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Ядерные реакции. Ядерная энергетика

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Aineiiaoc ?O

Eaoaae?a IO

?aoa?ao

Oaia:

“ssaea?iua ?aaeoeee. ssaea?iay yia?aaoeea”

A?oiia: A-513

Nooaeaio: Eoae?ei A.A..

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Onieueoeaaa I.ss.

Aeaoa 10.12.96

Iiaineae?ne 1996 a.

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” 1. Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799092 PAGEREF
_Toc374799092 2

2. Aoiiiia yae?i GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799093 PAGEREF _Toc374799093 2

3. YIA?AEss NAssCE AOIIIUO ssAeA? GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799094 PAGEREF
_Toc374799094 3

4. ?AAeEIAEOEAIINOUe GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799095 PAGEREF _Toc374799095
3

4.1. Iauea naaaeaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799096 PAGEREF
_Toc374799096 3

4.2. Aeueoa-?aniaae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799097 PAGEREF _Toc374799097
3

4.3. Aaoa-?aniaae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799098 PAGEREF _Toc374799098
4

4.4. Iiceo?iiiue aaoa-?aniaae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799099 PAGEREF
_Toc374799099 4

4.5. Yeaeo?iiiue caoaao. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799100 PAGEREF
_Toc374799100 4

4.6. Aaiia-?aniaae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799101 PAGEREF _Toc374799101
5

5. AeAEAIEA AOIIIUO ssAeA? GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799102 PAGEREF
_Toc374799102 5

5.1. Iauea naaaeaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799103 PAGEREF
_Toc374799103 5

5.2. I?iaeoeou aeaeaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799104 PAGEREF
_Toc374799104 6

6. ACAEIIAeAENOAEA IAEO?IIIA N AOIIIUIE ssAe?AIE GOTOBUTTON
_Toc374799105 PAGEREF _Toc374799105 6

7. OeAIIAss ssAeA?IAss ?AAEOeEss GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799106 PAGEREF
_Toc374799106 7

7.1. ssaea?iua ?aaeoi?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799107 PAGEREF
_Toc374799107 7

8. OAOIE*ANEEA INIIAU ssAeA?IIE YIA?AAOEEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799108
PAGEREF _Toc374799108 8

8.1. Iniaaiiinoe yaea?iiai ?aaeoi?a eae enoi/ieea oaieiou. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc374799109 PAGEREF _Toc374799109 8

8.2. Ono?ienoai yia?aaoe/aneeo yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc374799110 PAGEREF _Toc374799110 9

8.3. O?aaiaaiey e eiino?oeoeeyi aeoeaiie ciiu e aa oa?aeoa?enoeee.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799111 PAGEREF _Toc374799111 10

8.4. Eeanneoeeaoeey ?aaeoi?ia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799112 PAGEREF
_Toc374799112 11

9. Caeeth/aiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc374799113 PAGEREF _Toc374799113 15

Aaaaeaiea

Yia?aaoeea – aaaeiaeoay io?aneue ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, ioaaouaathuay
yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu, au?aaioeo, i?aia?aciaaiea, ia?aaea/o e
eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo aeaeia yia?aee. Yoi iniiaa yeiiiieee
ainoaea?noaa.

A ie?a eaeao i?ioeann eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, eioi?ue o?aaoao
aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia, /oi oaaee/eaaao yia?aicao?aou. N
?inoii ianaeaiey noaiiaeony aieueoa yia?aicao?ao ia ia?aaioeo ii/au,
oai?eo o?iaeay, i?iecaiaenoai oaeia?aiee e o.ae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaea i?e?iaeiua eaaeiaeinooiiua ?ano?nu ieaiaou
en/a?iuaathony. Aeiauaaoue nu?uea i?eoiaeeony ia aieueoie aeoaeia eee ia
ii?neeo oaeueoao. Ia?aie/aiue ie?iaua caianu iaooe e aaca, eacaeinue au,
noaayo /aeiaa/anoai ia?aae ia?niaeoeaie yia?aaoe/aneiai e?ecena. Iaeiaei
eniieueciaaiea yaea?iie yia?aee e oaey aeaao /aeiaa/anoao aiciiaeiinoue
ecaaaeaoue yoiai, ?acoeueoaou ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee oeceee
aoiiiiai yae?a iicaieytho ioaanoe oa?ico yia?aaoe/aneiai e?ecena iooai
eniieueciaaiey yia?aee, auaeaeyaiie i?e iaeioi?uo ?aaeoeeyo aoiiiuo
yaea?.

Aoiiiia yae?i

Aoiiiia yae?i oa?aeoa?ecoaony ca?yaeii Ze, iannie I, nieiii J,
iaaieoiui e yeaeo?e/aneei eaaae?oiieueiui iiiaioii Q, ii?aaeaeaiiui
?aaeeonii R, ecioiie/aneei nieiii O e ninoieo ec ioeeiiia – i?ioiiia e
iaeo?iiia.

*enei ioeeiiia A a yae?a iacuaaaony ianniaui /eneii. *enei Z iacuaatho
ca?yaeiaui /eneii yae?a eee aoiiiui iiia?ii. Iineieueeo Z ii?aaeaeyao
/enei i?ioiiia, a A – /enei ioeeiiia a yae?a, oi /enei iae?iiia a
aoiiiii yae?a N=A-Z. Aoiiiua yae?a n iaeeiaeiauie Z, ii ?acee/iuie A
iacuaathony ecioiiaie. A n?aaeiai ia eaaeaeia cia/aiea Z i?eoiaeeony
ieiei o?ao noaaeeueiuo ecioiiia. Iai?eia?, 28Si, 29Si, 30Si yaeythony
noaaeeueiuie ecioiiaie yae?a Si. E?iia noaaeeueiuo ecioiiia,
aieueoeinoai yeaiaioia eiatho e ianoaaeeueiua ecioiiu, aeey eioi?uo
oa?aeoa?ii ia?aie/aiiia a?aiy aeecie.

ssae?a n iaeeiaeiaui ianniaui /eneii A iacuaathony eciaa?aie, a n
iaeeiaeiaui /eneii iaeo?iiia-ecioiiaie.

Ana aoiiiua yae?a ?acaeaeythony ia noaaeeueiua e ianoaaeeueiua. Naienoaa
noaaeeueiuo yaea? inoathony iaeciaiiuie iaia?aie/aiii aeieai.
Ianoaaeeueiua aea yae?a eniuouaatho ?acee/iiai ?iaea i?aa?auaiey .

YIA?AEss NAssCE AOIIIUO ssAeA?

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua ecia?aiey iann aoiiiuo yaea?, auiieiaiiua n aieueoie
oi/iinoueth, iieacuaatho, /oi ianna yae?a anaaaea iaiueoa noiiu iann
ninoaaeythueo aai ioeeiiia.

Yia?aey nayce – yoi yia?aey, eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeii cao?aoeoue, /oiau
?acaeaeeoue yae?i ia ninoaaeythuea aai ioeeiiu.

Yia?aey nayce, ioianaiiay e ianniaiio /eneo A, iacuaaaony n?aaeiae
yia?aeae nayce ioeeiia a aoiiiii yae?a ( yia?aey nayce ia iaeei ioeeii
).

Yia?aey nayce i?eaeeceoaeueii iinoiyiia aeey anao noaaeeueiuo yaea? e
i?eia?ii ?aaia 8 IyA. Eneeth/aieai yaeyaony iaeanoue eaaeeo yaea?, aaea
n?aaeiyy yia?aey nayce ?anoao io ioey (A=1) aei 8 IyA aeey yae?a 12N.

Aiaeiae/ii yia?aey nayce ia iaeei ioeeii iiaeii aaanoe yia?aeth nayce
yae?a ioiineoaeueii ae?oaeo ninoaaiuo aai /anoae.

A ioee/ea io n?aaeiae yia?aee nayce ioeeiiia eiee/anoai yia?aee nayce
iae?iia e i?ioiia eciaiyaony io yae?a e yae?o.

*anoi aianoi yia?aee nayce eniieuecotho aaee/eio, iacuaaaioth aeaoaeoii
iannu e ?aaioth ?aciinoe iann e ianniaiai /enea aoiiiiai yae?a.

?AAeEIAEOEAIINOUe

Iauea naaaeaiey.

ssaeaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe, eee niiioaiiiai ?aniaaea yaea?, auea ioe?uoa
o?aioeocneei oeceeii A. Aaeea?aeai a 1896 a. Ii iaia?oaeee, /oi o?ai e
aai niaaeeiaiey enioneatho eo/e eee /anoeoeu, i?iieeathuea neaicue
iai?ic?a/iua oaea e niiniaiua canaa/eaaoue oioiieanoeieo, Aaeea?aeue
onoaiiaee, /oi eioaineaiinoue eceo/aiey i?iii?oeeiiaeueia oieueei
eiioeaio?aoeee o?aia e ia caaeneo io aiaoieo oneiaee (oaiia?aoo?a,
aeaaeaiea) e io oiai, iaoiaeeony ee o?ai a eaeeo-eeai oeie/aneeo
niaaeeiaieyo.

Aiaeeeneeie oeceeaie Y. ?aca?oi?aeii e O. Niaeaee auei aeieacaii,
/oi ai anao ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo i?ioeannao i?ienoiaeyo acaeiiua i?aa?auaiey
aoiiiuo yaea? oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia. Eco/aiea naienoa eceo/aiey,
nii?iaiaeaeathuaai yoe i?ioeannu a iaaieoiii e yeaeo?e/aneii iieyo,
iieacaei, /oi iii ?acaeaeyaony ia (-/anoeoeu (yae?a aaeey), (- /anooeu
(yeaeo?iiu) e (- eo/e (yeaeo?iiaaieoiia eceo/aiea n i/aiue iaeie
aeeeiie aieiu ).

Aoiiiia yae?i, enioneathuaa (-eaaiou, (-, (- eee ae?oaea /anoeoeu,
iacuaaaony ?aaeeiaeoeaiui yae?ii. A i?e?iaea nouanoaoao 272 noaaeeueiuo
aoiiiuo yae?a. Ana inoaeueiua yae?a ?aaeeiaeoeaiu e iacuaathony
?aaeeiecioiiaie.

Aeueoa-?aniaae.

Yia?aey nayce yae?a oa?aeoa?ecoao aai onoie/eainoue e ?aniaaeo ia
ninoaaiua /anoe. Anee yia?aey nayce yae?a iaiueoa yia?aee nayce
i?iaeoeoia aai ?aniaaea, oi yoi icia/aao, /oi yae?i iiaeao
naiii?iecaieueii (niiioaiii) ?aniaaeaoueny. I?e aeueoa-?aniaaea
aeueoa-/anoeoeu oiinyo ii/oe anth yia?aeth e oieueei 2 % aa i?eoiaeeony
ia aoi?e/iia yae?i. I?e aeueoa-?aniaaea ianniaia /enei eciaiyaony ia 4
aaeeieoeu, a aoiiiue iiia? ia aeaa aaeeieoeu.

Ia/aeueiay yia?aey aeueoa-/anoeoeu ninoaaeyao 4-10 IyA. Iineieueeo
aeueoa-/anoeoeu eiatho aieueooth ianno e ca?yae, aeeeia eo naiaiaeiiai
i?iaaaa a aicaeooa iaaaeeea. Oae, iai?eia?, aeeeia naiaiaeiiai i?iaaaa a
aicaeooa aeueoa-/anoeoe, enioneaaiuo yae?ii o?aia, ?aaia 2,7 ni, a
enioneaaiuo ?aaeeai, – 3,3 ni.

Aaoa-?aniaae.

Yoi i?ioeann i?aa?auaiey aoiiiiai yae?a a ae?oaia yae?i n eciaiaieai
ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a aac eciaiaiey ianniaiai /enea. ?acee/atho o?e oeia
(-?aniaaea: yeaeo?iiiue, iiceo?iiiue e caoaao i?aeoaeueiiai yeaeo?iia
aoiiiui yae?ii. oei Iineaaeiee ?aniaaea i?eiyoi oaeaea iacuaaoue
E-caoaaoii, iineieueeo i?e yoii iaeaieaa aa?iyoii iiaeiuaiea yeaeo?iia n
aeeaeaeoae e yae?o E iaiei/ee. Iiaeiuaiea yeaeo?iiia n L e I iaiei/ae
oaeaea aiciiaeii, ii iaiaa aa?iyoii. Ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea ( -aeoeaiuo
yaea? eciaiyaony a i/aiue oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao.

*enei aaoa-aeoeaiuo yaea?, ecaanoiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ninoaaeyao ieiei
iieooi?a ouny/, ii oieueei 20 ec ieo yaeythony anoanoaaiiuie
aaoa-?aaeeiaeoeaiuie ecioiiaie. Ana inoaeueiua iieo/aiu eneonnoaaiiui
iooai.

Iai?a?uaiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee enioneaaiuo i?e
?aniaaea yeaeo?iiia iauyniyaony oai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, /oi ia?yaeo n
yeaeo?iiii enioneaaony e aioeiaeo?eii. Anee au ia auei aioeiaeo?eii, oi
yeaeo?iiu eiaee au no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiue eiioeuen, ?aaiue eiioeueno
inoaoi/iiai yae?a. ?aceee ia?ua niaeo?a iaaethaeaaony i?e cia/aiee
eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee, ?aaiie yia?aee aaoa-?aniaaea. I?e yoii
eeiaoe/aneea yia?aee yae?a e aioeiaeo?eii ?aaiu ioeth e yeaeo?ii oiineo
anth yia?aeth, auaeaeythueony i?e ?aaeoeee.

I?e yeaeo?iiiii ?aniaaea inoaoi/iia yae?i eiaao ii?yaeeiaue iiia? ia
aaeeieoeo aieueoa enoiaeiiai i?e nio?aiaiee ianniaiai /enea. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi a inoaoi/iii yae?a /enei i?ioiiia oaaee/eeinue ia
aaeeieoeo, a /enei iaeo?iiia, iaiai?io, noaei iaiueoa: N=A-(Z+1).

Iiceo?iiiue aaoa-?aniaae.

I?e iiceo?iiiii ?aniaaea nio?aiyaony iieiia /enei ioeeiiia, ii a
eiia/iii yae?a ia iaeei iaeo?ii aieueoa, /ai a enoiaeiii. Oaeei ia?acii,
iiceo?iiiue ?aniaae iiaeao auoue eioa?i?aoe?iaai eae ?aaeoeey
i?aa?auaiey aioo?e yae?a iaeiiai i?ioiia a iaeo?ii n enioneaieai
iiceo?iia e iaeo?eii.

Yeaeo?iiiue caoaao.

E yeaeo?iiiiio caoaaoo ioiineony i?ioeann iiaeiuaiey aoiiii iaeiiai ec
i?aeoaeueiuo yeaeo?iiia naiaai aoiia. Iineieueeo iaeaieaa aa?iyoai
caoaao yeaeo?iia n i?aeou, iaeaieaa aeecei ?aniieiaeaiiuo e yae?o, oi
n iaeaieueoae aa?iyoiinoue iiaeiuathony yeaeo?iiu E-iaiei/ee . Iiyoiio
yoio i?ioeann iacuaaaony oaeaea E-caoaaoii.

N ai?acaei iaiueoae aa?iyoiinoueth i?ienoiaeeo caoaao yeaeo?iiia n
L-,M-iaiei/ae. Iinea caoaaoa yeaeo?iia n E-iaiei/ee i?ienoiaeeo ?yae
ia?aoiaeia yeaeo?iiia n i?aeou ia i?aeoo, ia?acoaony iiaia aoiiiia
ninoiyiea enioneaaony ?aioaaiianeee eaaio.

Aaiia-?aniaae.

Noaaeeueiua yae?a iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee, ioaa/athuai iaeiaiueoae
yia?aee. Yoi ninoiyiea iacuaaaony iniiaiui. Iaeiaei iooai iaeo/aiey
aoiiiuo yaea? ?acee/iuie /anoeoeaie eee aunieiyia?aeoe/aneeie i?ioiiaie
ei iiaeii ia?aaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth yia?aeth e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ia?aaanoe a ninoiyiey, ioaa/athuea aieueoae yia?aee. Ia?aoiaey /a?ac
iaeioi?ia a?aiy ec aicaoaeaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a iniiaiia, aoiiiia yae?i
iiaeao enionoeoue eee /anoeoeo, anee yia?aey aicaoaeaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii
auniea, eee aunieiyia?aaoe/aneia yeaeo?iiaaieoiia eceo/aiea –
aaiia-eaaio.

Iineieueeo aicaoaeaeaiiia yae?i iaoiaeeony a aeene?aoiuo yia?aaoe/aneeo
ninoiyieyo, oi e aaiia-eceo/aiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eeiae/aoui niaeo?ii.

AeAEAIEA AOIIIUO ssAeA?

Iauea naaaeaiey.

ssaeaiea aeaeaiey oyaeaeuo aoiiiuo yaea? ia aeaa ineieea auei ioe?uoi
Aaiii e Oo?anniaiii a 1939 a. I?e eco/aiee acaeiiaeaenoaey iaeo?iiia
?acee/iuo yia?aee e yaea? o?aia. Ianeieueei iicaea, a 1940 a. Niaaoneea
oeceee E.A.Iao?aeae e A.E. Oea?ia iaia?oaeeee naiii?iecaieueiia
(niiioaiiia) aeaeaiea yaea? o?aia. I?e niiioaiiii aeaeaiea e aeaeaiee,
aucaaiiii iae?iiaie, eae i?aaeei, ia?acoaony aneiiao?e/iua ineieee,
ioiioaiea iann eioi?uo i?eia?ii ?aaii 3 : 2.

I?e ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey auaeaeyaony i/aiue aieueoay yia?aey. Yia?aey
aeaeaiey aunaiaiaeaeaaony a aeaea eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee yaea?-ineieeia,
eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee enioneaaiuo yae?aie-ineieeaie yeaeo?iiia,
aaiia-eaaioia, iaeo?eii, iaeo?iiia.

Iniiaiay /anoue yia?aee aeaeaiey i?eoiaeeony ia yia?aeth yaea?-ineieeia,
iineieueeo iiae aeaenoaeai eoeiiianeeo nee iooaeeeaaiey iie i?eia?aoatho
aieueooth eeiaoe/aneoth yia?aeth. Iniiaiay /anoue yia?aee aeaeaiey
auaeaeyaony a aeaea eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee yaea?-ineieeia.

Caia/aoaeueiui e /?acau/aeii aaaeiui naienoaii ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey
yaeyaony oi, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey ia?acoaony ianeieueei iaeo?iiia.
Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iicaieyao nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
noaoeeiia?iie eee ?acaeaathuaeny ai a?aiaie oeaiiie ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey
yaea?. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee a n?aaea, niaea?aeauae aeaeyueany yae?a,
iaeei iaeo?ii aucuaatho ?aaeoeeth aeaeaiey, oi ia?acothueany a
?acoeueoaoa ?aaeoeee iaeo?iiu iiaoo n ii?aaeaeaiiie aa?iyoiinoueth
aucaaoue aeaeaiea yaea?, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe i?e niioaaonoaothueo
oneiaeyo e ?acaeoeth iaeiio?iee?oaiiai i?ioeanna aeaeaiey. *enei
aoi?e/iuo iaeo?iiia ia iinoiyiii aeey anao oyaeaeuo yaea? e caaeneo eae
io yia?aee aucaaaoaai aeaeaiea iaeo?iia, oae e io naienoa yae?a-ieoaie.
N?aaee iaeo?iiia aeaeaiey e?iia oae iacuaaaiuo iaiiaaiiuo
iaeo?iiia,enioneaaiuo ca 10-15 n iinea i?ioeanna aeaeaiey, anoue oaeaea
e caiacaeuaathuea iaeo?iiu. Iie enioneathony a oa/aiee ianeieueeeo ieioo
n iinoaiaiii oauaathuae eioaineaiinoue. Iaiiaaiiua iaeo?iiu ninoaaeytho
aieaa 99% iieiiai /enea iaeo?iiia aeaeaiey, a eo yia?aey caeeth/aia a
oe?ieii aeeaiaciia: io oaieiaie yia?aee e aei yia?aee i?eaeeceoaeueii
?aaiie 10 IyA.

Caiacaeuaathuea iaeo?iiu enioneathony aicaoaeaeaiiuie yae?aie
ia?acothueony iinea aaoa-?aniaaea i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey –
yaea?-i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Iineieueeo enioneaiea ioeeiiia aicaoaeaeaiiui
yae?ii i?ienoiaeeo iaiiaaiii, oi ai a?aiy enioneaiey caiacaeuaathuaai
iaeo?iia iinea aeoa aeaeaiey aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny iinoiyiiie ?aniaaea
yae?a-i?aaeoanoaaiieea.

I?iaeoeou aeaeaiey.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey oyaeaeuo yaea? ia?acothony, eae i?aaeei, aeaa
yae?a-ineieea n ?acee/iie iannie. A n?aaeiai ioiioaiea iann eaaeeo e
oyaeaeuo ineieeia ?aaii 2 : 3. Eae i?aaeei, yae?a-ineieee eiatho
aieueoie ecauoie iaeo?iiia e iiyoiio iaonoie/eau ioiineoaeueii
aaoa-?aniaaea. Ianniaua /enea A i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey iaiythony io 72 aei
161, a aoiiiua iiia?a io 30 aei 65. Aa?iyoiinoue neiiao?e/iiai aeaeaiey
ia aeaa ineieea n i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaiuie iannaie ninoaaeyao anaai
0,04%. Aeiey neiiao?e/iiai aeaeaiey aic?anoaao ii ia?a oaaee/aiey
yia?aee ia?ae/iiai iaeo?iia, aucuaathuaai aeaeaiea aoiiiiai yae?a.

ACAEIIAeAENOAEA IAEO?IIIA N AOIIIUIE ssAe?AIE

?acee/iua /anoeoeu (iaeo?iiu, i?ioiiu, yeaeo?iiu, aaiia-eaaiou e o.ae.)
iiaoo acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n aoiiiuie yae?aie. Oa?aeoa? acaeiiaeaenoaey
caaeneo io yia?aee /anoeoe, eo oeia e naienoa aoiiiiai yae?a. Aeey
ioeaiee aa?iyoiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey aaiaeeony aaee/eia, iacuaaaiay
iee?ineiie/aneei na/aieai acaeiiaeaenoaey. Oece/aneee niune aa ninoieo a
neaaeothuai. Ionoue io/ie iaeo?iiia eioaineaiinoueth No iaaeaao ia
ieoaiue, ninoiyuoth ec iaeiiai neiy yaea?. *enei yaea? ia aaeeieoea
iiaa?oiinoe ?aaii I. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee io/ea /a?ac
oaeie neie /anoue iaeo?iiia iiaeioeoueny a iai e /a?ac neie i?ioei N`.
Oiaaea aa?iyoiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaey iaeiiai iaeo?iia n iaeiei aoiiiui
yae?ii:

(= No-N`

NoM

Yoi e anoue iee?ineiie/aneia na/aiea, i?aaenoaaeythuaa niaie
yooaeoeaioth ieiuaaeue iiia?a/iiai na/aiey aoiiiiai yae?a, iiiaa a
eioi?ia iaeaoathuay /anoeoea aucuaaao yaea?ioth ?aaeoeeth eee eniuouaaao
?annayiea.

A i?ioeanna yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee yia?aaoe/aneie caaeneiinoe
na/aiey acaeiiaeaenoaey /anoeoe e ?acee/iuo aoiiiuo yaea? auei
iaia?oaeaii, /oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo yia?aeyo cia/aiey na/aiee ?acei
aic?anoatho, a i?e aeaeueiaeoai oaaee/aiee yia?aee niiaa oiaiueoathony.
Yoi yaeaiea iacuaaaony ?aciiainii.

A i?aeoeea ?aaeoino?iaiey iaeo?iiu ii yia?aee i?eiyoi aeaeeoue ia
neaaeothuea a?oiiu: auno?ua iaeo?iiu n yia?aeae 0,10 – 10 IyA, oaieiaua
iaeo?iiu, iaoiaeyueany a oaieiaii ?aaiiaanee n yae?aie n?aaeu e eiathuea
yia?aeth 0,005 – 0,2 yA , e i?iiaaeooi/iua (2 – 102 yA) e iaaeoaieiaua
(0,2 – 2 yA).

I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee iaeo?iia e yaea? iiaoo i?ioaeaoue neaaeothuea
?aaeoeee: oi?oaia ?annayiea, iaoi?oaia ?annayiea, ?aaeeaoeeiiiue caoaao,
aeaeaiea. Aa?iyoiinoue i?ioaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aaeoeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iee?ineiie/aneeie na/aieyie. A caaeneiinoe io yia?aee iaeo?iia na/aiey
iiaoo eciaiyony. Oae, a iaeanoe auno?uo iaeo?iiia na/aiea
?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa i?eia?ii a 100 ?ac iaiueoa na/aiey caoaaoa
oaieiauo iaeo?iiia. Na/aiea oi?oaiai ?annayiey, eae i?aaeei, ii/oe
iinoiyiiia aeey yia?aee auoa 1 yA.

Ia?yaeo n iee?ineiie/aneeie na/aieyie ia i?aeoeea eniieuecothony oaeaea
iae?ineiie/aneea na/aiey, iiae eioi?uie iiieiatho aa?iyoiinoue
acaeiiaeaenoaey /anoeoeu a aaeeieoea iauaia aauanoaa. Anee a aaeeieoea
iauaia /enei yaea? ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia anoue N, oi iae?ineiie/aneia
na/aiea = iee?ineiie/aneia na/aiea (=(N. Eae e iee?ineiie/aneia,
iae?ineiie/aneia na/aiea oaeaea oa?aeoa?ecoao ii?aaeaeaiiue oei yaea?iie
?aaeoeee.

OeAIIAss ssAeA?IAss ?AAEOeEss

ssaea?iua ?aaeoi?u.

I?e aeaeaiee oyaeaeuo yaea? ia?acoaony ianeieueei naiaiaeiuo iaeo?iiia.
Yoi iicaieyao i?aaieciaaoue oae iacuaaaioth oeaiioth ?aaeoeeth aeaeaiey,
eiaaea iaeo?iiu, ?ani?ino?aiyynue a n?aaea, niaea?aeauae oyaeaeua
yeaiaiou, iiaoo aucaaoue eo aeaeaiea n enioneaieai iiauo naiaiaeiuo
iaeo?iiia. Anee n?aaea oaeiaa, /oi /enei aiiaue ?iaeaeathueony iaeo?iiia
oaaee/eaaaony, oi i?ioeann aeaeaiey eaaeiiia?acii ia?anoaao. A neo/aa,
eiaaea /enei iaeo?iiia i?e iineaaeothueo aeaeaieyo oiaiueoaaony, oeaiiay
yaea?iay ?aaeoeey caoooaao.

Aeey iieo/aiey noaoeeiia?iie oeaiiie yaea?iie ?aaeoeee, i/aaeaeii,
iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue oaeea oneiaey, /oiau eaaeaeia yae?i, iiaeioeaoaa
iaeo?ii, i?e aeaeaiee auaeaeyei a n?aaeiai iaeei iaeo?ii, eaeouee ia
aeaeaiea aoi?iai oyaeaeiai yae?a.

ssaea?iui ?aaeoi?ii iacuaaaony ono?ienoai, a eioi?ii inouanoaeyaony e
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony oi?aaeyaiay oeaiiay ?aaeoeey aeaeaiey iaeioi?uo
oyaeaeuo yaea?.

Oeaiiay yaea?iay ?aaeoeey a ?aaeoi?a iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny oieueei i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa aeaeyueony yaea?, eioi?ua iiaoo aeaeeoueny i?e
ethaie yia?aee iaeo?iiia. Ec aeaeyueony iaoa?eaeia aaaeiaeoei yaeyaony
ecioii 235U, aeiey eioi?iai a anoanoaaiiii o?aia ninoaaeyao anaai 0,714
%.

Oioy 238U e aeaeeony iaeo?iiaie, yia?aey eioi?uo i?aauoaao 1,2 IyA,
iaeiaei naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuayny oeaiiay ?aaeoeey ia auno?uo iaeo?iiao a
anoanoaaiiii o?aia ia aiciiaeia ec-ca aunieie aa?iyoiinoe iaoi?oaiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey yaea? 238U n auno?uie iaeo?iiaie. I?e yoii yia?aey
iaeo?iiia noaiiaeony ieaea ii?iaiaie yia?aee aeaeaiey yaea? 238U.

Eniieueciaaiea caiaaeeeoaey i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth ?aciiainiiai
iiaeiuaiey a 238U, oae eae iaeo?ii iiaeao i?ieoe iaeanoue ?aciiainiuo
yia?aee a ?acoeueoaoa noieeiiaaiey n yae?aie caiaaeeeoaey e iiaeioeoueny
yae?aie 235U, 239Pu, 233U, na/aiea aeaeaiey eioi?uo nouanoaaiii
oaaee/eaaaony n oiaiueoaieai yia?aee iaeo?iiia. A ea/anoaa caiaaeeeoaeae
eniieuecotho iaoa?eaeu n iaeui ianniaui /eneii e iaaieueoei na/aieai
iiaeiuaiey ( aiaea, a?aoeo, aa?eeeee e ae?.).

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee oeaiiie ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey eniieuecoaony aaee/eia,
iacuaaaiay eiyooeoeeaioii ?aciiiaeaiey E. Yoi ioiioaiea /enea iaeo?iiia
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iieieaiey e /eneo iaeo?iiia i?aaeuaeouaai iieieaiey. Aeey
noaoeeiia?iie oeaiiie ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey E=1. ?aciiiaeathuayny nenoaia
(?aaeoi?), a eioi?ie E=1, iacuaaaony e?eoe/aneie. Anee E>1, /enei
iaeo?iiia a nenoaia oaaee/eaaaony e iia a yoii neo/aa iacuaaaony
iaaee?eoe/aneie. I?e E

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