueny a iie. Aeuoaiea – iieiia aeoaieia ?eoie/iia aeuoaiea eiaia.
Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – a iaeanoe oae e iiynieoeu. A?aiy auiieiaiey –
oi aea, /oi e aeey Oaeanaiu.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: iica iieacia i?e oaeiii inoaioiiae?ica,
a?oaeiii ?aaeeeoeeoa e o?iie/aneii oiiceeeeoa. Aeaaiaea?y ?anoyaeaieth a
eieaiiuo nonoaaao e iicaiii/ieea oaaee/eaaaony eo aeaeinoue e
iiaeaeaeiinoue.

Iaoeiaoanaia (?en. 7).

Eniieiaiea: nanoue ia iie n auoyioouie aia?aae iiaaie. Niaiooueny a
oaciaaae?aiiuo nonoaaao ca n/ao ?anoyaeaiey yaiaee/iie a?oiiu iuooe e
iionoeoue ooeiaeua aiec, iiiiaay naaa ?oeaie, eenoe eioi?uo iaoaaouaatho
ueeieioee. Nieia i?yiay. I?eaeaoue eeoei e eieaiyi. Eieoe i?eaeaou e
iieo ii iaaei noi?iiai aieaiae. Eieaie i?yiua, iiae a eieaiiuo nonoaaao
ia naeaaoue. Aeuoaiea iau/iia. Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – ia iiynieoea e
ii/eao.

Ia/eiaoue auiieiaiea oi?aaeiaiey iaiaoiaeeii n 5 n e i?eaaaeyoue ii 1 n
a iaaeaeth e iauaa a?aiy aeiaanoe aei 1-2 iei. Oi?aaeiaiea iiaoi?youe
2-5 ?ac.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: iica iieacia i?e caii?ao, aaii??ia e iniaaiii
i?e caaieaaaieyo i?aaenoaoaeueiie aeaeacu o ioae/ei, ?aaeeeoeeoao
iiynie/ii-e?anooeiaie iaeanoe.

Aae?anaia (?en. 8).

Eniieiaiea: nanoue, iiae auoyiooue aia?aae. I?aaoth iiao niaiooue a
eieaia e aa nooiith iinoaaeoue n ia?oaeiie noi?iiu eaaiai eieaiiiai
nonoaaa. I?aaia iea/i ioaanoe eae iiaeii aeaeueoa iacaae. Eenoue i?aaie
?oee iie?aaony i iie, eaaie iaoaaouaatho eaaue eieaiiue nonoaa, a
iea/aaay ia?oaeiay /anoue ?oee oie?aaony a i?aaia aaae?i e ioaiaeeo aai
aeaai. Aieiaa iiaa?iooa iaeneiaeueii aeaai. Aeuoaiea iau/iia.
Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – ia iicaiii/ieea. A?aiy auiieiaiey 30 n. Caoai
iieiaeaiea ?oe, iia e aieiau iaiyaony ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiia. Oi?aaeiaiea
iiaoi?eoue 2-3 ?aca.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: iica oe?aieyao iicaiii/iee e i?eaeaao
aeaeinoue. Oeo/oaao ?aaioo ii/ae, ia/aie, naeacaiee, eeoa/ieea.
ssaeyaony aeaenoaaiiui n?aaenoaii i?e ii/a/ii-eaiaiiie aieacie.

Aooaeaeaiaanaia (?en. 9), iica “eia?a”, i?e eioi?ie iicaiii/iee
?anoyaeaaaony a ia?aaeieo ioaeaeao e naeeiaaony a caaeieo. Iaiaoiaeeii
aeeth/aoue a eiiieaen iicu Oaeanaia eee Iaoeiaoanaia.

Eniieiaiea: ea/ue ia aeeaio. Iiae auoyioou, iaeueoeu iia oie?athony a
iie. Eaaeiie ?oe – ia iieo ia o?iaia iea/. Iaaeeaiii aaeuoay,
iiaeieiatho aieiao eae iiaeii auoa. Caoai, iai?yaay iuooeu nieiu,
iaaeeaiii iiaeieiatho iea/e e a?oaeue eaa?oo e ioaiaeyo eo iacaae aac
iiiiue ?oe (?oee neaaea iiiiaatho iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ooeiaeua). Ioiie
io?uaaoue io iiea ia neaaeoao. A ninoiyiee iaeneiaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey
neaaeoao caia?aoue ia 5-15 n e caaea?aeaoue aeuoaiea. Caoai, iaaeeaiii
auaeuoay, neaaeoao aica?aoeoueny a enoiaeiia iieiaeaiea. Eiioeaio?aoeey
aieiaiey – aia/aea ia ueoiaeaeiie aeaeaca, iioii, ii ia?a ia?aianaiey
iai?yaeaiey, ia iicaiii/ieea e ii/eao. Oi?aaeiaiea iiaoi?eoue 3-5 ?ac.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: a ?acoeueoaoa iiuiiai iai?yaeaiey iuooe nieiu
e iiynieoeu i?ienoiaeeo iniaaiii neeueiue i?eeea e?iae e oneeaiea
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a ieo. Eiae ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi a iica
“eia?a” i?ienoiaeeo naeaoea iaaeo ii/ae, a iinea ?anneaaeaiey
oneeeaaaony i?eoie e?iae e iei. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e “i?iiuaaieth” ii/ae e
iieacii i?e ii/a/ii-eaiaiiie aieacie.

Naeaaoanaia (?en. 10) e A?aeoa-Naeaaoanaia (?en. 11) – “iica na?ai/e” e
“iieiaeiiay iica na?ai/e” A yoie iica, a ioee/ea io iicu “eia?a”,
iai?yaeaieth iiaeaa?aaaony ieaeiyy /anoue iicaiii/ieea. Iaeneiaeueiia
iai?yaeaiea aeinoeaaaony a iaeanoe iiynieoeu, e?anooea, i?iiaaeiinoe.

Eniieiaiea: ea/ue ia aeeaio eeoeii aiec. Eia e iin eanathony iiea, ?oee
aaeieue ooeiaeua, eenoe ?oe naeaou a eoeaee. Naeaeaoue aaeio e,
oie?aynue a iie caiynoueyie ?oe e eoeaeaie, iiaeiyoue iiae eae iiaeii
auoa, ia naeaay eo a eieaiyo. A yoii iieiaeaiee caaea?aeaoueny io
ianeieueeeo naeoiae aei ieioou. Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – ia iaeanoe
iiynieoeu, e?anooea, i?iiaaeiinoe.

Aa?iooueny a enoiaeiia iieiaeaiea, ?anneaaeoueny, naeaeaoue ianeieueei
iau/iuo aeuoaiee e iiaoi?eoue oi?aaeiaiea. Oi?aaeiaiea iiaoi?eoue 3-5
?ac.

Ia/eiaoue inaiaiea eo/oa n aa?eaioa A?aeoa-Naeaaoanaia. Ioee/ea aeaiiiai
aa?eaioa a oii, /oi iiaeieiaoue iaaei ia iaa iiae n?aco a iii/a?aaeii.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: aicaeaenoaoao ia i?aaiu a?thoiie iieinoe,
ono?aiyao caii?u, oeo/oaao ?aaioo eeoa/ieea, ia/aie, ii/ae, naeacaiee,
iiiiaaao i?e iiynie/ii-e?anooeiaii ?aaeeeoeeoa.

O?eeiianaia (?en. 12), iica “o?aoaieueiee”.

Eniieiaiea: noiy, iiae ia oe?eia iea/. Aaeuoay, iiaeiyoue ?oee aei
o?iaiy iea/, eaaeiiyie aia?aae, auaeuoay, iaaeeaiii iaeeiieoueny a
i?aaoth noi?iio. I?aaie ?oeie einiooueny iaeueoeaa i?aaie iiae. Eaaay
?oea i?e yoii ia iaiyao naiaai iieiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii ooeiaeua. Aieiaa
iiaa?iooa a noi?iio eaaie ?oee (aaa?o). A yoii iieiaeaiee caaea?aeaoueny
5-10 n. Iaaeeaiii, n aaeioii, aui?yieony e i?eiyoue enoiaeiia
iieiaeaiea. Auaeuoay, iaeeiieoueny aeaai. Iaeeiiu iiaoi?eoue 3-5 ?ac a
eaaeaeoth noi?iio.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: oe?aieyao iuooeu nieiu e einua iuooeu
aeeaioa, oeo/oaao iiaeaeaeiinoue a oaciaaae?aiiuo nonoaaao, ?aaioo
eeoa/ieea, ia/aie e aeae/iiai iocu?y.

Neioanaia, “iica eueaa”.

Eniieiaiea: noiy eee a iica Neaeoanaia. Ioe?uoue ?io. Eii/ee ycuea
iaeneiaeueii ioiaiooue iacaae, i?eaeeiay e iaao. Aieiao iaeeiieoue
aia?aae, iiaeai?iaeie i?eaeaoue e oaa. Neeueii iai?y/ue iuooeu oae. A
oaeii iieiaeaiee inoaoueny ia 30-40 n. Caoai oe?iei ioe?uoue ?io e
aunoiooue ycue eae iiaeii aeaeueoa neeueiui iai?yaeaieai iuooe ycuea e
oae. A oaeii iieiaeaiee inoaoueny ia 30-40 n. Oi?aaeiaiea iiaoi?eoue 2-3
?aca. Aeuoaiea iau/iia. Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – ia ieiaeaeeiao.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: oi?aaeiaiea yaeyaony i?ae?aniui n?aaenoaii
i?ioeeaeoeee aiaei e ai?ueau n o?iie/aneei oiiceeeeoii.

Aiioeoanaia (?en. 13).

Eniieiaiea: noiy eee a iica Neaeoanaia. I?aaoth ?oeo caaanoe ca nieio
nieco, eaaoth naa?oo, ca iea/e. Ia nieia noeaieoue ?oee a “caiie”.
A?oaeue ?acaa?iooa, iea/e ioaaaeaiu iacaae. Aeuoaiea naiaiaeiia.
Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – ia naaaeaiiuo ncaaee eiiaoeao e a?oaeiii
ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea. Iaoiaeeoueny a oaeii iieiaeaiee 1 iei., caoai ?oee
iiiaiyoue ianoaie. Aeaeaeaiey auiieiythony 2-4 ?aca.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: eae e iica “eia?a”, oeo/oaao inaieo,
ieacuaaao aeaenoaaiioth i?ioeeaeoeeo iaae?aaa?iuo iaa?aeaee e a?oaeiiai
?aaeeeoeeoa, iniaaiii iieacia aeey eeeaeaeaoeee noooeinoe.

Ne?oanaia (?en. 14), noieea ia aieiaa.

Eniieiaiea: auiieiyaony iiyoaiii. Ia?aue yoai: noaoue ia eieaie e nanoue
ia iyoee, iaeueoeu ?oe nieanoe a “caiie”. Niaioa iiynieoeo, i?aaeiea/uey
iieiaeeoue ia?aae niaie iiae oaeii 90i ae?oa e ae?oao. Aoi?ie yoai:
iionoeoue aieiao ia iie oaiaiai, caoueie aieioioth i?eaeaeiooue e
eaaeiiyi ?oe. Iiae aui?yieoue e iiaeiyoue oac. O?aoee yoai: ia?anooiay
iiaaie, iinoaiaiii i?eaeaoue ooeiaeuo aa?oeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea.
*aoaa?oue yoai: ioi?aaoue iiae io iiea (ca n/ao iai?yaeaiey iuooe
nieiu), e iaaeeaiii iiaeiyoue eo aaa?o. Iyoue yoai: iiae aui?yieoue
aa?oeeaeueii. Oanoie yoai: iinea oeenaoeee iicu i/aiue iaaeeaiii
iionoeoue iiae. Aa?iooueny a EI. Ia iie ia?aae niaie iieiaeeoue iaeio
?oeo, naeaooth a eoeae, a ia iaa – ae?oaoth. Oia?aoueny eaii a aa?oiee
eoeae e i?iauoue a yoii iieiaeaiee noieueei a?aiaie, neieueei au
iaoiaeeeenue a aa?oeeaeueiii iieiaeaiee. Caoai i?eiyoue iico “Oaaanaia”.
Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey – ia ueoiaeaeiie aeaeaca e iaaeaeo a?iayie.
A?aiy auiieiaiey noieee aia/aea 5 n, a iineaaeothuai i?eaaaeyoue ii 5 n
eaaeaeoth iaaeaeth e iauaa a?aiy aeiaanoe aei 2-5 iei.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: oeo/oaao ana ooieoeee i?aaiecia. Oeo/oaaony
iaiyoue, iano?iaiea, en/acaao aeai?anney e iaoaa?aiiinoue a naaa,
iiyaeyaony /oanoai aeooaaiiai eiioi?oa.

I?ioeaiiieacaiey: aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue 2A e 2A noaiaie, au?aaeaiiue
neea?ic ninoaeia iicaa, ioneiaiea nao/aoee, aeia?oe?aic.

Oaaanaia (?en. 15), “iica o?oia”. Yoie iicie ?aeiiaiaeoaony caeai/eaaoue
caiyoey ethaui eiiieaenii anai.

Eniieiaiea: ea/ue ia nieio, cae?uoue aeaca, ?oee aaeieue oaea, aeuoaoue
eae iau/ii, /a?ac iin e ii aiciiaeiinoe niieieiaa e iaaeeaiiaa.
Iinoaiaiii ?anneaaeoue ana iuooeu oaea, ia/eiay n iuooe iia. Aieiaiea
eiioeaio?e?oaony ia oao iuooeao e a?oiiao iuooe, eioi?ua a aeaiiue
iiiaio ?anneaaeythony. Iinea iieiiai ?anneaaeaiey aieiaiea
eiioeaio?e?iaaoue ia na?aeoea. I?e yoii neaaeoao ioaea/ueny io
iinoi?iiieo iuneae. A?aiy auiieiaiey 1-5 iei.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea: auno?ue oece/aneee e ineoe/aneee ioaeuo.

Aeaeeia?aoey:

Aaaaeaeaiyi I.A., Eaoeia A.TH. ?aca?au iaoaai i?aaiecia. – I.: 1979.

Ai?eniaa E. Eiaa aeey aeaieo. // Oeceoeueoo?a e nii?o, ?5, 1999. – c.
18–19.

Aueia I. Aeiianoeea io noa iaaeoaia. // Oeceoeueoo?a e nii?o, ?7, 1999.
– c. 24–25.

Aa?auaaei A.A. Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a eiaeeeneeo eiaia. – Ieine, 1982.

Aoui TH. Oaoieea iaaeeoaoeee. // Oeceoeueoo?a e nii?o, ?9, 1999. – c.
20–22.

Aaoeiia A. Eiaa. – I.: Iaaeeoeeia, 1986.

Coaeia A. I., I/aiianeee A. I. Oaooa-eiaa aeey ia/eiathueo. – I.:
Iaaeeoeeia, 1991.

Eaio A. Eiaa aeaiue ca aeiai. – E.: EO AIEEOY, 1991.

Eia?eai I. Yiioeee e caei?iauea. // Oeceoeueoo?a e nii?o, ?4, 1999. – c.
17–18.

E?aieaeia A.A. Oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey eiaia. – I.: Ciaiea, 1991.

Eaoioeia E. E. Oaooa-eiaa aeey aeaoae. – I.: I?inaauaiea, 1993.

Eao Iai *oi A. A. Yoa caia/aoaeueiay eiaa. – I.: Oeceoeueoo?a e nii?o,
1992.

Ia?ceyeia TH. A. Iooue e aeieaieaoeth: yioeeeeiiaaeey naiiicaei?iaeaiey.
– Ii.: IIE “Aaeoaen”, 1994.

Ianoa?ianeee A. A. *oi oaeia aooio?aieia. – I.: Ciaiea, 1984.

Iao?ia I. Naiiaiooaiea a ae?aaiinoe e naaiaeiy. – I.: I?ia?ann, 1986.

Nie?iia A.E. Naieouey e eiaa. – Aooaaaae: “Ueui”, 1981.

Nuoei A. I. Aiaeanoaaiiua ea/aaiua enoeaeythuea iano?ie. –
Iao?icaaiaene, ecae.-ai E*I “YOE”, 1994.

Oa?oaeianeee I. N. Iao?aaeeoeeiiiay oeceoeueoo?a. – I.: I?inaauaiea,
1986.

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