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A E A A A II

E I I Oe A I Oe E E O E C E E E

AAAAeAIEA: /oi eco/aao oeceea?

Oeceea – iaoea i i?e?iaea, eco/athuay i?inoaeoea e aianoa n oai iaeaieaa
iauea caeiiiia?iinoe i?e?iaeu, no?iaiea e caeiiu aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee.
Oeceeo ioiinyo e oi/iui iaoeai. Aa iiiyoey e caeiiu ninoaaeytho iniiao
anoanoaiciaiey. A?aieoeu, ?acaeaeythuea oeceeo e ae?oaea anoanoaaiiua
iaoee, enoi?e/anee oneiaiu. I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi a naiae iniiaa oeceea
yaeyaony iaoeie yenia?eiaioaeueiie, iineieueeo ioe?uoua ath caeiiu
iniiaaiu ia onoaiiaeaiiuo iiuoiui iooai aeaiiuo. Oece/aneea caeiiu
i?aaenoaaeythony a aeaea eiee/anoaaiiuo niioiioaiee, au?aaeaiiuo ia
ycuea iaoaiaoeee. A oeaeii oeceea ?acaeaeyaony ia yenia?eiaioaeueioth,
eiathuoth aeaei n i?iaaaeaieai yenia?eiaioia n oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiey
iiauo oaeoia e i?iaa?ee aeiioac e ecaanoiuo oece/aneeo caeiiia, e
oai?aoe/aneoth, i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia oi?ioee?iaeo oece/aneeo caeiiia,
iauyniaiea ia iniiaa yoeo caeiiia i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee e i?aaeneacaiea
iiauo yaeaiee.

No?oeoo?a oeceee neiaeia. A iaa aeeth/athony ?acee/iua aeenoeeieeiu eee
?acaeaeu. A caaeneiinoe io eco/aaiuo iauaeoia auaeaeytho oeceeo
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, oeceeo yae?a, oeceeo aoiiia e iieaeoe, oeceeo
aacia e aeeaeeinoae, oeceeo ieaciu, oeceeo oaa?aeiai oaea. A caaeneiinoe
io eco/aaiuo i?ioeannia eee oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee auaeaeytho iaoaieeo
iaoa?eaeueiuo oi/ae e oaa?aeuo oae, iaoaieeo nieioiuo n?aae (aeeth/ay
aeonoeeo), oa?iiaeeiaieeo e noaoenoe/aneoth iaoaieeo, yeaeo?iaeeiaieeo
(aeeth/ay iioeeo), oai?eth oyaioaiey, eaaioiaoth iaoaieeo e eaaioiaoth
oai?eth iiey. A caaeneiinoe io i?eaioe?iaaiiinoe ia iio?aaeoaey
iieo/aaiiai ciaiey auaeaeytho ooiaeaiaioaeueioth e i?eeeaaeioth oeceeo.
I?eiyoi auaeaeyoue oaeaea o/aiea i eieaaaieyo e aieiao, ?anniao?eaathuaa
iaoaie/aneea, aeonoe/aneea, yeaeo?e/aneea e iioe/aneea eieaaaiey e aieiu
iiae aaeeiui oaeii c?aiey. A iniiaa oeceee eaaeao ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
oece/aneea i?eioeeiu e oai?ee, eioi?ua ioaaouaatho ana ?acaeaeu oeceee e
iaeaieaa iieii io?aaeatho nooue oece/aneeo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

CA?IAEAeAIEA OECE*ANEEO I?AAeNOAAEAIEE

Io ?aiieo oeeaeeecaoeee, aicieeoeo ia aa?aaao Oea?a, Aao?aoa e Ieea
(Aaaeeii, Anne?ey, Aaeiao), ia inoaeinue ieeaeeo naeaeaoaeuenoa i
aeinoeaeaieyo a iaeanoe oece/aneeo ciaiee, ca eneeth/aieai
iaauanoaeaiiuo a a?oeoaeoo?iuo nii?oaeaieyo, auoiauo e o.i. ecaeaeeyo
ciaiee. Aicaiaey ?acee/iiai ?iaea nii?oaeaiey e ecaioaaeeaay i?aaeiaou
auoa, i?oaeey e o.ae., ethaee eniieueciaaee ii?aaeaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou
iiiai/eneaiiuo oece/aneeo iaaethaeaiee, oaoie/aneeo iiuoia, eo
iaiauaiee. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi nouanoaiaaee ii?aaeaeaiiua yiie?e/aneea
oece/aneea ciaiey, ii ia auei nenoaiu oece/aneeo ciaiee.

Oece/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey a Ae?aaiai Eeoaa iiyaeeenue oaeaea ia iniiaa
?acee/iiai ?iaea oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a i?ioeanna eioi?ie
au?aaaouaaeenue ?aciiia?aciua oaoiieiae/aneea ?aoeaiou. Anoanoaaiii, /oi
i?aaeaea anaai au?aaaouaaeenue iaoaie/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey. Oae,
eeoaeoeu eiaee i?aaenoaaeaiey i neea ( oi, /oi canoaaeyao aeaeaaoueny),
i?ioeaiaeaenoaee, (oi, /oi inoaiaaeeaaao aeaeaeaiea), ?u/aaa, aeiea,
n?aaiaiee aania (niiinoaaeaiee n yoaeiiii). A iaeanoe iioeee eeoaeoeu
eiaee i?aaenoaaeaiea ia ia?aciaaiee ia?aoiiai ecia?aaeaiey a “camera
obscura”. Oaea a oanoii aaea aei i.y. iie ciaee yaeaiey iaaiaoecia –
i?eoyaeaiey aeaeaca iaaieoii, ia iniiaa /aai aue nicaeai eiiian. A
iaeanoe aeonoeee ei auee ecaanoiu caeiiu aa?iiiee, yaeaiey ?aciiaina. Ii
yoi auee aua yiie?e/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey, ia eiaaoea oai?aoe/aneiai
iauyniaiey.

A Ae?aaiae Eiaeee iniiao iaoo?oeeinioneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ninoaaeytho
o/aiea i iyoe yeaiaioao – caiea, aiaea, iaia, aicaeooa e yoe?a.
Nouanoaiaaea oaeaea aeiaaaeea ia aoiiiii no?iaiee aauanoaa. Auee
?ac?aaioaiu naiaia?aciua i?aaenoaaeaiey i oaeeo naienoaao iaoa?ee, eae
oyaeanoue, oaeo/anoue, ayceinoue, oi?oainoue e o.ae., i aeaeaeaiee e
aucuaathueo aai i?e/eiao. E VI a. aei i.y. yiie?e/aneea oece/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey a iaeioi?uo iaeanoyo iaia?oaeeaatho oaiaeaioeeth
ia?aoiaea a naiaia?aciua oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey (a iioeea, aeonoeea).

OECE*ANEEA EIIOeAIOeEE YIIOE AIOE*IINOE

1. Niaoeeoeea ia?auo nenoai oai?aoe/aneiai

oece/aneiai ciaiey

A naaoa nia?aiaiiuo enoi?eei-iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee n/eoaaony, /oi iniiau
oai?aoe/aneiai oece/aneiai ciaiey caeeaaeuaaeenue a yiioo aioe/iinoe a
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee e ae?oaeo no?aiao N?aaeecaiiiii?uey. Ainoaea?noaaiiia
ono?ienoai oeia ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie aeaiie?aoee, ioiineoaeueiay
oa?ieiinoue e auai?o ?aeeaeiciuo aa?iaaiee iicaieyee ianoaeaeaoue
i?iaeaiu anoanoaiciaiey e inouanoaeyoue ?aca?aie/aiea iaoee e ?aeeaee
i?e ?aoaiee yoeo i?iaeai. Yoi niinianoaiaaei iiyaeaieth nia/aea
?acee/iuo iaoo?oeeinioneeo eiioeaioeee ia iniiaa iaaethaeaiee e
yenia?eiaioia, caoai ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee. A
neeo ieceiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey oaoieee, nouanoaiaaaoae iaaeiioeaiee
eiee/anoaaiiuo ?an/aoia e iono?aiaiiinoe iio?aaiinoae
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa io aeinoeaeaiee iaoee, yenia?eiaio a
yiioo aioe/iinoe ia noae ie iaoiaeii nenaoaiaoe/aneie i?iaa?ee
iieo/aaiuo ciaiee, ie iniiaiui enoi/ieeii yiie?e/aneeo ciaiee. Ii
iinoaiaiii ia niaio ieoieiae/aneei iauyniaieyi yaeaiee
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe noaee i?eoiaeeoue iiiuoee eo iao/iiai iainiiaaiey.

Iniiaiie aii?in, caieiaaoee iuneeoaeae a yoi a?aiy aue aii?in i
niioiioaiee aaeeiiai e iiiaiai ( eia/a aiai?y, ec eaeiai ia/aea
ia?aciaaeinue ie?oaeathuaa ian iiiaeanoai aauae).

Oaean, auneacaaoee iuneue i oii, /oi ana aaue i?iecioee ec aiaeu, ii
nooe i?iecaae ?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?aai?io a ie?iaicc?aiee, icia/aaoee
ioeac io ieoieiae/aneiai iauyniaiey yaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a iieueco
i?aaenoaaeaiee i ieo eae i?aa?auaiee aauanoa. Cia/aiea yoiai ia?aai?ioa
a eoeueoo?a iauanoaa o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue, eai ii nooe naiae
nia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oeeaaeuaathony a yoo
ia?aaeeaio (?acoiaaony a eiie?aoece?iaaiiii aeaea). Aneaae ca Oaeanii ii
yoiio iooe iioee Aa?aeeeo, auneacaaoee eaeath ia iaia, eae ia?aiiniiaa
anaai nouanoaothuaai, Aiaeneiaiae? – aiae?iia, Aiaenaai? – aiiaiia?eyo,
Aiaeneiai – aicaeooa. Yiiaaeiee – /aou?ao noeoeyo (iaia, aicaeooa, aiaea
e caiea). Oaeei ia?acii, eiieeneea iaoo?oeeinioneea eiioeaioeee
ooaa?aeaeaee eaeath i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eae iai?a?uaiii i?ioeanna
i?aia?aciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo yeaiaioia (aaciia?aciuo, aeeaeeeo,
oaa?aeuo).

Ea?oeia ie?a, iino?iaiiay ia iniiaa aeaiiuo eiioeaioeee, ia ioaeaeaeanue
a aiaeanoaaiiii aiaoaoaeuenoaa, ii aa neaainoueth aue /enoi
iienaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, ia aeiioneaaoee eiee/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee.
Aeaiiay ea?oeia auea aeiiieiaia Ieoaai?ii, aianoei eaeath iauyniaiey
yaeaiee ?aaeueiinoe ia iniiaa iaoaiaoe/aneie caeiiiia?iinoe. Ii a
iaeanoe oece/aneeo yaeaiee iiuoiia iiciaiea iiaeiaiyeinue ienoeeie
/enae. Eaeaaeii iiciaiey ieoaai?eeoeaa auei ianneaiia nica?oeaiea, a ia
aeoeaiue yenia?eiaio. Aianoa n oai aeey ?acaeoey oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee
auea aaaeia onoaiiaeaiiay ieoaai?aeoeaie aiciiaeiinoue iia?aoeee n
oece/aneeie aaee/eiaie naaaeaieai eo e ia?a e /eneo, /oi ?anoe?yei
aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaaea a i?aia?aciaaiee i?e?iaeu. Oaeei ia?acii,
ianiiiaiii oe?aieyeanue eaeay i anoanoaaiiii oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay i?eia?aoaea ana aieaa eiie?aoiua i/a?oaiey e
aueeeanue a aoiienoe/aneoth eiioeaioeeth, nua?aaooth ia?iiioth ?ieue a
?acaeoee iaoee.

2. Eiioeaioeey aoiienoeee

I?aaeoanoaothuea eiioeaioeee ia aeiioneaee nouanoaiaaiey ionoiou. A ?ac
a ie?a ana caiieiaii, oi aeaeaeaiea iaaiciiaeii – aeaiiue i?eioeei
ooaa?aeaeaeny Ia?iaieaeii e iainiiauaaeny Caeiiii Yeaeneei (5 a. aei
i.y.). Aoiienoe/aneay eiioeaioeey, ia/aei eioi?ie auei iieiaeaii
Eaaeeiiii e Aeaiie?eoii, enoiaeeea ec i?eciaiey ionoiou e aeaeaeoueony a
iae aoiiia – aan/eneaiiuo iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe (ioee/athueony ae?oa io
ae?oaa aaee/eiie e oi?iie), ?acee/iua ni/aoaiey eioi?uo ia?acotho
iiiaeanoai ie?oaeathueo aauae. E?iia i?eciaiey ionoiou aeey
aoiienoe/aneie eiioeaioeee oa?aeoa?ii oaeaea i?eciaiea i?eioeeiia
nio?aiaiey iaoa?ee (ie/oi ia iiaeao aicieeiooue ec ie/aai) e nio?aiaiey
oi?i iaoa?ee (i?e?iaea ana ?aceaaaao ia oaea e a ie/oi ie/aai ia
ia?aaiaeeo, o.a. a i?e?iaea iiaoi?ythony iinoiyiii iaeie e oa aea oi?iu
iaoa?ee). Iaee/ea ionoiou (aaeooia) auei iaiaoiaeeii aeey nouanoaiaaiey
aeaeaeaiey, eai a caiieiaiiii ie?a aauai aeaeaaoueny iaeoaea. Yieeo?, a
ioee/ea io Aeaiie?eoa, enoiaeeaoaai ec ainiiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeiinoe a ie?a
aoiiia, i?eaian a aoiienoeeo eaeath neo/aeiiai ioeeiiaiey aoiiia io
caeiiiia?iuo o?aaeoi?ee, aeaaiaea?y /aio iie iiaoo noaeeeaaoueny e
ia?aciauaaoue oaea. Iineieueeo a iauyniaieyo Aeaiie?eoa e Yieeo?a
ionoonoaotho i?aaenoaaeaiey i acaeiiii i?eoyaeaiee aoiiia, oi
niaaeeiaiea eo a oeaeinoiinoue i?e ia?aciaaiee aauae iaoneiaeeaaeinue
iaee/eai o aoiiia e?th/i/eia. Eoe?aoeee Ea? (1 a aei i.y.)
ecae?aoaeueiinoue aoiiia i?e iauaaeeiaiee a oaea iauyniyeinue ia iniiaa
i?eioeeia “iiaeiaiue no?aieony e iiaeiaiiio”. A iiyia “I i?e?iaea aauae”
Eoe?aoeee a iiyoe/aneie oi?ia eceiaeee iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
aoiienoe/aneie eiioeaioeee. Aaaeiie yaeyaony eaeay ia iaiaia oae naieie
“enoa/aieyie” – naiaia?aciii i?iia?aca aeaeueiiaeaenoaothueo neeao
i?eoyaeaiey. Eaeay aoiienoeee ieacaeanue noieue ieiaeioai?iie, /oi
i?inouanoaiaaea aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie.

Eiioeaioeey aoiienoeee a ia?eiae aioe/iinoe ia iiaea iie?aoueny ia
yenia?eiaioaeueiia aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaiaaiea aoiiia. Iia iie?aeanue
ia oaeou iaaethaeaiey oeia “nooiaie aeai?oeia iinoaiaiii noe?athony”,
“caiaoe ia?aiinyony”, “aaeece ii?y iaeaaeaea oaeaaeiyaony” e o.ae., /oi
iicaieeei i?aaeiieiaeeoue nouanoaiaaiea iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe, ec eioi?uo
ninoieo ana iiiaiia?acea aauae.

3. Oece/aneia o/aiea Ieaoiia

Naiaia?aciia oece/aneia o/aiea eceiaeaii Ieaoiiii a aeeaeiaa “Oeiae”.
Caeinoaiaaa o naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i /aou?ao aeaeao
iaoa?ee (caiea, aiaea, aicaeooa e iaia), ii ecia?aaeaao eo
acaeiii?aa?auaaiuie. Yoe aeaeu iaoa?ee yaeythony i?iyaeaieai ia?ae/iie
iaoa?ee. *anoeoeu (naiaai ?iaea iieaeoeu) ?aciuo aeaeia iaoa?ee
?acee/athony aaiiao?e/aneie oeao?ie e ?acia?aie. Ieaoii, iie?aynue ia
?ac?aaioaiioth Oayoaoii aaiiao?eth i?aaeeueiuo iiiaia?aiieeia, iauyniye
naienoai aeaeia iaoa?ee – oaa?aeinoue, ieaaeinoue, aicaeooiia?aciinoue,
iaiaia?aciinoue – aaiiao?eae iiiaia?aiieeia. Ec iyoe aeaeia i?aaeeueiuo
iiiaia?aiieeia oieueei o oao?ayae?a, ieoayae?a e eeinayae?a ana a?aie
iaeeiaeiaua – iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?aaiinoi?iiiea o?aoaieueieee,
eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeao auoue ?acaeo ia oanoue i?yiioaieueiuo
?aaiiaaae?aiiuo o?aoaieueieeia. O aeiaeaeayae?a iyoeoaieueiua a?aie ia
iaeeiaeiaua o?aoaieueieee ia ?acaeaeythony. Eoa e aeiaeaeayae? ia iiaoo
i?aa?auaoueny a oaeea oeao?u, a oii /enea e ae?oa a ae?oaa. Iineieueeo
ec nouanoaothueo aeaeia iaoa?ee naiui onoie/eaui e iaeiaiueoa
iiaeaeaeiui yaeyaony Caiey, oi ae niioaaonoaoao /aou?aooaieueiay
ieineinoue eoaa eae iaeaieaa iaania/eaathuay yoo onoie/eainoue. Naienoai
ae?oaeo aeaeia iaoa?ee iaania/eaathony niioaaonoaothueie
iiiaia?aiieeaie.

4. A?enoioaeueneay oeceea

Oece/aneia o/aiea A?enoioaey ioee/aeinue io niioaaonoaothueo Aeaiie?eoa
e Ieaoiia naiae “aioeaoiienoe/iinoueth” . N/eoay iiuo enoi/ieeii ciaiee,
A?enoioaeue aunooiae a naiae “Oeceea” i?ioea enoieeiaaiey /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiuo oae ia iniiaa iaaeinooiiuo iaaethaeaieth aoiiia.
Ioaa?aaao ii e nouanoaiaaiea ionoiou. Iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
/ai ieioiaa n?aaea, oai aieueoa iia ieacuaaao nii?ioeaeaiea aeaeaeaieth.
A aaneiia/ii ?ac?aaeaiiii i?ino?ainoaa nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth iao,
iiyoiio aeaeaeaiea oae auei au a iai aaneiia/iui, /oi iaaiciiaeii.
Oece/aneee ie? A?enoioaey aace?oaony ia i?eioeeia anoanoaaiiinoe:
eaaeaeia oaei ciaao naia ianoi. Anoanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea aicieeaao
oiaaea, eiaaea oaei no?aieony caiyoue naia anoanoaaiiia ianoi
(iaaeathuee eaiaiue no?aieony aiec, e caiea, ene?u eaoyo aaa?o, e
iaaaniui iaiyi e o.ae.). O.a. ana oaea a neeo oyaeanoe eee eaaeinoe
no?aiyony e oeaio?o ie?a eeai io iaai. Oae, a aicaeooa aea?aai no?aieony
e oeaio?o, a a aiaea – io iaai. A inoaeueiuo neo/ayo, eiaaea iao
anoanoaaiiuo i?e/ei aeaeaeaiey, iii iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eeoue
ianeeuenoaaiii, o.a. iiae aeaenoaeai aiaoieo nee. Oaeei ia?acii,
anoanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea aiciiaeii iiae aeaenoaeai oyaeanoe, ai anao
inoaeueiuo neo/ayo – iiae aeaenoaeai neeu. AEeaua nouanoaa a naiai
aeaeaeaiee ?aaeecotho naia anoanoaaiiia i?aaeiacia/aiea (ioeoeu eaoatho,
?uau ieaaatho e o.ae.).

Aeey iauyniaiey anaai nouanoaothuaai A?enoioaeue eniieueciaae /aou?a
oeia ia/ae (i?e/ei): iaoa?eaeueioth i?e/eio (iaoa?eth – oi, ec /aai
/oi-eeai aicieeaao); oi?iaeueioth i?e/eio (oi?io – oi, /oi a ianneaiie
iaoa?ee nouanoaoao eae aiciiaeiinoue, i?aa?auaao a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue),
aeaeaeouoth i?e/eio (aeaenoaea – oi, /oi aeaeaeao), oeaeaaoth i?e/eio
(oeaeue – oi, ?aaee /aai /oi-eeai inouanoaeyaony). Iaoa?eaeueiay i?e/eia
auea auaeaeaia i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ieeaoneie oeieu (Oaeanii, Aa?aeeeoii e
ae?.), Oi?iaeueiay i?e/eia – Ieaoiiii, aeaeaeouae i?e/eiie caieiaeenue
Aiaenaai? e Yiiaaeiee (o ia?aiai aeaenoaea aucuaaeinue Ionii, o aoi?iai
– a?aaeaeie e ae?oaeaie). ?iaeiia/aeueieeii oeaeaaie i?e/eiu A?enoioaeue
n/eoae naay. Ii neiaai Ae.Aa?iaea, “yoa oai?ey auea ae/ii aeey iaoee a
neeo oiai, /oi iia iaania/eaaea eaaeee niinia iauyniaiey ethaiai yaeaiey
n iiiiuueth iinooee?iaaiey niioaaonoaothuae oeaee aeey iaai, ia
noa?aynue auyaeoue oi, eae iii aeaenoaoao”.

Enoi/ieeii anyeiai aeaeaeaiey A?enoioaeue n/eoae iaiiaeaeaeiue
ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue (aiaa) eee ia?aioi?io (yaeythuothny, ii nooe, ieaiii
ie?a). Aeaeaeaiea iiieiaeinue A?enoioaeai eae ia?aoiae /aai-eeai ec
aiciiaeiinoe a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, i?e yoii ii ?acee/ae oaeea ?iaeu
aeaeaeaiey, eae ea/anoaaiiia (eciaiaiea), eiee/anoaaiiia (oaaee/aiea e
oiaiueoaiea), ia?aiauaiea (aeaeaeaiea a i?ino?ainoaa), aicieeiiaaiea e
oie/oiaeaiea. Aeey A?enoioaey ie?oaeathuee ie? ninoiye ec /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiuo acaeiii?aa?auathueony yeaiaioa?iuo ea/anoa – oaieia,
oieiaeiia, aeaaeiia e nooia, eioi?ua ia?acotho iniiaiua yeaiaiou ie?a:
caieth (oieiaeioth e noooth), aiaeo (oieiaeioth e aeaaeioth), aicaeoo
(oaieue e aeaaeiue), iaiiue (oaieue e nooie). Iiaeiaiia iauyniaiea ia
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i nouiinoiii iiieiaiee caeiiia aeaeaeaiey
iaiaeooaaeaiiie iaoa?ee, o.a. ia aiineei a iiciaiea ie?a nianoaaiii
oece/aneiai niaea?aeaiey. Iiyoiio oece/aneoth eiioeaioeeth A?enoioaey
/anoi iacuaatho oaiiiaiieiae/aneie. Ioeacaaoenue io aoiienoe/aneie
eiioeaioeee, A?enoioaeue ia iia iauaeoeaii niinianoaiaaoue i?ia?anno a
?acaeoee yoie ieiaeioai?iie oece/aneie eaeae. Ii aai ianiiiaiiie
caneoaie auei nicaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiie, anaiauaiethuae, oeaeinoiie,
oii?yaei/aiiie ia iniiaa aai eiaeee nenoaiu ciaiee, ieacaaoae ia?iiiia
aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea a?aaneie e aa?iiaeneie n?aaeiaaaeiaie iunee.

Noaoeea e aeae?inoaoeea A?oeiaaea

(III- II a. aei i.y.)

Yiioa yeeeiecia oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue iaeaieueoei aeeaaeii a ?acaeoea
oeceee ni noi?iiu iaoaieee. Iio?aaiinoe a nicaeaiee ?acee/iiai ?iaea
oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa (no?ieoaeueiuo, aiaiiuo e o.ae.) auaeaeaaee ia
ia?aue ieai aii?inu noaoeee. A?oeiaae, nicaeaa oai?eth ?u/aaa, caeiaeee
iniiau noaoeee. No?ieoaeueiay e aiaiiay oaoieea iniiauaaeanue ia ?u/aaa,
iicaieyaoai ia?aiauaoue a i?ino?ainoaa oaea aieueoiai aana i?e
ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo oneeeyo. I?iaeaia ?u/aaa yaeeanue iaiauaieai
yiie?e/anee inaiaiiuo i?eaiia aai eniieueciaaiey a ?aciuo iaeanoyo
aeayoaeueiinoe. A naieo o?oaeao “I ?aaiiaanee ieineeo oae e oeaio?ao
oyaeanoe ieineeo oeao?” e ia aeioaaeoei aei ian “I aanao” A?oeiaae
eceiaeee iniiaiua iinooeaou oai?ee ?u/aaa:

-?aaiua oyaeanoe ia ?aaiuo aeeeiao o?aaiiaaoeaathony, ia ia?aaiuo aea
aeeeiao ia o?aaiiaaoeaathony, ii ia?aaaoeaaao oyaeanoue ia aieueoae
aeeeia.

-Anee i?e ?aaiiaanee oyaeanoae ia eaeeo-ieaoaeue aeeeiao e iaeiie ec
oyaeanoae aoaeao /oi-oi i?eaaaeaii, oi iie ia aoaeoo o?aaiiaaoeaaoueny,
ii ia?aaaneo oa oyaeanoue, e eioi?ie auei i?eaaaeaii.

-Oi/ii oae aea, anee io iaeiie ec oyaeanoae aoaeao ioiyoi /oi-ieaoaeue,
oi iie ia aoaeoo o?aaiiaaoeaaoueny, ii ia?aaaneo oa oyaeanoue, io
eioi?ie ia auei ioiyoi.

-Anee aeaa aaee/eiu o?aaiiaaoeaathony ia eaeeo-ieaoaeue aeeeiao, oi ia
oao aea naiuo aeeeiao aoaeoo o?aaiiaaoeaaoueny e ?aaiua ei.

Enoiaey ec yoeo, iiiaie?aoii i?iaa?aiiuo ia i?aeoeea, iinooeaoia,
A?oeiaae oi?ioee?oao caeii ?u/aaa a aeaea neaaeothueo oai?ai:

– Niecia?eiua aaee/eiu o?aaiiaaoeaathony ia aeeeiao, ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuo oyaeanoyi.

– Anee aaee/eiu ianiecia?eiu, oi iie oi/ii oae aea o?aaiiaanyony ia
?u/aaao, eioi?ua ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu yoei aaee/eiai.

Aeaa ii?aaeaeaiea oeaio?o oyaeanoe oaea eae ?aniieiaeaiiie aioo?e aai
oi/ee, i?e iiaeaaoeaaiee ca eioi?oth iii inoaiaony a iieia e nio?aieo
ia?aiia/aeueiia iieiaeaiea, A?oeiaae ii?aaeaeee oeaio?u oyaeanoe
o?aoaieueieea, ia?aeeaeia?aiia, o?aiaoeee e ae?oaeo oeao?.

A?oeiaae yaeeny oaeaea iniiaiiieiaeieeii e aeae?inoaoeee, caeiiia
ieaaathueo oae. Yoiio aue iinayuai aai o?oae “I ieaaathueo oaeao”.
Aeae?inoaoeea eniieueciaaeanue i?e ii?aaeaeaiee ieioiinoe oae iooai
acaaoeaaiey eo a aiaea e i?e ii?aaeaeaiee a?ociiiaeuaiiinoe ei?aaey.
Eiae/aneay noaia iainiiaaiey caeiiia aeae?inoaoeee ioee/aeanue io noaiu
iainiiaaiey caeiia ?u/aaa. Aia/aea A?oeiaae oi?ioee?oao i?aaeiieiaeaiea
i aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?a aeeaeeinoe, a caoai oi?ioee?oao ?yae
oai?aoe/aneeo neaaenoaee, auoaeathueo ec aeaiiiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey.
A?oeiaae enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi iiaa?oiinoue anyeie iaiiaeaeaeii
onoaiiaeaoaeny aeeaeeinoe aoaeao eiaoue oi?io oa?a, oeaio? eioi?iai
niaiaaeaao n oeaio?ii Caiee, e /oi aeeaeeinoue ii naiae i?e?iaea oaeiaa,
/oi ec aa /anoeoe, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia iaeeiaeiaii o?iaia e i?eeaaeaueo
ae?oa e ae?oao, iaiaa naeaaeaiiua auoaeeeaathony aieaa naeaaeaiiuie e
/oi eaaeaeay ec aa /anoeoe naeaaeeaaaony aeeaeeinoueth, iaoiaeyuaeny
iaae iae ii ioaano, anee oieueei aeeaeeinoue ia caeeth/aia a
eaeii-ieaoaeue ninoaea e ia naeaaeeaaaony aua /ai-oi ae?oaei. Neaaenoaey
ec yoie aeiioacu, auaiaeeiua iaoaiaoe/anee, oaeiau:

– Oaei, ?aaiioyaeaeia n aeeaeeinoueth, aoaeo/e iiouaii a yoo
aeeaeeinoue, iia?oaeaaony oae, /oi ieeaeay eo /anoue ia aunooiaao iaae
iiaa?oiinoueth aeeaeeinoe, e ia aoaeao aeaeaaoueny aiec.

– Oaei, aieaa eaaeia, /ai aeeaeeinoue, aoaeo/e iiouaii a yoo
aeeaeeinoue, ia iia?oaeaaony oeaeeeii e iaeioi?ay aai /anoue inoaaony
iaae iiaa?oiinoueth aeeaeeinoe.

– Oaei, aieaa eaaeia, /ai aeeaeeinoue, aoaeo/e iiouaii a yoo
aeeaeeinoue, iia?oaeaaony ianoieueei, /oiau iauai aeeaeeinoe,
niioaaonoaothuee iia?oaeaiiie /anoe oaea, eiae aan, ?aaiue aano anaai
oaea.

– Oaei, aieaa eaaeia, /ai aeeaeeinoue, iiouaiiia a yoo aeeaeeinoue
neeith, aoaeao auoaeeeaaoueny aaa?o n neeie, ?aaiie oiio aano, ia
eioi?ue aeeaeeinoue, eiathuay ?aaiue iauai n oaeii, aoaeao oyaeaeaa
yoiai oaea.

– Oaei, aieaa oyaeaeia, /ai aeeaeeinoue, iiouaiiia a yoo aeeaeeinoue,
aoaeao iia?oaeaoueny, iiea ia aeieaeao aei naiiai ieca, e a aeeaeeinoe
noaiao eaa/a ia aaee/eio aana aeeaeeinoe a iauaia, ?aaiii iauaio
iia?oaeaiiiai oaea.

A aieaa e?aoeii aeaea caeii A?oeiaaea oi?ioee?oaony a neaaeothuai aeaea:
ia anyeia oaei, iia?oaeaiiia a aeeaeeinoue, aeaenoaoao auoaeeeaathuay
neea, iai?aaeaiiay aaa?o e ?aaiay aano auoaniaiiie ei aeeaeeinoe.
Aeaiiue caeii ieacaeny ni?aaaaeeeaui e aeey aaca. Iaeiei ec ia?auo
neo/aaa i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey aeaiiiai caeiia auea i?iaa?ea ninoaaa
ei?iiu, ecaioiaeaiiie aeey ne?aeocneiai oea?y Aea?iia. Ia iniiaa oiai,
/oi ei?iiie auoaniyeinue aieueoaa eiee/anoai aiaeu, /ai cieioui neeoeii
A?oeiaae onoaiiaee, /oi ei?iia ninoieo ia ec /enoiai cieioa, a ec
nieaaa.

6. Iioeea Aaeeeaea e Ioieaiay

A yiioo aioe/iinoe a iaeanoe iioeee i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue
?aaioo ii aaiiao?e/aneie iioeea e ia?niaeoeaa. E eo /eneo ioiinyony
“Iioeea” e “Eaoiio?eea” Aaeeeaea (III a. aei i.y.). Aaeeeae a iaeanoe
iioeee iie?aeny ia ?ac?aaioaiioth aoiienoaie eiioeaioeeth c?eoaeueiuo
eo/ae, niaeanii eioi?ie io aauae ioaeaeythony ia?acu, aucuaathuea a
aeaco c?eoaeueiua iuouaiey. Ii aaiiao?e/anee auaae caeiiu ia?niaeoeau ec
/aou?iaaeoeaoe enoiaeiuo iieiaeaiee, eioi?ua auee ?acoeueoaoii
iioe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee. Iaeaieaa aaaeiua ec ieo:

– Eo/e, enoiaeyuea ec aeaca, ?ani?ino?aiythony i?yiieeiaeii e
?anoiaeyony a aaneiia/iinoue.

– Oeao?a, ioaaouaaaiay niaieoiiinoueth c?eoaeueiuo eo/ae, anoue eiion,
aa?oeia eioi?iai ?aniieiaeaia a aeaco, a iniiaaiea – ia iiaa?oiinoe
aeaeeiuo i?aaeiaoia.

– Aeaeeiu oa i?aaeiaou, ia eioi?ua iaaeatho c?eoaeueiua eo/e, e
iaaeaeeiu oa, ia eioi?ua c?eoaeueiua eo/e ia iaaeatho.

– I?aaeiaou, aeaeeiua iiae aieueoeie oaeaie, eaaeoony aieueoa, aeaeeiua
iiae iaiueoeie oaeaie eaaeoony iaiueoa, a aeaeeiua iiae ?aaiuie oaeaie
eaaeoony iaeeiaeiauie.

– I?aaeiaou, aeaeeiua iiae aieueoeie oaeaie. ?acee/athony aieaa
io/aoeeai.

– Ana eo/e iaeaaeatho iaeeiaeiaie nei?inoueth.

– Eo/ anoue i?yiay eeiey, n?aaeiea o/anoee eioi?ie niaaeeiytho eiioeu.

– Ana, /oi aeaeeii, aeaeeii a i?yiieeiaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

C?eoaeueiua eo/e ?anniao?eaathony eae eeiee ?ani?ino?aiaiey naaoa.
Aaeeeaeii aia?aua oi?ioee?oaony caeii ?ani?ino?aiaiey naaoa, yaeythueeny
iniiaie aaiiao?e/aneie iioeee. A?oeiaae a eiioeaioeeth “eo/ae c?aiey”
aaae iii?aaee, iniiaaiiua ia aeeyiee aaee/eiu c?a/ea ia ?acoeueoao
ecia?aiey. Aa?ii Aeaenaiae?eeneee /aoei ?acee/aao iioeeo (o/aiea i
aeaeaiee, i i?e?iaea naaoa), aeeiio?eeo (o/aiea i aece?iaaiee, aece?iuo
eino?oiaioao) e eaoiio?eeo (o/aiea ia io?aaeaiee). ?anniao?eaay
io?aaeaiea naaoa io ca?eaea ii aeieacae, /oi i?e ?aaainoaa oaea iaaeaiey
e oaea io?aaeaiey noiia aeeei iooae, eioi?ua i?ioiaeeo iaaeathuee eo/ io
aeaca aei ca?eaea e io?aaeaiiue eo/ io ca?eaea aei iauaeoa, yaeyaony
iaeiaiueoei ?annoiyieai ec anao aiciiaeiuo.

Iaeaieaa iieiia enneaaeiaaiea i?aeiieaiey naaoa inouanoaeaii Ioieaiaai a
aai “Iioeea”, aaea iienaiu ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioe?iaaiey ii
i?aeiieaieth naaoa a noaeea e aiaea, naaaeaiiua a oaaeeoeu, eioi?ua auee
aanueia oi/iu aeey naiaai a?aiaie. Ii no?aieeny auyaeoue i?e/eio oiai,
/oi i?e io?aaeaiee oaeu iaaeaiey e io?aaeaiey ?aaiu, a i?e i?aeiieaiee
oaeu iaaeaiey ia?aaiu oaeai i?aeiieaiey. Ii iin/eoae oaie i?aeiieaiey
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiui oaeo iaaeaiey. Caeii i?aeiieaiey aeieaeai aue aua
aeaeaoue naiaai ioe?uoey Niaeeeonii a XVII aaea.

7. ?ieue oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee aioe/iinoe

a ?acaeoee oeceee

Ioeaieaay cia/aiea oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee aioe/iinoe, aaaeii eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi ia ana ec ieo aeioei aei ian. Ii e aeioaaeoaa iicaieyao
naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi ei?ie nia?aiaiiie oeceee ooiaeyo a aioe/ioth
oeceeo. Aioe/iua oece/aneea eiioeaioeee niaea?aeaee iinoaiiaeo iiiaeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo oece/aneeo i?iaeai. ii?aaeaeeaoeo niaea?aeaiea
oece/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo iineaaeothueo noieaoee.
Iiiaea oece/aneea eiioeaioeee aioe/iinoe iaia?oaeeee naith
“aeeao/anoue”. Oae, a?enoioaeueneay oeceea nio?aiyea naia aeeyiea aei
na?aaeeiu XVII aaea, oece/aneia o/aiea Ieaoiia – aei na?aaeeiu XIX aaea,
aoiienoe/aneay eiioeaioeey Aeaiie?eoa e Yieeo?a – aei XX aaea. I?eiyoi
n/eoaoue, /oi oeceea Iiaiai a?aiaie a ea/anoaa naiae cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
niaea?aeeo ooiaeaiaioaeueii ia?a?aaioaiiua oece/aneea eiioeaioeee
aioe/iinoe. Ii iiaiaeo ioeaiee o?iaiy ?acaeoey oece/aneiai yenia?eiaioa
ai a?aiaia aioe/iinoe nouanoaotho ?aciua oi/ee c?aiey. Iaeia enoiaeeo ec
oiai, /oi yoio o?iaaiue a oeaeii aue anaaaea iaaunie, ae?oaay, iai?ioea,
i?eciaao yoio o?iaaiue aanueia aunieei, (niioaaonoaothuei ia?acoeai
yenia?eiaioa Iiaiai a?aiaie e ia?aie/aiiiai eeoue aiciiaeiinoyie
aioe/iie oaoieee), ii oo?a/aiiui n e?ooaieai aioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee. A
iineaaeiai neo/aa aa?iiaeneie iaoea o?iaaiue ?acaeoey yenia?eiaioa
i?eoeinue ainnoaiaaeeaaoue caiiai. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi ?ieue
oai?aoe/aneeo. oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee e oece/aneiai yenia?eiaioa
aioe/iinoe a ?acaeoee aa?iiaeneie iaoee ?acee/iu. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa oaea?ia aa?aa?ia iino?aaeaee
i?aaeaea anaai oa aeinoeaeaiey aioe/iie eoeueoo?u e iaoee, eioi?ua
caaenaee io “oe?ieie iaoa?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee “.

I?e ioeaiea iaoee ia?eiaea aioe/iinoe ana aea iaaiciiaeii ioaea/ueny io
oiai nioeeieoeueoo?iiai eiioaenoa, a ?aieao eioi?iai iia ?acaeaaeanue.
Iaoea ana-oaee aeaenoaeoaeueia ?acaeaaeanue i?aeiouanoaaiii aanueia
ninoiyoaeueiuie ethaeueie, i?e/ai ia aeey oeaeae iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey – ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneee niinia i?iecaiaenoaa ia
iia ia ieacuaaoue naiaai aicaeaenoaey ia oa?aeoa? iaoee. Ii aeaaiia
cia/aiea aioe/iie eoeueoo?u a oii, /oi iia ianea naio eaeath
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, eioi?ay ia?aaeeea a?aiy iieeoe/aneiai iiaouanoaa
aioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee e eioi?ay ieacaea iiuiaeoaa aeeyiea ia oa?aeoa?
?acaeoey aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u.

OECE*ANEEA EIIOeAIOeEE

N?AAeIAAAEIAUess

1. Nioeeieoeueoo?iua iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey iaoee a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey

Aioo?aiiea (iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiue ?aaneee o?oae, i?ac?aiea naiaiaeiuo
a?aaeaeai e o?oaeo, ainnoaiea ?aaia e o.ae.) e aiaoiea (iaoanoaea
aa?aa?ia) i?e/eiu i?eaaee e ?aniaaeo ?eineia ainoaea?noai. Aioe/iay
oeeaeeecaoeey iiaeaea, iiiaea eoeueoo?iua e iao/iua aeinoeaeaiey auee
oo?a/aiu. I?aaieciaaiiie neeie nio?aieeinue o?enoeaineay oea?eiaue,
noiaaoay auno?i i?eniiniaeoueny e i?ienoaaeoei eciaiaieyi. Noaiiaeaiea
iiaiai, oaiaeaeueiiai oeeaaea ai iiiaii inouanoaeyeinue n iii?ie ia
o?enoeainoai. ?eineay yiioa iaei /oi aeaea oai?aoe/aneie iaoea, ii iia
inoaaeea aiaaoue iiuo a aiaiiii, oaoie/aneii e aaeieieno?aoeaiii aeaea,
eioi?ue, ia ?yaeo n eaoeineie a?aiioie, inaaeaaeny caaiaaaoaeyie.
Iinoaiaiii nicaeaaaeenue oeieu, eieeaaeaee, oieaa?neoaou, iiiaaoea iiae
aeeyiea oea?eae. A iiianou?yo ieacaeenue nin?aaeioi/aiiuie o?oaeu
ae?aaieo aaoi?ia. Eieeaaeaee, iiianou?e e oieaa?neoaou i?aa?auaeenue a
oeaio?u iiaie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u. A yoi a?aiy ia Aeeaeiai
Ainoiea ia iniiaa eneaia auei nicaeaii ia A?aaeeneii iieoino?iaa
neeueiia a?aaneia ainoaea?noai, auno?i caaiaaaaoaa E?ai, Aaeiao, no?aiu
N?aaeiaai Ainoiea, tha Ie?eiaeneiai iieoino?iaa. Iineieueeo iniiaiie
caaea/ae a?aaia auei niaa?oainoaiaaiea aiaiiiai aeaea, nai? aeaiae e
?aciiia?aciuo iiaeaoae, oi i?iecaiaenoaii, oi?aiaeae caieiaeenue
i?aaenoaaeoaee ei?aiiuo ia?iaeia. E oioy a?aaneee ycue noae
ainoaea?noaaiiui ycueii, caaiaaaoaee nio?aiyee eoeueoo?o caaiaaaiiuo
ia?iaeia. Ia a?aaneee ycue auee ia?aaaaeaiu o?oaeu aioe/iuo aaoi?ia.
Noaee nicaeaaaoueny oieaa?neoaou a Ei?aeiaa (755 a.), Aaaaeaaea (795
a.), Eae?a (972 a.). Aeey n?aaiaiey ia?aciaaiea oieaa?neoaoia a Aa?iia:
a Iiiiaeuea (1180 a.) Aei/aioea (1205 a.), A?aoeoei (1215 a.), Iaaeoa
(1222 a.), Ooeoca (1229 a.), A?aiiaea (1339 a.), I?aaa (1348 a.),
Oei?aioeee (1349 a.), E?aeiaa (1368 a.). Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi
aeeyiea eneaia a a?aaneeo oieaa?neoaoao auei neaaaa, /ai o?enoeainoaa a
caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneeo oieaa?neoaoao. Oaeei ia?acii, a?aau a VII- XI aa.
auee caaiii, naycuaathuei ainoi/ioth e caiaaeioth eoeueoo?o. Iiiaea
o?oaeu aioe/iuo aaoi?ia ia eaoeineee ycue ia?aaiaeeeenue n a?aaneiai
ycuea. Oio oaeo, /oi a ea/anoaa ycuea eoeueoo?iiai iauaiey ia A?aaneii
Ainoiea eniieueciaaeny aeeaie ?acaiai?iue ycue, a ia ia?oaue eaoeineee
(eae a Aa?iia), aue aaaeiui eoeueoo?iui oaeoi?ii. E?iia oiai,
?ani?ino?aiaiea n?aaee a?aaia nooecia, iaycuaaaoaai ionoeueiai
eniiaaaeiaaoue o?e iaycaoaeueiuo aeiaiaoa – aa?o a Aeeaoa, a aai
i?i?ieia e caa?iaiue noae, – aeaaaei aieueoa naiaiaeu aeey ?aoaiey
i?iaeai anoanoaiciaiey, aeaaiaea?y /aio ia A?aaneii Ainoiea iiaee
?acaeaaoueny iao/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeaei iao/iia
ianeaaeea aioe/iinoe. Ia/aaoenue n eiiiaioa?eaa o?oaeia aioe/iuo aaoi?ia
(i?aaeaea anaai a iaeanoe iaoaieee e iioeee), oece/aneea o/aiey
i?eia?aoaee naiinoiyoaeueiue aeae. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuie oeao?aie
n?aaee a?aaneeo o/aiuo auee Eai Neia, aeue-Ae?oie e Eai ?ooae.

Iniiaiua oece/aneea oeaee

n?aaeiaaaeiauey

Aeue-Ae?oie ecia?ae “eiie/aneee i?eai?”, iicaieyaoee ii?aaeaeyoue
ieioiinoue iaoaeeia e ae?oaeo aauanoa, i?e/ai n aanueia aunieie
oi/iinoueth. (Aeeaae aeue-Ae?oie a ?acaeoea ano?iiiiee iienai a ?acaeaea
“Eiioeaioeee ano?iiiiee”.)

Eai ?ooae, ecaanoiue a Aa?iia iiae eiaiai Aaa??iyn, aeai eiiiaioa?ee e
“Oeceea” A?enoioaey. A aioe/iie iaoaieea i?iaeaiu ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
eeiaiaoeeie e aeeiaieeie ia nouanoaiaaei. A aioe/iie iaoaieea
iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?ioee?iaee nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey ia auei, eai naii
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aiciiaeiinoe eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee ea/anoaaiiie
ii?aaeaeaiiinoe ionoonoaiaaei (A?enoioaeue yoe eaoaai?ee n/eoae
i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuie). Iaeie eioa?i?aoaoi?u A?enoioaey iieaaaee,
/oi aeaeaeaiea iaaei ?anniao?eaaoue eeoue eae /enoia ia?aiauaiea . Eai
?ooae ianoaeaae ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe iienuaaoue aeaeaeaiea n o/aoii
aucaaaoeo aai i?e/ei.

A iaeanoe oece/aneeo o/aiee Eai Neiu (980-1037), eioi?iai a Aa?iia
iacuaaee Aaeoeaiiie, naycaii n i?iaeaiie aeaeaeaiey a?ioaiiiai oaea. Ii
aeaiiie i?iaeaia ii ?ac?aaioae nianoaaiioth eiioeaioeeth, nooue eioi?ie
caeeth/aaony a i?eciaiee oiai, /oi aeaeaeeiia iieo/aao neeiiiinoue io
aeaeaeeoaey. Ii Eai Neia, nouanoaotho o?e aeaea neeiiiinoae: ineoe/aneay
(naycaiiay n aeeciueth), anoanoaaiiay e i?ioeaianoanoaaiiay
(ianeeuenoaaiiay). Anoanoaaiiay neeiiiinoue i?enoua naiaiaeii iaaeathuei
oaeai. I?ioeaianoanoaaiiay neeiiiinoue (eee i?eeiaeaiiay neea) i?enoua
i?ioeaianoanoaaiii aeaeaeoueiny oaeai, i?e/ai aa aeaenoaea caaeneo i
aaee/eiu aana oaea, eioi?iio iia niiauaia. Eai Neia ooaa?aeaeae, /oi
i?ioeaianoanoaaiiay neeiiiinoue iuouaaony eae nii?ioeaeaiea
ianeeuenoaaiiie iiiuoea inoaiiaeoue anoanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea eee
ia?aaanoe iaeei aeae i?ioeaianoanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey a ae?oaie. Anee
ianeeuenoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea nia?yaea aucaaii aeaenoaothuae a ionoioa
neea, oi iii aeieaeii neeie, oi iii aeieaeii nio?aiyoueny, ia
oie/oiaeaynue e ia i?a?uaaynue. Anee aea neea nouanoaoao a oaea, oi iia
aeieaeia eeai inoaaaoueny a iai, eeai en/aciooue. Ii anee iia inoaaony,
oi aeaeaeaiea aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny iai?a?uaii. I?eciaiea aeaenoaey
caaeneiinoe i?ioeaianoanoaaiiie neeiiiinoe io aaee/eiu aana oaea,
eioi?iio iia niiauaia, auei oaaii e eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea neeiiiinoe.
A?enoioaeaaneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?iee aicaeooa a ia?aaea/a aeaeaeaiey
Eai Neiie auee ioaa?aioou. Oaeei ia?acii, Eai Neia iieaaae, /oi a oaea
iiaeao auoue oieueei iaeia “neeiiiinoue”. Aaeii iicaea aeue- Aa?eao
ooaa?aeaeae aiciiaeiinoue iaeiia?aiaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey a iaeiii oaea
?aciuo “neeiiiinoae” – i?e naiaiaeiii iaaeaiee oyaeaeiai oaea enoi/iee
anoanoaaiiie neeiiiinoe iaoiaeeony a naiii oaea e iiyoiio iiaeao
iai?a?uaii aeaenoaiaaoue, iiea oaei ia aeinoeaiao naiaai anoanoaaiiiai
ianoa.

A XIII aaea e aiaeeco aeaiiie i?iaeaiu ia?aoeeny Oiia Aeaeineee, eioi?ue
io?eoeae aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaea/e oaeo naiinoiyoaeueiie niiniaiinoe
aeaeaeaiey. O. Ieoyi i?iaeaio a?ioaiiiai oaea naae e /enoi
eeiaiaoe/aneie caaea/a, nieiay aii?in ia enoi/ieea aeaeaeaiey, a
AE.Ao?eaeai, auyaea i?ioeai?a/ey a?enoioaeueneie o?aeoiaee i?iaeaiu,
oi?ie?oao oece/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea i caaeneiinoe iaii?a io nei?inoe
ia?aiauaiey e “eiee/anoaa iaoa?ee”, caeeth/aiiiai a aeaeaeouainy oaea,
nieeaea?ece?iaaaoenue n eiioeaioeeae aeue-Aa?eaoa.

Aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe iioeee yiioe n?aaeiaaaeiauey naycaiu i?aaeaea
anaai n eiaiaie aeue-Oaenaia, ecaanoiiai a Aa?iia eae Aeueoacai. Ii
nicaeae eaieoaeueiue o?oae “Nie?iaeua iioeee”, ieacaaoee aieueoia
aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea yoie iaeanoe oeceee. Ii aia?aua aeae aiaoiie/aneia
iienaiea aeaca e ?ac?aaioae eiioeaioeeth, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie
c?aiea aucuaaaony eo/aie, i?eoiaeyueie a aeac io iauaeoia, a
ecia?aaeaiea oi?ie?oaony aioo?e o?onoaeeea i?aaeaea, /ai aeinoeaiao
iioe/aneiai ia?aa. ?anniao?eaay naao eae iioie /anoeoe, Aeueoacai
io?aaeaiea naaoa o?aeooao eae iaoaie/aneia yaeaiea. Onoaiiaea, /oi
ii?iaeue e iiaa?oiinoe ca?eaea, iaaeathuee e io?aaeaiiue eo/e iaoiaeyony
a iaeiie ieineinoe, ii oniaa?oainoaiaae oi?ioee?iaeo caeiia io?aaeaiey.
A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iioe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ia/eiathony a XIII aaea.
?.A?inaoao ?ac?aaaouaaao aaiiao?e/aneoth oai?eth i?ienoiaeaeaiey ?aaeoae
eae yooaeoa i?aeiieaiey naaoa a eaieyo aiaeu e eiioeaioeeth
i?yiieeiaeiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey naaoa e caoea ia iniiaa i?aaenoaaeaiey eo
eae aiei – io?aaeaiea naaoa ?anniao?eaaeinue ii aiaeiaee n yoii.
Ianiiiaiiui aeinoeaeaieai auei e ecia?aoaiea a XIII aaea i/eia, ii iii
ia iniiauaaeinue ia eaeeo-eeai oai?aoe/aneeo ?ac?aaioeao . E
aeinoeaeaieyi neaaeoao ioianoe e enneaaeiaaiey iaaiaoecia I. aea
Ia?eeo?a (Ia?aa?eia), eioi?ue auneacae iuneue i oii, /oi no?aeea eiiiana
iiai?a/eaaaony ia e Iiey?iie caacaea (eae aeoiaee ae?aaiea eeoaeoeu), a
e iiethno.

I?e ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia ?acaeoey oece/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee a yiioo
n?aaeiaaaeiauey aieueoeinoai enoi?eeia iaoee enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ca
yoi a?aiy ie a iaeiie ec iaeanoae oeceee ia auei ?ac?aaioaii ie iaeiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie oece/aneie oai?ee, ie yooaeoeaiuo yenia?eiaioiuo
iaoiaeia. Oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey ioee/aeenue aano?aeoiinoueth.
Oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey ia iniiauaaeenue ia oai?aoe/aneeo ?ac?aaioeao,
oai?ey e i?aeoeea ?aciauaiu. Iiaay oeceea nouanoaiaaea eeoue a iioaioeee
– a ioaeaeueiuo, ia anaaaea io/aoeeauo aeiaaaeeao, eaeayo. Ii
?aeeaeiciua i?aae?annoaeee (eae o?enoeainoaa, oae e eneaia) ia aeaao
aiciiaeiinoe ei ?ane?uoueny. Oinoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue inoaaony aua
iiae/eiaiiie ?aeeaeiciui aeiaiaoai. A oeceea ionoonoaiaaee ?acaeoua
eiee/anoaaiiua ioeaiee. Iaeiaei ?acaeoea aeaeiaie aeecie o?aaiaaei
ea/anoaaiiuo ?an/aoia ana aieueoa e aieueoa. Oaiaeaeueiay nenoaia
oicyenoaa iaia?oaeeaaea i?eciaee ?aceiaeaiey. Ca?iaeaeaaoeany iiaua
yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey niinianoaiaaee oaoie/aneiio i?ia?anno aeaaiui
ia?acii ca n/ao ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee o?oaea. Iaaeeaiiia, ii iinoaiaiii
onei?ythuaany ?acaeoea oaoieee e iao/iuo cai?inia aioiaee ii/ao aeey
aicieeiiaaiey iiaie iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee. Iiaeii
neacaoue. /oi iaoea ?acaeaaeanue aneaae ca ?acaeoeai ca?iaeaeathuaainy
eaieoaeecia, oneeeaay naia aeeyiea ia yoio i?ioeann.

OECE*ANEEA EIIOeAIOeEE YIIOE

AIC?IAEAeAIEss

1. Aeeyiea iio?aaiinoae i?aeoeee e eiaeaia?ee ia ?acaeoea oeceee

?acaeoea iiauo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a XV-XVI aa. nii?iaiaeaeaeinue
oneeaieai eioa?ana e yenia?eiaioaeueiiio e iaoaiaoe/aneiio
anoanoaiciaieth. Eciaiaiey a oaoie/aneeo i?eaiao iia?aaeaei eo
oai?aoe/aneia iniuneaiea. A XVI aaea ecia?aoathony aeae?aaee/aneea
ianinu, ieioeiu, i?ann aeey /aeaiee iiiao, aycaeueiay iaoeia e o.ae. Yoe
oaoie/aneea ecia?aoaiey aeaiiino?e?iaaee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ?ieue
eiaeaia?ee, a n ae?oaie – noaaeee ia?aae anoanoaiciaieai iiaua i?iaeaiu,
o?aaiaaaoea oece/aneiai yenia?eiaioa (i?iaeaia o?aiey a iaoeiao,
i?iaeaia iaaeaaeiinoe eiaeaia?iuo nii?oaeaiee e o.ae.). Oaeei ia?acii,
iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe eaieoaeenoe/aneiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
aaee e niaa?oainoaiaaieth oaoie/aneeo i?eaiia (a ai?iii e aiaiiii aeaea,
ii?aieaaaiee e o.ae.). Yoi iaoneiaeeaaei eniieueciaaiea iiauo iaoa?eaeia
e i?ioeannia, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue noaaeei i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua
nouanoaiaaaoay ?aiaa iaoea ?ac?aoeoue ia iiaea. ?acaeaaaoaany
ii?aieaaaiea ?acaeaeaaei ai?eciio i?aaeiaai iiuoa e oneeeaaei
iio?aaiinoue a aai ?anoe?aiee e iaiaauaiee. Ni/aoaiea
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e oaoie/aneeo oaeoi?ia aucuaaei naeaea a
niciaiee, oneeeaaei iio?aaiinoue a au?aaioea iiaie oeeinioee,
io?eoeaaoae ?ieue aaoi?eoaoa (eae ?aeeaeiciuo aeieo?ei, oae e aioe/iuo
o/aiee) e ooaa?aeaeaaoae i?ei?eoao iao/iiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Iiae
aicaeaenoaeai i?ienoiaeyueo eciaiaiee noieanoeea iinoaiaiii naeaao naie
iiceoeee, eaeao i?ioeann iaeiieaiey ciaiee i naienoaao ?aaeueiuo
iauaeoia. A ?aieao oece/aneiai ciaiey iaeaieueoaa ?acaeoea iieo/atho
iaoaieea e iioeea.

2. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua oece/aneea enneaaeiaaiey Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey aeaiiiai a?aiaie a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
naycuaathony n eiaiai Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e. Enneaaeiaaoaee aai oai?/anoaa
iieaaatho, /oi ie/aai nouanoaaiii iiaiai a ?acaeoea oai?aoe/aneie
iaoaieee ii ia aian. Aai neea caeeth/aeanue a ?aciiia?aciie
yenia?eiaioaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii aaaeiu ieacuaaeenue ia
noieueei ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioia, neieueei naia iaoeaeaiiinoue ia
yenia?eiaio eae aeaaiue enoi/iee ciaiey e oaoieeo iinoaiiaee
yenia?eiaioa. Aaaeiua yenia?eiaiou auee iinoaaeaiu ei ii i?iaeaiai
iaaeaiey oae, aeeyieth aeaeaeaiey oaea ia neeo oaea?a, eniuoaieth ia
?ac?ua, o?aieth oae. A iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiey o?aiey iaaeaeo oaa?aeuie
iiaa?oiinoyie aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo caneoaa auaaaeaiey ec iinoaaeaiiuo ei
yenia?eiaioia caeiia o?aiey, aeaneaoaai: “Eaaeaeui oyaeaeui oaeii
iiaaaeaeaaony nii?ioeaeaiea o?aiey aano, ?aaiia /aoaa?oie /anoe yoiai
aana”. Ioe?uoea yoiai caeiia auei aaaeiui aeeaaeii a ?acaeoea
yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaoaieee. Enoi?eee iaoee niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai
neeiiiu aaaeiinoue ioe?uoey yoiai caeiia oniao?eaaoue i?aaeaea anaai a
oii, /oi aia?aua caeii aue ioe?uo a ?acoeueoaoa oece/aneiai yenia?eiaioa
– e a yoii niunea Eaiia?aei cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeae naia a?aiy ia
noieueei ?acoeueoaoaie enneaaeiaaiey, neieueei iiieiaieai caaea/,
aicieeaaoeo iiae aeeyieai ao?iiai ?acaeoey oaoieee. Naia iinoaiiaea
iiaeiaiuo yenia?eiaioia, aeaiiino?e?iaaaoay eo ia?iiiua aiciiaeiinoe,
noeioee?iaaea eioa?an e yenia?eiaioaeueiie oeceea.

I?ioeaiiinoaaea noieanoeea iiuoiia ciaiea, Eaiia?aei, oaeei ia?acii,
caeiaeee iniiau yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoiaea anoanoaiciaiey,
ioe?uaathuaai oe?ieea ia?niaeoeau aeey eniieueciaaiey iaoaiaoeee.
“Ioae?inoue anoue aeaei iiuoa” e “Iao aeinoiaa?iinoe a iaoeao, ia
eniieuecothueo iaoaiaoeee” – yoe i?iaicaeaoaiiua ei i?eioeeiu yaeythony
aeaoiy noi?iiaie aai iaoiaea. E a yoii niunea Eaiia?aei ni?aaaaeeeai
?anniao?eaaaony eae i?aaeoanoaaiiee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey.

Eniieueciaaiea naiaai iaoiaea iicaieeei Eaiia?aei noi?ioee?iaaoue
aaaeiua iieiaeaiey. A?enoioaeueneay oeceea enoiaeeea ec oiai, /oi
aeaeaeaiea aeey naiaai nio?aiaiey o?aaoao neeu. Eaiia?aei a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi anyeia aeaeaeaiea
no?aieony e naiaio nio?aiaieth, o.a. aeaeaeouaany oaei aeaeaeaony aei
oao ii?, iiea a iai nio?aiyaony neea aai aeaeaeaiey. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea
oaea icia/aei nouanoaaiiia i?iaeaeaeaiea a iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu aeaeaeaiey
io a?enoioaeueneeo iieiaeaiee e ioe?uoeth caeiia eia?oeee – Eaiia?aei
onoaiaaeeaaao oaeo nouanoaiaaiey eia?oeee, eia?oeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey.
I?e/eiie aeaeaeaiey yaeyaony neea, i?e/eiie neeu aunooiaao aeaeaeaiea.
Neea ?iaeaeaaony i?e aiacaiiii oaaee/aiee oaea (oae i?e auno?aea ec
iooee auoaeeeaaaony yae?i), a oaeaea iooai ne?o/eaaiey e naeaaiey oae
aii?aee eo anoanoaaiiiio ninoiyieth (ia yoii iniiaaii aeaeaeaiea
aaeeenou, eoea). Ii iiaieth aeaaeaieea N.E. Aaaeeiaa, Eaiia?aei yaeyaony
ca/eiaoaeai oioiiao?ee eae oi/eie ecia?eoaeueiie iaoee. Iiiai/eneaiiua
iiuoiua iaaethaeaiey Eaiia?aei eiaee i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiia cia/aiea
aeey iineaaeothueo oai?aoe/aneeo ?ac?aaioie (i?eioeei noia?iiceoeee,
oaeaneiie/aneee yooaeo e o.ae.), ii iie ia auee eniieueciaaiu a iieiie
ia?a aai nia?aiaiieeaie. Oio oaeo, /oi aai caiene aaeenue caoeo?iaaiiui
niiniaii, a oaeaea oi, /oi a ?aieao iio?aaiinoae i?aeoeee oiai a?aiaie
iiiaea aai caiuneu ia iiaee auoue ?aaeeciaaiu, ii?aaeaeeee
iaaino?aaiaaiiinoue aai eaeae. Aeae.Aa?iae ioa?aeoa?eciaae noaeueao
eaeae Eaiia?aei: “Eco/aiea aan/eneaiiiai iiiaeanoaa iaoaie/aneeo
aiia?aoia, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo e ia?eniaaiiuo Eaiia?aei, ia/eiay io i?ieaoiuo
noaiia aei iiaeaeaeiuo caiea?ieiuo iaoei, ?ane?uaaao ae?oaie aniaeo
o?aaaaeee aai aaiey. Ii iia ecia?aoaoue iaoeiu /ooue ee ia aeey ethaie
oeaee e ?eniaaoue eo ian?aaiaiii oi?ioi, iaeiaei ii/oe ie iaeia ec ieo e
ie iaeia ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo ia niiaea au ?aaioaoue, aeaaea anee au ii
noiae iaeoe aeinoaoi/ii aeaiaa, /oiau eo naeaeaoue. Aac eiee/anoaaiiiai
ciaiey noaoeee e aeeiaieee, aac eniieueciaaiey ia?ae/iiai aeaeaaoaey
a?iaea ia?iaie iaoeiu eiaeaia? yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey oaeoe/anee ia iia
aeaaea aueoe ca i?aaeaeu, onoaiiaeaiiua o?aaeeoeeiiiie i?aeoeeie.
Caneoaa aai caeeth/aaony ia noieueei a oii, /oi ii naeaeae aeey ?acaeoey
iaoei, neieueei ai aiooaiee ia?aciaaiiiio ie?o eaeae i oii, /oi
aeaenoaey i?e?iaeu iiaoo auoue iauyniaiu n iiiiuueth iaoaieee.”

3. Aeeyiea aaeeioeaio?e/aneie eiioeaioeee I.Eiia?ieea ia ?acaeoea oeceee

Enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe iaoaieee a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey auee naycaiu
i?aaeaea anaai n ano?iiiieae. Aeaei a oii, /oi iaaiciiaeii ?acaeaaoue
iaoaieeo aac o/aoa caeiiiia?iinoae aeaeaeaiey iaaaniuo naaoee, iinoiyiii
iiaoi?yaoeony aaeaie a ano?iiiie/aneeo iaaethaeaieyo, e a oii, /oi
?acaeaaoue ano?iiiieth aia iaoaieee aeaeaeaiey yoeo iaaaniuo naaoee auei
iaeuecy. Eiaiii ano?iiiiee auei noaeaeaii inouanoaeoue ia?aai?io a
aioe/iii noeea iuoeaiey. E yoio ia?aai?io aue inouanoaeai I.Eiia?ieeii ,
iinoaaeaoei i?iaeaio niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo nouiinoueth aeaeaeaiey e aai
aini?eyoeai. A iniiao ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu ii i?ieiaeee oacen, eioi?ue a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iacuaatho “i?eioeeiii ioiineoaeueiinoe aini?eyoey”.
Nooue aai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi anyeia aeaeeiia eciaiaiea iieiaeaiey
i?ienoiaeeo aneaaenoaea aeaeaeaiey eeai iaaethaeaaiiai i?aaeiaoa, eeai
iaaethaeaoaey, eee aneaaenoaea iaiaeeiaeiaiai ia?aiauaiey eo iaieo
(iineieueeo i?e ?aaiii ia?aiauaiee iaaethaeaaiiai e iaaethaeaoaey a
iaeio noi?iio aeaeaeaiea aoaeao iacaiaoii). Iienaoaeueiay ano?iiiiey e
yoiio a?aiaie iaeiieea aeinoaoi/ii iaaethaeaiee e ?aniieaaaea
aeinoaoi/ii oi/iuie iaoaiaoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie, iicaieythueie i?iaa?youe
aeiioacu n iiiiuueth au/eneaiee.

Iniiaiie caiunae Eiia?ieea caeeth/aeny a oii, /oiau iino?ieoue
iaoaie/aneoth iiaeaeue Nieia/iie nenoaiu, niaeanothuothny n
iaaethaeaieyie e aeathuoth oeaeinoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i Anaeaiiie.
Iineieueeo aeaeaeaiea Caiee ia aeaeeiie ea?oeia noa?u iaiiaeaeaeiuo
caacae ieeae ia io?aaeaeinue, Eiia?iee i?aaenoaaee, /oi aeaiiay noa?a ii
n?aaiaieth n ?acia?aie i?aeou Caiee aaneiia/ii aaeeea – Caiey ioiineony
e Anaeaiiie eae aoii e oaeo. Neooaoeeth n eaaeeiinoueth a?auaiey
Anaeaiiie aie?oa Caiee aeey iaaethaeaoaey, iaoiaeyuaainy ia Caiea, ii
n?aaieaaao n aiaeiae/iie neooaoeeae, eiaaea iaaethaeaoaeth,
iaoiaeyuaiony ia ei?aaea, eaaeaony, /oi ii iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee iieiy,
a ana iaoiaeyueany aia ei?aaey aeaeaeaony.

Oaeei ia?acii, e?eoe/aneee aeoo, aianaiiue Eiia?ieeii a ano?iiiieth,
iicaieee aio ioaa?aiooue oi/eo c?aiey cae?aaiai niunea ii oi, /oi
eacaeinue naii niaie ?acoiathueiny, a eiaiii oio oaeo, /oi Caiey
iaiiaeaeaeia, a aie?oa iaa aeaeaeoony iaaaniua naaoeea. A aai o?oaea “Ia
ia?auaiee iaaaniuo noa?” auneacaia iuneue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ioee/aoue
aeiioacu, io?aaeathuea iiaeeeiioth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, io eiaeiuo
aeiioac. Eiaiii yoi iicaieeei Eiia?ieeo ia oieueei iainiiaaoue
aaeeioeaio?e/aneoth nenoaio, ii e iao/iue iaoiae iino?iaiey e i?iaa?ee
aeiioac. (Ia ano?iiiie/aneii niunea nenoaiu Eiia?ieea ni. ?acaeae
“Eiioeaioeee ano?iiiiee”).

Aaeeioeaio?e/aneay eiioeaioeey Eiia?ieea yaeeanue aaaeiie
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiie, iinoaaeaoae oeaeue ?yae i?iaeai.
I?aaeaea anaai iaia?oaeeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaa?eoue aeaiioth
eiioeaioeeth ia i?aaeiao aa niioaaonoaey oaeoai, o.a. iaaei auei
onoaiiaeoue niioaaonoaea ?acoeueoaoia iaaethaeaiey oai iieiaeaieyi,
eioi?ua auaeaeaaea eiioeaioeey. Aeey yoiai iaaei auei eiaoue
oniaa?oainoaiaaiioth iaaethaeaoaeueioth e au/eneeoaeueioth oaoieeo – aa
iaaei auei nicaeaaaoue, eai o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaaethaeaiey iaaii?oaeaiiui
aeacii n iiiiuueth aece?ia, oaeiia?ia iaaunieie oi/iinoe e o.ae. e
iau/iay a?eoiaoe/aneay oaoieea (aac aeanyoe/iuo ae?iaae e eiaa?eoiia) ia
niioaaonoaiaaee aeaiiie caaea/a. E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeii auei auyaeoue
oece/aneea i?e/eiu aeaeaeaiey iaaaniuo oae. O?aaeeoeeiiiay noaoeea
?aoaiea yoie caaea/e ia iaania/eaaea, iiyoiio aicieeea iio?aaiinoue a
?acaeoee aeeiaieee e niioaaonoaothuaai iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa. Iaaei
auei oaeaea ii?iaa?aiooue auaeaeaaaoeany i?ioea aaeeioeaio?e/aneie
eiioeaioeee aic?aaeaiey, iniaaiii aic?aaeaiey i?ioea a?auaiey Caiee (a
/enea aa i?ioeaieeia auee O.Aaeii, Oeoi A?aaa). Ii i?aaeaea anaai aaaeii
auei iaania/eoue i?i/iia aoiaeaeaiea aeaiiie eiioeaioeee a iaoeo, /aio
nii?ioeaeyeanue oea?eiaue. Yoiio a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a niinianoaiaae
Ae.A?oii. A naieo aeeaeiaao “Ie? ia iaiea” e “I aaneiia/iinoe Anaeaiiie
a ie?ao” n?aaeiaaaeiaui i?aaenoaaeaieyi i eiia/iie Anaeaiiie ii
i?ioeaiiinoaaee eiioeaioeeth aaneiia/iie Anaeaiiie.

Eiia?iee i?eaea?aeeaaeny a?enoioaeaaneie eiioeaioeee ioiineoaeueii
ioee/ey “anoanoaaiiiai” aeaeaeaiey Caiee e ianeeuenoaaiiuo” aeaeaeaiee
ia aa iiaa?oiinoe. A?oii enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ia nouanoaoao aeaeaiey
aeaeaeaiee ia “anoanoaaiiua” e “ianeeuenoaaiiua” – ana iaoiaeyueany ia
Caiea oaea ioiinyony e iaeiie iaoaie/aneie nenoaia, ana iie aeaeaeoony
aianoa n Caieae. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa auei au iaaiciiaeii, iai?eia?,
iiaei?uaiooue e iinea yoiai aa?iooueny ia i?aaeiaa ianoi.
A?enoioaeaaneea oece/aneea aic?aaeaiey i?ioea nouanoaiaaiey ionoiou
oaeaea auee ioaa?aioou A?oii – ii enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi aeaeaeaiea a
aaneiia/iii ionoii einiina ia eiaao ieeaeeo i?aiyonoaee. A neeo
aaneiia/iinoe einiina, ii A?oii, o iaai ia iiaeao auoue oeaio?a,
oeaio?ii iiaeao auoue i?eciaia ethaay oi/ea einiina.

Caeeth/ay e?aoeee iaci? ?acaeoey oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a yoi a?aiy auea nie?ooaia
a?enoioaeaaneay oece/aneay ea?oeia ie?a, iinoaaeaia caaea/a au?aaioee
io?aaeathuae ?aaeueiua naienoaa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oece/aneie
eiioeaioeee, a iio?aaiinoe oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna i?eaaee e nicaeaieth
iniia oece/aneiai yenia?eiaioa.

OECE*ANEEA EIIOeAIOeEE XII – XVIII AA.

Iniaaiiinoe ia?eiaea ia/aea Iiaiai

a?aiaie

N XVII aaea ia/eiaaony Iiaia a?aiy. Oeeinioey Aic?iaeaeaiey iiaeaioiaeea
iiaue oei oeeinionoaiaaiey, ioaa?aaaoee noieanoeeo, oaioeaio?enoneea
iino?iaiey, eioi?ua ia?anoaee oaeiaeaoai?youe o?aaiaaieyi iauyniaiey
iiauo nioeeaeueiuo ?aaeee.

A XVII aaea oe?aieeny eaieoaeenoe/aneee niinia i?iecaiaenoaa. ?acaeoea
yeiiiieee o?aaiaaei ?an/aoia iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
aeioiaeia, /eneaiiinoe ?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe e o.ae.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?an/ao noaiiaeony ii?iie iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Aai
iniiaa – eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea. ?an/ao, eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea aeeytho
ia /aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey, i?iieeatho ai ana noa?u /aeiaa/aneie
i?aeoeee.

Oieaa?neoaoneay iaoea, oaea/aiiay i?iaeaiaie aioe/iinoe e caiyaoayny
ioaea/aiiuie io i?aeoe/aneeo iio?aaiinoae aii?inaie, ieacaeanue naiaai
?iaea “cae?uoie nenoaiie”, eciee?iaaaoae naay io ?aaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae
iauanoaa. Iiyoiio ?acaeoea anoanoaiciaiey a yoi a?aiy inouanoaeyeinue
i?aeiouanoaaiii aia oieaa?neoaoneie iaoee. Iniaaiiinoue yoiai ia?eiaea
oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue neaaeothuei ia?acii: “Iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue
oaoie/aneie eioaeeeaaioeee ninoiyieai oieaa?neoaoneie iaoee eiaea aiieia
?aaeueiua i?aeoe/aneea iniiaaiey, – iia auea i?iaeeeoiaaia aeeciaiii
iaiaoiaeeiie iio?aaiinoueth. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?iecaiaenoai auei a
iniiaiii “iaiooaeoo?iui”, a i?aeoeeo no?ieoaeueiiai aeaea, o?ainii?oa,
aiaiiiai aeaea e iaeioi?uo aeaeia i?iecaiaenoaa aioee iiaua ono?ienoaa,
iaoeiu e i?eniiniaeaiey. ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?aaee e iiauo
eiino?oeoeee iie?aeanue, eae e i?aaeaea, ia i?iaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
yenia?eiaiou. Ii oaia?ue iie eanaeenue oaea ia oao i?inoaeoeo iaoei, ia
eioi?uo no?ieeanue oaoieea N?aaeiaaaeiauey, iai?ioea, yoe iiuou
ioiineeenue e oeaeui oceai iiauo iaoaie/aneeo e aeae?aaee/aneeo
ono?ienoa. Aa?uee?iaaiea oneiaee e aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia i?iaiiai iiuoa
noaee ai?acaei aieaa neiaeiuie, iaiaa iaaeyaeiuie e o?oaeiaa iaic?eiuie.
I?iecaiaenoaaiieeai, eiaeaia?ai, eiino?oeoi?ai o?aaiaaeenue ?oeiaiaeyuea
iao/iua oeacaiey, /oiau eo/oa e auno?aa ?acia?aoueny a ?acoeueoaoao
i?iaiuo oaoie/aneeo yenia?eiaioia. Ii aeaeueiaeoaa oniaa?oainoaiaaiea
oaoieee e iiauoaiea ea/anoaa ecaeaeee oie?aeenue a aeaaiia i?ioeai?a/ea
yiioe – i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo n?aaieoaeueii aunieei o?iaiai aeinoeaioouo
e yoiio a?aiaie oaoiieiae/aneeo ciaiee e ?aceei ionoaaaieai io ieo
iiiaeo io?aneae anoanoaiciaiey e iniaaiii oeceee”.

Ianiiiaiii, /oi aicieeiiaaiea eioa?ana e iiuoiiio anoanoaiciaieth ai
iiiaii iaycaii O.Ayeiio. Aianoa n oai a oneiaeyo ionoaaaiey
oai?aoe/aneiai anoanoaiciaiey io i?aeoe/aneeo oniaoia oaoieee aaaeii
auei iao/iia iaiauaiea ?acoeueoaoia oaoie/aneiai iiuoa. I?aaeaea anaai
aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oniaa?oainoaiaaiee iaoiaeia ecia?aiey e
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eaiia nicaeaiey oece/aneeo aiia?aoia. Iaeiieaiiue iiuo
a iaoeiino?iaiee eiae aaaeiia cia/aiea e aai iiaeii auei eniieueciaaoue.
Neooaoeey aea a iaeanoe oai?aoe/aneie oeceee auea eiie. Oeceea a yoi
a?aiy iiaea i?aaeeaaaoue ?aciiai ?iaea oai?aoe/aneea aeiioacu
ea/anoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Niiniau aea oi?ioee?iaie oai?aoe/aneeo caaea/ a
iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?ia, iicaieyaoea inouanoaeyoue ?an/aou n iao/iie
noaiaiueth oi/iinoe, ionoonoaiaaee. Ea/anoaaiiua aeiioacu ia iiaee auoue
iieiaeaiu a iniiao oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia eee eiino?oeoeaiuo
?ac?aaioie. A yoeo oneiaeyo ?ac?ua iaaeaeo aieaa aunieei
yenia?eiaioaeueiui o?iaiai oeceee e aieaa ieceei o?iaiai oece/aneeo
oai?ee iia auoue eeeaeaee?iaai n iiiiuueth yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaoee.
(Iaoiae oai?aoe/aneie oeceee aoaeao nicaeai Iuethoiiii iicaea, a eiioea
XVII aaea). A yoii ?onea e i?iyaeeanue iaoiaeieiaey Ayeiia,
i?eaioe?iaaaoay ia iinoaiiaeo yenia?eiaioia, niinianoaothueo ioe?uoeth
iiauo caeiiia. I?eioeei eiee/anoaaiiiai ecia?aiey a yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo noaiiaeony iniiaie anoanoaiciaiey. Yoi iaoiaeeo naia
au?aaeaiea a ecia?aoaiee ?aciiia?aciuo ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia –
o?iiiiao?ia, aeiiao?ia, oa?iiiao?ia, aania e o.ae. Oaeei ia?acii, aneaae
ca iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie io?aneueth aicieeaao i?eai?ino?ieoaeueiay.
Iio?aaiinoe i?aeoeee, oaaee/eaoeany n nicaeaieai oi?aiauo e i?iiuoeaiiuo
eiiiaiee, noaayo aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
oece/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. Aeey yoiai auea aaaeia i?aaiecaoeeiiiay e
iaoa?eaeueiay iiaeaea?aeea iaoee. Nicaeathony “Aeaaeaiey iiuoa” ai
Oei?aioeee (1657 a.), Eiiaeiineia Ei?ieaaneia iauanoai (1662 a.),
Ei?ieaaneay Aeaaeaiey iaoe a Ia?eaea (1666 a.), Aa?eeineay aeaaeaiey
(1672 a.). A yoeo oneiaeyo iio?aaiinoue a iaoiaea iino?iaiey oece/aneeo
oai?ee noaea iuouaoueny aua ino?aa. Ayeii enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi
e?eoa?eyie i?aaeeueiie oece/aneie oai?ee aeieaeiu aunooiaoue
i?eiaieiinoue oai?ee ia i?aeoeea, a oaeaea niinianoaiaaiea ?acaeoeth
naiie iaoee, i?eieaeay i?e yoii ?ieue iaoaiaoeee. Aeaea?o, iai?ioea,
ia?acoeii n/eoaao ia yenia?eiaioaeueioth oeceeo n aa eiaeoeoeaiui
iaoiaeii, a iaoaiaoeeo. E?eoa?eai aeinoiaa?iinoe oece/aneie oai?ee, ii
Aeaea?oo, yaeyaony aai niioaaonoaea aeaaeoeoeaii iieo/aiiui auaiaeai, aa
aioo?aiiyy eiae/aneay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue. Aeaea?o iieaaae, /oi aia
iiaeao inouanoaeyoue oece/aneia yaeaiea aan/eneaiiui eiee/anoaii
niiniaia. Yoi iaoneiaeei aai i?aaenoaaeaiea i iiiaeanoaa aa?eaioia
oai?ee. (A yoii ?onea ei auea auaeaeiooa i?iecaieueiay oai?ey aeo?ae,
oaea?aeeaathueo ieaiaou ia naieo i?aeoao – ni. ?acaeae “Eiioeaioeee
ano?iiiiee”.)

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue i?eciaiea Aeaea?oii aiciiaeiie iaiaeiicia/iinoe
oece/aneie oai?ee, /oi yaeeinue neaaenoaeai iiciaiey, eaeei niiniaii aia
?aaeeciaae aeaiiia oece/aneia yaeaiea. Eia/a aiai?y, niioaaonoaothuay
aeaaeoeoeaiui auaiaeai oai?ey ieacuaaaony eeoue iaeaieaa aa?iyoiie ec
/enea aiciiaeiuo.

Eioth iiceoeeth caieiae Iuethoii. Aeey iaai auei aaaeii iaeiicia/ii
auynieoue n iiiiuueth yenia?eiaioia e iaaethaeaiee naienoaa eco/aaiiai
iauaeoa e no?ieoue oai?eth ia iniiaa eiaeoeoeee aac eniieueciaaiey
aeiioac. Ii enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi a oeceea eae yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaoea
ianoa aeey aeiioac iao. I?eciaaay iaaacoi?a/iinoue eiaeoeoeaiiai
iaoiaea, ii n/eoae aai n?aaee i?i/eo iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui.

Iauei aeey Aeaea?oa, Iuethoiia e ae?oaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae i?e?iaeu yoiai
a?aiaie auei eniieueciaaiea oaieiae/aneeo a?aoiaioia. (Ia neo/aeii
Iuethoiia eiiaaea iacuaaao ia oieueei ia?aui o/aiui, ii e iineaaeiei
aiaineiaii.) Caaea/a anoanoaiciaiey oniao?eaaeanue a auyaeaiee
aiaeanoaaiiiai ieaia oai?aiey i?e?iaeu. A yoii caeeth/aeanue niaoeeoeea
?acaeoey anoanoaiciaiey XVII aaea. Iineieueeo oeceea XVII aaea ii
iaiaoiaeeiinoe anooiaea a i?ioeai?a/ea n oea?eiaiuie aeiaiaoaie,
oea?eiaue, ionoaeaaaoay naith iiceoeeth ?acee/ey iaaaniie e caiiie
oeceee, ia iiaea inoaoueny e yoiio ?aaiiaeooii. Aaeeeae aue iiaeaa?aioo
oea?eiaiui ?ai?anneyi ca “Aeeaeia i aeaoo aeaaiaeoeo nenoaiao ie?a,
ioieaiaaaie e eiia?ieeiaie”, oeaeueth eioi?uo auei no?aieaiea
i?einoaiiaeoue ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiia?ieeaineeo eaeae. Aeey Eoaeee,
aunooiaaoae a /enea eeaea?ia iao/iiai i?ia?anna, yoi eiaei iaaaoeaiua
iineaaenoaey – ?acaeoea oece/aneeo eaeae auei caoi?iiaeaii. A Aiaeee
neooaoeey neiaeeeanue eiay. ?.Aieeue iainiiaae eiioeaioeeth, niaeanii
eioi?ie anoanoaiciaiea aunooiaao iii?ie ?aeeaee, aeaaiaea?y /aio
oea?eiaioth ?aaeoeeth oaeaaaeinue naea?aeaoue. A oeaeii aea
anoanoaiciaiea XVII aaea, ioeacaaoaany io a?enoioaeaaneeo eiioeaioeee,
ni/aoaao a naaa iii?o ia yenia?eiaio, eiee/anoaaiiia ecia?aiea eco/aaiuo
yaeaiee n a?aoiaioaie oaieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

2. Iaoaieea A.Aaeeeay e ia/aei e?eoeee a?enoioaeaaneie oeceee

Anee ia/aeii ia?eiaea oi?aeanoaa iiaiai, yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iiaeoiaea a
anoanoaiciaiee i?eiyoi n/eoaoue aaeeioeaio?e/aneoth eiioeaioeeth
Eiia?ieea, o/aiea ia yeaeo?e/anoaa e Caiea eae i aieueoii iaaieoa O.
Aeeueaa?oa (1600 a.) e ioe?uoea O.Aa?aaai e?iaiia?auaiey (1628 a.), oi
caaa?oaieai aeaiiiai ia?eiaea – ooaa?aeaeaiea eiia?ieeaineie nenoaiu
aeaaiaea?y aeeaaeo A.Aaeeeay. Aaeeioeaio?e/aneie eiioeaioeee Eiia?ieea
iiiaaeiaeeinue a?aiy aeey naiaai ooaa?aeaeaiey. Ai?ueaa ca aa
ooaa?aeaeaiea aeey A?oii caeii/eeanue ia/aeueii, aea e iaeiie
aeaiiino?aoeee oaa?aiiinoe a aa enoeiiinoe auei iaei – iaiaoiaeeiu auee
aieaa na?ueaciua a?aoiaiou. Aeaei a oii, /oi a ia?aiia/aeueiii aeaea
aaeeioeaio?e/aneay eiioeaioeey Eiia?ieea ia niaea?aeaea oi/iiai iienaiey
i?aeo ieaiao e oaaaeeoaeueiuo a?aoiaioia aeey iauyniaiey
iaaini?eieiaaiinoe i?aaiaie /oanoa aeaeaeaiey Caiee.

Ia?aay caaea/a auea ?aoaia Oeoi A?aaa e Eiaaiii Eaiea?ii (ni. ?acaeae
“Eiioeaioeee ano?iiiiee“), aoi?ay, naycaiiay n nicaeaieai aeeiaieee, –
Aaeeeai Aaeeeaai. Iai?eaiaeiinoue a?enoioaeaaneie ia?aaeeaiu iiieiae
oaea Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e, aunooieaoee i?ioea o/aiey i i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe
caiiiai e iaaaniiai. Ii aai ?aaiou inoaeenue ia iioaeeeiaaiiuie.
Ae.A?oii naeaeae auaiaeu oeeinioneiai oa?aeoa?a ec o/aiey I. Eiia?ieea,
a E. Eaiea? nenoaio Eiia?ieea i?eaae a niioaaonoaea n iiaaeoeie
ano?iiiie/aneeie aeaiiuie. Ia?aae Aaeeeaai anoaea caaea/a iainiiaaoue
eiioeaioeeth Eiia?ieea oece/anee. Eniieueciaaiea oaeaneiia iicaieeei
Aaeeeath auyaeoue ianiioaaonoaea iaaethaeaaiie ea?oeiu a?enoioaeaaneie
eiioeaioeee. Ioe?uoea niooieeia THieoa?a iicaieeei aio iaaeyaeii
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue iiaeaeue eiia?ieeianeie nenoaiu e ooaa?aeeoue
i?aeiouanoai iaaethaeaiey iaae oiic?eoaeueiuie iino?iaieyie.

Iaeiaei ooaa?aeaeaiey i?aeiouanoaa iaoiaea iaaethaeaiey iaae
oiic?eoaeueiuie a?aoiaioaie aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey nenoaiu Eiia?ieea auei
iaaeinoaoi/ii. Aaaeii auei iauynieoue, ii/aio a?auaiea Caiee ia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony o?aaaiiui aao?ii, iai?aaeaiiui a i?ioeaiiieiaeioth
aeaeaeaieth Caiee noi?iio, a oaeaea ii/aio iiaea?ioaiiua aaa?o oaea ia
inoathony iicaaee. Aeey ioaaoa ia yoe aii?inu o?aaiaaeinue eco/aiea
naiaiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey oae. Aeaiiay i?iaeaia eiaea aaaeiia e
i?aeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, iineieueeo auea naycaia n aeaeaeaieai yaea? i?e
no?aeueaa ec iooae e aiiaua aeaeaeaieai iaoaoaeueiuo nia?yaeia.
Nouanoaiaaaoei oai?eyi, iauyniyaoei yoi aeaeaeaiea, iaaeinoaaaei
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey . A “Aeeaeiaao i aeaoo iiauo iaoeao” Aaeeeae
aeae iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea aeaeaeaiey oae (?aaioa auea iioaeeeiaaia
oaea iinea inoaeaeaiey Aaeeeay ca aai “Aeeaeia i aeaoo aeaaiaeoeo
nenoaiao ie?a”). Aaeeeae, ioa?inee i?aaeoanoaothuea aicc?aiey ia
iauyniaiea aeaeaeaiey oae, ia?aoeeny e yenia?eiaioo eae iaoiaeo
enneaaeiaaiey. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey ecia?aiee iaaeaiey oae ii eniieueciaae
iayoiee e iaeeiiioth ieineinoue, a oaeaea na?anuaaiea oae n Iecaineie
aaoie.

A?enoioaeaaneay oeceea i?eciaaaea anoanoaaiiua e ianeeuenoaaiiua
aeaeaeaiey. Iineieueeo aeaeaeaiea iaoae ieaiaou ioiineeinue e
anoanoaaiiiio aeaeo aeaeaeaiey, oi auyaeeinue i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
a?enoioaeaaneei iiieiaieai anoanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey eae aucuaaaiiio
no?aieaieai oaea caiyoue naia “anoanoaaiiia ianoi”, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
aeaeaeaieai ieaiaou aie?oa Nieioea ii caieiooui o?aaeoi?eyi. Iiyoiio
i?aaeaea anaai auei iaiaoiaeeii enneaaeiaaoue i?e?iaeo “anoanoaaiiiai
aeaeaeaiey”, o.a. iaaeaiey oae. Yoa i?iaeaia enneaaeiaaeanue oeceeaie e
aei Aaeeeay, ii ieeoi ec ieo ia iia onoaiiaeoue aaee/eio nei?inoe
iaaeaiey oae a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie. Aaeeeae iiiye, /oi onoaiiaeoue yoi
iiaeii eeoue a yenia?eiaioa. Ii iaiaoiaeeii auei iaeoe niinia
oiaiueoeoue nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey iaaeathuaai oaea aac eneaaeaiey oneiaee
naiaiaeiiai iaaeaiey. Aaeeeae eniieueciaae a yoeo oeaeyo aeaeaeaiea ii
iaeeiiiie ieineinoe. I?iaaaeaiea iiiaie?aoiuo yenia?eiaioia n
aeaeaeaieai oae ii iaeeiiiie ieineinoe, a oaeaea n iiiiuueth iayoieea
iicaieeei Aaeeeath noi?ioee?iaaoue caeii: caeiiu naiaiaeiiai iaaeaiey e
aeaeaeaiey oae ii iaeeiiiie ieineinoe e iieacaoue ioeai/iinoue
i?aaenoaaeaiee A?enoioaey ia anoanoaaiiii e ianeeuenoaaiiii iaaeaiee.
A?enoioaeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aeaeaeouaany oaei inoaiaaeeaaaony, anee
neea, aai oieeathuay, i?ae?auaao naia aeaenoaea. Aaeeeae onoaiiaee, /oi
anee ia oaei ia aeaenoaotho ieeaeea neeu, oi iii iieieony eee aeaeaeaony
?aaiiia?ii e i?yiieeiaeii. Oaeei ia?acii, Aaeeeae iieacae ioeai/iinoue
i?aaenoaaeaiee A?enoioaey ia anoanoaaiiii e ianeeuenoaaiiii aeaeaeaiee.

?anniao?eaay aeaeaeaiea oaea ii iaeeiiiie ieineinoe, Aaeeeae aeaeaao
aaaeiue oaa a au?aaioea i?aaenoaaeaiee ia eia?oeee – iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo eaeae iaoaieee. Oioy aio e ia oaeaeinue aeaoue iieioth e
oi/ioth oi?ioee?iaeo caeiia eia?oeee, ii auyaee niiniaiinoue oae
nio?aiyoue naith nei?inoue. Eniieueciaaiea caeiia eia?oeee a naieo
yenia?eiaioao iicaieeei Aaeeeath noi?ioee?iaaoue eaeath ioiineoaeueiinoe
aeaeaeaiey e iainiiaaoue nenoaio Eiia?ieea. Anee a?ineoue n aaoie oa?,
oi ii aneaaenoaea neeu eia?oeee aoaeao aeaeaaoueny aianoa n aaoiae e
oiaaeao o aa iiaeiiaeey. I?e aeaeaeaiee Caiee iao aeo?y, o.e. aoiinoa?a
aeaeaeaony aianoa n Caieae. Ionthaea neaaeiaaei, /oi a iaoaie/aneii
yenia?eiaioa iaeuecy auyaeoue, aeaeaeaony nenoaia ?aaiiia?ii e
i?yiieeiaeii eee iieieony – aeaeaeaiey a oie e ae?oaie nenoaiao
inouanoaeythony iaeeiaeiai. Aeey iainiiaaiey aeeiaieee aaaeiaeoaa
cia/aiea eiaei onoaiiaeaiea iacaaeneiinoe onei?aiey naiaiaeiiai iaaeaiey
io iannu oaea (A?enoioaeue, eae ecaanoii, n/eoae, /oi nei?inoue iaaeaiey
oaea i?iii?oeeiiaeueia aai ianna). Anee i?aiaa?a/ue nii?ioeaeaieai
aicaeooa, oi, eae auyaee Aaeeeae, nei?inoue iaaeaiey anao oae iaeeiaeiaa
e i?iii?oeeiiaeueia a?aiaie iaaeaiey, a i?ieaeaiiue a naiaiaeiii
iaaeaiee oaeii iooue i?iii?oeeiiaeai eaaae?aoo a?aiaie. E?iia caeiiia
?aaiionei?aiiiai aeaeaeaiey Aaeeeae ioe?ue e caeii iacaaeneiinoe
nei?inoe iaaeaiey io niiauaiiie oaeo i?e a?inaiee ai?eciioaeueiie
nei?inoe. Neea oyaeanoe, aeaenoaoy ia iaoiaeyuaany a ninoiyiee iieiy
oaei, a ia?aoth naeoiaeo iaaeaiey oaea i?eaeaao aio nei?inoue a 9, 8
i/n, a neaaeothuoth naeoiaeo oaaee/eo nei?inoue ia oo aea aaee/eio –
nei?inoue iaaeaiey i?iii?oeeiiaeueia a?aiaie iaaeaiey.

Iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea yenia?eiaioia, inouanoaeaiiia Aaeeeaai , eiaei
aeey ?acaeoey anoanoaiciaiey aanueia aaaeiia cia/aiea. Niaaeeiaiea
yenia?eiaioa e oi/iiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
?aoeoue caaea/o naiaiaeiiai iaaeaiey oae, iieacaa, /oi a aicaeooiii
i?ino?ainoaa oaea a iaaeaiee aeaeaaeenue au ii ia?aaiee/aneie
o?aaeoi?ee. Yoei aue caaeai ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?acaoe iaoiaea oeceee,
eioi?ue ai iiiaii i?aaeii?aaeaeee a iineaaeothuai ?acaeoea oeceee.
Aaeeeae caeiaeee iniiau nia?aiaiiie iaoaieee. Ei auea /aoei au?aaeaia
iuneue, /oi aaeeinoaaiiuie naienoaaie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua iiaeii
iienaoue iaoaiaoe/anee, yaeythony i?ioyaeaiiinoue, iieiaeaiea e
ieioiinoue. Yoa iuneue ii nooe naiae auea i?ia?aiiie naaaeaiey
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee e oaeei ia?ae/iui ea/anoaai, eae
?acia?, oi?ia, eiee/anoai e aeaeaeaiea.

Aeey oiai, /oiau yenia?eiaioaeueii-iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiae i?eia?ae
anaiauaa i?ecaaiea, Aaeeeath iaiaoiaeeii auei nie?ooeoue o/aiea Ioieaiay
i nenoaia iaaaniuo noa? e a?enoioaeaaneoth oece/aneoth ia?aaeeaio,
ainiiaenoaiaaaooth ii/oe aeaa ouny/aeaoey a ea/anoaa iniiau
anoanoaiciaiey e iauanoaiciaiey. Eiaiii yoo caaea/o e i?aneaaeiaae aai
“Aeeaeia i aeaoo aeaaiaeoeo nenoaiao ie?a – ioieaiaaaie e eiia?ieeiaie“.
Eiaiii yoi e aucuaaei aai eiioeeeo n oea?eiaueth, iineieueeo iiaua eaeae
oa?iaeaee onoiyi oea?eiaiiai o/aiey e iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea. A iniiaa
eiioeeeoa eaaeaei i?ioeai?a/ea iaoee e aeiai ?aeeaee. Inoaeaeaiea
Aaeeeay e aai auioaeaeaiiia niaeanea ioeacaoueny io naiaai o/aiey
i?eaeaeei aieiaiea anoanoaieniuoaoaeae e iniciaieth nooe eiioeeeoa e
niinianoaiaaei noaiiaeaieth iiaie yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaoee e
?ani?ino?aiaieth eiia?ieeaineiai o/aiey. Nionoy anaai iaiaa iieoaaea
Iuethoii a naiae oai?ee anaie?iiai oyaioaiey iauaaeeieo caeiiu,
onoaiiaeaiiua Eaiea?ii e Aaeeeaai.

3. Aioeia?eiaoaoe/aneee oa?aeoa? yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oece/aneeo
eiioeaioeee Iiaiai a?aiaie

Aaeeeae, iiaeaioiaea ii/ao aeey ooiaeaiaioa aeeiaieee, ii?aaeaeee
i?ia?aiio aeaeueiaeoeo enneaaeiaaiee, ii aua a iaueo /a?oao.
I?iaeieaeaoaeai aai ?aaio aue Y.Oi??e/aeee. Ii ?ani?ino?aiee eaeae
Aaeeeay ia oai?eth aeaeaeaiey aeeaeeinoae e auaae oi?ioeo, n iiiiuueth
eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony nei?inoue auoaeaiey aeeaeeinoe ec ninoaea /a?ac
ioaa?noea a aai noaiea, caeiaeea oai naiui iniiau aeae?iaeeiaieee. Ii
aeaaiia aai aeinoeaeaiea – ioe?uoea aoiinoa?iiai aeaaeaiey. Aua Aaeeeae
ciae i iaaethaeaieyo oei?aioeeneeo aiaeii?iaiaeieeia, /oi aiaea
iiaeieiaaony ia auoa ii?aaeaeaiiie auniou. Oi??e/aeee i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi
aicaeoo ieacuaaao ia iaa ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaaeaiea, eioi?ia e iiiuoaeny
ecia?eoue. N yoie oeaeueth auea eniieueciaaia cae?uoay n iaeiiai eiioea
o?oaea, caiieiaiiay ?oooueth. Eiaaea aa naiaiaeiui eiioeii iionoeee a
aiaeo, oi o?iaaiue ?oooe a iae iiieceeny, a iaae iiaa?oiinoueth ?oooe
ia?aciaaeanue ionoioa. I?ienoiaeaeaiea yoie “oi??e/aeaaie ionoiou” auei
iauyniaii neaaeothuei ia?acii: aeaaeaiea ia iiaa?oiinoue ?oooe a /aoea
o?aaiiaaoeaaaony aanii noieaa ?oooe a o?oaea. Aunioa yoiai noieaa iaae
o?iaiai ii?y ninoaaeea 760 ii. Oae aue ecia?aoai aa?iiao?. Oae ?ooioea
aua iaeia ia?eiaoaoe/aneay aeiaia – i “aiycie ionoiou”. Aeaea?o
i?aaeeiaeee, a A.Ianeaeue ?aaeeciaae eaeath ecia?aiey aoiinoa?iiai
aeaaeaiey ia ?acee/iuo aunioao – a ?acoeueoaoa auea onoaiiaeaia
caaeneiinoue auniou ?oooiiai noieaa io auniou ianoa ecia?aiey e io
ninoiyiey iiaiaeu. Yoi icia/aei ?iaeaeaiea iao/iie iaoai?ieiaee.
I.Aa?eea naieie iiuoaie n “iaaaeaao?aneeie iieooa?eyie” iiaeoaa?aeee
nouanoaiaaiea aoiinoa?iiai aeaaeaiey. Ianeaeue noi?ie?iaae iniiaiie
caeii aeae?inoaoeee; ecaanoiue eae caeii Ianeaey: aeaaeaiea ia
iiaa?oiinoue aeeaeeinoe, i?iecaiaeeiia aiaoieie neeaie, ia?aaeaaony
aeeaeeinoueth iaeeiaeiai ai anao iai?aaeaieyo. Ia iai iniiaaii aeaenoaea
aeae?aaee/aneiai i?anna. Ianeaeai aue ioe?uo oaeaea caeii niiauathueony
ninoaeia.

E oniaoai a ?acaeoee yenia?eiaioaeueiie oeceee XVII aaea n iieiui
iniiaaieai iiaoo auoue ioianaiu enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe yeaeo?e/anoaa e
iaaiaoecia O.Aeeueaa?oa. I?aaeiieiaeea, /oi Caiey yaeyaony iaaieoii, ii
aia?aua iauyniee iiaaaeaiea iaaieoiie no?aeee eiiiana aeeyieai aai
iiethnia. Ei auei aaaaeaii a oeceeo iiiyoey yeaeo?e/anoaa
(yeaeo?e/aneeie oaeaie ii iacaae i?aaeiaou, iiaeiaiua yioa?th, eioi?ua
niiniaiu iinea iaoe?aiey i?eoyaeaaoue e naaa eaaeea i?aaeiaou), iieiaeea
ia/aei eco/aiea yeaeo?e/aneeo yaeaiee.

?iaa?o Aieeue ii?iaa?a iiaiea noi?iiieeia a?enoioaeueneie oeceee i oii,
/oi a o?oaea Oi??e/aeee ?oooue oaea?aeeaaaony iaaeaeeiuie ieoyie,
onoaiiaea a 1662a. iaeei ec aaciauo caeiiia: i?iecaaaeaiea iauaia
aeaiiie iannu eaeaaeueiiai aaca ia aai aeaaeaiea iinoiyiii i?e
iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?a (iicaea yoio caeii iacaaeneii io Aieey onoaiiaee
Ia?eioo, iiyoiio aeaiiue caeii iineo iacaaiea caeiia Aieey-Ia?eiooa).
Aieeue ioaa?a ia?eiaoaoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oeaaoa eae i
niaoeeoe/aneii ea/anoaa oaea, iauyniea aai eiee/anoaii io?aaeaiiiai
naaoa. I.Aa?eea nicaeae ia?aoth yeaeo?e/aneoth iaoeio a aeaea oa?a ec
na?u, eioi?ue a?auaeny ia aeaeaciie ine, iaia?oaeee yaeaiey
yeaeo?e/aneiai iooaeeeaaiey e yeaeo?e/aneeo ?ac?yaeia. O.Atheaain
ecia?ae iayoieeiaua /anu ni nioneiaui iaoaieciii, iaiiiao? aeey
ecia?aiey ieceeo aeaaeaiee onoaiiaee caeiiu eieaaaiey iayoieea, nicaeae
aieiiaoth oai?eth naaoa, caeiaeee iniiau oai?ee oaea?a. A “O?aeoaoa i
naaoa” ei noi?ioee?iaai i?eioeei ?ani?ino?aiaiey aieiu, ecaanoiue eae
i?eioeei Atheaaina-O?aiaey, eioi?ue aeaneo: eaaeaeay oi/ea i?ino?ainoaa,
eioi?ie aeinoeaea a aeaiiue iiiaio ?ani?ino?aiythuayny aieia, noaiiaeony
enoi/ieeii yeaiaioa?iuo noa?e/aneeo aiei. Ia iniiaa yoiai i?eioeeia auee
aaaaeaiu caeiiu io?aaeaiey e i?aeiieaiey naaoa. Atheaain ia?aue
onoaiiaee yaeaiea iiey?ecaoeee naaoa. Ei auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi
oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiia onei?aiea i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eaaae?aoo nei?inoe e
ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?aaeeono ie?oaeiinoe, /oi niinianoaiaaei
?ac?aaioea iuethoiiianeie oai?ee aeaeaeaiey oae.

Iniaaiiinoe ea?oaceaineie oeceee

Aanueia cia/eoaeueiay ?ieue a ?acaeoee anoanoaiciaiee (e oeceee a
/anoiinoe) XVII aaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?.Aeaea?oo, auneacaaoaio caeii
nio?aiaiey eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey e aeaaoaio iiiyoea eiioeuena neeu (ni.
oaeaea ?acaeae “Eiioeaioeee ano?iiiiee”- i oai?ee aeo?ae). I?iaeaiu
oeceee caiyee cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a aai “Ia/aeao oeeinioee”. Iineieueeo
iiuo i?yiuo iaiaaeie ia ?aeeaeiciua aeiaiu a yoi a?aiy aue aanueia
ia/aeueiui (niaeaeaiea A?oii e Na?aaoa), Aeaea?o iinoa?aeny caiyoue
iiceoeeth, iicaieyaooth oeeiieoueny io eiioeeeoa n oea?eiaueth e oai
naiui iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeaaoueny iaoea a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
noieaoee. Ii i/aiue oi/ii noi?ioee?iaae aeaeaiea Anaeaiiie ia
oece/aneoth e ii?aeueioth /anoe. Oaeia aeaeaiea auei neaaenoaeai
naaaeaiey ei /oanoaaiiiai iiuoa e iaoaieea e aaiiao?ee. Aneaae ca
Aaeeeaai Aeaea?o aaeeinoaaiiuie oece/aneeie ?aaeueiinoyie n/eoae
i?ioyaeaiiinoue e aeaeaeaiea (iiieiaaiia eae iaoaie/aneia ia?aiauaiea),
eioi?ua ?anniao?eaae a ea/anoaa ia?ae/iuo ea/anoa. Ei aoi?e/iui
ea/anoaai ii ioian oeaao, aeon, caiao. Ca eo i?aaeaeaie iaoiaeeeanue
iaeanoue no?anoae, aiee, ethaae, aa?u. Oeceea caieiaaony, aeaaiui
ia?acii, ia?ae/iuie ea/anoaaie, eioi?ua iiaeii ecia?youe. Aoi?e/iuie
ea/anoaaie oeceea caieiaaony a iaiueoae ia?a. O?aouee aea ea/anoaa
ioiinyony e noa?a ioe?iaaiey, iiyoiio iaoea eie ia caieiaaony. AEeaie
i?aaieci i?aaenoaaeyeny Aeaea?oii a aeaea iaoeiu, iaoaiecia, oi?aaeyaiui
a niioaaonoaee n oece/aneeie i?eioeeiaie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ?acoiii,
aieae – n ae?oaie. Iiaeiaiia ?acaeaeaiea aeaei aiciiaeiinoue o/aiui
i?iaiaeeoue enneaaeiaaiey, ia aiaoeaaoueny a aeaea ?aeeaee e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia anooiay a eiioeeeo n oea?eiaueth. Aieaa oiai,
nenoaia Aeaea?oa iicaieyea aeieacuaaoue auoea aiaa ia iaiaa
oaaaeeoaeueii, /ai i?aaeoanoaiaaaoea niiniau aeieacaoaeuenoaa: aai oacen
“ss iuneth, neaaeiaaoaeueii nouanoaoth” iicaieye naeaeaoue auaiae i oii,
/oi ?ac ethaee iiaoo i?aaenoaaeoue naaa nouanoai aieaa niaa?oaiiia, /ai
iie naie, oi iii aeieaeii nouanoaiaaoue.

Aeaea?o noi?ioee?iaae o?e caeiia i?e?iaeu:

1. Anyeay aauue iaoiaeeony a iaeiii e oii aea ninoiyiee, iiea ae?oaea
aaue ia canoaayo aa eciaieoue aeaiiia ninoiyiea.

2. Anyeia aeaeaeouaany oaei no?aieoueny i?iaeieaeaoue naia aeaeaeaiea ii
i?yiie.

3. Anee aeaeaeouaany oaei ano?aoeo ae?oaia, neeueiaeoaa oaei, iii ie/aai
ia oa?yao a naiai aeaeaeaiee; anee aea iii ano?aoeo neaaaeoaa, eioi?ia
iiaeao iiaeaeiooue, iii oa?yao noieueei, neieueei oiio niiauaao.

Eaaei aeaeaoue, /oi aeaiiua caeiiu ii nooe yaeythony /enoi
yenia?eiaioaeueiuie. Nenoaia Aeaea?oa yaeeanue nianueth caeeth/aiee,
iie?athueony ia yenia?eiaio, n aeaaeoeoeaiuie caeeth/aieyie, iniiaaiiuie
ia niaa?oaiii yniuo ia?aiia/aeao (/aai o?aaiaae iaoiae Aeaea?oa). Oeaee,
e eioi?ui no?aieeenue Aaeii e Aeaea?o, auee iaueie – naeaeaoue /aeiaaea
ainiiaeeiii i?e?iaeu. E oio, e ae?oaie iiaeiyee aaoi?eoao
yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaoee, auoanieaoae noieanoeeo. Aeaea?o ooaa?aeaeae,
/oi a i?e?iaea nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ia
ieeiaaea ia aic?anoaao e ia oauaaao. Oae eae iaoa?ey, a i?aaenoaaeaieyo
Aeaea?oa, iaeii?iaeia e oa?aeoa?ecoaony oieueei naienoaii
i?ioyaeaiiinoe, oi iiiyoea eiee/anoaa iaoa?ee ieacuaaaony i?aeoe/anee
oiaeaeanoaaiiui iiiyoeth iauaia oaea. I?e aiaeeca noieeiiaaiee oae
Aeaea?o iieueciaaeny iiiyoeai neeu, eioi?ay caaenaea io aaee/eiu oaea, a
eioi?ia caeeth/aia, io nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey e niiniaa noieeiiaaiey oae.
Caeanue niaea?aeeony oi?ioee?iaea caeiia nio?aiaiey eiioeuena e caeiia
eia?oeee, oioy iiiyoea eiioeuena aua aeiaieueii ?aciuoi e aunooiaao eae
neaey?iay aaee/eia. Aeaea?o, a ioee/ea io Iuethoiia, aiai?eo i ninoiyiee
aiiaua, a ia i ninoiyiee ?aaiiia?iiai e i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey.
Aaaeii, /oi, ii Aeaea?oo, eia?oeey oaea caaeneo io aai nei?inoe. Aaaeii
e oi, /oi oeceea Aeaea?oa ia i?eciaaaea nee, aeaenoaothueo /a?ac ionoioo
ia ?annoiyiee. A iae nouanoaiaaee eeoue acaeiiaeaenoaey nii?eeanathueony
oae.

5. ?ac?aaioea iniia eeanne/aneie oeceee

a) Oece/aneay eiioeaioeey E. Iuethoiia eae eoia ?acaeoey iiuoiiai
anoanoaiciaiey

Iniiaiui aeinoeaeaieai oece/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee XVII a., iiaeaiaeyuei
eoia ?acaeoeth iiuoiiai anoanoaiciaiey e ieii/aoaeueii nie?ooeaoei
ia?eiaoaoe/aneoth oece/aneoth ia?aaeeaio, yaeeinue caaa?oaiea nicaeaiey
iauae nenoaiu iaoaieee. eioi?ay auea a ninoiyiee aeaoue iauyniaiea
aeaeaeaieth iaaaniuo naaoee ia iniiaa yaeaiee, iaaethaeaaiuo ia Caiea. E
a yiioo aioe/iinoe, a XVII aaea i?eciaaaeanue aaaeiinoue eco/aiey
aeaeaeaiey iaaaniuo naaoee. Ii anee aeey ae?aaieo a?aeia aeaiiay
i?iaeaia eiaea aieueoa oeeinioneia cia/aiea, oi aeey XVII aaea,
i?aiaeaaeathuei aue aniaeo i?aeoe/aneee. ?acaeoea ii?aieaaaiey
iaoneiaeeaaei iaiaoiaeeiinoue au?aaioee aieaa oi/iuo ano?iiiie/aneeo
oaaeeoe aeey oeaeae iaaeaaoeee ii n?aaiaieth n oaie, eioi?ua
o?aaiaaeenue aeey ano?ieiae/aneeo oeaeae. Iniiaiie caaea/ae auei
ii?aaeaeaiea aeieaiou, noieue ioaeiie ano?iiiiai e ii?aieaaaoaeyi. Aeey
?aoaiey yoie aaaeiie i?aeoe/aneie i?iaeaiu e nicaeaaaeenue ia?aua
ainoaea?noaaiiua iana?aaoi?ee (a 1672 a. Ia?eaeneay, a 1675 a.
A?eiae/neay). Ii nooe naiae yoi auea caaea/a ii?aaeaeaiey aaniethoiiai
a?aiaie, aeaaaaoaai i?e n?aaiaiee n ianoiui a?aiaiai eioa?aae a?aiaie,
eioi?ue e iiaeii auei ia?aaanoe a aeieaioo. Ii?aaeaeeoue yoi a?aiy
iiaeii auei n iiiiuueth iaaethaeaiey aeaeaeaiee Eoiu n?aaee caacae, o.a.
/ania, “cae?aieaiiuo ia iaaa”, a oaeaea n iiiiuueth oi/iuo /ania,
iinoaaeaiiuo ii aaniethoiiio a?aiaie e iaoiaeyueony o iaaethaeaoaey.
Aeey ia?aiai neo/ay auee iaiaoiaeeiu i/aiue oi/iua oaaeeoeu aeey
i?aaeneacaiey iieiaeaiey iaaaniuo naaoee, a aeey aoi?iai – aaniethoii
oi/iua e iaaeaaeiua /aniaua iaoaieciu. ?aaiou a yoeo iai?aaeaieyo ia
auee oniaoiuie. E oioy noae iaae Aaeeeaai aue “neeiaui a?aoiaioii” a
iieueco a?enoioaeaaneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee a iaeanoe einiieiaee, no?aieaiea
iaeoe i?eaieaiia oece/aneia iauyniaiea nenoaiu Eiia?ieea nio?aiyeinue.
?aoaieai yoie i?iaeaiu caieiaeenue iiiaea auaeathueany enneaaeiaaoaee
(Aaeeeae, Eaiea?, Aeaea?o, Aoe, Atheaain e ae?.), ii ?aoeoue aa
oaeaeinue eeoue Iuethoiio, eioi?ue, aeaaiaea?y ioe?uoeth caeiia
anaie?iiai oyaioaiey e o?ao iniiaiuo caeiiia iaoaieee, a oaeaea
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai e eioaa?aeueiiai en/eneaiey i?aaeae iaoaieea
oa?aeoa? oeaeueiie iao/iie oai?ee. E?iia oiai, Iuethoiio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
caneoaa ioe?uoey aeenia?nee naaoa, o?iiaoe/aneie aaa??aoeee,
enneaaeiaaiey eioa?oa?aioeee e aeeo?aeoeee, ?acaeoey ei?ioneoey?iie
oai?ee naaoa e o.ae. Enneaaeiaaieth yoeo i?iaeai iinayuaia aai “Iioeea”.
Aai eaieoaeueiue o?oae “Iaoaiaoe/aneea ia/aea iaoo?aeueiie oeeinioee”
(iioaeeeiaaiiue a 1687 a.) Iaiauee ia oieueei nianoaaiiua enneaaeiaaiey
aaoi?a, ii e iiuo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Oai?ey aeaeaeaiey ieaiao e caeii
anaie?iiai oyaioaiey yaeeenue iniiaie oece/aneiai iainiiaaiey
eiia?ieeianeie aaeeioeaio?e/aneie nenoaiu ie?a.

Iienee ioaaoa ia aii?in, ii/aio ieaiaou aeaeaeoony aie?oa Nieioea ii
yeeeioe/aneei i?aeoai, aaee iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee. Iineieueeo ieaiaou
ia?auathony ii i?aeoai, oi aeieaeia auoue eaeay-oi neea, oaea?aeeaathuay
eo. Ii eaeay? Aeeueaa?o auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi oaeie neeie iia
auoue iaaiaoeci. Ai?aeee iieaaae, /oi aeaeaeaiea ieaiao naycaii n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth o?aaiiaaneoue oeaio?iaaaeioth neeo ae?oaie neeie,
eioi?oth ii iacaae neeie oyaioaiey e aeaenoaea eioi?ie n/eoae auoiaeyuei
ca i?aaeaeu iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe Caiee e Eoia e Nieioea e
ieaiaoai. Aoe i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi oyaioaiea n ?annoiyieai oiaiueoaaony.
Aeaea?o (oai?ey oyaioaiey eioi?iai auea iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie e
eioi?ie aia/aea i?eaea?aeeaaeny Iuethoii) enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi oyaeaeua
oaea i?eoyaeaaeenue e naiei oeaio?ai i?eoyaeaiey eaeie-oi neeie yoe?iuo
aeo?ae. Ana yoe eaeae aaaeii auei naanoe e iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?ioea e
i?iaa?eoue iaaethaeaieyie. Atheaain, ?aaioay iaae /anaie n iayoieeii,
auaae caeii i oeaio?iaaaeiie neea, onoaiiaea aa i?yioth
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue ?aaeeono e?oaa, ii eioi?iio aeaeaeaony oaei, e
ia?aoioth i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue eaaae?aoo nei?inoe aeaeaeouaainy oaea.
Aoe, Aaeeeae e ?ai onoaiiaeee, /oi aeey o?aaiiaaoeaaiey oeaio?iaaaeiie
neeu oyaioaiey eee oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiay neea aeieaeiu caaenaoue io
?aaeeona, aeaeaiiiai ia aai eoa. Inoaaaeenue ia?aoaiiuie aeaa i?iaeaiu.
Ia?aay – aeaoue iauyniaiea yeeeioe/aneie oi?ia i?aeo. Aoi?ay – aeaoue
iauyniaiea aeaenoaeth aieueoeo i?eoyaeaathueony oae.

Oneiaey aeey ?aoaiey yoeo i?iaeai auee aioiau, ii yoe ?aoaiey
iaiaoiaeeii auei iaeoe. Aeeaae, naeaeaiiue Iuethoiiii a ?acaeoea
anoanoaiciaiey, caeeth/aeny a oii, /oi ii aeae iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiae
ia?auaiey oece/aneeo caeiiia a eiee/anoaaiii ecia?eiua ?acoeueoaou,
eioi?ua iiaeii auei iiaeoaa?aeeoue iaaethaeaieyie, e, iaiai?io,
auaiaeeoue oece/aneea caeiiu ia iniiaa oaeeo iaaethaeaiee. Eae ii nai
ienae a i?aaeeneiaee e “Ia/aeai”, “… ni/eiaiea yoi iaie i?aaeeaaaaony
eae iaoaiaoe/aneea iniiaaiey oeceee. Any o?oaeiinoue oeceee… ninoieo a
oii, /oiau ii yaeaieyi aeaeaeaiey ?aniiciaoue neeu i?e?iaeu, a caoai ii
yoei neeai iauynieoue inoaeueiua yaeaiey… Auei au aeaeaoaeueii auaanoe
ec ia/ae iaoaieee e inoaeueiua yaeaiey i?e?iaeu, ?annoaeaeay iiaeiaiui
aea ia?acii, eai iiiaia canoaaeyao iaiy i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi ana yoe
yaeaiey iaoneiaeeaathony iaeioi?uie neeaie, n eioi?uie /anoeoeu oae
aneaaenoaea i?e/ei, iiea iaecaanoiuo, eee no?aiyony ae?oa e ae?oao e
noeaieythony a i?aaeeueiua oeao?u, eee aea acaeiii iooaeeeaathony e
oaeaeythony ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oae eae yoe neeu iaecaanoiu, aei neo ii?
iiiuoee oeeinioia iauynieoue yaeaiey i?e?iaeu e inoaaaeenue
aanieiaeiuie. ss iaaeathnue, iaeiaei, /oi eee yoiio niiniao
?annoaeaeaiey, eee ae?oaiio, aieaa i?aaeeueiiio, eceiaeaiiua caeanue
iniiaaiey aeinoaayo iaeioi?ia inaauaiea”.

N?aaenoaii inouanoaeaiey yoie caaea/e auei en/eneaiea aaneiia/ii iaeuo.
Iio?aaiinoue a nicaeaiee iaoaiaoeee ia?aiaiiuo aaee/ei (iaae nicaeaieai
eioi?ie ?aaioaee Eaiea?, Aaeeeae, Aeaea?o e ae?.) auea oaeiaeaoai?aia
nicaeaieai aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai e eioaa?aeueiiai en/eneaiey. E aai
nicaeaieth i?eoee iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa Iuethoii e Eaeaieoe (aii?in
i i?ei?eoaoa aue i?aaeiaoii iaeanoi/aiiiai nii?a). Iaeiaei aaaeii oi,
/oi Iuethoii i?eiaiee yoio iaoiae iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca aeey ?aoaiey
oece/aneeo i?iaeai. Aeaiiue iaoiae noae n?aaenoaii iiieiaiey i?iaeai
ia?aiaiiuo aaee/ei e aeaeaeaiey, anao aii?inia iaoaie/aneie oaoieee. N
aai iiiiuueth ieacaeinue aiciiaeiui ii?aaeaeyoue iieiaeaiea oaea a
ethaia a?aiy, anee ecaanoiu ioiioaiey iaaeaeo yoei iieiaeaieai e
nei?inoueth oaea eee aaee/eia onei?aiey a ethaia ae?oaia a?aiy. Eia/a
aiai?y, ciay caeii neeu, iiaeii au/eneeoue o?aaeoi?eth aeaeaeaiey oaea.

Iuethoii aaae iiiyoea ninoiyiey nenoaiu. Ia?aiia/aeueii iii auei
eniieueciaaii aeey i?inoaeoeo iaoaie/aneeo nenoai.(A aeaeueiaeoai
iiiyoea ninoiyiea iaia?oaeeei naith ooiaeaiaioaeueioth ?ieue e noaei
i?eiaiyoueny a ae?oaeo oece/aneeo eiioeaioeeyo a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec
iniiaiuo.) Ninoiyiea iaoaie/aneie nenoaiu a eeanne/aneie iaoaieea
iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyaony eiioeuenaie e eii?aeeiaoaie anao oae,
ia?acothueo aeaiioth nenoaio. Anee ecaanoiu eii?aeeiaou e eiioeuenu a
aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie, oi iiaeii iaeiicia/ii onoaiiaeoue cia/aiey
eii?aeeiao e eiioeuenia a ethaie iineaaeothuee iiiaio a?aiaie, a oaeaea
au/eneeoue cia/aiey ae?oaeo iaoaie/aneeo aaee/ei – yia?aee, iiiaioa
eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey e o.ae. (Aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue “Ia/aea”
iiiyoiuie aiciiaeii aieueoaio /eneo /eoathueo eo, Iuethoii eceiaeee eo
ia ycuea aaiiao?ee, ia?aaiae aea ia ycue iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca aue
auiieiai iicaea ae?oaeie aaoi?aie.)

Aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey naiae eiioeaioeee Iuethoiio auei iaiaoiaeeii
?ac?ooeoue noa?oth, a?enoioaeueneoth ea?oeio ie?a. Aianoi noa?, eioi?ie
oi?aaeyeenue ia?aiaeaeaaoaeai. ii aaae iaoaieci, aeaenoaothuee ia iniiaa
anoanoaaiiiai caeiia, ia o?aaiaaaoaai iinoiyiiiai eniieueciaaiey neeu e
aeiioneaaoaai aiaeanoaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai eeoue aeey naiaai nicaeaiey e
i?eaaaeaiey a aeaeaeaiea. Yoi aue eiii?iienn iaoee e ?aeeaee. N
i?aaenoaaeaieai, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeaeaeaiey
ioaeia neea, auei iieii/aii. Ianoi noaoenoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ie?a
caiyei aeeiaie/aneia aai i?aaenoaaeaiea. Onooiee ?aeeaee a aii?ina i
ia?aioie/ea auee, iaeiaei, naycaiu ia oieueei n nioeeaeueiuie i?e/eiaie,
iaoneiaeeaathueie eiii?iienn iaoee e ?aeeaee, ii e n oa?aeoa?ii aai
iiieiaiey i?e?iaeu, eioi?oth ii n/eoae iayaiethoeeiiece?othuae,
eia?oiie, einiie noanoaioeeae. Iineieueeo aa/iua caeiiu i?e?iaeu aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue iauyniyoue oieueei iiaoi?yaiinoue iaeciaiiuo,
iayaiethoeeiiece?othueo oae, oi ia?aue oie/ie aue a oaeie ea?oeia ie?a
i?inoi iaiaoiaeei. Iuethoii, eae e A?enoioaeue, iiieiaee oeceeo eae
iauoth oai?eth i?e?iaeu. Ii anee Iuethoii oai?eth i?e?iaeu no?iee ia
iaoaiaoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ia/aeao, oi A?enoioaeue eneeth/ae eo
ec noa?u iiciaiey. Yenia?eiaioaeueii-iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiae iiciaiey
ioe?ue ia?aae oeceeie e aiiaua ia?aae anoanoaiciaieai eieinnaeueiua
ia?niaeoeau. Iuethoii, caeiaeea iniiau oai?aoe/aneiai ooiaeaiaioa
eeanne/aneie oeceee, ioe?ue iooue e aa aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth.

a) Caeiiu eeanne/aneie iaoaieee

Anee eeiaiaoeea eco/aao aeaeaeaiea aaiiao?e/aneiai iauaeoa (o.a. ia
iaeaaeathuaai ieeaeeie naienoaaie iaoa?eaeueiiai oaea, e?iia naienoaa
caieiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi a i?ino?ainoaa e eciaiyoue yoi iieiaeaiea
n oa/aieai a?aiaie), oi aeeiaieea eco/aao aeaeaeaiea ?aaeueiuo oae iiae
aeaenoaeai i?eeiaeaiiuo e iei nee, o.a. iiae aeaenoaeai ae?oaeo oae.
Onoaiiaeaiiua Iuethoiiii o?e caeiia iaoaieee eaaeao a iniiaa aeeiaieee.
Iaiin?aaenoaaiii eo iiaeii i?eiaiyoue e i?inoaeoaio neo/ath aeaeaeaiey,
eiaaea aeaeaeouaany oaei ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaoa?eaeueiay oi/ea, o.a.
eiaaea ?acia? e oi?ia oaea ia o/eouaaaony e eiaaea aeaeaeaiea oaea
?anniao?eaaaony eae aeaeaeaiea oi/ee, iaeaaeathuae iannie. A eeiyoea
aeey iienaiey aeaeaeaiey oi/ee iiaeii aua?aoue ethaoth nenoaio
eii?aeeiao, ioiineoaeueii eioi?ie ii?aaeaeythony oa?aeoa?ecothuea yoi
aeaeaeaiea aaee/eiu. Ca oaei ion/aoa iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi ethaia oaei,
aeaeaeouaany ioiineoaeueii ae?oaeo oae. A aeeiaieea eiatho aeaei n
eia?oeeaeueiuie nenoaiaie eii?aeeiao, oa?aeoa?ecoaiuie oai, /oi
ioiineoaeueii ieo naiaiaeiay iaoa?eaeueiay oi/ea aeaeaeaony n iinoiyiiie
nei?inoueth. Eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiie ion/aoa iacuaatho oaeoth, a eioi?ie
ni?aaaaeeea caeii eia?oeee: iaoa?eaeueiay oi/ea, ia eioi?oth ia
aeaenoaotho ieeaeea neeu, iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee iieiy eee ?aaiiia?iiai
i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey. Ethaay nenoaia ion/aoa , aeaeaeouayny
ioiineoaeueii eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu ion/aoa, aoaeao oaeaea
eia?oeeaeueiie. (Ana eia?oeeaeueiua nenoaiu ion/aoa ?aaiii?aaiu, o.a. ai
anao oaeeo nenoaiao caeiiu oeceee iaeeiaeiau.)

Onoaiiaeoue eia?oeeaeueioth nenoaio eii?aeeiao n aaniethoiie oi/iinoueth
iaaiciiaeii, iineieueeo aeey yoiai iaaei iaeoe oaei, ia eioi?ia ia
aeaenoaotho ae?oaea oaea. Ca oaeiaoth iaeuecy i?eieiaoue ia oieueei
nenoaiu, naycaiiua n Caieae e Nieioeai, ii e aeaaea n oeaio?ii
Aaeaeoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiiyoea eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu eii?aeeiao
anoue aano?aeoeey, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony (eae e anyeia aano?aeoiia
iiiyoea) a i?eiaiaiee e oece/aneei iauaeoai n ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaiueth
oi/iinoe.

Caeii eia?oeee aia?aua aue onoaiiaeai Aaeeeaai aeey neo/ay
ai?eciioaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey: eiaaea oaei aeaeaeaony ii ai?eciioaeueiie
ieineinoe, oi aai aeaeaeaiea yaeyaony ?aaiiia?iui e i?iaeieaeaeinue au
iinoiyiii, anee au ieineinoue i?inoe?aeanue a i?ino?ainoaa aac eiioea.
Iuethoii aeae aieaa iauoth oi?ioee?iaeo caeiio eia?oeee eae ia?aiio
caeiio aeaeaeaiey: anyeia oaei i?aauaaao a ninoiyiee iieiy eee
?aaiiia?iiai i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey aei oao ii?, iiea aeaenoaothuea
ia iaai neeu ia eciaiyo yoi ninoiyiea. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
iaaeinoaoeii aeaiiie oi?ioee?iaee caeiia yaeyeinue oi, /oi a iae ia
niaea?aeaeinue oeacaiey ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioianaiey aeaeaeaiey e
eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaia eii?aeeiao. Aeaei caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
Iuethoii ia iieueciaaeny iiiyoeai eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu eii?aeeiao –
aianoi yoiai ii aaiaeee iiiyoea aaniethoiiai i?ino?ainoaa (iaeii?iaeiiai
e iaiiaeaeaeiiai), n eioi?ui e naycuaae iaeoth aaniethoioth nenoaio
eii?aeeiao, ioiineoaeueii eioi?ie e ii?aaeaeyeanue nei?inoue oae. Eiaaea
aanniaea?aeaoaeueiinoue aaniethoiiai i?ino?ainoaa eae aaniethoiie
nenoaiu ion/aoa auea auyaeaia, caeii eia?oeee noae oi?ioee?iaaoueny
eia/a: ioiineoaeueii eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu eii?aeeiao naiaiaeiia oaei
nio?aiyao ninoiyiea iieiy eee ?aaiiia?iiai i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey.

Aoi?ie caeii iaoaieee aeaneo: i?iecaaaeaiea iannu oaea ia aai onei?aiea
?aaii aeaenoaothuae neea, a iai?aaeaiea onei?aiey niaiaaeaao n
iai?aaeaieai neeu. Oaeiaa aai nia?aiaiiay oi?ioee?iaea. Iuethoii
noi?ioee?iaae aai eia/a: eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii i?eeiaeaiiie aeaenoaothuae neea e i?ienoiaeeo ii
iai?aaeaieth oie i?yiie, ii eioi?ie yoa neea aeaenoaoao. O.a. Iuethoii a
oi?ioee?iaea aoi?iai caeiia iia?e?oao iiiyoeai eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey,
iiieiaaiui eae ia?a aeaeaeaiey, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay ianna e nei?inoe.
Eiee/anoai aeaeaeaiey – aaee/eia aaeoi?iay (Iuethoii o/eouaae
iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey i?e oi?ioee?iaaiee i?aaeea ia?aeeaeia?aiia
nei?inoae).Ii yoi iiiyoea a enoi?ee iaoee ia oaea?aeaeinue (e nae/an
caiaiaii iiiyoeai eiioeuena), iineieueeo auei iaynii, /ai ecia?youe
aeaeaeaiea. Aeaea?o eiee/anoai aeaeaeaiey ecia?ye i?iecaaaeaieai iannu
ia nei?inoue, Eaeaieoe – i?iecaaaeaiea iannu ia eaaae?ao nei?inoe
(iacuaay eiee/anoai aeaeaeaiey aeeaie neeie). Iaaeaeo noi?iiieeaie
ia?aiai e aoi?iai aicieeea aeeneonney. Aeaeaiaa? iieacae
yeaeaaeaioiinoue iaaeo ia? ecia?aiey (anee, iai?eia?, oaei oi?iiceony
iiae aeaenoaeai neeu, oi oi?iicyuay neea ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii
aeaeaeaiey mv, anee ecaanoii a?aiy oi?iiaeaiey, e auaiaeeony ec mv2/2,
anee ecaanoai iooue oi?iiaeaiey). Enoeiiay nooue iaaeo ia? aeaeaeaiey
aoaeao auyniaia iicaea, eiaaea aoaeao ioe?uo caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee.

O?aoee caeii Iuethoiia aeaneo: aeaenoaeth anaaaea anoue ?aaiia e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea, eia/a acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoo oae ae?oa
ia ae?oaa iaaeaeo niaie ?aaiu e iai?aaeaiu a i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noi?iiu.
Eia/a aiai?y, neeu, n eioi?uie aeaenoaotho aeaa oaea ae?oa ia ae?oaa,
?aaiu ii aaee/eia e iai?aaeaiu a i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noi?iiu. Iuethoii
?ani?ino?aiee aeaenoaea yoiai caeiia ia neo/ae e noieeiiaaiey oae, e ia
neo/ae eo acaeiiiai i?eoyaeaiey.

Ec o?ao ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo caeiiia aeaeaeaiey Iuethoiia auoaeatho
neaaenoaey, iaeii ec eioi?uo – neiaeaiea eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey ii
i?aaeeo ia?aeeaeia?aiia. Anee Aeaea?o enoiaeee ec i?eciaiey iaeciaiiinoe
eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey a ie?a, oi Iuethoii i?eaea?aeeaaeny
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai iiaiey.

Onei?aiea oaea caaeneo io aaee/ei, oa?aeoa?ecothueo aeaenoaea ae?oaeo
oae ia aeaiiia oaei, a oaeaea io aaee/ei, ii?aaeaeythueo iniaaiiinoe
yoiai oaea. Iaoaie/aneia aeaenoaea ia oaei ni noi?iiu ae?oaeo oae,
eioi?ia eciaiyao nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey aeaiiiai oaea, iacuaatho neeie.
Iia iiaeao eiaoue ?acioth i?e?iaeo (neea oyaeanoe, neea oi?oainoe e
o.ae.).Eciaiaiea nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey oaea caaeneo ia io i?e?iaeu nee, a
io eo aaee/eiu. Iineieueeo nei?inoue e neea – aaeoi?u, oi aeaenoaea
ianeieueeeo nee neeaaeuaaaony ii i?aaeeo ia?aeeaeia?aiia. Naienoai oaea,
io eioi?iai caaeneo i?eia?aoaaiia ei onei?aiea, anoue eia?oeey,
ecia?yaiay iannie. A eeanne/aneie iaoaieea, eiathuae aeaei ni
nei?inoyie, cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeie nei?inoe naaoa, ianna yaeyaony
oa?aeoa?enoeeie naiiai oaea, ia caaenyuae io oiai, aeaeaeaony iii eee
iao. Ianna oaea a eeanne/aneie iaoaieea ia caaeneo e io acaeiiaeaenoaey
oaea n ae?oaeie oaeaie. Yoi naienoai iannu iiaoaeeei Iuethoiia i?eiyoue
ianno ca ia?o iaoa?ee e n/eoaoue, /oi aaee/eia aa ii?aaeaeyao eiee/anoai
iaoa?ee a oaea. Oaeei ia?acii, ianna noaea iiieiaoueny eae eiee/anoai
iaoa?ee. (Aiineaaenoaee, n nicaeaieai oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe,
auynieony, /oi ianna oaea ia yaeyaony iinoiyiiie aaee/eiie, a caaeneo io
nei?inoe aai aeaeaeaiey, aai yia?aee. Oae, /ai auoa oaiia?aoo?a oaea,
oai aieueoa aai ianna. O.a. ianna oaea oa?aeoa?ecoao e ninoiyiea oaea.
Iiyoiio iiiyoea eiee/anoaa iaoa?ee ec nia?aiaiiiai iao/iiai iaeoiaea
en/acei eae ia eiathuaa niunea). Eiee/anoai iaoa?ee aeinooiii
ecia?aieth, aoaeo/e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiui aano oaea. Aan – yoi neea, n
eioi?ie oaei aeaenoaoao ia iii?o, i?aiyonoaothuoth aai naiaiaeiiio
iaaeaieth. (*eneaii aan ?aaai i?iecaaaeaieth iannu oaea ia onei?aiea
neeu oyaeanoe. Aneaaenoaea naeaoey Caiee e aa nooi/iiai a?auaiey aan
oaea eciaiyaony n oe?ioie e ia yeaaoi?a ia 0,5% iaiueoa, /ai ia
iiethnao). Iineieueeo ianna e aan no?iai i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu, ieacaeinue
aiciiaeiui i?aeoe/aneia ecia?aiea iannu eee eiee/anoaa iaoa?ee.
Iiieiaiea oiai, /oi aan yaeyaony ia?aiaiiui aicaeaenoaeai ia oaei,
iiaoaeeei Iuethoiia onoaiiaeoue e aioo?aiithth oa?aeoa?enoeeo oaea –
eia?oeeth, eioi?oth ii ?anniao?eaae eae i?enouoth oaeo niiniaiinoue
nio?aiyoue ?aaiiia?iia i?yiieeiaeiia aeaeaeaiea, i?iii?oeeiiaeueioth
ianna. Ianno eae ia?o eia?oeee iiaeii ecia?youe n iiiiuueth aania, eae
yoi aeaeae Iuethoii. A ninoiyiee iaaaniiinoe ianno iiaeii ecia?youe ii
eia?oeee. Ecia?aiea ii eia?oeee yaeyaony iauei niiniaii ecia?aiey iannu.
Ii eia?oeey e aan yaeythony ?acee/iuie oece/aneeie iiiyoeyie. Eo
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue ae?oa ae?oao aanueia oaeiaia a i?aeoe/aneii
ioiioaiee – aeey ecia?aiey iannu n iiiiuueth aania. Oaeei ia?acii,
onoaiiaeaiea iiiyoee neeu e iannu, a oaeaea niiniaa eo ecia?aiey
iicaieeei Iuethoiio noi?ioee?iaaoue aoi?ie caeii iaoaieee. Eoae, ianna
anoue iaeia ec iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa?ee, ii?aaeaeythuay aa
eia?oiua e a?aaeoaoeeiiiua naienoaa – ianna eae ia?a eia?oiinoe ii
ioiioaieth e aeaenoaothuae ia iaai neea (ianna iieiy) e ianna eae
enoi/iee iiey oyaioaiey yeaeaaeaioiu.

Ia?aue e aoi?ie caeiiu iaoaieee ioiinyony niioaaonoaaiii e aeaeaeaieth
iaoa?eaeueiie oi/ee eee iaeiiai oaea. I?e yoii o/eouaaaony eeoue
aeaenoaea ae?oaeo oae ia aeaiiia oaei. Iaeiaei anyeia aeaenoaea anoue
acaeiiaeaenoaea. Iineieueeo a iaoaieea aeaenoaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony neeie,
oi anee iaeii oaei aeaenoaoao ia ae?oaia n ii?aaeaeaiiie neeie, oi
aoi?ia aeaenoaoao ia ia?aia n oie aea neeie. O?aoee caeii iaoaieee e
oeene?oao yoi: aeaenoaeth anaaaea niioaaonoaoao ?aaiia e i?ioeaiiieiaeii
iai?aaeaiiia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea; eia/a: aeaenoaey aeaoo oae ae?oa ia
ae?oaa anaaaea ?aaiu ii aaee/eia iai?aaeaiu a i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noi?iiu.
(A oi?ioee?iaea caeiia iiae aeaenoaeai e i?ioeaiaeaenoaeai iiieiathony
aeaenoaothuea ia oaea neeu). A oi?ioee?iaea Iuethoiia o?aoee caeii
iaoaieee ni?aaaaeeea eeoue aeey neo/ay iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey nee eee i?e iaiiaaiiie ia?aaea/a aeaenoaey iaeiiai oaea
ia ae?oaia. A neo/aa ia?aaea/e aeaenoaey ca eiia/iue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie
aeaiiue caeii i?eiaiyaony oiaaea, eiaaea a?aiaiai ia?aaea/e aeaenoaey
iiaeii i?aiaa?a/ue.

Aiiaua caeiiu eeanne/aneie iaoaieee Iuethoiia ni?aaaaeeeau aeey neo/ay
eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoai ion/aoa. A neo/aa iaeia?oeeaeueiuo nenoai ion/aoa
neooaoeey eiay. I?e onei?aiiii aeaeaeaiee iaeia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu
eii?aeeiao ioiineoaeueii eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu ia?aue caeii Iuethoiia
(caeii eia?oeee) a yoie nenoaia ia eiaao ianoa – naiaiaeiua oaea a iae
aoaeoo n oa/aieai a?aiaie iaiyoue naith nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey. A
eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa aoi?ie caeii Iuethoiia iiaeii
nio?aieoue, ii aeey yoiai iaaei aaiaeeoue neeu eia?oeee. A eeanne/aneie
iaoaieea yoe neeu eiatho oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo iie aaiaeyony
eeoue aeey oaeianoaa ?an/aoa aeaeaeaiey oae a onei?aiiie nenoaia
ion/aoa. A ?aieao oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe neeu eia?oeee iaeaaeatho
naienoaaie neeu oyaioaiey – onei?aiea nee eia?oeee, eae e nee oyaioaiey,
ia caaeneo io iannu oae, o.a. iie yeaeaaeaioiu. Ii iineieueeo neeu
oyaioaiey eiatho enoi/iee a aeaea iann , a neeu eia?oeee eiatho ae?oaie
oa?aeoa?, oi a i?eioeeia iiaeii ioee/eoue neeu eia?oeee io nee
oyaioaiey. Iiyoiio i aeaenoaee i?eioeeia yeaeaaeaioiinoe iiaeii
aiai?eoue eeoue eieaeueii.

a) Iuethoiiianeay eiioeaioeey i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie

Eae ioia/aeinue auoa , aeey iino?iaiey iaoaieee iaiaoiaeeii auei aaanoe
iiiyoea nenoaiu ion/aoa, eai i aeaeaeaiee iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue oiaaea,
eiaaea anoue nenoaia ion/aoa. Iuethoii enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi i?e?iaea
i?enoua aaniethoii iaiiaeaeaeiay nenoaia ion/aoa a aeaea aaniethoiiai
(iaeii?iaeiiai e iaiiaeaeaeiiai) i?ino?ainoaa, aunooiathuaai eae
aianoeeeua anao oae, a oaeaea aaniethoiia a?aiy, eioi?ia oa/ao naii ii
naaa, aacioiineoaeueiinoe e eaeei-eeai i?ioeannai (Iuethoii iacaae aai
aeeeoaeueiinoueth). Oaeei ia?acii, a eiioeaioeee Iuethoiia i?ino?ainoai
e a?aiy ioi?aaiu io iaoa?eaeueiuo oae e ?aaeueiuo i?ioeannia.

Iuethoiiiai i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy yaeythony aaniethoiuie e anaiaueie –
iie ia eciaiythony io oiai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a iai n iaoa?eaeueiuie
oaeaie. I?ino?ainoai Iuethoii ?anniao?eaae eae iacaaeneioth
noanoaioeeth. A ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo i?ino?ainoai iiaeao
aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia iaoa?eth, ii iaoa?ey ia iiaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia
i?ino?ainoai. Ethaie iauaeo eiaao a i?ino?ainoaa ii?aaeaeaiiia
iieiaeaiea e i?eaioaoeeth, ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy niauoeyie oi/ii
ii?aaeaeaii. Niauoey, i?ienoiaeyuea a ?aciuo oi/eao a iaeii e oi aea
a?aiy, iaeiia?aiaiiu.

A i?ino?ainoaa iao eaeeo-oi iaoie. Iieiaeaiea iauaeoa a i?ino?ainoaa
iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ioiineoaeueii ae?oaiai iauaeoa. N eaeie nei?inoueth
aeaeaeaony iauaeo? *oi oaeia iieie? Aaaeue ai Anaeaiiie aeaeaeaony ana.
Aeaeaeaiea iiaeii iuooeoue, anee iii ia?aaiiia?ii. Aeaeaeaiea n
iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth iuooeoue iaaiciiaeii. Anee aeaa nenoaiu
aeaeaathony ?aaiiia?ii, ii n ?aciuie nei?inoyie, oi ieeaeie iiuo ia a
ninoiyiee iieacaoue, /oi iaeia nenoaia iieieony, a ae?oaay aeaeaeaony.
Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iiaeii neacaoue i ieo, – yoi oi, /oi iie iaoiaeyony
ioiineoaeueii ae?oa ae?oaa a ninoiyiee ?aaiiia?iiai aeaeaeaiey. O.i.,
ana ?aaiiia?iua aeaeaeaiey a iaoaieea Iuethoiia ioiineoaeueiu. A
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio, onei?aiiua aeaeaeaiey aaniethoii. Neaaeai,
noieo iiacaeo caiaaeeeoue oiae, eae aaue iiae aeeyieai neeu eia?oeee
naeaeioony. ?aaiiia?iia aeaeaeaiea aeey Iuethoiia yaeyaony anoanoaaiiui
ninoiyieai oae. Onei?aiiia aea aeaeaeaiea aucuaaaony eaeeie-oi
i?e/eiaie, eioi?ua Iuethoii iacaae neeaie. Ioeoaea aa?oony neeu
eia?oeee? Iuethoii i?eienuaae eo i?ino?ainoao, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo
onei?aiea. O.i., Iuethoii iiaeao auoue iacaai a iiieiaiee i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie noanoaioeeaeenoii.

a) Caeii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey

N/eoaaony, /oi noa?aeiai aeeiaieee Iuethoiia yaeyaony iiiyoea neeu, a
iniiaiay caaea/a aeeiaieee caeeth/aaony a onoaiiaeaiee caeiia ec
aeaiiiai aeaeaeaiey e, ia?aoii, a ii?aaeaeaiee caeiia aeaeaeaiey oae ii
aeaiiie neea. Ec caeiiia Eaiea?a Iuethoii auaae nouanoaiaaiea neeu,
iai?aaeaiiie e Nieioeo, eioi?ay auea ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia eaaae?aoo
?annoiyiey ieaiao io Nieioea. Yoi icia/aei oece/aneia iainiiaaiea
eiia?ieeaineie aaeeioeaio?e/aneie nenoaiu. Iaiauea eaeae, auneacaiiua
Eaiea?ii, Atheaainii, Aeaea?oii, Ai?aeee, Aoeii, Iuethoii i?eaeae ei
oi/ioth oi?io iaoaiaoe/aneiai caeiia, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui
ooaa?aeaeaeinue nouanoaiaaiea a i?e?iaea neeu anaie?iiai oyaioaiey.,
iaoneiaeeaathuae i?eoyaeaiea oae. Neea oyaioaiey (i?eoyaeaiey) i?yii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia ianna oyaioathueo oae e ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
eaaae?aoo ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo ieie. Aeaiiue caeii iienuaaao
acaeiiaeaenoaea ethauo oae – aaaeii eeoue oi, /oiau ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo
oaeaie auei aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei ii n?aaiaieth n eo ?acia?aie (yoi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue i?eieiaoue oaea ca iaoa?eaeueiua oi/ee). A iuethoiiianeie
oai?ee oyaioaiey i?eieiaaony, /oi neea oyaioaiey ia?aaeaaony io iaeiiai
oyaioathuaai oaea e ae?oaiio iaiiaaiii, i?e /ai aac iin?aaenoaa eaeeo au
oi ie auei n?aae. (A ?aieao oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe aeey ia?aaea/e neeu
oyaioaiey io iaeiiai oaea e ae?oaiio o?aaoaony a?aiy – ia aieueoaa, /ai
nei?inoue naaoa.)

Caeii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey aucaae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua e y?inoiua
aeeneonnee. Yoi ia auei neo/aeii, iineieueeo yoio caeii eiae aaaeiia
oeeinioneia cia/aiea. Nooue caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi aei Iuethoiia
oeaeueth nicaeaiey oece/aneeo oai?ee auei auyaeaiea e i?aaenoaaeaiea
iaoaiecia oece/aneeo yaeaiee ai anao aai aeaoaeyo. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
yoi naeaeaoue ia oaeaaaeinue, auaeaeaaeny a?aoiaio i oae iacuaaaiuo
“ne?uouo ea/anoaao”, eioi?ua ia iiaeaeathony aeaoaeueiie eioa?i?aoaoeee.
Ayeii e Aeaea?o nnueee ia “ne?uoua ea/anoaa” iauyaeee iaiao/iuie.
Aeaea?o n/eoae, /oi iiiyoue nooue yaeaiey i?e?iaeu iiaeii eeoue a oii
neo/aa, anee aai iaaeyaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa. Oae, yaeaiey oyaioaiey ii
i?aaenoaaeye n iiiiuueth yoe?iuo aeo?ae. A oneiaeyo oe?ieiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey iiaeiaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee caeii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey
Iuethoiia, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aeaiiino?e?iaae niioaaonoaea
i?iecaaaeaiiuo ia aai iniiaa ano?iiiie/aneei iaaethaeaieyi n iaauaaeie
?aiaa oi/iinoueth, iiaeaa?aaeny niiiaieth ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi acaeiiia
i?eoyaeaiea oae i/aiue iaiiieiaei ia?eiaoaoe/aneia o/aiea i “ne?uouo
ea/anoaao”. E oioy Iuethoii ioithaeue ia iinooee?iaae iaee/ea oyaioaiey,
a onoaiiaee oaeo aai nouanoaiaaiey ia iniiaa iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo, iaoaiaoe/aneee aiaeec aua ia aioae i?i/ii a
niciaiea enneaaeiaaoaeae a ea/anoaa aeinoaoi/ii iaaeaaeiiai iaoiaea.
Aa?ioeee aeaaea iaaeiye Iuethoiia a ainnoaiiaeaiee ia?eiaoaoecia.
Iuethoii ia ?anniao?eaae aii?inu i i?e/eiao oyaioaiey. Ii no?aieaiea
ia?aie/eaaoue oece/aneia enneaaeiaaiea oaeoaie, ia i?aoaiaeothueie ia
aaniethoioth enoeio, iicaieeei Iuethoiio caaa?oeoue oi?ie?iaaiea oeceee
eae naiinoiyoaeueiie iaoee e ioaeaeeoue aa io iaoo?oeeinioee n aa
i?aoaiceyie ia aaniethoiia ciaiea.

Iuethoii niaaeeiee a naaa aeaa i?ioeai?a/eauo i?eioeeia – Ayeiia e
Aeaea?oa. Ii enoiaeee ec iiuoa (“aeiioac y ia eciuoeyth”), n iaeiie
noi?iiu. N ae?oaie – ii aue i?eaa?aeaioeai no?iaiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Iuethoii ia i?aoaiaeiaae ia iauyniaiea aeoai/aeoeo
i?e/ei – ii no?aieeny e onoaiiaeaieth i?eioeeia: caeii i?e?iaeu ia
yaeyaony iauyniaieai, enoiaeyuei ec ia?aiia/aeueii onoaiiaeaiiuo i?e/ei.
Caeii – eeoue e?aoeay oi?ioee?iaea oe?ieie iaeanoe yaeaiee, auaaaeaiiay
i?e iiiiue eiae/aneiai caeeth/aiey e iaoaiaoe/aneiai ?an/aoa. A caeiia
anaie?iiai oyaioaiey iaoea iieo/eea ia?acaoe caeiia i?e?iaeu eae
aaniethoii oi/iiai, iianthaeo i?eiaieiiai i?aaeea, aac eneeth/aiee, n
oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiuie neaaenoaeyie. Yoio caeii aue aeeth/ai Eaioii a aai
oeeinioeth, aaea i?e?iaea i?aaenoaaeyeanue oea?noaii iaiaoiaeeiinoe a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ii?aee – oea?noao naiaiaeu.

Oece/aneay eiioeaioeey Iuethoiia auea naiaia?aciui aaioeii oeceee XVII
aaea. Noaoe/aneee iiaeoiae e Anaeaiiie aue caiaiai aeeiaie/aneei.
Yenia?aiaioaeueii-iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey, iicaieea ?aoeoue
iiiaea i?iaeaiu oeceee XVII aaea, ieacaeny i?eaiaeiui aeey ?aoaiey
oece/aneeo i?iaeai aua a oa/aiea aeaoo aaeia. Eiioeaioeey Iuethoiia,
oioy e niaea?aeaea aiaa iai iaania/eaoaai ia?aioie/ie, niinianoaiaaea
aic?anoaieth neaioe/aneiai ioiioaiey e aaoi?eoaoo e aa?a, /ai ineaaeyea
i?anoeae ?aeeaee.

Oi?ie?iaaiea iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiu

ie?a

?acoeueoaoii ?acaeoey eeanne/aneie iaoaieee yaeeinue nicaeaiea aaeeiie
iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a, a ?aieao eioi?ie ana ea/anoaaiiia
iiiaiia?acea ie?a iauyniyeinue ?acee/eyie a aeaeaeaiee oae,
iiae/eiythuainy caeiiai iuethoiiianeie iaoaieee. Niaeanii iaoaie/aneie
ea?oeia ie?a, anee oece/aneia yaeaiea ie?a iiaeii auei iauynieoue ia
iniiaa caeiiia iaoaieee, oi oaeia iauyniaiea i?eciaaaeinue iao/iui.
Iaoaieea Iuethoiia, oaeei ia?acii, noaea iniiaie iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiu
ie?a, ainiiaenoaiaaaoae aieioue aei iao/iie ?aaiethoeee ia ?oaaaea XIX e
XX noieaoee.

Iaoaieea Iuethoiia, a ioee/ea io i?aaeoanoaothueo iaoaie/aneeo
eiioeaioeee, aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue ?aoaoue caaea/o i ethaie noaaeee
aeaeaeaiey (eae i?aaeoanoaothuae, oae e iineaaeothuae) e a ethaie oi/ea
i?ino?ainoaa i?e ecaanoiuo oaeoao, iaoneiaeeaathueo yoi aeaeaeaiea, a
oaeaea ia?aoioth caaea/o ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu e iai?aaeaiey aeaenoaey
yoeo oaeoi?ia a ethaie oi/ea i?e ecaanoiuo iniiaiuo yeaiaioao
aeaeaeaiey. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio iaoaieea Iuethoiia iiaea eniieueciaaoueny a
ea/anoaa iaoiaea eiee/anoaaiiiai aiaeeca iaoaie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.
Ethaua oece/aneea yaeaiey iiaee eco/aoueny eae aeaeaeaiea a /enoi
oaiiiaiieiae/aneii ieaia, iacaaeneii io aucuaathueo eo oaeoi?ia. Caeiiu
iuethoiiianeie iaoaieee naycuaaee neeo ia n aeaeaeaieai, a n eciaiaieai
aeaeaeaiey. Yoi iicaieeei ioeacaoueny io o?aaeeoeeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i
oii, /oi aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeaeaeaiey ioaeia neea, e ioaanoe o?aieth,
eioi?ia aeaeaei neeo iaiaoiaeeiie a aeaenoaothueo iaoaieciao aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey aeaeaeaiey, aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue. Onoaiiaea
aeeiaie/aneee acaeyae ia ie? aianoi o?aaeeoeeiiiiai noaoe/aneiai ,
Iuethoii naith aeeiaieeo naeaeae iniiaie oai?aoe/aneie oeceee. Oioy
Iuethoii i?iyaeye inoi?iaeiinoue a iaoaie/aneeo enoieeiaaieyo
i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee, oai ia iaiaa ii n/eoae aeaeaoaeueiui auaaaeaiea ec
ia/ae iaoaieee inoaeueiuo yaeaiee i?e?iaeu. Oaiiiaiieiae/aneee iaoiae
noae ?anniao?eaaoueny a ea/anoaa oieaa?naeueiiai niiniaa iino?iaiey
oece/aneeo oai?ee. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oeceee noaei inouanoaeyoueny a
iai?aaeaiee aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioee aiia?aoa iaoaieee i?eiaieoaeueii e
?aoaieth eiie?aoiuo caaea/, ii ia?a ?aoaiey eioi?uo iaoaie/aneay ea?oeia
ie?a oe?aieyeanue.

7. Ei?ioneoey?iay e aieiiaay eiioeaioeee naaoa

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII aaea auee caeiaeaiu iniiau oece/aneie iioeee. O.
A?eiaeueaee ioe?uaaao yaeaiea aeeo?aeoeee naaoa (iaeaaiea naaoii
i?aiyonoaee o.a. ioeeiiaiea aai io i?yiieeiaeiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey) e
auneacuaaao i?aaeiieiaeaiea i aieiiaie i?e?iaea naaoa. A iioaeeeiaaiiii
a 1690 a. “O?aeoaoa i naaoa” O.Atheaainii aue noi?ie?iaai i?eioeei,
niaeanii eioi?iio eaaeaeay oi/ea i?ino?ainoaa, eioi?ie aeinoeaea a
aeaiiue iiiaio ?ani?ino?aiythuayny aieia, noaiiaeony enoi/ieeii
yeaiaioa?iuo noa?e/aneeo aiei, e ia aai iniiaa auaae caeiiu io?aaeaiey e
i?aeiieaiey naaoa. Atheaainii auei onoaiiaeaii yaeaiea iiey?ecaoeee
naaoa – yaeaiea, i?ienoiaeyuaa n eo/ii naaoa i?e aai io?aaeaiee,
i?aeiieaiee (iniaaiii i?e aeaieiii i?aeiieaiee) e caeeth/athuaany a oii,
/oi eieaaaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea ai anao oi/eao eo/a i?ienoiaeeo eeoue a
iaeiie ieineinoe, i?ioiaeyuae /a?ac iai?aaeaiea eo/a, oiaaea eae a
iaiiey?eciaaiiii eo/a eieaaaiey i?ienoiaeyo ii anai iai?aaeaieyi,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e eo/o. Atheaain, ?ac?aaioaa eaeath A?eiaeueaee i oii,
/oi naao ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oieueei i?yiieeiaeii n i?aeiieaieai e
io?aaeaieai, a e n ?acaeaieai (aeeo?aeoeey), aeae iauyniaiea anai
ecaanoiui iioe/aneei yaeaieyi. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi naaoiaua aieiu
?ani?ino?aiythony a yoe?a, i?aaenoaaeythuai niaie i?iiecuaathuoth ana
oaea oiieoth iaoa?eth.

Ii /oi anoue aieia? Aieia iaycaoaeueii aeaeaeaony a eaeii oi iineoaea, a
eioi?ii e i?ienoiaeyo ia?eiaee/aneea eieaaaiey. Ii i?e ?ani?ino?aiaiee
aieiu, iai?eia?, ia iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, ia i?ienoiaeeo ia?aiauaiey aiaeu
a iai?aaeaiee ?ani?ino?aiaiey aieiu – i?e yoii iiaa?oiinoue aiaeu
aeaeaeaony eeoue aaa?o e aiec. Ii aieia i?e naiai ia?aiauaiee ia?aaeaao
aeaenoaea io iaeiie oi/ee e ae?oaie. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ianoieo aeaei n
?ani?ino?aiaieai caoeiaie aieiu, ii a yoii neo/aa aieiu
?ani?ino?aiythony a i?ino?ainoaa ii anai iai?aaeaieyi. I naaoiauo
eieaaaieyo iiaeii noaeeoue ii einaaiiui yooaeoai. ssaeaiea
eioa?oa?aioeee aeaao e naeaeaoaeuenoai i aieiiaie i?e?iaea naaoa.
I?eia?ii eioa?oa?aioeeiiiiai yooaeoa yaeyaony iiyaeaiea ie?aoaiiuo iiein
eee eieaoe, eioi?ua yaeythony i?e ?anoaeaiee oiieiai neiy iaooe ia
iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu. Naao a yoii neo/aa nia/aea io?aaeaaony io aa?oiae
iiaa?oiinoe ieaiee, a caoai io ieaeiae. Iiyoiio eieaaaiey a naaoiaii
eo/a, eioi?ua io?aaeathony io ieaeiae iiaa?oiinoe ieaiee, ionoatho io
eieaaaiee a eo/a, io?aaeaiiii io aa iiaa?oiinoe, i?e/ai yoi ionoaaaiea
?aaii ?annoiyieth, ?aaiiio oaeaiaiiie oieueia ieaiee. Iaa io?aaeaiiuo
eo/a a yoii neo/aa eioa?oa?e?otho oae, /oi anee oieueia ieaiee ?aaia
/aoaa?oe aeeeiu aieiu, oi aoi?ie eo/ ionoaao io ia?aiai ia iieiaeio
aieiu. Iaeiaeaiea a?aaiy aieiu, io?aaeaiiie io ae?oaie iiaa?oiinoe,
aeaao oaiiioo. Aaeue naao a ?acoeueoaoa eioa?oa?aioeee iinea io?aaeaiey
noaiiaeony ie?aoaiiui.

Iuethoii nia/aea a naieo aeieeaaeao a Eiiaeiineii Ei?ieaaneii iauanoaa e
caoai a “Iioeea” (iioaeeeiaaiiie a 1706 a.) eceiaeee naith eiioeaioeeth
naaoa. Neaaeoy naiaio oaiiiaiieiae/aneiio iaoiaeo, Iuethoii
yenia?eiaioaeueii enneaaeiaae yaeaiea aeenia?nee (?aceiaeaiea aaeiai
naaoa i?e iiiiue i?eciu a niaeo?), caeiaeee iniiau iioe/aneie
niaeo?ineiiee : ii onoaiiaee, /oi eaaeaeiio oeaaoo niioaaonoaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiay aeeeia naaoiaie aieiu e ii?aaeaeee eo. Iuethoii iieacae,
/oi oeaaoa nicaeathony ia i?eciie. a yaeythony eiiiiiaioaie aaeiai
naaoa. Ii aeaeae neaainoue aieiiaie eiioeaioeee a oii, /oi iia
ieacaeanue ia a ninoiyiee iauynieoue yaeaiea aeeo?aeoeee naaoa –
iaeaaiea naaoii i?aiyonoaee (yoi oaeanony naeaeaoue n iiceoeee aieiiaie
eiioeaioeee aieaa noieaoey iicaea O?aiaeth). Iuethoii aea yaeaiea
aeeo?aeoeee iauyniye ia iniiaa iiey?iinoe, i?enouae naaoiaiio eo/o.
Ae?oaei iaaeinoaoeii aieiiaie eiioeaioeee auei aa o?aaiaaiea aeiionoeoue
nouanoaiaaiea yoe?a-n?aaeu, a eioi?ie ?ani?ino?aiyaony naao. Oio oaeo,
/oi aeaeaeaiea ieaiao e eiiao a iaaaniii i?ino?ainoaa ia ano?a/aao
caiaoiiai nii?ioeaeaiey, eioi?ia iaycaoaeueii io?aceeinue au ia
i?aaeeueiinoe aeaeaeaiey, iicaieee Iuethoiio nouanoaiaaiea oaeie n?aaeu
iiaeaa?aiooue niiiaieth. A anee ioa?ineoue aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey
oaeie n?aaeu, oi aeiioaca i ?ani?ino?aiaiee naaoa /a?ac iaa oo?a/eaaao
niune. (E?eoeeoy aieiiaoth eiioeaioeeth naaoa, i?aaenoaaeythuoth naao a
aeaea ?ani?ino?aiythueony a yoe?a iaoaie/aneeo aiei, Iuethoii ia iia aua
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi naaoiaua aieiu iiaoo eiaoue ia iaoaie/aneoth
i?e?iaeo.)

Ono?aiaiea o?oaeiinoae, noiyueo ia?aae aieiiaie eiioeaioeeae naaoa,
Iuethoii aeaeae ia iooe ?anniio?aiey naaoa eae ninoiyuaai ec ei?ioneoe –
naiaia?aciuo “iaeuo oae” (aoiiia), eioi?ua iiaoo acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n
/anoeoeaie aauanoaa. Oaeea oaea, ii aai iiaieth, i?ioiaeyo /a?ac
iaeii?iaeiua n?aaeu “aac caaeaaiey”. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi, n?aaieaay
aieiiaoth e ei?ioneoey?ioth eiioeaioeeth naaoa, Iuethoii ia
auneacuaaaony aaciaiai?i/ii a iieueco iaeiie ec ieo. Aai auneacuaaiey
iiiaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie aai oai?/anoaa o?aeoothony eae naiaia?aciue
neioac aieiiaie e ei?ioneoey?iuo eiioeaioeee (i?aaeainoeoeaoee aeiioaco
aea A?ieey, auneacaiioth a 1924 a.). Ioe?uoea yaeaiea iiey?ecaoeee naaoa
oaaaeaeaei Iuethoiia a ni?aaaaeeeainoe ei?ioneoey?iie eiioeaioeee naaoa.
Enneaaeiaaiea aea eioa?oa?aioeee i?eaiaeeei aai e auaiaeo i iaee/ee
naiaia?aciie ia?eiaee/iinoe a naienoaao naaoa. Iineaaeiaaoaee Iuethoiia
i?aaenoaaeee Iuethoiia eae aaciaiai?i/iiai noi?iiieea ei?ioneoey?iie
eiioeaioeee naaoa. Aaoi?eoao eiaie Iuethoiia, oaeei ia?acii, a aeaiiii
neo/aa nua?ae iaaaoeaioth ?ieue – caaea?aeae ?acaeoea aieiiaie oai?ee
naaoa.

I?eioeeiu ieieiaeueiiai a?aiaie I.Oa?ia e iaeiaiueoaai aeaenoaey
I.Iiia?othe

Ca/aoee eaeae oece/aneie yeaeaaeaioiinoe aiei e /anoeoe auee aeaeiu oaea
a oi?ioee?iaea i?eioeeia ieieiaeueiiai a?aiaie I.Oa?ia e i?eioeeia
iaeiaiueoaai aeaenoaey I.Iiia?othe. I?eioeei Oa?ia, noi?ioee?iaaiiue a
1660 a., onoaiaaeeaae, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueiue iooue ?ani?ino?aiaiey naaoa
ec iaeiie oi/ee a ae?oaoth anoue oio iooue, aeey i?ioiaeaeaiey eioi?iai
naaoo o?aaoaony ieieiaeueiia (eee iaeneiaeueiia) a?aiy ii n?aaiaieth n
ethaui ae?oaei aaiiao?e/anee aiciiaeiui iooai iaaeaeo oaie aea oi/eaie.
I?eioeei iaeiaiueoaai aeaenoaey Iiia?othe (noi?ioee?iaaiiue a 1740 a.)
onoaiaaeeaae, /oi aeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeanna n?aaieaaaiuo ae?oa n
ae?oaii aeaeaeaiee iaoaie/aneie nenoaiu inouanoaeyaony oi, aeey eioi?iai
aeaenoaea ieieiaeueii. Eae ieacaeinue, eaeiaa au ie auea n?aaea,
ei?ioneoeu e aieiu neaaeiaaee ii ieieiaeueiui o?aaeoi?eyi – aieia
aeaeaaeanue oae, /oiau naeaeaoue ieieiaeueiui a?aiy i?ioiaeaeaiey eo/ae,
o.a. naao “auae?aao” iooue, aeey eioi?iai eiee/anoai aeaenoaey yaeyaony
iaeiaiueoei (a niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii Oa?ia), a aeaeaeaiea /anoeoe
auei oaeei, /oiau ooieoeey aeaenoaey auea ieieiaeueia, (a niioaaonoaee n
i?eioeeiii Iiia?othe). Iaeiaei ?aaeecaoeey eaeae niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo
ei?ioneoeaie e aieiaie auea inouanoaeaia E. aea A?ieeai, Y.O?aaeeiaa?ii,
A.Aaecaiaa?aii e I.Aee?aeii eeoue a 20-o aa. XX aaea. Oae eee eia/a a
iaoaieeo aioee aaaeiua i?eioeeiu, ?aaeeciaaaoea eaeath i oii, /oi
i?e?iaea aeaenoaoao iaeaieaa eaaeeie e aeinooiiuie iooyie. ?acaeoea yoeo
i?eioeeiia E.Yeea?ii, E.Aa?ioeee, AE.Aeaeaiaa?ii, iicaieeei nicaeaoue
aa?eaoeeiiiia en/eneaiea, iicaieythuaa iaoiaeeoue iaeaieueoea e
iaeiaiueoea cia/aiey ia?aiaiiuo aaee/ei (ooieoeeiiaeia), caaenyueo io
auai?a iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo ooieoeee, e iino?ieoue caeii/aiioth
nenoaio aiaeeoe/aneie iaoaieee.

Iniaaiiinoe oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee XVIII aaea

?acaeoea ao?aeoaciuo ioiioaiee niinianoaiaaei ao?iiio ?inoo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee, iaiooaeoo?iia i?iecaiaenoai ana aieueoa
niaiyeinue oaa?e/iui. ?acaeoea iaoeiiie eiaeono?ee, ia/aaoaany n
oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?ani?ino?aieeinue ia ae?oaea io?anee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Cai?inu i?iecaiaenoaa ieacuaaee noeioee?othuaa aeeyiea ia
?acaeoea iaoee, iniaaiii iaoaieee e iaoaiaoeee. E oioy ?ac?ua iaaeaeo
o?iaiai ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee oiaiueoaeny ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeoanoaothuei a?aiaiai, oaoieea a oeaeii iia?aaeaea a naiai ?acaeoee
iaoee. Oae, iai?eia?, iiyaeaieth ia?iaica ia i?aaeoanoaiaaee
niioaaonoaothuea oaieioaoie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, i?aeoe/aneay
iaoaeeo?aey ia eiaea a naiae iniiaa iao/iuo aeaiiuo i i?ioeannao
ainnoaiiaeaiey iaoaeeia, iaoeiino?iaiea inouanoaeyeinue aac iao/iuo
ciaiee i i?e?iaea oi?oainoe oaa?aeuo oae, eo i?i/iinoe e o.ae.
Iinoaiaiii ?ieue iao/iiai ciaiey a ?acaeoee oaoieee e i?iecaiaenoaa
ia/eiaao iniciaaaoueny, ?anoao eioa?an e iao/iiio ciaieth. XVII aae
aoiaeeo a enoi?eth eae aae I?inaauaiey. Iiyaeythony iiaua aeaaeaiee
iaoe: Iaoa?ao?aneay (1726 a.), Oaaaeneay (1729 a.) e o.ae., a oaeaea
iiaua ia?eiaee/aneea iao/iua ecaeaiey. Oaaee/eaaaony /enei o/aiuo. ?ieue
iaoee a aeecie iauanoaa iniciaaony ana aieueoa e aieueoa.

?acaeoea oeceee yoiai ia?eiaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony aic?anoaieai
nenoaiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. Oaaee/eaoaany eiee/anoai ioaeeeaoeee e
ia?aienea o/aiuo niinianoaoao onoaiiaeaieth naycae iaaeaeo o/aiuie.
Ea?oaceaineia iai?aaeaiea ana aieueoa onooiaao ianoi iuethoiiianeie
iaoaieea. Iiyaeyaony ia?aue nenoaiaoe/aneee eo?n oeceee I. aai
Aooaia?oea (1739 a.). Iinea iino?iaiey Iuethoiiii iniia iaoaieee
iaiaoiaeeii auei i?eaanoe aa a noieeoth nenoaio e ?ac?aaioaoue iaoiaeu
au/eneaiey eiie?aoiuo caaea/ noaoeee e aeeiaieee. Yoi e
i?aaeii?aaeaeeei, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ?ac?aaioeo e eniieueciaaiea
iaoaiaoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee (au/eneeoaeueiie iaoaieee) e, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ?ac?aaioeo oaoie/aneie iaoaieee. Aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea
au/eneeoaeueiie iaoaieee aiinyo Yeea?, Aeaeaiaa?, Eaia?aiae.
Ae.Aa?ioeee, Yeea?, Aeaeaiaa? caeeaaeuaatho iniiau aeae?iaeeiaieee
(oece/aneie iaoaieee) aeeaeeinoae. O,Aethoa ioe?uaaao nouanoaiaaiea
aeaoo ?iaeia yeaeo?e/anoaa e onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi iaeiieiaiii ca?yaeaiiua
oaea iooaeeeaathony, a ?aciieiaiii ca?yaeaiiua – i?eoyaeaathony.
A.O?aieeei onoaiaaeeaaao caeii nio?aiaiey yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea, a
O.Eoeii e A.Eaaaiaeeo ioe?uaatho iniiaiie caeii yeaeo?inoaoeee,
ii?aaeaeythuee neeo acaeiiaeaenoaey iaiiaeaeaeiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia
– caeii Eoeiia. A.O?aieeei, I.A.Eiiiiinia, A.?eoiai aeieacuaatho
yeaeo?e/aneoth i?e?iaeo oa?iaie iieiee. E.Aaeueaaie onoaiaaeeaaao oaeo
“aeeaioiiai yeaeo?e/anoaa” e aicieeiiaaiea ?aciinoe iioaioeeaeia i?e
eiioaeoa iaoaeea n yeaeo?ieeoii, /ai iieiaeee ia/aei enoi/ieeai
iinoiyiiiai yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea e yeaeo?ioeceieiaee. A.Aieueoa nicaeaao
ia?aue oeie/aneee enoi/iee yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea (aieueoia noiea). I.Aoaa?
e E.Eaiaa?o nicaeatho oioiiao?eth. A.Aa?oaeue ioe?uaaao eio?ae?aniua
eo/e, a E.?eooa? e Aieeanoii – oeueo?aoeieaoiaua.

10. Oai?ey oaiei?iaea e iaoaie/aneay eiioeaioeey oaieiou

I?aeoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe aeooaeece?iaaee enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe
oaieiauo yaeaiee. Iaoeiino?iaiea e oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
ioaeaeaeenue a iaoiaeao oi/iiai ecia?aiey oaieiauo aaee/ei, i?aaeaea
anaai ecia?aiey oaiia?aoo?u. Iio?aaiinoe iaoai?ieiaee, oeiee. iaaeeoeeiu
oaeaea o?aaiaaee niaa?oainoaiaaiey ecia?aiey oaiia?aoo?u. ?acaeoea
oa?iioeiee (Oa?aiaaeo, Aeaeeeue, Eiiiiinia, ?aiith?, Oeaeuenee)
iniiauaaeinue ia eniieueciaaiee oaieiaiai ?anoe?aiey oae.
Niaa?oainoaiaaiea ia?iaie iaoeiu Iuetheiiaia, eniieueciaaaoaeny aieaa
iieoaaea aac eciaiaiee, o?aaiaaei nicaeaiey eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee
oaieiauo yaeaiee.

Aeae.Aeye, eco/ay i?e?iaeo oaieiou, onoaiiaee, /oi ?acee/iua aeaeu
aauanoaa iaa?aaathony a ?aciie noaiaie iaeiei e oai aea eiee/anoaii
oaieiou, /oi iicaieeei aio auyaeoue oaieiaieinoue ?acee/iuo aeaeia
aauanoaa, o.a. eiee/anoai oaieiou, eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaanoe e oaeo,
/oiau iiauneoue aai oaiia?aoo?o ia iaeei a?aaeon ii Oeaeueneth eee
Eaeueaeio. Ii onoaiiaee, /oi i?e oayiee eueaea e niaaa a oa/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie iie iiaeiuatho oaiei, ia noaiiaynue i?e yoii
oaieaa. Yoi iicaieeei aio iaia?oaeeoue ne?uoia (eaoaioiia) ninoiyiea
oaieiou.

Aeye iiieiae oaieioo eae iaeoth iaoa?eaeueioth noanoaioeeth
(“noanoaioeeth oaieiou”). A. Eaaoacuea iacuaae aa oaiei?iaeii. Iiiuoee
acaaneoue aa ieacaeenue iaoaea/iuie, iiyoiio oaieioo noaee
?anniao?eaaoue eae iniaiai ?iaea iaaaniioth iaoie/oiaeaaioth
aeeaeeinoue, niiniaioth ia?aoaeaoue io iaa?aouo oae e oieiaeiui.
Eaaoacuea n/eoae, /oi iiaeiaiay eiioeaioeey auea a iieiii niioaaonoaee n
aai eaeaae iieo/aiey oaieiou n iiiiuueth oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee.
Oaea/aiea yoie eiioeaioeeae ieacaeinue noieue aaeeei, /oi eeiaoe/aneay
oai?ey oaieiou, a ?aieao eioi?ie oaieioa i?aaenoaaeyeanue eae
ii?aaeaeaiiue aeae aeaeaeaiey /anoeoe, ionooieea ia aoi?ie ieai,
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aa ?acaeaeyee Iuethoii, Aoe, Aieeue, Aa?ioeee,
Eiiiiinia.

Ii/aio aea eiioeaioeey oaiei?iaea ana-oaee ooaa?aeeeanue, oioy e ia
a?aiy? I.N.Eoae?yaoeaa aeaao neaaeothuaa iauyniaiea. Aeey oece/aneiai
iuoeaiey XVIII aaea auei oa?aeoa?ii iia?e?iaaiea ?acee/iuie
noanoaioeeyie – yeaeo?e/aneeie, iaaieoiuie, naaoiauie, oaieiauie. Naao,
yeaeo?e/anoai, iaaiaoeci, oaieioo iao/eeenue ecia?youe. Yoi iicaieeei
oiiaeiaeoue iaaaniiua oaiiiaiu iau/iui iannai e aeeaeeinoyi, /oi
niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth yenia?eiaioa e iaeiieaieth iaiaoiaeeiuo oaeoia.
Eia/a aiai?y, eiioeaioeey iaaaniiuo aeeaeeinoae ieacaeanue iaiaoiaeeiui
yoaiii a ?acaeoee oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee.

11. Eiioeaioeey aaeeiiai oieaa?naeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey /anoeoe
aauanoaa ?.Aioeiae/a

?acaeoea o/aiey i oaieioa i?eaaei e iinoaiiaea eae noi?iiieeaie
oaiei?iaeiie, oae e eeiaoe/aneie eiioeaioeee oaieiou aii?inia i no?iaiee
aauanoaa, i i?e/eiao oaeeo naienoa oae, eae i?i/iinoue, oi?oainoue,
nii?ioeaeyaiinoue e o.ae. aia caaeneiinoe io eioaineaiinoe oaieiaiai
aeaeaeaiey. O/aiey Aeaea?oa, Aaeeeay, Iuethoiia ia aeaaaee ioaaoia ia
yoe aii?inu. Aa?ioeee oaeia naienoai eae oi?oainoue i?eienuaae aoiiai.
Eaeaieoe ooaa?aeaeae. /oi i?aaenoaaeaiea i nouanoaiaaiee iaaeaeeiuo
aoiiia iaaa?ii, iiyoiio naycuaaiea oece/aneeo naienoa oae n aaee/eiie
aoiiia aanniuneaiii. ?.Aioeiae/ noi?ioee?iaae eaeath ia aaeeiii
oieaa?naeueiii caeiia acaeiiaeaenoaey /anoeoe aauanoaa, ia iniiaa
eioi?iai ii iuoaeny aeaoue iauyniaiea oece/aneei naienoaai aauanoaa.
Eiioeaioeey Aioeiae/a ?iaenoaaiia i?aaenoaaeaieyi Eaeaieoea i
nouanoaiaaiee iai?ioyaeaiiuo ia?auo i?inouo yeaiaioia e iuethoiiianeei
i?aaenoaaeaieyi ia eciaiythueony n ?annoiyieai neeao. Aioeiae/ enoiaeee
ec i?eciaiey nouanoaiaaiey caeiia acaeiiaeaenoaey, aeaenoaothuaai
iaaeaeo ethaie ia?ie oi/a/iuo /anoeoe – ia?auo yeaiaioia iaoa?ee,
iaaeaeeiuo e iai?ioyaeaiiuo. Ia ieieiaeueiuo ?annoiyieyo iaaeaeo
/anoeoeaie aeaenoaoao neea iooaeeeaaiey, iaia?aie/aiii aic?anoathuay i?e
eo naeeaeaiee. N oaaee/aieai ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie aeaiiay neea
iooaeeeaaiey oauaaao, iinoaiaiii ia?aoiaey a neeo i?eoyaeaiey, eioi?ay n
aeaeueiaeoei oaaee/aieai ?annoiyiey oiaiueoaaony e iinoaiaiii
i?aa?auaaony a neeo iooaeeeaaiey. O.a. neea acaeiiaeaenoaey iiiaie?aoii
iaiyao ciae ia n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeo ?annoiyieyo. I?e aeinoeaeaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo aeaoiy /anoeoeaie neea acaeiiaeaenoaey
noaiiaeony i?eoyaaoaeueiie, oauaathuae, a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii
oyaioaiey, ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eaaae?aoo ?annoiyiey.
?aoeeiiaeueiue niune eiioeaioeee Aioeiae/a caeeth/aeny a iniciaiee oiai,
/oi a i?e?iaea iao aaniethoii aeanoeeo iaeciaiyaiuo oae, /oi ethaia oaei
yaeyaony nenoaiie, ninoiyuae ec iaoiaeyueony a iiaeaeaeiii ?aaiiaanee
/anoeoe. Eiioeaioeey Aioeiae/a i?aaenoaaeyea niaie oece/aneoth aeiioaco,
ia iniiaa eioi?ie aeaeaeanue iiiuoea iauynieoue oece/aneea naienoaa
aauanoaa. Iiyoiio, a ioee/ea io iuethoiieaioeaa, no?aieaoeony naanoe
caaea/e aeaeaeaiey e acaeiiaeaenoaey oae e iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?ia,
Aioeiae/ no?aieeny iaoaie/aneea caaea/e naanoe e oeceea nee
acaeiiaeaenoaey. Iineieueeo a yoi a?aiy ia auei aeinoaoi/iuo aeaiiuo ie
i no?iaiee aauanoaa, ie i neeao, aeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie,
eiioeaioeey Aioeiae/a ii ioiioaieth e iaaeno?aeueiie eeiee ?acaeoey
oeceee yoiai a?aiaie ieacaeanue ia?aeiaeueiie.

INIIAIUA EIIOeAIOeEE EEANNE*ANEIE OECEEE XIX AAEA

1. Noaiiaeaiea eeanne/aneiai anoanoaiciaiey

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea oneiaey ?acaeoey iaoee a XIX
aaea a ?aciuo no?aiao ia auee iaeeiaeiauie. E oioy yoe oneiaey ia
anaaaea aeaaii?eyonoaiaaee ?acaeoeth iaoee, aeey XIX aaea a oeaeii
oa?aeoa?ai ao?iue ?ino iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e aaoi?eoao iaoee. Ai
O?aioeee iiae aeeyieai oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee ?acaeaathony
i?aeiouanoaaiii oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneea e anoanoaaiiua iaoee, ?oeiaiaeyuei
oeaio?ii eioi?uo aunooiae Iaoeeiiaeueiue einoeooo. A neeo
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneie ionoaeinoe Aa?iaiee a iae ia auei noieue aea
aeaaii?eyoiuo, eae ai O?aioeee, oneiaee ?acaeoey oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo e
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe – i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaaeinue oeeinioee, aiaineiaeth e
eeanne/aneie oeeieiaee. Iaee/ea aieueoiai eiee/anoaa oieaa?neoaoia,
oa??eoi?eaeueiay aeecinoue ?acee/iuo oaeoeueoaoia ae?oa e ae?oao
niinianoaiaaee aeoeaiiio acaeiiaeeyieth iaoe. Aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey
oieaa?neoaoneie iaoee niinianoaiaaea iiyaeaieth aieueoiai /enea iao/iuo
ecaeaiee. Oniaoe a iaeanoe oaoieee iaoneiaeee aic?anoaiea i?aeoeoeecia,
/oi i?eaaei e i?eieaeaieth ?iee oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee e oneeaieth
?iee i?eeeaaeiuo. Iniaaiiinoueth iaoee a Aiaeee auei ionoonoaea oaeeo
oeaio?ia, eae Iaoeeiiaeueiue einoeooo ai O?aioeee e oe?ieie naoe
oieaa?neoaoia, eae a Aa?iaiee. Iiyoiio iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey /aua
aaeenue a iaeeii/eo, a eciee?iaaiiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa iaeanoyo iaoee. Ii
yoi auee aeanoyuea enneaaeiaaiey, ?acoeueoaou eioi?uo ec ca ionoonoaey
iaiaoiaeeiuo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e o/aaiuo i?aaiecaoeee ia?aaeei
?ac?aaaouaaeenue o/aiuie ae?oaeo no?ai. Ecaanoiue enoi?ee iaoee
Aeae.Ia?oe, oa?aeoa?ecoy niaoeeoeeo ?acaeoey iaoee yoiai ia?eiaea,
ioia/ae, /oi iaeaieueoaa /enei niaa?oaiiuo ii oi?ia e niaea?aeaieth
o?oaeia, noaaoeo eeanne/aneeie aeey anao a?aiai, auiieiaii, aa?iyoii, ai
O?aioeee; iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai iao/iuo ?aaio auei, aa?iyoii, auiieiaii
a Aa?iaiee; iaeaieueoay aeiey eaeae, eioi?ua iieiaeioai?yee iaoeo ia
i?ioyaeaiee aaea, i?eiaaeeaaeeo, aa?iyoii, Aiaeee. Iauae aeey anao
no?ai oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ?acaeoey iaoee a XIX aaea iiaeii n/eoaoue
oneeaiea aa acaeiiaeaenoaey n oaoieeie e yeiiiieeie.

Oeceea XIX aaea n/eoaaony eeanne/aneie. Iuethoiiianeee
oaiiiaiieiae/aneee iaoiae noae aeaaiui eino?oiaioii iiciaiey i?e?iaeu.
Caeiiu eeanne/aneie iaoaieee e iaoiaeu iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca
aeaiiino?e?iaaee naith yooaeoeaiinoue. Oece/aneee yenia?eiaio, iie?aynue
ia ecia?eoaeueioth oaoieeo, iaania/eaae iaauaaeoth ?aiaa oi/iinoue.
Oece/aneia ciaiea ana a aieueoae ia?a noaiiaeeinue iniiaie i?iiuoeaiiie
oaoiieiaee e oaoieee, noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea ae?oaeo anoanoaaiiuo iaoe.
A oeceea eciee?iaaiiua ?aiaa naao, yeaeo?e/anoai, iaaiaoeci e oaieioa
ieacaeenue iauaaeeiaiiuie a yeaeo?iiaaieoioth oai?eth. E oioy i?e?iaea
oyaioaiey inoaaaeanue ia auyniaiiie, aai aeaenoaey iiaeii auei
?ann/eoaoue. Ooaa?aeeeanue eiioeaioeey iaoaienoe/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia
Eaieana, enoiaeeaoay ec aiciiaeiinoe iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeeoue iiaaaeaiea
nenoaiu a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie, anee ecaanoiua enoiaeiua oneiaey.
No?oeoo?a iaoaieee eae iaoee eacaeanue i?i/iie, iaaeaaeiie e ii/oe
iieiinoueth caaa?oaiiie – o.a. ia oeeaaeuaathueany a nouanoaothuea
eeanne/aneea eaiiiu oaiiiaiu, n eioi?uie i?eoiaeeeinue noaeeeaaoueny.
eacaeenue aiieia iauynieiuie a aoaeouai aieaa eciu?aiiuie oiaie n
iiceoeee eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. Neeaaeuaaeinue aia/aoeaiea, /oi ciaiea
oeceee aeecei e naiaio iieiiio caaa?oaieth – noieue iiuioth neeo
aeaiiino?e?iaae ooiaeaiaio eeanne/aneie oeceee, ianiio?y ia oi. /oi a aa
ioaeaeueiuo iaeanoyo aiacaeeeenue inoaoee noa?uo iaoaoece/aneeo
eiioeaioeee. Ii iinoaiaiii iineaaeiea naeatho naie iiceoeee: noiaeyo n
a?aiu oai?ey oetheaeia, oai?ey oaiei?iaea e o.ae. I?iieeiiaaiea
oece/aneeo ciaiee a i?iiuoeaiiinoue, oaoieeo i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth
i?eeeaaeiie oeceee, a enneaaeiaaiey a aa iaeanoe cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yee
oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae, o?aaiaaaoee oai?aoe/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee. A eiioea
eiioeia ianiiniaiinoue eeanne/aneie oai?ee iauynieoue iiaua oaeou
i?eaiaeeo ia ?oaaaea XIX e XX aaeia e iao/iie ?aaiethoeee a oeceea.

2. Aieiiaay eiioeaioeey naaoa I.O?aiaey

Noi?ie?iaaaoeany a i?aaeoanoaothuaa noieaoea ei?ioneoey?iay e aieiiaay
eiioeaioeey naaoa a XIX aaea i?iaeieaeeee iaeanoi/aiioth ai?ueao. Ia?aay
iie?aeanue ia aaoi?eoao Iuethoiia, aoi?ay – ia aaoi?eoao Aoea,
Atheaaina, Yeea?a, Eiiiiiniaa. Noi?iiieee ei?ioneoey?iie eiioeaioeee
iaaeayeenue iauynieoue n aa iiceoeee cao?oaeiaiey n iauyniaieai yaeaiee
aeeo?aeoeee e eioa?oa?aioeee. O.THia aeae yoi iauyniaiea n iiceoeee
aieiiaie eiioeaioeee. Enoiaey ec auneacaiiuo ei aeiioac i nouanoaiaaiee
?ac?aaeaiiiai e oi?oaiai naaoiiiniiai yoe?a, caiieiythuaai Anaeaiioth, i
aicaoaeaeaiee aieiiia?aciuo aeaeaeaiee a yoe?a i?e naa/aiee oaea, i
caaeneiinoe iuouaiey ?acee/iuo oeaaoia io ?acee/iie /anoiou eieaaaiee,
aicaoaeaeaaiuo naaoii ia nao/aoea aeaca, i i?eoyaeaaiee anaie
iaoa?eaeueiuie oaeaie yoe?iie n?aaeu, aneaaenoaea /aai iineaaeiyy
iaeaieeaaaony a aauanoaa yoeo oae e ia iaeii ?annoiyiee aie?oa ieo a
ninoiyiee aieueoae ieioiinoe (ii ia aieueoae oi?oainoe), THia aeaeaao
auaiae i oii, /oi eceo/aaiue naao ninoieo ec aieiiia?aciuo aeaeaeaiee
naaoiiiniiai yoe?a. Yoi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue ana ?aciiia?acea oeaaoia
naanoe e eieaaaoaeueiui aeaeaeaieyi yoe?a, a ?acee/ea oeaaoia iauynieoue
?acee/eai /anoio eieaaaiee yoe?a, a oaeaea noi?ioee?iaaoue i?eioeei
eioa?oa?aioeee.

I?yiieeiaeiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea naaoa auei iaeaieaa aaaeiui a?aoiaioii a
iieueco ei?ioneoey?iie oai?ee. I.O?aiaeue aeaeaao iiaue nouanoaaiiue oaa
a ?acaeoee aieiiaie oai?ee. (Eaeay eioa?oa?aioeee aiiaua ieacaeanue
noieue ieiaeioai?iie, /oi i?e ano?a/a n iaecaanoiui aeaeii eceo/aiey
anaaaea noa?athony iieo/eoue eioa?oa?aioeeth. E anee yoi oaeaaony, oi
oai naiui aeieacuaaaony aai aieiiaie oa?aeoa?.)

Naycaa i?eioeei Atheaaina, (niaeanii eioi?iio iieaeoeu oaea,
i?eaaaeaiiua a eieaaaiea iaaeathuei naaoii noaiiayony oeaio?aie
enioneaiey iiauo aiei) n i?eioeeiii eioa?oa?aioeee, (niaeanii eioi?iio
iaeaaathueany aieiu, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ei?ioneoey?iui eo/ai, ia
iaycaoaeueii oneeeaathony, a iiaoo e ineaaeyoueny aei iieiiai
oie/oiaeaiey), O?aiaeue aeae iauyniaiea i?yiieeiaeiiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth
naaoa, iieacaa, /oi eo/e, iiey?eciaaiiua ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ae?oa e
ae?oao, ia eioa?oa?e?othony. A iiuoao ii aeeo?aeoeee naaoa ii onoaiiaee.
/oi aeeo?aeoeeiiiua iieinu iiyaeythony aneaaenoaea eioa?oa?aioeee eo/ae.
I?eioeei eioa?oa?aioeee iicaieee O?aiaeth caeiiu io?aaeaiey e
i?aeiieaiey iauynieoue acaeiiui iiaaoaieai naaoiauo eieaaaiee ai anao
iai?aaeaieyo, ca eneeth/aieai oao. eioi?ua oaeiaeaoai?ytho caeiio
io?aaeaiey. O?aiaeth oaeaeinue yenia?eiaioaeueii aeieacaoue, /oi
naaoiaua eo/e iiaoo aicaeaenoaiaaoue ae?oa ia ae?oaa, ineaaeyoueny e
aeaaea ii/oe iieiinoueth iiaaoaoueny a neo/ayo niaeaniuo eieaaaiee, /oi
e iicaieeei aio aeaoue iauyniaiea yaeaieth aeeo?aeoeee. O?aiaeue
aeieacae. /oi naao yaeyaony iiia?a/iui aieiiaui aeaeaeaieai. Ii iauyniee
yaeaiea iiey?ecaoeee naaoa a yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo
io?aaeaiey e i?aeiieaiey naaoa io iiaa?oiinoe i?ic?a/iuo aauanoa. Ei
auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi io?aaeaiea ieinei-iiey?eciaaiiiai naaoa io
iiaa?oiinoe i?ic?a/iiai oaea nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiai?ioii ieineinoe
iiey?ecaoeee a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea yoa ieineinoue ia niaiaaeaao n
ieineinoueth iaaeaiey eee ia ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia e iae. ?acaeaay eaeae
Atheaaina i ?ani?ino?aiaiee aiei a e?enoaeeao. O?aiaeue caeiaeee iniiau
e?enoaeeiiioeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ai?ueaa aieiiaie e ei?ioneoey?iie eiioeaioeee naaoa a
ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea caaa?oaaony iiaaaeie aieiiaie eiioeaioeee –
auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi naao yaeyaony iiia?a/iui aieiiaui aeaeaeaieai.
?aoathuei aeeaaeii a yoo iiaaaeo e yaeeinue iauyniaiea n iiiiuueth
aieiiaie eiioeaioeee yaeaiee aeeo?aeoeee e eioa?oa?aioeee naaoa.

3. Eiioeaioeee eeanne/aneie yeaeo?iaeeiaieee

Eeanne/aneay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie oai?eth
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo i?ioeannia a ?acee/iuo n?aaeao e aaeooia, ioaaouaaao
ia?iiioth niaieoiiinoue yaeaiee, a eioi?uo aeaaiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
acaeiiaeaenoaeyi iaaeaeo ca?yaeaiiuie /anoeoeaie, eioi?ua
inouanoaeythony iin?aaenoaii yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey. ?acaeaeii
yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, eco/athuei acaeiiaeaenoaey e yeaeo?e/aneea iiey
iieiyueony yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia, yaeyaony yeaeo?inoaoeea.

Oniaoe a iaeanoe yeaeo?inoaoeee, au?aceaoeany a onoaiiaeaiee
eiee/anoaaiiiai caeiia yeaeo?e/aneeo acaeiiaeaenoaee, niinianoaiaaee ia
oieueei iaeiieaieth yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo a iaeanoe
yeaeo?inoaoe/aneeo yaeaiee e niaa?oainoaiaaieth yeaeo?inoaoe/aneeo
iaoei, ii e nicaeaieth iaoaiaoe/aneie oai?ee yeaeo?i- e
iaaieoinoaoenoe/aneeo acaeiiaeaenoaee. Ioe?uoea E.Aaeueaaie “aeeaioiiai
yeaeo?e/anoaa”, nicaeaiea A.Aieueoa ia?aiai aaia?aoi?a yeaeo?e/aneiai
oiea (“aieueoiaa noieaa”), inouanoaeaiea ia?aiai iienaiey caieiooie
oeaie yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea, ioe?uoea A.A.Iao?iaui yeaeo?e/aneie aeoae,
ioe?uoea A.Aeyae e I.Oa?aaeay oeie/aneiai aeaenoaey yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea,
oai?aoe/aneea ?aaiou ii yeaeo?i- e iaaieoinoaoeea N.Ioanniia e Ae.A?eia
auee caaa?oathueie oniaoaie a iaeanoe eiioeaioeee yeaeo?e/aneie
aeeaeeinoe, n/eoaaoaeny a ia/aea XIX aaea iniiaie yeaeo?inoaoeee,
iiaeiaii oiio, eae eiioeaioeey iaaieoiie aeeaeeinoe n/eoaeanue iniiaie
iaaieoinoaoeee. A aeaeueiaeoai aeaaiui iai?aaeaieai a aeaiiie iaeanoe
noaiiaeony yeaeo?iiaaieoeci.

A 1820 a. O.Y?noaaeii auei ioe?uoi iaaieoiia aeaenoaea yeaeo?e/aneiai
oiea – aie?oa i?iaieiee n yeaeo?e/aneei oieii auei iaia?oaeaii iaaieoiia
iiea. Oaeei ia?acii, auea aeieacaia naycue yeaeo?e/anoaa e iaaiaoecia.
A.Aiia?, iniiauaaynue ia aaeeinoaa yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo yaeaiee,
?ac?aaioae ia?aoth oai?eth iaaiaoecia, caeiaeea oai naiui iniiau
yeaeo?iaeeiaieee. Ii ?acee/ae iiiyoey yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea e
yeaeo?e/aneiai iai?yaeaiey. Iniiaiuie iiiyoeyie aai eiioeaioeee auee
“yeaeo?e/aneee oie”, “yeaeo?e/aneay oeaiue”. Iiae yeaeo?e/aneei oieii
Aiia? iiieiae iai?anoaiii /a?aaeothueany aioo?e i?iaiaeieea i?ioeannu
niaaeeiaiey e ?acaeaeaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeii ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe
yeaeo?e/anoaa. (Iaeiaiiaaiea aaeeieoeu neeu oiea iineo eiy Aiia?a.) Ei
iainiiaaii iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey oiea – iai?aaeaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai
ca?yaea yeaeo?e/anoaa, a oaeaea onoaiiaeai caeii iaoaie/aneiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoo oieia, oaeoueo a iaeuo io?aceao i?iaiaeieeia,
iaoiaeyueony ia iaeioi?ii ?annoiyiee ae?oa io ae?oaa. Ec aeaiiiai caeiia
neaaeiaaei. /oi ia?aeeaeueiua i?iaiaeieee n oieaie, oaeoueie a iaeiii
iai?aaeaiee, i?eoyaeaathony, a a i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo –
iooaeeeaathony. Ec i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaaieoa eae niaieoiiinoe
yeaeo?e/aneeo oieia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ieineinoyo, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iuo
eeiee, niaaeeiythuae iiethnu iaaieoa, auoaeae anoanoaaiiue auaiae i oii,
/oi nieaiieae yeaeaaeaioai iaaieoo. ?aaiethoeeiiiue niune yoiai auaiaea
aue i/aaeaeai: aeey iauyniaiey yaeaiey iaaiaoecia aieueoa ia
o?aaiaaeinue iaee/ey “iaaieoiie aeeaeeinoe” – ana yaeaiea iaaiaoecia
ieacaeinue aiciiaeiui naanoe e yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneei acaeiiaeaenoaeyi.

Neaaeothuei oaaii a ?acaeoee yeaeo?iaeeiaieee auei ioe?uoea I.Oa?aaeaai
yaeaiey yeaeo?iiaaieoiie eiaeoeoeee – aicaoaeaeaiey ia?aiaiiui iaaieoiui
iieai yeaeo?iaeaeaeouae neeu a i?iaiaeieeao, – noaaoae iniiaie
yeaeo?ioaoieee. Aaaeiui ?acoeueoaoii aai enneaaeiaaiee yaeeinue oaeaea
iainiiaaiea oiai, /oi ioaeaeueiua aeaeu yeaeo?e/anoaa oiaeaeanoaaiiu ii
naiae i?e?iaea, iacaaeneii io eo enoi/ieea. Ioe?uoea caeiia
yeaeo?ieeca(oeie/aneia aeaenoaea yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea i?yii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao i?ioiaeyuaai yeaeo?e/anoaa), ioe?uoea
a?auaiey ieineinoe iiey?ecaoeee naaoa a iaaieoiii iiea. Iuoaynue
iauynieoue yaeaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiie eiaeoeoeee ia iniiaa eiioeaioeee
aeaeueiiaeaenoaey, ii ano?aoeaoenue n cao?oaeiaieyie, ii auneacae
i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia inouanoaeaiee yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee ii
n?aaenoaii yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey, o.a. ia iniiaa eiioeaioeee
aeeceiaeaenoaey. Yoi iieiaeeei ia/aei oi?ie?iaaieth eiioeaioeee
yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey, ioi?ieaiioth Ae.Iaenaaeeii.

4. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iiea Iaenaaeea e yoe?

Oai?ey Iuethoiia oniaoii iauynieea aeaeaeaiea ieaiao aie?oa Nieioea iiae
aeeyieai neeu i?eoyaeaiey, ii ia niiaea aa?ii iauynieoue aeaeaeaiea
yeaeo?e/anee ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe, eioi?ua acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n
ae?oaii /a?ac ionoia i?ino?ainoai iiae aeeyieai yeaeo?e/aneeo e
iaaieoiuo nee – iiaeaeue aoiia iaiiieiaao iiaeaeue Nieia/iie nenoaiu (a
oeaio?a aoiia iaoiaeeony iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiia yae?i, aie?oa
eioi?iai a?auathony yeaeo?iiu). Aianoa n oai iaaeaeo a?aaeoaoeeiiiuie e
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuie neeaie anoue ?acee/ey: yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae eiaao
eeoue iaeioi?ua /anoeoeu, a a?aaeoaoeeae iaeaaeatho ana oi?iu aauanoaa e
yia?aee; yeaeo?e/aneea neeu auaatho iieiaeeoaeueiuie e io?eoeaoaeueiuie
(i?e/ai /anoeoeu n ?aciui ca?yaeii i?eoyaeaathony, a n iaeeiaeiaui –
iooaeeeaathony), a oyaioathuea iauaeou oieueei i?eoyaeaathony; i?e iaeuo
ianooaaao (iai?eia?, a aoiia) ?acei i?aiaeaaeatho yeaeo?iiaaieoiua neeu,
a i?e aieueoeo ianooaaao (iai?eia?, i?e ianooaaao Caiee) –
a?aaeoaoeeiiiua. Ae.E.Iaenaaee auaae nenoaio o?aaiaiee, iienuaathueo
acaeiinaycue aeaeaeaiey ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe e iiaaaeaiea
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo nee. Oeaio?aeueiui iiiyoeai oai?ee Iaenaaeea auei
iiiyoea iiey, eioi?ia ecaaaeei io cao?oaeiaiee. naycaiiuo n
iuethoiiianeei aeaenoaeai ia ?annoiyiee. A XIX a. iiea iienuaaeinue ii
aiaeiaee n aeaeaeouaeny aeeaeeinoueth, iiyoiio iii oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue n
iiiiuueth oaeeo oa?ieiia, eae “iaaieoiue iioie”, “neeiaua eeiee” e o.i.
Iienaiea aea iiey eae aeeaeeinoe i?aaeiieaaaao n?aaeo, ia?aaeathuoth
aeaenoaea io iaeiiai ca?yaea e ae?oaiio. Oaeoth aeiioaoe/aneoth
aeeaeeinoue iacaaee yoe?ii. Iieaaaee, /oi yoe? caiieiyao ana ionoia
i?ino?ainoai, inoaaaynue iaaeaeeiui. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua iiey
i?aaenoaaeyeenue a aeaea iaoyaeaiee a yoe?a. Ca?yaeaiiua /anoeoeu
ii?iaeaeaee a yoe?a aieiu iaoyaeaiee. nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?uo,
eae e iieacaee ?an/aou, ieacaeanue ieiei 300000 ei/n. Naao noae
?anniao?eaaoueny a aeaea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei, eioi?ua aucuaaeenue
aeaeaeaieyie ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe e eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiyeenue a
i?ino?ainoaa eae eieaaaiey yoe?a. N ioe?uoeai yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei
(?aaeeiaieiu, naa?oauniei/anoioiua. oaieiaua (eio?ae?aniua),
oeueo?aoeieaoiaua, ?aioaaiianeea aieiu. aaiia-eceo/aiey) iiyaeeanue
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaa?ee iuethoiiianeie oai?ee i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie.

Anee Oa?aaeae inouanoaee iiaue iiaeoiae e eco/aieth yeaeo?e/aneeo e
iaaieoiuo yaeaiee, nicaeaa eiioeaioeeth iiey. eioi?ia iienauaaeinue n
iiiiuueth neeiauo eeiee, oi Iaenaaee. aaaaey oi/iia iiiyoea
yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey. noi?ioee?iaae aai caeiiu.

Ec eiioeaioeee O?aiaey i iiia?a/iuo naaoiauo aiei iaecaaaeii auoaeaee
aii?inu i oii, a eaeie aea n?aaea ?ani?ino?aiythony aieiu, ii/aio iao
i?iaeieueiuo naaoiauo aiei, eae aeaenoaoao yoe? ia aeaeaeoueany a iai
oaea e o.ae. Auei auneacaii iiiaeanoai naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo aeiioac
ioiineoaeueii iiia?a/iinoe naaoiauo aiei (iai?eia?, aeiioaca aaniethoii
ianaeeiaaiiai yoe?a, aeiioaca iaiiaeaeaeiiai yoe?a, aeiioaca yoe?a,
/anoe/ii oaeaeaaiiai ca niaie aeaeaeoueieny a iai oaeaie e o.ae.). O.a.
nouanoaiaaiea naiiai yoe?a niiiaieth ia iiaeaa?aaeinue, eai
?ani?ino?aiaiea aiei o?aaiaaei niioaaonoaothuae n?aaeu.

Iaenaaee nicaeaao yeaeo?iiaaieoioth oai?eth naaoa, onoaiiaea o?aaiaiey,
iauyniyaoea ana ecaanoiua e oiio a?aiaie oaeou n aaeeiie oi/ee c?aiey. A
ieo onoaiaaeeaaeanue naycue iaaeaeo eciaiaieyie iaaieoiiai iiey e
aicieeiiaaieai yeaeo?iaeaeaeouae neeu. Naith aeaaioth caaea/o Iaenaaee
oniao?eaae a oii, /oiau i?eaanoe yeaeo?e/aneea yaeaiey e iaeanoe
aeeiaieee. Ii enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi yeaeo?e/aneee oie iaeuecy
?anniao?eaaoue eia/a eae aeaenoaey ia ?aniieiaeaiey. a ?ani?ino?aiaiey
i?ioaeathuea ai a?aiaie. I?e/eia yeaeo?e/aneeo oieia auea ei iacaaia
yeaeo?iaeaeaeouae neeie.

Ninoiyiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey a oai?ee Iaenaaeea caaeaaony
iai?yaeaiiinoueth yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey e iaaieoiie eiaeoeoeeae.
Enneaaeiaaa nayce iaaeaeo yeaeo?e/aneeie e iaaieoiuie iieyie. Iaenaaee
ec oiai, /oi eciaiythuaany yeaeo?e/aneia iiea nicaeaao iaaieoiia iiea,
eioi?ia naii nicaeaao yeaeo?e/aneia iiea, e eiee/anoaaiiiai aiaeeca yoeo
niioiioaiee i?eoae e auaiaeo i ?ani?ino?aiaiee aeaiiiai i?ioeanna a
i?ino?ainoaa. Eiuie neiaaie, ia?aiaiiia yeaeo?e/aneia iiea a iaeiie
oi/ea nicaeaao iaaieoiia iiea ii ninaaenoao n iae, eioi?ia a naith
i/a?aaeue aucuaaao yeaeo?e/aneia iiea /ooue aeaeueoa. Iineieueeo yoio
i?ioeann i?ienoiaeeo niiaa e niiaa, aicieeaao eieaaethuaany
yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iiea, iai?a?uaii ?anoe?ythuaany a i?ino?ainoaa. I?e
yoii yeaeo?e/aneia eee iaaieoiia iiea ?ani?ino?aiyaony iacaaeneii io
niiniaia eo aicieeiiaaiey (aoaeue oi eieaaaiey ca?yaeia eee iiyaeaiea
iaaieoia). Au/eneaiey nei?inoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiey, auiieiaiiua ii
aeaiiui i iaaethaeaaiii oiea, eiaeooee?iaaiiui aeaeaeoueieny iaaieoaie,
eee ii aeaiiui i nicaeaaaaiii oieaie iaaieoiii iiea, auyaeee. /oi iia
?aaia nei?inoe naaoa. E oioy Iaenaaee a naieo au/eneaieyo eniieueciaae
ecia?aiey yeaeo?e/aneeo oieia e iaaieoiuo iieae, o.a. yaeaiee, eacaeinue
au, ia eiathueo ni naaoii ie/aai iauaai. Ii ec yoeo ecia?aiee naeaeae
auaiae i oii, /oi eieaaethuaany yeaeo?e/aneia iiea ?ani?ino?aiyaony a
aeaea aiei ni nei?inoueth naaoa. Yoei auea onoaiiaeaia naycue iaaeaeo
iioeeie e yeaeo?e/anoaii – iaeanoyie, eioi?ua ?aiaa i?aaenoaaeyeenue ia
naycaiiuie ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iioeea noaea ?acaeaeii yeaeo?iaeeiaieee.

Oaeei ia?acii, naao ieacaeny ia /ai eiui, eae ?ani?ino?aiaieai
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia eo iaia?oaeaiea A.Aa?oeai a
1880 a. icia/aei iiaaaeo yeaeo?iiaaieoiie eiioeaioeee, oioy iia a
niciaiee o/aiuo ooaa?aeeeanue ia n?aco (eiioeaioeee Iuethoiia
iiiaaeiaeeinue aeey naiaai ooaa?aeaeaiey iieiaeia aaea, eiioeaioeee
Iaenaaeea iiiaaeiaeeanue aeey yoiai /aoaa?oue aaea). Aa?oe onoaiiaee,
/oi yeaeo?iiaaieoiua aieiu eiatho naienoai, aiaeiae/iua naaoiaui:
i?aeiieaiea, io?aaeaiea, eioa?oa?aioeeth, aeeo?aeoeeth, iiey?ecaoeeth,
oo aea nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey. ( Ioeaieaay ?acoeueoaou naieo
yenia?eiaioia, Aa?oe i?ae?anii iiieiae, /oi iie ?ooao anyeoth oai?eth,
n/eoathuoth, /oi yeaeo?e/aneea neeu ?ani?ino?aiythony a i?ino?ainoaa
iaiiaaiii.)

Eiioeaioeey Iaenaaeea yaeeanue iiaui oaaii a iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu
yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo yaeaiee, iaoneiaeaoei aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeaiey
?aaeei, ?aaeeieaeaoeee, oaeaaeaeaiey e o.ae. Iia aeaea ioaao ia aii?in i
i?e?iaea naaoiauo aiei: naaoiaay aieia anoue aieia yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai
iiey, ?ani?ino?aiythuayny a i?ino?ainoaa. Ioe?uoea Iaenaaeea i?eiyoi
n?aaieaaoue ii noaiaie aaaeiinoe n ioe?uoeai Iuethoiiii caeiia
anaie?iiai oyaioaiey. Anee Iuethoii aaae iiiyoea anaiauaai iiey
oyaioaiey, oi Iaenaaee aaae iiiyoea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey e onoaiiaee
caeiiu aai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

?acaeoeai eiioeaioeee Iaenaaeea auei ecia?aiea I.I. Eaaaaeaaui aeaaeaiey
naaoa, i?aaeneacaiiiai Iaenaaeeii, a oaeaea eniieueciaaiea
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei aeey aani?iaiei/iie nayce A.N.Iiiiaui e A.Ia?eiie.

5. Iieaeoey?ii-eeiaoe/aneay eiioeaioeey oaieiauo i?ioeannia

Eae ioia/aeinue ?aiaa, aeoaieia eco/aiea oaieiauo i?ioeannia
i?aaeiieaaaao o/ao iieaeoey?iiai no?iaiey aauanoaa. ?aoaiea oaeie
caaea/e ieacaeinue nii?yaeaiiui n eniieueciaaieai noaoenoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia. Aeeth/aiea oaieiauo i?ioeannia a ?aiee iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiu
ie?a i?eaaei e ioe?uoeth noaoenoe/aneeo caeiiia, a eioi?uo nayce iaaeaeo
oece/aneeie aaee/eiaie iinyo aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?. A eeanne/aneie
noaoenoe/aneie iaoaieea, a ioee/ea io aeeiaie/aneie, caaeathony ia
eii?aeeiaou e eiioeuenu /anoeoe nenoaiu, a ooieoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey
/anoeoe ii eii?aeeiaoai e eiioeuenai, eiathuay niune ieioiinoe
aa?iyoiinoe iaia?oaeaiey iaaethaeaaiuo cia/aiee eii?aeeiao e eiioeuenia.

Ainiiaenoai eiioeaioeee oaiei?iaea e ionoonoaea iaiaoiaeeiuo
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oaeoia a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea caaea?aeaee
?acaeoea iieaeoey?ii-eeiaoe/aneie oai?ee aauanoaa. Ioe?uoea caeiia
nio?aiaiey yia?aee i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaei naycue oaieiou n aeaeaeaieai
iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe aauanoaa, aeaa oie/ie enneaaeiaaieyi, ia/aoui
?.Aieeai, I.A.Eiiiiiniaui, Ae.Aa?ioeee e ae?. I.A.Eiiiiinia aia?aua
auneacae eaeath i oaieiaii a?auaoaeueiii aeaeaeaiee aoiiia. E yoie eaeae
i?eoae e A.Aeyae. Ae.Aeaeueoii onoaiiaee, /oi aoiiu iaeiiai e oiai aea
oeie/aneiai yeaiaioa iaeaaeatho eaeaioe/iuie naienoaaie e, aaaaey
iiiyoea aoiiiiai aana oeie/aneiai yeaiaioa, aeae aio ii?aaeaeaiea eae
ioiioaiey iannu iaeiiai aoiia yoiai yeaiaioa e ianna iaeiiai aoiia
aiaei?iaea. A.Aaiaaae?i onoaiiaee. /oi eaeaaeueiua aacu (aacu n
i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueii iaeuie neeaie acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo aai /anoeoeaie)
i?e iaeeiaeiauo oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeaiee niaea?aeao a aaeeieoea iauaia
iaeeiaeiaua eiee/anoaa iieaeoe.

E na?aaeeia XIX aaea yeaeaaeaioiinoue oaieiou e yia?aee i?eciaei
aieueoeinoai o/aiuo, oaieioo noaee ?anniao?eaaoue eae iieaeoey?iia
aeaeaeaiea. Iiuou AE.E.Aae-Ethnnaea e Ae.Aeaeioey iiaeoaa?aeeee
iacaaeneiinoue aioo?aiiae yia?aee eaeaaeueiuo aacia io eo iauaiia, /oi
auei naeaeaoaeuenoaii ie/oiaeiinoe aeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo eo iieaeoeaie
nee. ?.Eeaoceon e iinooiaoaeueiiio aeaeaeaieth iieaeoe aeiaaaeyao
a?auaoaeueiia e aioo?eiieaeoey?iia eieaaaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea e aeaao
iauyniaiea caeiio Aaiaaae?i eae neaaenoaeth oiai. /oi iieaeoeu ethauo
aacia iaeaaeatho iaeeiaeiaie “aeeaie neeie” iinooiaoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey.
Aeey aeaiiiai yoaia ?acaeoey iieaeoey?ii-eeiaoe/aneie oai?ee aacia
aaaeiui auei au/eneaiea n?aaeieo cia/aiee ?acee/iuo oece/aneeo aaee/ei,
oaeeo eae nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey iieaeoe, /enei eo noieeiiaaiee a
naeoiaeo, aeeeia naiaiaeiiai i?iaaaa e o.ae., ii?aaeaeaiea caaeneiinoe
aeaaeaiey aaca io /enea iieaeoe a aaeeieoea iauaia e n?aaeiae
eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee iinooiaoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey iieaeoe – ana yoi aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue auyaeoue oece/aneee niune oaiia?aoo?u eae ia?u n?aaeiae
eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee iieaeoe.

Neaaeothuee yoai a ?acaeoee iieaeoey?ii-eeiaoe/aneie oai?ee aacia
ia/aeny n ?aaio Ae.Iaenaaeea. Aeaaiaea?y aaaaeaieth iiiyoey aa?iyoiinoe
aue onoaiiaeai caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey iieaeoe ii nei?inoyi (anyeay
nenoaia, aia/aea niaea?aeauay auno?ua (ai?y/ea) e iaaeeaiiua (oieiaeiua)
iieaeoeu, aeieaeia i?eeoe a oaeia ninoiyiea, i?e eioi?ii aieueoeinoai
iieaeoe aeaeaeaony ni n?aaeieie nei?inoyie, noaiiaynue /ooue oaieuie),
/oi e i?eaaei e nicaeaieth noaoenoe/aneie iaoaieee. A ?aaioao
E.Aieueoeiaia, iino?ieaoaai eeiaoe/aneoth oai?eth aacia, auei aeaii
noaoenoe/aneia iainiiaaiea aoi?iai ia/aea oa?iiaeeiaieee –
iaia?aoeiinoue i?ioeannia auea naycaia ni no?aieaieai nenoai e iaeaieaa
aa?iyoiiio ninoiyieth. Auyaeaiea noaoenoe/aneiai niunea aoi?iai ia/aea
oa?iiaeeiaieee eiaei aaaeiia cia/aiea – ieacaeinue , /oi aoi?ia ia/aei
oa?iiaeeiaieee a ioee/ea io ia?aiai eiaao a?aieoeu naiae i?eiaieiinoe:
iii ia i?eiaieii e aeaeaeaieth ioaeaeueiie iieaeoeu. Iaia?aoeiinoue
aeaeaeaiey iaia?oaeeaaaony a iiaaaeaiee eeoue ia?iiiiai /enea iieaeoe.

Eeanne/aneay noaoenoe/aneay iaoaieea caaa?oaaony ?aaioaie Ae.Aeaana,
nicaeaaoaai iaoiae ?an/aoa ooieoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia oieueei aeey aaca,
ii aiiaua aeey ethauo nenoai a ninoiyiee oa?iiaeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney.
Anaiauaa aea i?eciaiea noaoenoe/aneie iaoaieee ianooieo oaea a XX aaea,
eiaaea, ia iniiaa iieaeoey?ii-eeiaoe/aneie oai?ee aoaeao iino?iaia
eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey a?ioiianeiai aeaeaeaiey (ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiey
iineaaeiaai AE.Ia??ai aeieacae ?aaeueiinoue nouanoaiaaiey iieaeoe).

Oaeei ia?acii, iieaeoey?ii-eeiaoe/aneay eiioeaioeey aaca yaeyaony
niaieoiiinoueth ia?iiiiai /enea iieaeoe, aeaeaeoueony ai anao
iai?aaeaieyo, nioaea?ythueony ae?oa n ae?oaii e iinea eaaeaeiai
noieeiiaaiey eciaiythueo iai?aaeaiea naiaai aeaeaeaiey. A oaeii aaca
nouanoaoao n?aaeiyy nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey iieaeoe, a iiyoiio aeieaeia
nouanoaiaaoue e n?aaeiyy eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey iieaeoeu. Anee yoi oae, oi
oaieioa anoue eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey iieaeoey?iiai aeaeaeaiey e ethaie
ii?aaeaeaiiie oaiia?aoo?a niioaaonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay eeiaoe/aneay
yia?aey iieaeoeu. Iieaeoey?ii-eeiaoe/aneay oai?ey aauanoaa e ea/anoaaiii
e eiee/anoaaiii iauyniyao caeiiu aacia e ae?oaeo aauanoa, onoaiiaeaiiua
yenia?eiaioaeueii. A?ioiianeia aeaeaeaiea, iaia?oaeaiiia ?.A?ioiii,
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaei aeaeaeaiea /anoeoe a aeeaeeinoyo. Iaaethaeay /a?ac
iee?ineiiu ca aeaeaeaieai i?aaie/aneeo e iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa a aiaea,
A?ioi onoaiiaee, /oi eo aeaeaeaiea aucuaaaony iioieaie a aeeaeeinoe e ia
aa iinoiyiiui enia?aieai, a i?eiaaeeaaeeo naiei /anoeoeai. Yoi
iaaethaeaiea auaeyaeeo i?ioeai?a/auei anaio i?aaeuaeouaio iiuoo.
Iieaeoey?ii-eeiaoe/aneay oai?ey iicaieeea iauynieoue aicieeooth
o?oaeiinoue.

Nooue aeaea caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai. *anoeoeu, aeaeaeoueany a aiaea e
iaaethaeaaiua a iee?ineii, aiiaa?aee?othony iaiueoeie /anoeoeaie, ec
eioi?uo ninoieo aiaea. a?ioiianeia aeaeaeaiea aicieeaao aneaaenoaea
oiai, /oi aeaiiay aiiaa?aee?iaea a neeo naiae oaioe/iinoe e
iaiaeeiaeiainoe n ?aciuo noi?ii, ia iiaeao auoue o?aaiiaaoaia. Aaaeii,
oaeei ia?acii, oi, /oi iaaethaeaaiia a iee?ineii aeaeaeaiea yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ia a aeaiiue iee?ineii iaiaaethaeaaii:
oaioe/iue oa?aeoa? iiaaaeaiey aieueoeo /anoeoe io?aaeaao oaioe/iinoue
iiaaaeaiey iieaeoe, ec eioi?uo ninoieo aauanoai. Ionthaea ynii, /oi
eiee/anoaaiiia eco/aiea a?ioiianeiai aeaeaeaiey iicaieyao aeoaaea
i?iieeiooue a eeiaoe/aneoth oai?eth aauanoaa. Iineieueeo
aiiaa?aee?othuea iieaeoeu eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua iannu e nei?inoe, oi
eco/aiea a?ioiianeiai aeaeaeaiey iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue ianno iieaeoeu.

6. Eiioeaioeee eeanne/aneie oa?iiaeeiaieee

a) Aicieeiiaaiea oa?iiaeeiaieee

Oaieiaua yaeaiey ioee/athony io iaoaie/aneeo e yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo oai, /oi
caeiiu oaieiauo yaeaiee iaia?aoeiu (o.a. oaieiaua i?ioeannu
naiii?iecaieueii eaeoo eeoue a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee) e /oi oaieiaua
i?ioeannu inouanoaeythony eeoue a iae?ineiie/aneeo ianooaaao, a iiyoiio
eniieuecoaiua aeey iienaiey oaieiauo i?ioeannia iiiyoey e aaee/eiu
(oaiia?aoo?a, eiee/anoai oaieiou e o.ae.) oaeaea eiatho oieueei
iae?ineiie/aneee niune (i oaiia?aoo?a, iai?eia?, iiaeii aiai?eoue
i?eiaieoaeueii e iae?ineiie/aneiio oaeo, ii ia e iieaeoea eee aoiio).
Aianoa n oai ciaiea no?iaiey aauanoaa iaiaoiaeeii aeey iiieiaiey caeiiia
oaieiauo yaeaiee.

Oaei, ?anniao?eaaaiia n oa?iiaeeiaie/aneie iiceoeee, yaeyaony
iaiiaeaeaeiui, ia iaeaaeathuei iaoaie/aneie yia?aeae. Ii oaeia oaei
iaeaaeaao aioo?aiiae yia?aeae, neeaaeuaathuaeny ec yia?aee aeaeaeoueony
yeaeo?iiia e o.ae. Yoi aioo?aiiyy yia?aey iiaeao oaaee/eaaoueny eee
oiaiueoaoueny. Ia?aaea/a yia?aee iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny iooai ia?aaea/e
io iaeiiai oaea e ae?oaiio i?e niaa?oaiee iaae ieie ?aaiou e iooai
oaieiiaiaia. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa aioo?aiiyy yia?aey ia?aoiaeeo io aieaa
iaa?aoiai oaea e iaiaa iaa?aoiio aac niaa?oaiey ?aaiou. Ia?aaeaiioth
yia?aeth iacuaatho eiee/anoaii oaieiou, a ia?aaea/o yia?aee –
oaieiia?aaea/ae. A iauai neo/aa iaa i?ioeanna iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny
iaeiia?aiaiii, eiaaea oaei i?e oo?aoa aioo?aiiae yia?aee iiaeao
niaa?oaoue ?aaioo e ia?aaeaaaoue oaieioo ae?oaiio oaeo. E iiieiaieth
yoiai o/aiua i?eoee ia n?aco. Aeey XVIII e ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aa. auei
oa?aeoa?ii iiieiaoue oaieioo eae iaaaniioth aeeaeeinoue (aauanoai).

I?aaenoaaeaiey i oaieioa eae oi?ia aeaeaeaiey iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoe
iaoa?ee iiyaeeinue aua a XVII aaea. Yoeo aicc?aiee i?eaea?aeeaaeenue
Ayeii, Aeaea?o, Iuethoii, Aoe, Eiiiiinia. Iaeiaei e a XIX aaea
eiioeaioeey oaiei?iaea ?acaeaeyeanue iiiaeie o/aiuie. A eiioea XVIII
aaea A.Oiiinii (a?ao ?oioi?ae) iaia?oaeee auaeaeaiea aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa oaiea i?e aunaa?eeaaiee eaiaea a iooa/iii noaiea, /oi
iin/eoae aeieacaoaeuenoaii oiai, /oi oaieioa yaeyaony oi?iie aeaeaeaiey.
Iieo/aiea oaieiou n iiiiuueth o?aiey iiaeoaa?aeeee iiuou A.Aeyae.
A.Oiiinii iieacae, /oi ec ia?aie/aiiiai eiee/anoaa iaoa?ee iiaeao auoue
iieo/aii iaia?aie/aiiia eiee/anoai oaieiou.

Aicieeiiaaiea nianoaaiii oa?iiaeeiaieee ia/eiaaony n ?aaiou N.Ea?ii (nai
oa?iei “oa?iiaeeiaieea” aaaaeai A.Oiiiniiii). Enneaaeoy i?aeoe/aneoth
caaea/o iieo/aiey aeaeaeaiey ec oaiea i?eiaieoaeueii e ia?iaui iaoeiai,
ii iiiye, /oi i?eioeei iieo/aiey aeaeaeaiey ec oaiea iaiaoiaeeii
?anniao?eaaoue ia oieueei ii ioiioaieth e ia?iaui iaoeiai, ii e ethaui
iuneeiui oaieiaui iaoeiai. Oae aue noi?ioee?iaai iauee iaoiae ?aoaiey
caaea/e – oa?iiaeeiaie/aneee, caeiaeeaoee iniiao oa?iiaeeiaieee.
Ii?aaeaeyy eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai aeaenoaey oaieiauo iaoei, Ea?ii aaae
naie ciaiaieoue oeeee, ninoiyuee ec aeaoo ecioa?ie/aneeo (i?ienoiaeyueo
i?e iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?a) e aeaoo aaeeaaaoe/aneeo (aac i?eoiea e
ioaea/e oaiea) i?ioeannia. EIAe oeeeea Ea?ii ia caaeneo io naienoa
?aai/aai oaea (ia?a, aaca e o.ae.) e ii?aaeaeyaony oaiia?aoo?aie
oaieiioaeao/eea e oaieii?eaiieea. EIAe ethaie oaieiaie iaoeiu ia iiaeao
auoue i?e oao aea oaiia?aoo?ao oaieiioaeao/eea e oaieii?eaiieea auoa
EIAe oeeeea Ea?ii.

Ea?ii ia?aui ane?ue naycue oaieiou n ?aaioie. Ii ii enoiaeee ec
eiioeaioeee oaiei?iaea, i?eciaaaaoae oaieioo iaeciaiiie ii eiee/anoao
noanoaioeeae. Aianoa n oai Ea?ii oaea iiiye, /oi ?aaioa ia?iaie iaoeiu
ii?aaeaeyaony anaiauei caeiiii ia?aoiaea oaiea io aieaa aunieeo e aieaa
ieceei oaiia?aoo?ai, o.a. /oi ia iiaeao auoue aani?aaeaeueiiai
aini?iecaaaeaiey aeaeaeouae neeu aac cao?ao oaiei?iaea. Oaeei ia?acii,
?aaioa i?aaenoaaeyeanue eae ?acoeueoao ia?aiaaea oaiei?iaea n aunoaai
o?iaiy ia iecoea. Eia/a aiai?y, oaieioa iiaeao nicaeaaaoue ?aaioo eeoue
i?e iaee/ee ?aciinoe oaiia?aoo?. Ii naiaio niuneo yoi e ninoaaeyao
niaea?aeaiea aoi?iai ia/aea oa?iiaeeiaieee. EIAe oaieiaie iaoeiu
ieacaeny caaeneiui ia io ?aai/aai aauanoaa, a io oaiia?aoo?u
oaieiioaeao/eea e oaieii?eaiieea. Ana yoi iicaieeei Ea?ii i?eeoe e
i?eciaieth i?eioeeia iaaiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey aa/iiai aeaeaaoaey ia?aiai
?iaea (o.a. iai?a?uaii aeaenoaothuae iaoeiu, eioi?ay, aoaeo/e iaeiaaeaeu
caiouaiiie, niaa?oaea au ?aaioo aac i?eoiea ecaia).

Iniciaaay iaaeinoaoee oai?ee oaiei?iaea, Ea?ii a eiioea eiioeia
ioeacuaaaony io i?eciaiey oaieiou iaeciaiiie ii eiee/anoao noanoaioeeae
e aeaao cia/aiea iaoaie/aneiai yeaeaaeaioa oaieiou. Ii ioaeeeaoeey yoiai
auaiaea auea inouanoaeaia oaea iinea i?eciaiey caeiia nio?aiaiey
yia?aee, iiyoiio aeaiiue auaiae ia nua?ae oie ?iee. eioi?oth iia
nua?aoue. aoaeo/e iioaeeeiaaiiui ?aiaa. Ii oae eee eia/a Ea?ii caeiaeee
iniiau oa?iiaeeiaieee eae ?acaeaea oeceee, eco/athuaai iaeaieaa iauea
naienoaa iae?ineiie/aneeo nenoai, iaoiaeyueony a ninoiyiee
oa?iiaeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney, e i?ioeannu ia?aoiaea iaaeaeo yoeie
ninoiyieyie. Oa?iiaeeiaieea noaea ?acaeaaoueny ia iniiaa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?eioeeiia eee ia/ae, yaeythueony iaiauaieai
?acoeueoaoia iiiai/eneaiiuo iaaethaeaiee e yenia?eiaioia.

a) Ia?aia ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee (caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee a i?eiaiaiee e
oa?iiaeeiaie/aneei i?ioeannai) aeaneo: i?e niiauaiee oa?iiaeeiaie/aneie
nenoaia (iai?eia?, ia?o a oaieiaie iaoeia) ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa
oaieiou a iauai neo/aa i?ienoiaeeo i?e i?e?auaiee aioo?aiiae yia?aee
nenoaiu e iia niaa?oaao ?aaioo i?ioea aiaoieo nee. Auoa ioia/aeinue, /oi
ia?aui, eoi iinoaaee oaieioo a naycue n ?aaioie, aue Ea?ii, ii aai
?aaioa a neeo caiicaeaeie ioaeeeaoeee ia ieacaea ?aoathuaai aicaeaenoaey
ia oi?ie?iaaiea ia?aiai ia/aea oa?iiaeeiaieee. Iaeiaei eaeay i oii, /oi
oaieioa – ia noanoaioeey, a neea (yia?aey), iaeiie ec oi?i eioi?ie e
yaeyaony oaieioa, i?e/ai yoa neea, a caaeneiinoe io oneiaee, aunooiaao a
aeaea aeaeaeaiey, yeaeo?e/anoaa, naaoa, iaaiaoecia, oaieiou, eioi?ua
iiaoo i?aa?auaoueny ae?oa a ae?oaa, nouanoaiaaea a oiao enneaaeiaaoaeae.
Aeey i?aa?auaiey yoie eaeae a yniia e oi/iia iiiyoea, iaiaoiaeeii auei
ii?aaeaeeoue iauoth ia?o yoie neeu. yoi naeaeaee, iacaaeneii ae?oa io
ae?oaa, ?.Iaea?, Ae.Aeaeioeue e A.Aaeueiaieueoe.

?.Iaea? ia?aui noi?ioee?iaae caeii yeaeaaeaioiinoe iaoaie/aneie ?aaiou e
oaieiou e ?ann/eoae iaoaie/aneee yeaeaaeaio oaieiou (1842 a.).
Ae.Aeaeioeue yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeee i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
oaieioa yaeyaony oi?iie yia?aee e ii?aaeaeee ia?o i?aa?auaiey
iaoaie/aneie ?aaiou a oaieioo. A.Aaeueiaieueoe a 1847 a. iaoaiaoe/anee
iainiiaae caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee, iieacaa aai anaiauee oa?aeoa?.
Iiaeoiae anao o?ao aaoi?ia caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee aue ?acee/iui.
Iaea? iooaeeeaaeny aieueoa io iaueo iieiaeaiee, naycaiiuo n aiaeiaeae
iaaeaeo “aeeaie neeie” (yia?aeae), eioi?oth i?eia?aoaee oaea i?e naiai
iaaeaiee a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey, e oaieioie,
eioi?oth ioaeaaaee naeaoua aacu. Aeaeioeue oae io yenia?eiaioia ii
auyaeaieth aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?e/aneiai aeaeaaoaey eae
i?aeoe/aneiai enoi/ieea yia?aee (yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai e canoaaeyei aai
caaeoiaoueny iaae aii?inii i eiee/anoaaiiie yeaeaaeaioiinoe ?aaiou e
oaieiou). A.Aaeueiaieueoe i?eoae e ioe?uoeth caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee,
iuoaynue i?eiaieoue eiioeaioeeth aeaeaeaiey Iuethoiia e aeaeaeaieth
aieueoiai /enea oae, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony iiae aeeyieai acaeiiiai
i?eoyaeaiey. Aai auaiae i oii, /oi noiia neeu e iai?yaeaiey (o.a.
eeiaoe/aneie e iioaioeeaeueiie yia?aeae) inoaaony iinoiyiiie, yaeyaony
oi?ioee?iaeie caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee a aai iaeaieaa iauae oi?ia. Yoio
caeii – aaee/aeoaa ioe?uoea XIX aaea. Iaoaie/aneay ?aaioa, yeaeo?e/anoai
e oaieioa – ?acee/iua oi?iu yia?aee. Ae.Aa?iae oae ioa?aeoa?eciaae aai
cia/aiea: “Ii iauaaeeiee iiiai iaoe e iaoiaeeeny a eneeth/eoaeueiie
aa?iiiee n oaiaeaioeeyie a?aiaie. Yia?aey noaea oieaa?naeueiie aaethoie
oeceee – oae neacaoue, cieioui noaiaea?oii eciaiaiee, i?ienoiaeeaoeo ai
anaeaiiie. Oi, /oi auei onoaiiaeaii, i?aaenoaaeyei niaie oaa?aeue
aaethoiue eo?n aeey iaiaia iaaeaeo aaethoaie ?acee/iuo aeaeia yia?aee:
iaaeaeo eaei?eyie oaieiou. eeeia?aiiao?aie ?aaiou e eeeiaaoo-/anaie
yeaeo?e/anoaa. Any /aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a oeaeii –
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, o?ainii?o, inaauaiea e, a eiia/iii n/aoa, ieoaiea e
naia aeeciue – ?anniao?eaaeanue n oi/ee c?aiey caaeneiinoe io yoiai
iaeiiai iauaai oa?ieia – yia?aey.”

a) Aoi?ia ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee – caeii aic?anoaiey yio?iiee: a
caieiooie (o.a. eciee?iaaiiie a oaieiaii e iaoaie/aneii ioiioaiee)
nenoaia yio?iiey eeai inoaaony iaeciaiiie (anee a nenoaia i?ioaeatho
ia?aoeiua, ?aaiiaaniua i?ioeannu), eeai aic?anoaao (i?e ia?aaiiaaniuo
i?ioeannao) e a ninoiyiee ?aaiiaaney aeinoeaaao iaeneioia. Nouanoaotho e
ae?oaea yeaeaaeaioiua oi?ioee?iaee aoi?iai ia/aea oa?iiaeeiaieee,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea ?aciui o/aiui: iaaiciiaeai ia?aoiae oaieiou io oaea
aieaa oieiaeiiai e oaeo, aieaa iaa?aoiio, aac eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo
eciaiaiee a nenoaia eee ie?oaeathuae n?aaea (?.Eeaoceon); iaaiciiaeii
nicaeaoue ia?eiaee/anee aeaenoaothuoth, o.a. niaa?oathuoth eaeie-eeai
oa?iiaeeiaie/aneee oeeee, iaoeio, any ?aaioa eioi?ie naiaeeeanue au e
iiaeiyoeth iaeioi?iai a?oca (iaoaie/aneie ?aaioa) e niioaaonoaothuaio
ioeaaeaeaieth oaieiaiai ?aca?aoa?a (A.Oiinii, I.Ieaie); iaaiciiaeii
iino?ieoue aa/iue aeaeaaoaeue aoi?iai ?iaea, o.a. oaieiaoth iaoeio,
eioi?ay a ?acoeueoaoa niaa?oaiey e?oaiaiai i?ioeanna (oeeeea)
iieiinoueth i?aia?acoao oaieioo, iieo/aaioth io eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai
“iaen/a?iaaiiai” enoi/ieea (ieaaia, aoiinoa?u e o.ae.) a ?aaioo
(A.Inoaaeueae).

A.Oiinii (ei?ae Eaeueaei) noi?ioee?iaaa i?eioeei iaaiciiaeiinoe
nicaeaiey aa/iiai aeaeaaoaey aoi?iai ?iaea, a 1852 aiaeo i?eoae e
oi?ie?iaaieth eiioeaioeee “oaieiaie nia?oe” anaeaiiie. Aa nooue
?ane?uaaaony a neaaeothueo iieiaeaieyo. Ai-ia?auo, ai anaeaiiie
nouanoaoao oaiaeaioeey e ?anoi/aieth iaoaie/aneie yia?aee Ai-aoi?uo
ainnoaiiaeaiea iaoaie/aneie yia?aee a i?aaeiai eiee/anoaa ia iiaeao
auoue inouanoaeaii. A-o?aoueeo, a aoaeouai Caiey i/ooeony a iai?eaiaeiii
aeey aeecie /aeiaaea ninoiyiee. *a?ac 20 eao Eeaoceon i?eoiaeeo e oiio
aea auaiaeo, noi?ioee?iaaa aoi?ia ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee a aeaea:
yio?iiey anaeaiiie no?aieony e iaeneioio. (Iiae yio?iieae ii iiieiae
aaee/eio, i?aaenoaaeythuoth niaie noiio anao i?aa?auaiee, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu auee eiaoue ianoi, /oiau i?eaanoe nenoaio a aa iuiaoiaa
ninoiyiea.)

Nooue a oii, /oi a caieiooie nenoaia yio?iiey iiaeao oieueei aic?anoaoue
eee inoaaaoueny iinoiyiiie. Eia/a aiai?y, ai anyeie eciee?iaaiiie
nenoaia oaieiaua i?ioeannu iaeiiiai?aaeaiu, /oi e i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth yio?iiee. Noieo yio?iiee aeinoeaiooue iaeneioia, eae
oaieiaua i?ioeannu a oaeie nenoaia i?ae?auathony, /oi icia/aao i?eiyoea
anaie oaeaie nenoaiu iaeeiaeiaie oaiia?aoo?u e i?aa?auaiea anao oi?i
yia?aee a oaieiaoth. Ianooieaiea ninoiyiey oa?iiaeeiaie/aneiai
?aaiiaaney i?eaiaeeo e i?ae?auaieth anao iae?ii?ioeannia, /oi e icia/aao
ninoiyiea “oaieiaie nia?oe”.

Aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey aoi?iai ia/aea oa?iiaeeiaieee ia ae?oaea
iaia?aoeiua i?ioeannu auei aaaaeaii iiiyoea yio?iiee eae ia?u
aanii?yaeea. Aeey eciee?iaaiiuo nenoai (ia i?iioneathueo oaiei) aoi?ia
ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee iiaeii au?aceoue neaaeothuei ia?acii: yio?iiey
nenoaiu ieeiaaea ia oiaiueoaaony. Nenoaia, iaoiaeyuayny a ninoiyiee
?aaiiaaney, eiaao iaeneiaeueioth yio?iieth.

Iiiyoea yio?iiee naycuaatho e n iiiyoeai eioi?iaoeee. Nenoaia,
iaoiaeyuayny a oii?yaei/aiiii ninoiyiee, niaea?aeeo iiiai eioi?iaoeee, a
iaoii?yaei/aiiay nenoaia niaea?aeeo iaei eioi?iaoeee. Oae, iai?eia?,
oaeno eieae niaea?aeeo iiiai eioi?iaoeee, a neo/aeiue iaai? aoea ia
ianao eioi?iaoeee. Eioi?iaoeeth iiyoiio e ioiaeaeanoaeytho n
io?eoeaoaeueiie yio?iieae (eee iaayio?iieae). I?e ?inoa yio?iiee
eioi?iaoeey oiaiueoaaony.

N?aaee iiiaeanoaa auaeaeioouo i?ioea yoiai auaiaea aic?aaeaiee iaeaieaa
ecaanoiui auei aic?aaeaiea Iaenaaeea. Ii enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi aoi?ia
ia/aei eiaao ia?aie/aiioth iaeanoue i?eia?aiey. Iaenaaee n/eoae aoi?ia
ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee ni?aaaaeeeaui, iiea iu eiaai aeaei n oaeaie,
iaeaaeathueie aieueoie iannie, eiaaea iao aiciiaeiinoe ?acee/aoue a yoeo
iannao ioaeaeueiua iieaeoeu e ?aaioaoue n ieie. Ii i?aaeeiaeee
i?iaeaeaoue iuneaiiue yenia?eiaio – i?aaenoaaeoue naaa nouanoai,
niiniaiia neaaeeoue ca eaaeaeie iieaeoeie ai anao aa aeaeaeaieyo, e
?acaeaeeoue eaeie-eeai ninoae ia aeaa /anoe ia?aai?iaeeie n iaeaiueeei
ioaa?noeai a iae. Yoi nouanoai (iacaaiiia “aeaiiiii Iaenaaeea”),
niiniaiia ?acee/aoue ioaeaeueiua iieaeoeu, aoaeao iiia?aiaiii oi
ioe?uaaoue, oi cae?uaaoue ioaa?noea oaeei ia?acii, /oiau auno?i
aeaeaeoueany iieaeoeu iiaee ia?aoiaeeoue a ae?oaoth iieiaeio. A yoii
neo/aa “aeaiii Iaenaaeea” aac cao?aou ?aaiou niia au iiauneoue
oaiia?aoo?o a ia?aie iieiaeia ninoaea e iiieceoue ai aoi?ie aii?aee
aoi?iio ia/aeo oa?iiaeeiaieee.

Aeaiiue i?ioeann aneiiao?e/ai ai a?aiaie – aac aiaoiaai aiaoaoaeuenoaa
ii ia iiaeao noaoue ia?aoeiui. O.a. aanniuneaiii iaeeaeaoue a yoii
neo/aa, /oi aacu aa?ioony a ia?aiia/aeueiia iieiaeaiea. Iiaeii neacaoue,
/oi a i?e?iaea ii?yaeie no?aieony onooieoue ianoi aanii?yaeeo. Iaeiaei
iiaeii i?eaanoe i?eia?u, eioi?ua eae aoaeoi au i?ioeai?a/ao aeaiiiio
i?eioeeio aic?anoaiey yio?iiee. Oae, aeeaua nenoaiu a naiai ?acaeoee
oneiaeiythony, au?anoathuea ec aeeaeeinoe e?enoaeeu yaeythony
oii?yaei/aiiaa yoie aeeaeeinoe e o.ae. Iaeiaei iieiay yio?iiey nenoaiu
aianoa n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie aic?anoaao, eai aeieiae/aneea i?ioeannu
inouanoaeythony ca n/ao yio?iiee nieia/iiai eceo/aiey e o.ae.

E.Aieueoeiai, i?aaei?eiyaoee iiiuoeo iauynieoue, ii/aio ii?yaeie
onooiaao ianoi aanii?yaeeo, noi?ioee?iaae H-oai?aio, yaeythuothny
?acoeueoaoii niaaeeiaiey aeaoo iiaeoiaeia e i?eaeeaeaieth aaca e
ninoiyieth ?aaiiaaney – iae?ineiie/aneiai (caeiiia iuethoiiianeie
iaoaieee, iienuaathueo aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe) e iee?ineiie/aneiai
(enoiaeyuaai ec i?aaenoaaeaiey aaca eae no?aiyuaainy e aanii?yaei/iiio
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth). Ec oai?aiu neaaeiaae auaiae i oii, /oi yio?iiey
iiaeao oieueei aic?anoaoue – oaeiai iiaaaeaiea oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo nenoai
ai a?aiaie.

Iaeiaei n I-oai?aiie Aieueoeiaia ieacaeny naycaiiui ia?aaeien, aie?oa
eioi?iai aicieeea aeeneonney. Nooue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi n iiiiuueth
iaeiie iniiaaiiie ia iaoaieea Iuethoiia iieaeoey?iie oai?ee aeieacaoue
iinoiyiiue ?ino yio?iiee caieiooie nenoaiu iaeuecy, iineieueeo
iuethoiiianeay iaoaieea neiiao?e/ia ai a?aiaie – ethaia aeaeaeaiea
aoiiia, iniiaaiiia ia caeiiao iuethoiiianeie iaoaieee. iiaeao auoue
i?aaenoaaeaii eae i?ienoiaeyuaa a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee. O.e. aneiiao?eth
iaeuecy auaanoe ec neiiao?ee, oi oai?aia Aieueoeiaia (eioi?ay ia iniiaa
eeoue iaeiie iaoaieee Iuethoiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aic?anoaiea yio?iiee
aneiiao?e/iiai ai a?aiaie) ia iiaeao auoue aa?iie – aeey
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeii auei e caeiiai iaoaieee aeiaaaeoue e
aneiiao?eth. Oae /oi /enoi iaoaie/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey caeiia
aic?anoaiey yio?iiee ieacuaaeanue ianinoiyoaeueiie. Ia yoi ia?aui
ia?aoeee aieiaiea E.Eioieaeo e Y.Oea?iaei.

I?e auaiaea I-oai?aiu Aieueoeiai e?iia iaoaieee Iuethoiia iie?aeny ia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i iieaeoey?iii oaina, eioi?ia, iaeiaei, ia anaaaea
aa?ii. Ii oai?ee aa?iyoiinoe, aiciiaeiinoue oiai, /oi iieaeoeu aaca a
oiiiyiooii ?aiaa ninoaea aoaeoo aeaeaaoueny ia oaioe/ii, a ono?aiyony a
eaeoth-oi iaeio aai iieiaeio, ia yaeyaony ioeaaie, oioy e en/acathua
iaea. Iiyoiio iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a i?eioeeia iiaoo auoue neo/ae,
eiaaea yio?iiey oauaaao, a oaioe/aneia aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe aoaeao
oii?yaei/eaaoueny. Oaeei ia?acii, I-oai?aia Aieueoeiaia iienuaaao
iaoaieci ia?aoiaea aaca ec ninoiyiey n ieceie yio?iieae a ?aaiiaaniia,
ii ia iauyniyao, ii/aio yoi i?ienoiaeeo a iaeiii e oii aea iai?aaeaiee
ai a?aiaie, a eiaiii ec i?ioeiai a aoaeouaa. A ?ac yoi oae, oi
aieueoeiaiianeay iiaeaeue eeoaaony a?aiaiiie aneiiao?ee.

Ii a?aiaiiay aneiiao?ey – yoi ?aaeueiue oaeo. Oii?yaei/aiiinoue
?aaeueiuo nenoai iiaeao aicieeaoue ca n/ao aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee, a ia ca
n/ao aioo?aiieo aanii?yaei/iuo oeoeooaoeee (aeii, iai?eia?,
aicaeaeaaaony no?ieoaeyie, a ia a ?acoeueoaoa aioo?aiieo oaioe/aneeo
aeaeaeaiee). A ?aaeueiinoe ana nenoaiu oi?ie?othony iiae aicaeaenoaeai
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Aeey ?acee/aiey ?aaeueiuo nenoai, eioi?ua,
ioaeaeynue io ie?oaeathuae Anaeaiiie, i?eoiaeyo a ninoiyiea n ieceie
yio?iieae, e aieueoeiaiianeeo iinoiyiii eciee?iaaiiuo io ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu nenoai, A.?aeoaiaao iacaae ia?aua aaoayueieny no?oeoo?aie – a eo
ea?a?oee oii?yaei/aiiinoue eaaeaeie caaeneo io i?aaeuaeouae. Aaoayuayny
no?oeoo?a aaaeao naay aneiiao?e/ii ai a?aiaie ii i?e/eia ne?uoiai
aicaeaenoaey ecaia. I?e yoii i?e/eia aneiiao?ee – ia a naiie nenoaia, a
a aicaeaenoaee. A ?aaeueiii ie?a aieueoeiaiianeeo nenoai iao.

Aneiiao?e/iua ai a?aiaie i?ioeannu nouanoaotho e a iaeanoyo ca
i?aaeaeaie oa?iiaeeiaieee. I?eia?ii oaeeo i?ioeannia iiaoo neoaeeoue
aieiu (a oii /enea ?aaeeiaieiu). Oae, ?aaeeiaieiu ?ani?ino?aiythony io
ia?aaeao/eea a ie?oaeathuaa i?ino?ainoai, ii ia iaiai?io. Aiaeiae/ii
ianoieo aeaei n ?ani?ino?aiaieai aiei io a?ioaiiiai a i?oae eaiiy.
Aieiu, aaaouea io enoi/ieea (i?aaeiieiaeei, a?ioaiiiai a i?oae eaiiy) a
?aciua noi?iiu, iacuaatho caiacaeuaathueie. A i?eioeeia aiciiaeiu e
iia?aaeathuea aieiu, eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeiooue oiaaea, eiaaea aiciouaiey
nia/aea i?ioiaeyo /a?ac oaeaeaiioth oi/eo, a caoai noiaeyony a ianoa
?ani?ino?aiaiey enoi/ieea aieiu. Eciee?iaaiiue i?oae anoue neiiao?e/iay
ai a?aiaie nenoaia, eae e aieueoeiaiianeee ninoae n aacii. A?ioaiiue a
iaai eaiaiue nicaeaao aaoayuothny no?oeoo?o. ?aaeeiaieia aea ia?aoii ia
aa?iaony, eai ?ani?ino?aiyaony a aaca?aie/iii i?ino?ainoaa. Caeanue iu
eiaai aeaei n iaia?aie/aiiie aeenneiaoeeae (?annayieai) aiei e /anoeoe,
yaeythuae niaie aua iaeei oei iaia?aoeiie a?aiaiiie aneiiao?ee. Cia/eo,
ia?aciaaiea aaoayueony no?oeoo? e iaia?aoeiay aneiiao?ey aaneiia/iiai
aieiiaiai aeaeaeaiey aeaeatho iaiaoiaeeiui o/ao e?oiiiianooaaiuo naienoa
Anaeaiiie.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeeneonney ii iiaiaeo aoi?iai ia/aea oa?iiaeeiaieee
i?eaaea e auaiaeo, /oi caeiiu iee?iie?a neooaoeeth n “aeaiiiii
Iaenaaeea” aeaeatho iainouanoaeiie, ii aianoa n oai iia niinianoaiaaea
oyniaieth oiai, /oi aoi?ia ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee yaeyaony caeiiii
noaoenoe/aneei.

a) O?aouea ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee (oai?aia Ia?inoa) : yio?iiey oece/aneie
nenoaiu i?e no?aieaiee oaiia?aoo?u e aaniethoiiio ioeth ia caaeneo io
ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu e inoaaony iaeciaiiie. Ae?oaea oi?ioee?iaee oai?aiu:
i?e no?aieaiee oaiia?aoo?u e aaniethoiiio ioeth ana eciaiaiey ninoiyiey
nenoaiu ia eciaiytho aa yio?iiee; i?e iiiiue eiia/iie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia iaeuecy aeinoe/ue
oaiia?aoo?u aaniethoiiai ioey. I.Ieaie aeiiieiee oai?aio aeiioacie,
niaeanii eioi?ie yio?iiey anao oae i?e aaniethoiii ioea oaiia?aoo?u
?aaia ioeth. Ec oai?aiu auoaeatho aaaeiua neaaenoaey i naienoaao aauanoa
i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, aeeceeo e aaniethoiiio ioeth: i?eia?aoatho ioeaaia
cia/aiea oaeaeueiua oaieiaieinoe i?e iinoiyiiuo iauaia e aeaaeaiee,
oa?ie/aneee eiyooeoeeaio ?anoe?aiey e aeaaeaiey. E?iia oiai, ec oai?aiu
neaaeoao iaaeinoeaeeiinoue aaniethoiiai ioey oaiia?aoo?u i?e eiia/iie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Anee ia?aia ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi oaieioa anoue oi?ia
yia?aee, ecia?yaiay iaoaie/aneie ia?ie, e iaaiciiaeiinoue aa/iiai
aeaeaaoaey ia?aiai ?iaea, oi aoi?ia ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee iauyaeyao
iaaiciiaeiui nicaeaiea aa/iiai aeaeaaoaey aoi?iai ?iaea. Ia?aia ia/aei
aaaei ooieoeeth ninoiyiey – yia?aeth, aoi?ia ia/aei aaaei ooieoeeth
ninoiyiey – yio?iieth. Anee yia?aey cae?uoie nenoaiu inoaaony
iaeciaiiie, oi yio?iiey yoie nenoaiu, ninoiyuay ec yio?iiee aa /anoae,
i?e eaaeaeii eciaiaiee oaaee/eaaaony – oiaiueoaiea yio?iiee n/eoaaony
i?ioeai?a/auei caeiiai i?e?iaeu. Ninouanoaiaaiea oaeeo iacaaeneiuo ae?oa
io ae?oaa ooieoeee ninoiyiey, eae yia?aey e yio?iiey, aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaoue auneacuaaiey i oaieiaii iiaaaeaiee oae ia iniiaa
iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca. Iineieueeo iaa ooieoeee ninoiyiey au/eneyeenue
eeoue ii ioiioaieth e i?iecaieueii aua?aiiiio ia/aeueiiio ninoiyieth,
ii?aaeaeaiey yia?aee e yio?iiee ia auee niaa?oaiiuie. O?aouea ia/aei
oa?iiaeeiaieee iicaieeei ono?aieoue yoio iaaeinoaoie. Aaaeiia cia/aiea
aeey ?acaeoey oa?iiaeeiaieee eiaee onoaiiaeaiiua AE.E.Aae-Ethnnaeii
caeiiu – caeii oaieiaiai ?anoe?aiey e caeii iauaiiuo ioiioaiee.
A.Eeaiae?ii onoaiiaee caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oece/aneeie aaee/eiaie,
ii?aaeaeythueie ninoiyiea eaeaaeueiiai aaca (aeaaeaieai, iauaiii e
oaiia?aoo?ie), iaiauaiiia Ae.E.Iaiaeaeaaaui.

Oaeei ia?acii, eiioeaioeee eeanne/aneie Oa?iiaeeiaieee iienuaatho
ninoiyiey oaieiaiai ?aaiiaaney e ?aaiiaaniua (i?ioaeathuea aaneiia/ii
iaaeeaiii, iiyoiio a?aiy a iniiaiua o?aaiaiey ia aoiaeeo) i?ioeannu.
Oa?iiaeeiaieea ia?aaiiaaniuo i?ioeannia aicieeaao iicaeiaa – a 30-o aa.
OO aaea. A iae ninoiyiea nenoaiu ii?aaeaeyaony /a?ac ieioiinoue,
aeaaeaiea, oaiia?aoo?o e ae?oaea eieaeueiua oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea
ia?aiao?u, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony eae ooieoeee eii?aeeiao e a?aiaie.
O?aaiaiey ia?aaiiaaniie oa?iiaeeiaieee iienuaatho ninoiyiea nenoaiu ai
a?aiaie.

7. Aicieeiiaaiea i?aaeiinueie aoiiiie e yaea?iie oeceee

Eiioeaioeee aoiiiie e yaea?iie oeceee aoaeoo ?acaa?ouaaoueny a OO
noieaoee, ii niauoey, aeaaoea ei oie/ie, i?iecioee a eiioea XIX
noieaoey. Ia nouea XIX e OO aa. a iaoea naa?oeeenue ioe?uoey,
canoaaeaoea caeieaaaoueny neiaeeaoothny ea?oeio ie?a. I?aaenoaaeaieyi,
iniiaaiiui ia eeanne/aneie iaoaieea, noaeaeaii auei onooieoue ianoi
iiaie, inoathuaeny aei neo ii? ai iiiaii ia caaa?oaiiie ea?oeia ie?a.
Niauoey, iieiaeeaoea ia/aei i?ioeanno niaiu ea?oeiu ie?a, naycaiu n
ioe?uoeai ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae e ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe (1895-1896 aa.),
ioe?uoeai yeaeo?iia (1897 a.), no?oeoo?u e?enoaeea (1912 a.), iaeo?iia
(1932 a.), aeaeaiey yae?a aoiia (1938 a.) e o.ae., a oaeaea n
oai?aoe/aneeie ?aaioaie: eaaioiaie oai?eae I.Ieaiea (1900 a.),
niaoeeaeueiie oai?eae ioiineoaeueiinoe A.Yeiooaeia (1905 a.), aoiiiie
oai?eae ?aca?oi?aea – I.Ai?a (1913 a.), iauae oai?eae ioiineoaeueiinoe
A.Yeiooaeia (1916 a.), aieiiaie iaoaieee E.aea A?ieey e Y.O?aaeeiaa?a
(1923-1926 aa.) e o.ae. Iineieueeo a iniiao eceiaeaiey ?acaeoey
oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee aue iieiaeai e o?iiieiae/aneee i?eioeei, oi e
iao/iua ioe?uoey, i?ienoaaeoea a eiioea XIX noieaoey (oioy aeaaiua
niauoey, iineaaeothuea ca ieie, aoaeoo i?ienoiaeeoue oaea a OO
noieaoee), oeaeaniia?acii ?anniio?aoue a ?onea ?acaeoey oeceee eiioea
XIX noieaoey.

Eiiaoe XIX aaea aeaiiino?e?iaae iaee/ea oai?ee, oaeiaeaoai?ythuae
i?aeoe/aneei iio?aaiinoyi. ssaeaiey yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia eniieueciaaeenue a
inaaoeoaeueiuo e neeiauo ono?ienoaao. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea eiioeaioeee
i?eaaee e nicaeaieth aeaeaaoaey aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey e oeie/aneeo
onoaiiaie, Yeaeo?iiaaieoiay oai?ey aucaaea e aeecie ?aaeei. Yoe
aeinoeaeaiey auee i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeeae ooaa?aeeaoeony iao/iuo
ciaiee, io eioi?uo o?oaeii auei iaeeaeaoue /aai-oi i?eioeeieaeueii
iiaiai. Oae /oi ?aaeeeaeueiua naeaeae neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue a oao
iaeanoyo oeceee, eioi?ua aei neo ii? iaoiaeeeenue a oaie e a eioi?uo
iaaethaeaeenue eaeea-oi yaeaiey, ia oeeaaeuaaaoeany a nouanoaothuea
oece/aneea eiioeaioeee. Iaeanoue oeceee, caieiaaoayny eco/aieai
yeaeo?e/aneeo ?ac?yaeia, ieacaeanue eiaiii oaeie. Iaeiaei i?iaiaeeaoeany
n yeaeo?e/aneeie ?ac?yaeaie a aaeooia iiuou i?eaaee e eioa?aniui
?acoeueoaoai, a yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue iaia?oaeeea
iio?aaiinoue a niaa?oainoaiaaiee aaeooiiie oaoieee. Ana yoi oneeeei
eioa?an e enneaaeiaaieyi a yoie iaeanoe oeceee.

Ia?aui ?acoeueoaoii oneeaiey yoiai eioa?ana auei ioe?uoea O.E?oenii
eaoiaeiuo eo/ae, eioi?ua ii iacaae eo/enoie oi?iie iaoa?ee. Ae.Noiiae
iacaae eaoiaeiua eo/e yeaeo?iiaie, AE.Ia??ai iaia?oaeee o ieo
io?eoeaoaeueiue ca?yae, a Ae.Oiinii ecia?ee eo nei?inoue. Neaaeothuei
oaaii auei niaa?oaii iai?aaeaeaeaiiia ioe?uoea E.?aioaaiii –
iaia?oaeaiea O-eo/ae (iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea ?aioaaiianeeo), enoiaeeaoeo ec
eaoiaeii-eo/aaie ?ac?yaeiie o?oaee. Yoi ioe?uoea, iiieii i?aeoe/aneeo
ia?niaeoea, eiaei aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ae?oaeo iaeanoae oeceee.
Ae.Oiinii onoaiiaee, /oi ia oieueei yeaeo?iiu, eioi?ua oaea?yeenue i
eaeia-eeai aauanoai, ii?iaeaeaee ?aioaaiianeea eo/e, ii e iineaaeiea i?e
oaea?a i aauanoai ii?iaeaeatho yeaeo?iiu. Oio oaeo, /oi yeaeo?iiu iiaee
ecaeaeaoueny ec ?acee/iuo aauanoa, naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eo e yeaeo?e/aneie iaoa?ee. Iineieueeo iia ninoiyea ec
ioaeaeueiuo /anoeoe (aoiiia), oi yoi iiaoaeeei Ae.Oiiniia ia?aoeoueny e
?ane?uoeth aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u aoiia. Nouanoaiaaiea yeaeo?iia –
ca?yaeaiiie /anoeoeu n iannie. eioi?ay iaiueoa iannu aoiia e eioi?ay
iiyaeyaony ec aauanoaa i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, iaaiaeeea ia iuneue i
oii, /oi yoa /anoeoea yaeyaony no?oeoo?iui yeaiaioii aoiia. A anee aoii
yeaeo?e/anee iaeo?aeai, oi aeieaeai auoue no?oeoo?iue yeaiaio e n
iieiaeeoaeueiui ca?yaeii.

Ia?aay iiaeaeue aoiia, i?aaeeiaeaiiay A.Oiiniiii e caoai Ae.Oiiniiii,
aeeth/aea oa?iia?aciia iaeaei iieiaeeoaeueiiai ca?yaea, aioo?e eioi?iai
iaoiaeyony yeaeo?iiu, ?aniieiaeaiiua a yoii iaeaea eiioeaio?e/aneeie
eieueoeaie. Aeaiiay iiaeaeue i?inouanoaiaaea iaaeieai. Ii yoi aue ia?aue
oaa a ?ane?uoee no?oeoo?u aoiia. Neaaeothuea iiaeaee aoiia iiyaeeenue
oaea a OO aaea (iiaeaeue Y.?aca?oi?aea e iiaeaeue I.Ai?a).

Ioe?uoea ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae auei neo/aeiui. Ioe?uoea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe,
iineaaeiaaaoaa aneaae ca ioe?uoeai ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae, oaeaea
ieacaeinue neo/aeiui. A.Aaeea?aeue iuoaeny onoaiiaeoue, ia eceo/athony
ee iiaeiaiua eo/e ae?oaeie oaeaie. Ec ?acee/iuo aauanoa, eioi?uie ii
?aniieaaae, Aaeea?aeue neo/aeii eca?ae niee o?aia. eo/e, enoiaeyuea ec
o?aia, auee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie, i?e/ai iieo/aeenue aac eaeeo-eeai ono?ienoa
– iie enioneaeenue naiei ?aaeeiaeoeaiui aauanoaii. Iuea? e Ia?ey Eth?e
auaeaeeee aua aieaa neeueiua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua yeaiaiou – iieiiee e ?aaeee.
Y.?aca?oi?ae, eco/ay oa?aeoa? ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eceo/aiey, ioe?uaaao
aeueoa-eo/e e aaoa-eo/e e iauyniyao eo i?e?iaeo. I.Ieaie onoaiiaee. /oi
aoiiu ioaeatho yia?aeth ia iai?a?uaii, a ii?oeeyie, o.a. nouanoaiaaiea
i?aaeaeueiiai eiee/anoaa aeaenoaey, eiio?iee?iaaaoaai eiee/anoaaiii ana
yia?aaoe/aneea iaiaiu a aoiiiuo nenoaiao (iinoiyiiay Ieaiea – h, ?aaiay
6,6(10-27 y?a/nae. E.Ei?aioe nicaeaao yeaeo?iiioth oai?eth,
neioace?iaaaooth eaeae oai?ee iiey aoiiiie oai?ee. E oioy ia?aiia/aeueii
ii ia oiio?aaeyao oa?ieia “yeaeo?ii”, a aiai?eo i iieiaeeoaeueii e
io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoeao aauanoaa. ioe?uoea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe
e i?aa?auaiey aoiiia iieieaaaei oece/aneea e oeie/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey
XIX aaea. Yoi eanaeinue caeiia iaeciaiiuo yeaiaioia, onoaiiaeaiiiai
Eaaoacuea. Naiii?iecaieueiue ?aaeeiaeoeaiue ?aniaae a oneiaeyo
ionoonoaey iiuoiuo aeaiiuo i neioaca iiauo aoiiia iia enoieeiauaaoueny
eae iaeiinoi?iiiee i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai ?ac?ooaiey aauanoaa ai
Anaeaiiie. Ioe?uoea ia?aie noaaoiiiie /anoeoeu – yeaeo?iia – auaeyaeaei
a?aoiaioii a iieueco ioaa?aioouo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia yeaeo?e/aneie
noanoaioeee. Eacaeinue, /oi aue iinoaaeai iiae niiiaiea e caeii
nio?aiaiey yia?aee. Aicieeoay neooaoeey naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea i oii, /oi
iiaua yenia?eiaioaeueiua oaeou ia oeeaaeuaathony a nouanoaiaaaooth
oece/aneoth ia?aaeeaio. Oaeei ia?acii, iaicia/eeenue enoiee
?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee a oece/aneeo eiioeaioeeyo. Ia?aue yoai
yoeo i?aia?aciaaiee ia/aeny a eiioea XIX aaea. Iineaaeothuea yoaiu
?acaa?ouaaeenue oaea a XX aaea.

INIIAIUA EIIOeAIOeEE OECEEE OO AAEA

1. ?aaiethoeey a oeceea

Oeceea XIX aaea i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iniiaaiioth ia iaoaieea Iuethoiia
nenoaio ciaiee, eioi?ay nicaeaoaeyi yoie nenoaiu i?aaenoaaeyeanue ii/oe
caaa?oaiiie. ?aaiethoeey a oeceea oaea a naiii ia/aea OO aaea auyaeea
ia?aie/aiiinoue eeanne/aneie iaoaieee, /ai iinoaaeea iiae niiiaiea
enoeiiinoue iiaeiaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee. Eeanne/aneay oeceea, enoiaey ec
caeiaeaiiiai Aeaea?oii eaeaaea, i?aaenoaaeyea Anaeaiioth a aeaea
iaoaie/aneie nenoaiu, iiaaaeaiea eioi?ie iiaeii aaniethoii oi/ii
i?aaeneacaoue, anee ecaanoiu ia?aiao?u, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho ia/aeueiia
ninoiyiea yoie nenoaiu. Eiuie neiaaie, iniiaiua ooaa?aeaeaiey
eeanne/aneie iaoaieee eiatho aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiue e iaeiicia/iue
oa?aeoa?. ?aciiai ?iaea iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e iaiaeiicia/iinoe, iiaouea
eiaoue ianoi i?e ecia?aiee aaee/ei, iauyniythony a aa ?aieao
iaecaaaeiuie iia?aoiinoyie, neiaeiinoueth i?ioeaaeo?u ecia?aiey e o.i.

Iiaeiaiay ea?oeia iniiauaaeanue ia i?aaeiieiaeaieyo, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue
niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeiuie. Ia?aia caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi iu aeeaai a
aeanoeii e ii?aaeaeaiiii ie?a, a eioi?ii ethaia yaeaiea iiaeao auoue
no?iai eieaeeciaaii, e /oi ana ?acaeoea oece/aneiai ie?a anoue eciaiaiea
iieiaeaiey oae a i?ino?ainoaa n oa/aieai a?aiaie. Aoi?ia enoiaeeei ec
aiciiaeiinoe naeaeaoue i?aiaa?aaeeii iaeui aiciouaiea anoanoaaiiiai
oiaea eco/aaiiai i?ioeanna, aiineiia i?ioeaaeo?ie inouanoaeaiey
yenia?eiaioa. Eae ieacaeinue, iaa i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoo auoue
ni?aaaaeeeauie eeoue aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee.

Ioe?uoea eaaioa aeaenoaey auyaeei i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo eiioeaioeeae
no?iaie eieaeecaoeee e eiioeaioeeae aeeiaie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Eaaeaeay ec
yoeo eiioeaioeee, acyoay a ioaeaeueiinoe io ae?oaie, iiaeao auoue
oniaoii eniieueciaaia aeey eco/aaiuo yaeaiee, ii, aoaeo/e iaeiia?aiaiii
eniieueciaaiiuie, iie ia aeatho oi/iuo ?acoeueoaoia. Iaa iie – naiaai
?iaea eaeaaeecaoeey: ia?aay – noaoenoe/aneay, eneeth/athuay anyeia
aeaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea, aoi?ay – aeeiaie/aneay, eneeth/athuay iiiyoea
oi/iiai iieiaeaiey a i?ino?ainoaa e iiiaioa a?aiaie. A eeanne/aneie
iaoaieea ia?aiauaiey a i?ino?ainoaa e ii?aaeaeaiea nei?inoe eco/athony
aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeei ia?acii oece/anee yoe ia?aiauaiey
?aaeecothony. Io aano?aeoiiai eco/aiey caeiiia aeaeaeaiey iiaeii
ia?aoiaeeoue e aeeiaieea. I?eiaieoaeueii e yaeaieyi iee?iie?a iiaeiaiay
neooaoeey, eae auyaeeinue, iaaiciiaeia i?eioeeieaeueii. Caeanue
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiay eieaeecaoeey, eaaeauay a iniiaa eeiaiaoeee,
aiciiaeia eeoue aeey iaeioi?uo /anoiuo neo/aaa, eioi?ua caaenyo io
eiie?aoiuo aeeiaie/aneeo oneiaee aeaeaeaiey. A iae?iianooaaao
eniieueciaaiea eeiaiaoeee aiieia aeiionoeii. Aeey iee?iianooaaia, aaea
aeaaiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo eaaioai, eeiaiaoeea, eco/athuay aeaeaeaiea
aia caaeneiinoe io aeeiaie/aneeo oneiaee, oa?yao niune.

Aeey ianooaaia iee?iie?a e aoi?ia iieiaeaiea ieacuaaaony
ianinoiyoaeueiui – iii ni?aaaaeeeai eeoue aeey yaeaiee aieueoiai
ianooaaa. Auyaeeinue, /oi iiiuoee ecia?eoue eaeoth-eeai aaee/eio,
oa?aeoa?ecothuoth eco/aaioth nenoaio, aea/ao ca niaie iaeiio?iee?oaiia
eciaiaiea ae?oaeo aaee/ei, oa?aeoa?ecothueo aeaiioth nenoaio: anee
i?aaei?eieiaaony iiiuoea onoaiiaeoue iieiaeaiea a i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie, oi yoi i?eaiaeeo e iaeiio?iee?oaiiio eciaiaieth
niioaaonoaothuae nii?yaeaiiie aaee/eiu, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao
aeeiaie/aneia ninoiyiea nenoaiu. Oae, iaaiciiaeii oi/ii ecia?eoue a
iaeii e oi aea a?aiy aeaa acaeiii nii?yaeaiiua aaee/eiu. *ai oi/iaa
ii?aaeaeyaony cia/aiea iaeiie aaee/eiu, oa?aeoa?ecothuae nenoaio, oai
aieaa iaii?aaeaeaiiui ieacuaaaony cia/aiea nii?yaeaiiie ae aaee/eiu. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai iiaeaeei ca niaie nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea acaeyaeia ia
iiieiaiea aeaoa?ieiecia, o?iaiae i?aaiecaoeee ?aaeueiinoe.

Aeaoa?ieieci eeanne/aneie iaoaieee enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi aoaeouaa a
ecaanoiii niunea iieiinoueth niaea?aeeony a ianoiyuai – yoei e
ii?aaeaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue oi/iiai i?aaeaeaeaiey iiaaaeaiey nenoaiu a
ethaie aoaeouee iiiaio a?aiaie. Oaeay aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeeaaaao
iaeiia?aiaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea acaeiii nii?yaeaiiuo aaee/ei. A iaeanoe
iee?iie?a yoi ieacaeinue iaaiciiaeiui, /oi e aiineo nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey a iiieiaiea aiciiaeiinoae i?aaeaeaeaiey e acaeiinayce yaeaiee
i?e?iaeu: ?ac cia/aiea aaee/ei, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ninoiyiea nenoaiu a
ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue eeoue n aeieae
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, oi eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue oi/iiai i?aaeneacaiey
cia/aiee yoeo aaee/ei a iineaaeothuea iiiaiou a?aiaie – iiaeii eeoue
i?aaeneacaoue aa?iyoiinoue iieo/aiey oao eee eiuo aaee/ei. A yoii neo/aa
naycue iaaeaeo ?acoeueoaoaie iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ecia?aiee ia aoaeao
ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi eeanne/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia. Caeanue iiaeii
aiai?eoue i aa?iyoiinoiie nayce, naycaiiie n iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth,
auoaeathuae ec nouanoaiaaiey eaaioa aeaenoaey.

Ae?oaay ?aaiethoeeiiiay eaeay, iiaeaeoay ca niaie eciaiaiea eeanne/aneie
oece/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a, eanaaony nicaeaiey oai?ee iiey. Eeanne/aneay
iaoaieea iuoaeanue naanoe ana yaeaiey i?e?iaeu e neeai, aeaenoaothuei
iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie aauanoaa – ia yoii iniiauaaeanue eiioeaioeey
yeaeo?e/aneeo aeeaeeinoae. A ?aieao yoie eiioeaioeee ?aaeueiuie auee
eeoue noanoaioeey e aa eciaiaiey – caeanue aaaeiaeoei i?eciaaaeinue
iienaiea aeaenoaey aeaoo yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia n iiiiuueth ioiinyueony
e iei iiiyoee. Iienaiea aea iiey iaaeaeo yoeie ca?yaeaie, a ia naieo
ca?yaeia auei aanueia nouanoaaiiui aeey iiieiaiey aeaenoaey ca?yaeia.
Nicaeaiiie iiaie ?aaeueiinoe ianoa a iaoaie/aneie ea?oeia ie?a ia auei.
A ?acoeueoaoa oeceea noaea eiaoue aeaei n aeaoiy ?aaeueiinoyie –
aauanoaii e iieai. Anee eeanne/aneay oeceea no?ieeanue ia iiiyoee
aauanoaa, oi n auyaeaieai iiaie ?aaeueiinoe oece/aneoth ea?oeio ie?a
i?eoiaeeeinue ia?aniao?eaaoue. Iiiuoee iauynieoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiua
yaeaiey n iiiiuueth yoe?a ieacaeinue ianinoiyoaeueiuie. Yoe?
yenia?eiaioaeueii iaia?oaeeoue ia oaeaeinue. Yoi i?eaaei e nicaeaieth
oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe, canoaaeaoae ia?aniio?aoue i?aaenoaaeaiey i
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, oa?aeoa?iua aeey eeanne/aneie oeceee. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeaa eiioeaioeee – oai?ey eaaioia e oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe –
noaee ooiaeaiaioii aeey iiauo oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee. Ae. Aa?iae
auaeaeee o?e oacu a ?acaeoee iao/iie ?aaiethoeee. Ia?aay oaca ioaaouaaea
ia?eiae n 1895 ii 1916 aiae. Aeey iaa oa?aeoa?ii enneaaeiaaiea iiauo
ie?ia, nicaeaiea iiauo i?aaenoaaeaiee, aeaaiui ia?acii n iiiiuueth
oaoie/aneeo e oai?aoe/aneeo n?aaenoa iaoee OO aaea. Yoi ia?eiae a
iniiaiii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeinoeaeaiee noi?oaia Eth?e, ?aca?oi?aea,
Ieaiea, Yeiooaeia, Ai?a e ae?. Oece/aneea enneaaeiaaiey aaaeoony a
oieaa?neoaoneeo eaai?aoi?eyo, iie neaai naycaiu n i?iiuoeaiiinoueth,
eniieuecoaiay aiia?aoo?a aeaoaaa e i?inoa.

Aoi?ay oaca (1919-1939 aa.) oa?aeoa?ecoaony ianniaui aiaae?aieai
i?iiuoeaiiuo iaoiaeia e i?aaieciaaiiinoe a oece/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.
Oioy a yoi a?aiy ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey aaaeoony aeaaiui
ia?acii a oieaa?neoaoneeo eaai?aoi?eyo, ioaeaeueiua e?oiiua o/aiua
ia/eiatho aicaeaaeyoue iao/iua a?oiiu, ia/eiatho onoaiaaeeaaoue nayce n
e?oiiuie i?iiuoeaiiuie enneaaeiaaoaeueneeie eaai?aoi?eyie. ?anoao /enei
o/aiuo. Oeceea ?anoe?yao noa?o naiae aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia/eiaaony aiaiiia
eniieueciaaiea oece/aneeo ciaiee, ia/eiaaony onoaiiaeaiea nayce iaaeaeo
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie oece/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee n i?iiuoeaiiuie e
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie a aiaiiuo oeaeyo.

O?aouey oaca oa?aeoa?ecoaony aua aieueoei ?anoe?aieai o/anoey oeceee a
aiaiiuo i?ia?aiiao. Oece/aneea enneaaeiaaiey o?aaotho aei?iainoiyuae
aiia?aoo?u, noaiiayony ana aieaa aei?iainoiyueie, a eo i?aaiecaoeee ana
aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao ainoaea?noai.

Nia?aiaiiue yoai ?acaeoey oece/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee noaiiaeony aua aieaa
aei?iainoiyuei, /oi noaaeo aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eiiia?aoeee a inouanoaeaiee iaeaieaa e?oiiuo i?iaeoia. Oeceea noaea
iniiaie anoanoaiciaiey. Iiyaeaiea e ?acaeoea oaeeo ?acaeaeia oeceee, eae
eaaioiaay iaoaieea, eaaioiaay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea, iauay oai?ey
ioiineoaeueiinoe, oai?ey no?iaiey aoiiia, oeceea aoiiiiai yae?a e
noaaoiiiuo /anoeoe, eaaioiaay oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea, eaaioiaay
oece/aneay oai?ey no?iaiey oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee i?eaaei e nicaeaieth
iiaie oece/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a, e i?aa?auaieth oeceee ec iaoee, eioi?ay
eco/aao e iauyniyao iaoaieci yaeaiee, a iaoeo, ?ac?aaaouaathuoth iaoiaeu
eneonnoaaiiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey oece/aneeo i?ioeannia, a iniiao
nia?aiaiiuo oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa, a eeaea?a nia?aiaiiiai
anoanoaiciaiey.

Oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe

a) E?ecen eeanne/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie

Aia/aea aniiiiei, /oi eiioeaioeey naaoa O?aiaey aeeth/aea i?eciaiea
nouanoaiaaiey yoe?a, caiieiythuaai ana i?ino?ainoai e i?iieeathuaai ai
ana oaea, a eioi?ii ?ani?ino?aiyeenue naaoiaua aieiu. Eiioeaioeey naaoa
Iaenaaeea iiiyoea yoe?a naeaeaea ia ioaeiui. Ianiio?y ia yoi,
eiioeaioeey yoe?a ia nioea n a?aiu oeceee. Aeaei caeeth/aeinue a oii,
/oi o?aaiaiey yeaeo?iaeeiaieee Iaenaaeea auee ni?aaaaeeeauie a iaeiie
nenoaia eii?aeeiao e iani?aaaaeeeauie a ae?oaie, aeaeaeouaeny
i?yiieeiaeii e ?aaiiia?ii ioiineoaeueii ia?aie. Eeanne/aneay iaoaieea,
enoiaeeaoay ec i?eciaiey nouanoaiaaiey aaniethoiiai a?aiaie, aaeeiiai
aeey anao nenoai ion/aoa e ethauo iaaethaeaoaeae, i?eciaaaea, /oi
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy oi/eaie i?ino?ainoaa aeieaeii eiaoue iaeii
cia/aiea ai anao nenoaiao eii?aeeiao, eniieuecoaiuo aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
iieiaeaiey oae a i?ino?ainoaa (o.a. aeaiiia ?annoiyiea yaeyaony
eiaa?eaioii). I?aia?aciaaiea Aaeeeay ii?aaeaeyei i?aia?aciaaiea
eii?aeeiao i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiie nenoaia ion/aoa e ae?oaie. Eia/a
aiai?y, anee, iai?eia?, o?aaiaiey Iuethoiia auee ni?aaaaeeeauie a
nenoaia eii?aeeiao, naycaiiie n iaiiaeaeaeiuie caacaeaie, oi iie
ieacuaaeenue ni?aaaaeeeauie e a ae?oaeo nenoaiao ion/aoa, eioi?ua
aeaeaaeenue i?yiieeiaeii e ?aaiiia?ii ioiineoaeueii aeaiiuo
iaiiaeaeaeiuo caacae. Oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aeinue, /oi o?aaiaiey
Iaenaaeea ni?aaaaeeeau oieueei a iaeiie nenoaia ion/aoa, naycaiiie n
iaeiae n?aaeie, caiieiythuae anth anaeaiioth. Aio yoo n?aaeo e
i?iaeieaeaee n/eoaoue yoe?ii. Ana ?acee/ea n ia?aiia/aeueiie o?aeoiaeie
yoe?a caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi anee ?aiueoa iiae yoe?ii iiieiaee iniaoth
oi?oaoth n?aaeo, eioi?ay auea niiniaia ia?aaeaaaoue naaoiaua eieaaaiey,
oi oaia?ue yoe?o noaea ioaiaeeoueny ?ieue aano?aeoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
oeenaoeee oao nenoai ion/aoa, a eioi?uo ni?aaaaeeeau o?aaiaiey
Iaenaaeea. Iaeiaei e aeaiioth ?ieue yoe? ia iia ea?aoue.

Eco/aiea naaoiauo yaeaiee a aeaeaeouaeny nenoaia eii?aeeiao
i?aaeiieaaaei ii?aaeaeaiea nei?inoe aeaiiie nenoaiu eii?aeeiao
ioiineoaeueii yoe?a. Iaeiaei ieeiio ia oaeaaaeinue a yenia?eiaioa
iaia?oaeeoue aeaeaeaiea Caiee ioiineoaeueii yoe?a, /oi iaoiaeeeinue a
i?ioeai?a/ee n eeanne/aneie oai?eae. Ciaiaieoue yenia?eiaio
Iaeeaeueniia-Ii?ee (1887 a.) ana niiiaiey, iniiauaathueany ia
ianiaa?oainoaa eniieuecoaiie i?e i?iaaaeaiee yenia?eiaioa, iieiinoueth
ioaa?a e iicaieee ieii/aoaeueii ioeacaoueny io eiioeaioeee yoe?a.
A.A.Ei?aioe iiiuoaeny io?eoeaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao yenia?eiaioa
Iaeeaeueniia-Ii?ee niaeaniaaoue n nouanoaothueie oai?eyie, auneacaa
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi oaea i?e naiai aeaeaeaiee ioiineoaeueii yoe?a
nie?auathony a ?acia?ao yoiai aeaeaeaiey. Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieye
nio?aieoue eiioeaioeeth yoe?a: yoe? nouanoaoao, ii iaiiaeaeaeai,
aeaeaeaiea oaea ioiineoaeueii yoe?a iaia?oaeeoue iaaiciiaeii, iineieueeo
a iai?aaeaiee aeaeaeaiey oaei iaiyao naie ?acia?u. Ec o?aaiaiee Ei?aioea
neaaeiaaei, /oi ana naaoiaua yaeaiey aoaeoo i?ioaeaoue iaeeiaeiai a
?aciuo nenoaiao eii?aeeiao, iiyoiio ii yoei yaeaieyi iaia?oaeeoue
aaniethoiia aeaeaeaiea ii ioiioaieth e yoe?o iaaiciiaeii. A naaoa yoiai
io?eoeaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao yenia?eiaioa Iaeeaeueniia-Ii?ee auaeyaeae
aiieia anoanoaaiiui, a oi/iay naycue iaaethaeaoaeae, aeaeaeoueony
?aaiiia?ii e i?yiieeiaeii ae?oa ioiineoaeueii ae?oaa, au?aaeaynue ia
i?aia?aciaaieyie Aaeeeay, a i?aia?aciaaieyie Ei?aioea. Iiieiaiea i?e/ei
caiaiu i?aia?aciaaiee Aaeeeay i?aia?aciaaieyie Ei?aioea e auyniaiea
oece/aneeo neaaenoaee yoie caiaiu iio?aaiaaei ia?aniio?a iiiyoee
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie.

Aniiiiei oaeaea, eae ?acaeaaeenue i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie. Aeey a?enoioaeueneie oeceee oa?aeoa?ii i?aaenoaaeaiea i iieia
eae anoanoaaiiii ninoiyiee ethaiai oaea. Yoi cia/eo, /oi a aeaeaeaiea
oaei iiaeao i?eeoe oieueei iiae aeaenoaeai neeu eee eiioeuena.
Neaaenoaeai oaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey aue auaiae i oii, /oi oyaeaeua oaea
aeieaeiu iaaeaoue n aieueoae nei?inoueth, /ai eaaeea o.e. iie neeueiaa
i?eoyaeaathony e Caiea. A ?aieao yoie o?aaeeoeee caeiiu, eioi?ui
iiae/eiyeanue Anaeaiiay, auaiaeeeenue oiic?eoaeueii e ia i?iaa?yeenue ia
iiuoa.

Aaeeeae, caeiaeeaoee ia/aei nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i caeiiao
aeaeaeaiey oae, ia?aui iiaeaa?a niiiaieth i?aaenoaaeaiey a?enoioaeaaneie
oeceee. Neaouaay ii aeaaeeiio ioeino oa?u ?aciiai aana, Aaeeeae
onoaiiaee, /oi nei?inoue oaaee/eaaaony iacaaeneii io aana oaea – ia
eaoyuaany oaei anaaaea aeaenoaoao iaeia e oa aea neea (aan oaea), a
?acoeueoaoa /aai nei?inoue oaea aic?anoaea. Yoi icia/aei, /oi
i?eeiaeaiiay e oaeo neea ia i?inoi canoaaeyao yoi oaei aeaeaaoueny (eae
iieaaaee aei Aaeeeay), a eciaiyao nei?inoue oaea. Iuethoii ia iniiaa
i?iecaaaeaiiuo Aaeeeaai ecia?aiee auaae caeiiu aeaeaeaiey. Ia?aue caeii:
anyeia oaei i?aauaaao a ninoiyiee iieiy eee ?aaiiia?iiai i?yiieeiaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey aei oao ii?, iiea aeaenoaothuea ia iaai neeu ia eciaiyo yoi
ninoiyiea. Aoi?ie caeii: i?iecaaaeaiea iannu oaea ia aai onei?aiea ?aaii
aeaenoaothuae neea, a iai?aaeaiea onei?aiey niaiaaeaao n iai?aaeaieai
neeu. O?aoee caeii: aeaenoaeth anaaaea niioaaonoaoao ?aaiia e
i?ioeaiiieiaeii iai?aaeaiiia aeaenoaea (eia/a: aeaenoaey aeaoo oae ae?oa
ia ae?oaa anaaaea ?aaiu ii aaee/eia e iai?aaeaiu a i?ioeaiiieiaeiua
noi?iiu). E?iia yoeo caeiiia Iuethoiiii ioe?uo caeii anaie?iiai
oyaioaiey: anyeia oaei i?eoyaeaaao ethaia ae?oaia oaei n neeie,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie iannai yoeo oae. *ai aeaeueoa iaoiaeyony oaea ae?oa
ioiineoaeueii ae?oaa, oai iaiueoa neea acaeiiaeaenoaey. A?aaeoaoeeiiiay
neea i?eoyaeaiey caacaeu ninoaaeyao /aoaa?ooth /anoue neeu i?eoyaeaiey
oaeie aea caacaeu, ?aniieiaeaiiie ia aaeaia iaiueoai ?annoiyiee. Aeaiiue
caeii iicaieyao n aieueoie oi/iinoueth au/eneyoue i?aeou ieaiao.

Anee aeey A?enoioaey ninoiyiea iieiy n/eoaeinue i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui (anee
ia oaei ia aeaenoaoao eaeay-oi neea), oi ec caeiiia Iuethoiia
neaaeiaaei, /oi aaeeiiai yoaeiia iieiy iao. Yoi cia/eo, /oi iiaeii
n/eoaoue oaei A aeaeaeoueiny ioiineoaeueii iieiyuaainy oaea A e
iaiai?io – n/eoaoue oaei A aeaeaeoueiny ioiineoaeueii iieiyuaainy oaea
A. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi iaaiciiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eiaee ee ianoi aeaa
niauoey a iaeiie oi/ea i?ino?ainoaa, anee iie i?iecioee a ?aciua iiiaiou
a?aiaie. Eia/a aiai?y, ieeaeiio niauoeth iaeuecy i?eienaoue aaniethoiiai
iieiaeaiey a i?ino?ainoaa (eae n/eoae A?enoioaeue). Yoi auoaeaei ec
caeiiia Iuethoiia. Ii yoi i?ioeai?a/eei eaeaa aaniethoiiai aiaa. Iiyoiio
Iuethoii ia i?eciaaae ionoonoaey aaniethoiiai i?ino?ainoaa, o.a. oiai,
/oi neaaeiaaei ec ioe?uouo caeiiia.

Iauei aeey A?enoioaey e Iuethoiia auei i?eciaiea aaniethoiiai a?aiaie –
iaa iieaaaee, /oi a?aiy iaaeaeo aeaoiy niauoeyie iiaeii ecia?eoue
iaeiicia/ii e /oi ?acoeueoao ia caaeneo io oiai, eoi inouanoaeyao
ecia?aiey, eeoue au auee a iaee/ee o ecia?ythuaai i?aaeeueiua /anu.
A?aiy n/eoaeinue iieiinoueth ioaeaeaiiui io i?ino?ainoaa e ia caaenyuei
io iaai.

A 1676 a., ca iaeeiiaaeoeaoue eao aei auoiaea “Iaoaiaoe/aneeo ia/ae
iaoo?aeueiie oeeinioee” Iuethoiia, aeaoneee ano?iiii I.O.?aia?
onoaiiaee, /oi naao ?ani?ino?aiyaony n eiia/iie, oioy e i/aiue aieueoie
nei?inoueth. Ii eeoue Ae.E.Iaenaaeeo – nicaeaoaeth eeanne/aneie
yeaeo?iaeeiaieee – oaeaeinue iauaaeeieoue aeaa /anoiua oai?ee,
iienuaaaoea yeaeo?e/aneea e iaaieoiua neeu. Niaeanii noi?ioee?iaaiiui
Iaenaaeeii o?aaiaieyi, iienuaathuei yeaeo?iiaaieoiua yaeaiey a
i?iecaieueiuo n?aaeao e a aaeooia, a yeaeo?iiaaieoiii iiea iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue ?ani?ino?aiythueany n iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth aieiu
(?aaeeiaieiu n aeeeiie iao? e aieaa, aieiu naa?oauniei/anoioiiai
aeeaiaciia n aeeeiie ii?yaeea naioeiao?a, aieiu eio?ae?aniiai aeeaiaciia
n aeeeiie aei aeanyoe ouny/iuo naioeiao?a, aieiu aeaeeiiai naeoi?a n
aeeeiie ni?ie – ainaiueaeanyo ieeeeiiiuo aeieae naioeiao?a, aieiu
oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai, ?aioaaiianeiai e aaiia-eceo/aiey n aeeeiie aieiu aua
aieaa ei?ioeie.

Ec oai?ee Iaenaaeea auoaeaei, /oi ?aaeeiaieiu e naao eiatho
oeene?iaaiioth nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey. Ii iineieueeo iinea iiyaeaiey
oai?ee Iuethoiia i?aaenoaaeaiey ia aaniethoiii iieia ooee a i?ioeia,
aiciee aii?in: ioiineoaeueii /aai ecia?youe nei?inoue. Aeey yoiai auei
aaaaeaii iiiyoea yoe?a – iniaie noanoaioeee, caiieiyaoae i?ino?ainoai.
Noaee n/eoaoue, /oi naaoiaua aieiu ?ani?ino?aiythony a yoe?a (eae
caoeiaua a aicaeooa), a nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey ii?aaeaeyaony
ioiineoaeueii yoe?a. Iaaethaeaoaee, aeaeaeoueany ioiineoaeueii yoe?a n
?aciuie nei?inoyie, aeieaeiu auee aeaeaoue, /oi naao e iei eaeao n
?aciie nei?inoueth, ii nei?inoue naaoa ioiineoaeueii yoe?a aeieaeia
inoaaaoueny iaeciaiiie. Yoi icia/aei, /oi i?e aeaeaeaiee Caiee a yoe?a
ii naiae i?aeoa aie?oa Nieioea nei?inoue naaoa a iai?aaeaiee aeaeaeaiey
a noi?iio enoi/ieea naaoa aeieaeia auoue auoa ii n?aaiaieth ni
nei?inoueth naaoa i?e oneiaee ionoonoaey aeaeaeaiey e enoi/ieeo naaoa.
Iaeiaei iiuo, iinoaaeaiiue A.Iaeeaeueniiii e Y.Ii?ee a 1887 a., a
eioi?ii iie n?aaieaaee nei?inoue naaoa, ecia?aiioth a iai?aaeaiee
aeaeaeaiey Caiee, ni nei?inoueth, ecia?aiiie a ia?iaiaeeeoey?iii yoiio
iai?aaeaieth aeaeaeaiey, iieacae, /oi iaa nei?inoe iaeeiaeiau. Aeaoneee
oecee O.Ei?aioe ?acoeueoao yenia?eiaioa Iaeeaeueniia-Ii?ee iauyniye oai,
/oi ana aeaeaeoueany a yoe?a iauaeou nie?auathony a ?acia?ao, a /anu
caiaaeeytho naie oiae.

Neaaeothuee oaa naeaeae A.Yiooaei nicaeaieai niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe, ec eioi?ie auoaeaei. /oi i?e oneiaee ioeaca io iiiyoey
aaniethoiiai a?aiaie iao ieeaeie iaaeiaiinoe a yoe?a. (*ooue iicaea
aiaeiae/ioth iiceoeeth auneacae e A.Ioaiea?a.)

a) Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe

Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe iniiauaaeanue ia iinooeaoa
ioiineoaeueiinoe: caeiiu iaoee aeieaeiu auoue iaeeiaeiauie aeey anao
naiaiaeii aeaeaeoueony iaaethaeaoaeae iacaaeneii io nei?inoe eo
aeaeaeaiey. Yoi icia/aei, /oi nei?inoue naaoa aeey ethauo
iaaethaeaoaeae, iacaaeneii io eo nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey aeieaeia auoue
iaeeiaeiaie. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue aeaa neaaenoaey, auoaeaaoea ec aeaiiiai
iinooeaoa. Ia?aia – caeii yeaeaaeaioiinoe iannu e yia?aee. Aoi?ia –
caeii, ii eioi?iio ie/oi ia iiaeao aeaeaaoueny auno?aa naaoa.

Ec caeiia yeaeaaeaioiinoe iannu e yia?aee (A =mc2, aaea A – yia?aey, m –
ianna, n – nei?inoue naaoa) neaaeoao, /oi /ai aieueoa yia?aey, oai
o?oaeiaa oaaee/eoue nei?inoue, i?e/ai aeaiiue yooaeo aieueoa i?iyaeyaony
i?e nei?inoyo, aeeceeo e nei?inoe naaoa. (Oae, iai?eia?, i?e nei?inoe
oaea, ninoaaeythuae 10% nei?inoe naaoa, ianna aeaiiiai oaea
oaaee/eaaaony ia 0,5%, oiaaea eae i?e nei?inoe oaea, ?aaiie 90% io
nei?inoe naaoa, aai ianna oaaee/eaaaony a 2 ?aca.) Ii ia?a i?eaeeaeaiey
nei?inoe oaea e nei?inoe naaoa aai ianna oaaee/eaaaony ana auno?aa. Aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai onei?aiey o?aaoaony ana aieueoa yia?aee. Ii nei?inoue oaea
ieeiaaea ia iiaeao aeinoeaiooue nei?inoe naaoa, iineieueeo a yoii neo/aa
ianna oaea ieacuaaaony aaneiia/ii aieueoie, a iioiio aeey aeinoeaeaiey
oaeie nei?inoe iio?aaiaaeinue au aaneiia/ii aieueoay yia?aey. Oaeei
ia?acii, i?eioeei ioiineoaeueiinoe iicaieyao aeaeaaoueny ni nei?inoueth
naaoa eeoue oaeai, ia iaeaaeathuei ioeaaie iannie (iannie iieiy), e
iaeaaaao cai?ao ia aeinoeaeaiea nei?inoe naaoa anai oaeai, iaeaaeathuei
ioeaaie iannie.

Aoi?ia neaaenoaea ec iinooeaoa ioiineoaeueiinoe eanaaony eciaiaiey
i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Anee a oai?ee Iuethoiia a?aiy
i?ioiaeaeaiey naaoiaiai eiioeuena, iineaiiiai ec iaeiie oi/ee a ae?oaoth
e ecia?aiiia ?aciuie iaaethaeaoaeyie, aoaeao iaeeiaeiaui (eai a?aiy
aaniethoii), a i?ieaeaiiue ei iooue iiaeao ieacaoueny ?aciui o ?aciuo
iaaethaeaoaeae (eai i?ino?ainoai ia aaniethoii), a ?aciua iaaethaeaoaee
iieo/ao ?aciua nei?inoe naaoa (eai nei?inoue naaoa anoue i?ieaeaiiia
naaoii ?annoiyiea, aeaeaiiia ia a?aiy), oi a oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe o
eaaeaeiai iaaethaeaoaey aeieaeai auoue naie ianooaa a?aiaie, ecia?yaiiai
n iiiiuueth eiathueony o iaai /ania, i?e/ai iieacaiea iaeeiaeiauo /ania,
eiathueony o ?aciuo iaaethaeaoaeae, iiaoo ia niaeaniaaoueny.
Ieacuaaaony, /oi a ?aieao oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe iao iaaeiaiinoe a
iiiyoeyo aaniethoiiai a?aiaie e yoe?a, ii caoi i?ienoiaeeo niaia
i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie – oaia?ue iie ia nouanoaotho eae
ia/oi ia naycaiiia ae?oa n ae?oaii, a nouanoaoao aaeeiia
i?ino?ainoai-a?aiy. Niauoea, eae ia/oi i?ienoiaeyuaa a ii?aaeaeaiiue
iiiaio a?aiaie e a ii?aaeaeaiiie oi/ea i?ino?ainoaa ieacaeinue
aiciiaeiui oa?aeoa?eciaaoue /aou?ueiy eii?aeeiaoaie.

Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe iauynieea iinoiyinoai nei?inoe
naaoa aeey anao iaaethaeaoaeae e iicaieeea iienaoue, /oi i?ienoiaeeo i?e
aeaeaeaiee ni nei?inoyie, aeeceeie e naaoiaui. Ii iia ia
niaeaniauaaeanue n iuethoiiianeie oai?eae a?aaeoaoeee, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ie oaea i?eoyaeaathony ae?oa e ae?oao n neeie, eioi?ay caaeneo io
?annoiyiey iaaeaeo ieie. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao aaneiia/ioth nei?inoue
?ani?ino?aiaiey a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo yooaeoia, a ia ?aaioth eee iaiueooth,
eae yoi o?aaoao oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe. O?aaiaaeinue nicaeaoue iiaeaeue
a?aaeoaoeee, niaeaniauaathuothny ni niaoeeaeueiie oai?eae
ioiineoaeueiinoe. Yeiooaei a naiae iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe
auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi a?aaeoaoeey yaeyaony neaaenoaeai
ene?eaeaiey i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie, aucaaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie a iai
iannie e yia?aeae. Ene?eaeaiiinoue i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie icia/aao, /oi
naao ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia i?yiieeiaeii, a ene?eaeyaony a a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo
iieyo. A ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo yooaeo ene?eaeaiey eo/a caoeene?iaaoue
iaaethaeaoaeth o?oaeii, ii yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue ai a?aiy nieia/iiai
caoiaiey, eiaaea Eoia ia?ae?uaaao nieia/iue naao. Yoi i?aaeneacaiea
oai?ee auei iiaeoaa?aeaeaii iaaethaeaieyie a caiaaeiie Ao?eea a 1919 a.
aiaeeeneie yeniaaeeoeeae.

Ae?oaia i?aaeneacaiea iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe eanaeinue oiai, /oi
a?aiy aaeece ianneaiuo oae aeieaeii oa/ue iaaeeaiiaa. Yoi i?aaeneacaiea
auei i?iaa?aii a 1962 a. Ieacaeinue, /oi /anu, ?aniieiaeaiiua aeeaea e
iiaa?oiinoe caiee, aeaenoaeoaeueii oee iaaeeaiiaa ?aniieiaeaiiuo auoa.
Iiieii iauaai eioa?ana aeaiiue ?acoeueoao eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea aeey
iaaeaaoeeiiiuo nenoai – eaii?e?iaaiea i?aaeneacaiee iauae oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe i?eaiaeeo e ioeaeai i?e ii?aaeaeaiee eii?aeeiao a
ianeieueei eeeiiao?ia.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey aeaeaeaiey Iuethoiia ioa?ineea i?aaenoaaeaiey ia
aaniethoiii i?ino?ainoaa, a oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe – ia aaniethoiii
a?aiaie. A iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe iao aaeeiiai aaniethoiiai
a?aiaie. Aei nicaeaiey iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe i?ino?ainoai e
a?aiy aunooiaee eae ianoi aeey niauoee, ia eioi?ia ana i?ienoiaeyuaa ia
aeeyao. A iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy eciaiythony
iiae aeeyieai i?ienoiaeyueo i?ioeannia e naie aeeytho ia ieo.
Ieacaeinue, /oi aiai?eoue i i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie aia i?aaeaeia
Anaeaiiie aanniuneaiii. Noa?ua i?aaenoaaeaiey i aa/iie e ii/oe ia
eciaiythuaeny Anaeaiiie niaieeenue i?aaenoaaeaieyie ia eciaiythuaeny
Anaeaiiie, eioi?ay eiaea ia/aei e aiciiaeii aoaeao eiaoue eiiaoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, e ia/aeo OO aaea iaia?oaeeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
ei?aiiii ia?aniio?a i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie.
Yenia?eiaiou naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee, /oi i?eioeei ioiineoaeueiinoe Aaeeeay
(a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui iaoaie/aneea yaeaiey i?ioaeatho iaeeiaeiai ai
anao eia?oeeiiiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa) iiaeao auoue ioianai e e iaeanoe
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo yaeaiee, a iioiio o?aaiaiey Iaenaaeea ia aeieaeiu
eciaiyoue naith oi?io i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiie eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu
ion/aoa e ae?oaie, o.a. aeieaeiu auoue eiaa?eaioiuie. Ii yoi ieacaeinue
aiciiaeiui eeoue aeey neo/aaa, eiaaea i?aia?aciaaiey eii?aeeiao e
a?aiaie i?e oaeii ia?aoiaea ioee/athony io i?aia?aciaaiee Aaeeeay,
eniieuecoaiuo a iuethoiiianeie iaoaieea. Ei?aioe au?acee yoe
i?aia?aciaaiey, ii ia niia aeaoue ei aa?ioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth – iia
ieacaeanue aiciiaeiie a ?aieao niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe,
auyaeaoae ia?aie/aiiinoue iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a. Ana iiiuoee naanoe
yeaeo?iiaaieoiua i?ioeannu e iaoaie/aneei i?ioeannai a yoe?a auyaeee
naith ianinoiyoaeueiinoue, neaaenoaeai /aai e aue auaiae i oii, /oi
iiaaaeaiea oi?iu iaoa?ee a aeaea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey ia
oeeaaeuaathony a ?aiee caeiiia iaoaieee.

a) Iauay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe

Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe eiaao aeaei n eia?oeeaeueiuie
nenoaiaie eii?aeeiao, i?eioeei ioiineoaeueiinoe ?anniao?eaaaony
i?eiaieoaeueii e i?yiieeiaeiiio e ?aaiiia?iiio aeaeaeaieth. *oi aea
eanaaony iai?yiieeiaeiiai eee onei?aiiiai aeaeaeaiey, oi i?eioeei
ioiineoaeueiinoe a aai i?aaeiae oi?ioee?iaea caeanue ieacuaaaony
iani?aaaaeeeaui, eai a aeaeaeouaeny onei?aiiie nenoaia eii?aeeiao
iaoaie/aneea, iioe/aneea e yeaeo?iiaaieoiua yaeaiey i?ioaeatho ia oae,
eae a eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa. I?aaeeueiia iienaiea yoeo
oece/aneeo yaeaiee, o/eouaathuaa aeeyiea ia ieo onei?aiey, ieacaeinue
aiciiaeiui ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey e?eaieeiaeiuo eii?aeeiao a
/aou?aoia?iii i?ino?ainoaa (/aou?aoia?iii i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiii
eiioeiooia Ieieianeiai). Yeiooaei i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi iniaaiiinoue nee
oyaioaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iie anaaaea i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu ianna
oaea, ia eioi?ia iie aeaenoaotho. Ionthaea neaaeiaaei, /oi ana oaea i?e
iaeieo e oao aea ia/aeueiuo oneiaeyo aeaeaeoony a iiea oyaioaiey
iacaaeneii io iannu eee ca?yaea, o.a. eo o?aaeoi?ey aeaeaeaiey ia
caaeneo io naienoa aeaeaeouaainy oaea, a ii?aaeaeyaony naienoaaie iiey
oyaioaiey. Yoi iicaieyao aeeyiea iiey oyaioaiey, aeaenoaothuaai a
ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe i?ino?ainoaa, o/eouaaoue iooai aaaaeaiey eieaeueiie
e?eaeciu /aou?aoia?iiai i?ino?ainoaa. A niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe /aou?aoia?iue i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie eiioeiooi
yaeyaony yaeeeaeiaui (ieineei). Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
/aou?aoia?iia i?ino?ainoai iiaeao auoue e iayaeeeaeiaui, o.a. iaeaaeaoue
ia?aiaiiie e?eaeciie. A yoii neo/aa ii?aaeaeaiea oaea a i?ino?ainoaa
aiciiaeii eeoue n iiiiuueth e?eaieeiaeiie nenoaiu eii?aeeiao. Oaeei
ia?acii, iiae aeaenoaeai nee oyaioaiey oaea eciaiytho naie ?acia?u e
a?aiy oa/ao a caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu yoeo nee, o.a. iiea oyaioaiey
iaiyao naienoaa i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iiea nouanoaoao
a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, a a?aaeoaoeeiiiia iiea au?aaeaao aaiiao?eth
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. A niioaaonoaee n iauae oai?eae ioiineoaeueiinoe
aaiiao?ey Aaeeeaea i?eiaieia eeoue e ionoui i?ino?ainoaai, aaea iao
oyaeaeuo oae. Aaeece aea oyaeaeuo oae i?ino?ainoai eciaiooi.

Iauay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe – iauay oece/aneay oai?ey i?ino?ainoaa,
a?aiaie e oyaioaiey – yaeeanue iiaui yoaiii a ?acaeoee oai?ee oyaioaiey.
Yeiooaei oa?aeoa?eciaae ioee/ea iiaie oai?ee oyaioaiey io noa?ie
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

“1. A?aaeoaoeeiiiua o?aaiaiey iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe iiaoo auoue
i?eiaiaiu e ethaie nenoaia eii?aeeiao. Aua?aoue eaeoth-eeai iniaoth
nenoaio eii?aeeiao a niaoeeaeueiii neo/aa – aeaei eeoue oaeianoaa.
Oai?aoe/anee aeiionoeiu ana nenoaiu eii?aeeiao. Eaii?e?oy oyaioaiea, iu
aaoiiaoe/anee aica?auaainy e eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaia niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe.

2. Iuethoiiia caeii oyaioaiey naycuaaao aeaeaeaiea oaea caeanue e
oaia?ue n aeaenoaeai ae?oaiai oaea a oi aea naiia a?aiy ia aeaeaeii
?annoiyiee. Yoio caeii noae ia?acoeii aeey anaai iaoaie/aneiai
ie?iaicc?aiey. Ii iaoaie/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea iioa?iaei e?ao. A
o?aaiaieyo Iaenaaeea iu nicaeaee iiaue ia?acaoe aeey caeiiia i?e?iaeu.
O?aaiaiey Iaenaaeea nooue no?oeoo?iua caeiiu. Iie naycuaatho niauoey,
eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo oaia?ue e caeanue, n niauoeyie, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo
iaiiiai iicaeiaa e a iaiin?aaenoaaiiii ninaaenoaa. Iie nooue caeiiu,
iienuaathuea yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iiea. Iaoe iiaua a?aaeoaoeeiiiua o?aaiaiey
nooue oaeaea no?oeoo?iua caeiiu, iienuaathuea eciaiaiea iiey oyaioaiey.
Noaiaoe/anee iu iiaeai neacaoue: ia?aoiae io iuethoiiianeiai caeiia
oyaioaiey e iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe aei iaeioi?ie noaiaie
aiaeiae/ai ia?aoiaeo io oai?ee yeaeo?e/aneeo aeeaeeinoae e caeiia Eoeiia
e oai?ee Iaenaaeea.

3. Iao ie? iaaaeeeaeia. Aaiiao?e/aneay i?e?iaea aai ia?aciaaia iannaie e
eo nei?inoyie. A?aaeoaoeeiiiua o?aaiaiey iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe
no?aiyony ?ane?uoue aaiiao?e/aneea naienoaa iaoaai ie?a.”

Eoae, iaoaie/aneay ea?oeia ie?a ieacaeanue ianinoiyoaeueiie a neeo oiai,
/oi auei iaaiciiaeii iauynieoue ana yaeaiey, enoiaey ec i?aaeiieiaeaiey
i aeaenoaee iaaeaeo iaeciaiiuie /anoeoeaie i?inouo nee. Iiiuoee
ia?aoiaea io iaoaie/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee e iiiyoeth iiey auee oniaoiuie
a iaeanoe yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo yaeaiee. No?oeoo?iua caeiiu, noi?ioee?iaaiiua
aeey yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey, naycaee niauoey, niaaeiua a i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie. Yoi auee caeiiu niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe. Iauay
oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe noi?ioee?iaaea no?oeoo?iua caeiiu, iienuaathuea
iiea oyaioaiey iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeueiuie oaeaie, iia ia?aoeea aieiaiea ia
oo ?ieue, eioi?oth ea?aao aaiiao?ey a iienaiee oece/aneie ?aaeueiinoe.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe iiaeoaa?aeaeaia
yenia?eiaioaeueii. Oae. iai?eia?, i?aaeneacaiiia yoie oai?eae oaaee/aiea
iannu yeaeo?iiia i?e i?eaeeaeaiee eo e nei?inoe naaoa iiaeoaa?aeeeinue
iaiaeiie?aoii. Yeaeaaeaioiinoue iannu e yia?aee oaeaea aeieacaia
yenia?eiaioaie a yaea?iie oeceea. *oi aea eanaaony iauae oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe, oi noieue aea ooaa?aeeoaeueiua yenia?eiaioaeueiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa aa enoeiiinoe ionoonoaotho. Iiiaea oeceee iiea ia
n/eoatho aeinoaoi/ii ooaa?aeeoaeueiuie oaeou, i?eaiaeeiua a aa iieueco :
iaeia aaeiaia niauaiea ia?eaaeey Ia?eo?ey, neaaia ioeeiiaiea i?ioiaeyueo
aaeece Nieioea naaoiauo eo/ae eioa?i?aoe?othony ii-?aciiio. Aieaa
oaaaeeoaeueiui i?aaenoaaeyaony a?aoiaio, naycaiiue n ecia?aieai e?aniiai
niauaiey niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee, eioi?ua eceo/athony niooieeii Ne?eona.
Iaeiaei aaeeinoaaiiue a?aoiaio ia yaeyaony aeieacaoaeuenoaii
aeinoiaa?iinoe. Aeaiiay oai?ey ia yaeyaony caeii/aiiie. Nouanoaotho
?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey ia iiieiaiea nouiinoe iauae oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe, ioee/iua io yeiooaeiianeie. Aianoa n oai aeaiiay
oai?ey yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo auaeathueony oai?aoe/aneeo iino?iaiee,
aeaiiino?e?othueo aioo?aiithth eiae/aneoth noieeinoue e aiinyueo a
oeceeo iiiaeanoai iiiaiia?aciuo eaeae.

Caaa?oay aeaiiue ?acaeae, aaaeii caoeene?iaaoue aua ?ac neaaeothuee
oaeo. Nouanoaotho aauanoai e iiea eae ?acee/iua oece/aneea ?aaeueiinoe.
Iiiuoee oeceeia XIX aaea iino?ieoue oeceeo ia iniiaa oieueei iiiyoey
aauanoaa ieacaeenue ianinoiyoaeueiuie. Iino?ieoue oeceeo ia iniiaa eeoue
iiiyoey iiey iiea ia oaeaeinue. Oae /oi ai anao oai?aoe/aneeo
iino?iaieyo i?eoiaeeony i?eciaaaoue iaa ?aaeueiinoe. Ii a nayce n yoei
anoaao i?iaeaia acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe n iieai. Iiiuoee
?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu i?eaiaeyo e eaaioiaie oeceea.

Eaaioiaay oai?ey

a) I?aaeiinueee eaaioiaie oai?ee

A eiioea XIX aaea auyaeeanue ianinoiyoaeueiinoue iiiuoie nicaeaoue
oai?eth eceo/aiey /a?iiai oaea ia iniiaa caeiiia eeanne/aneie oeceee. Ec
caeiiia eeanne/aneie oeceee neaaeiaaei, /oi aauanoai aeieaeii eceo/aoue
yeaeo?iiaaieoiua aieiu i?e ethaie oaiia?aoo?a, oa?youe yia?aeth e
iiieaeaoue oaiia?aoo?o aei aaniethoiiai ioey. Eiuie neiaaie. oaieiaia
?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo aauanoaii e eceo/aieai auei iaaiciiaeii. Ii yoi
iaoiaeeeinue a i?ioeai?a/ee n iianaaeiaaiui iiuoii.

Aieaa aeaoaeueii yoi iiaeii iiynieoue neaaeothuei ia?acii. Nouanoaoao
iiiyoea aaniethoii /a?iiai oaea – oaea, iiaeiuathuaai yeaeo?iiaaieoiia
eceo/aiea ethaie aeeeiu aieiu. Niaeo? aai eceo/aiey ii?aaeaeyaony aai
oaiia?aoo?ie. A i?e?iaea aaniethoii /a?iuo oae iao. Iaeaieaa oi/ii
aaniethoii /a?iiio oaeo niioaaonoaoao caieiooia iai?ic?a/iia iieia oaei
n ioaa?noeai. Ethaie eonie aauanoaa i?e iaa?aaaiee naaoeony e i?e
aeaeueiaeoai iiauoaiee oaiia?aoo?u noaiiaeony nia/aea e?aniui, a caoai –
aaeui. Oeaao io aauanoaa ii/oe ia caaeneo, aeey aaniethoii /a?iiai oaea
ii ii?aaeaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii aai oaiia?aoo?ie. I?aaenoaaei oaeoth
caieioooth iieinoue, eioi?ay iiaeaea?aeeaaaony i?e iinoiyiiie
oaiia?aoo?a e eioi?ay niaea?aeeo iaoa?eaeueiua oaea, niiniaiua
enioneaoue e iiaeiuaoue eceo/aiey. Anee oaiia?aoo?a yoeo oae a
ia/aeueiue iiiaio ioee/aeanue io oaiia?aoo?u iieinoe, oi ni a?aiaiai
nenoaia (iieinoue iethn oaea) aoaeao no?aieoueny e oa?iiaeeiaie/aneiio
?aaiiaaneth, eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?aaiiaaneai iaaeaeo iiaeiuaaiie e
ecia?yaiie a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie yia?aeae. A.Ee?oaio onoaiiaee, /oi yoi
ninoiyiea ?aaiiaaney oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aaeaeaiiui niaeo?aeueiui
?ani?aaeaeaieai ieioiinoe yia?aee eceo/aiey, caeeth/aiiiai a iieinoe, a
oaeaea oi, /oi ooieoeey, ii?aaeaeythuay niaeo?aeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
(ooieoeey Ee?oaioa), caaeneo io oaiia?aoo?u iieinoe e ia caaeneo ie io
?acia?ia iieinoe eee aa oi?i, ie io naienoa iiiauaiiuo a iaa
iaoa?eaeueiuo oae. Oae eae ooieoeey Ee?oaioa oieaa?naeueia, o.a.
iaeeiaeiaa aeey ethaiai /a?iiai oaea, oi aicieeei i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
aa aeae ii?aaeaeyaony eaeeie-oi iieiaeaieyie oa?iiaeeiaieee e
yeaeo?iaeeiaieee. Iaeiaei iiiuoee oaeiai ?iaea ieacaeenue
ianinoiyoaeueiuie. Ec caeiia Ae.?yeay neaaeiaaei, /oi niaeo?aeueiay
ieioiinoue yia?aee eceo/aiey aeieaeia iiiioiiii aic?anoaoue n
oaaee/aieai /anoiou, ii yenia?eiaio naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae ia eiii: aia/aea
niaeo?aeueiay ieioiinoue n oaaee/aieai /anoiou aic?anoaea, a caoai
iaaeaea. ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu eceo/aiey /a?iiai oaea o?aaiaaei
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai iiaeoiaea. Ii aue iaeaeai I.Ieaieii.

Ieaie a 1900 a. noi?ioee?iaae iinooeao, niaeanii eioi?iio aauanoai
iiaeao enioneaoue yia?aeth eceo/aiey oieueei eiia/iuie ii?oeeyie,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuie /anoioa yoiai eceo/aiey (ni. ?acaeae “Aicieeiiaaiea
aoiiiie e yaea?iie oeceee”). Aeaiiay eiioeaioeey i?eaaea e eciaiaieth
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iieiaeaiee, eaaeaueo a iniiaa eeanne/aneie oeceee.
Nouanoaiaaiea aeene?aoiinoe aeaenoaey oeacuaaei ia acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
eieaeecaoeeae iauaeoa a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie e aai aeeiaie/aneei
ninoiyieai. E. aea A?ieeue iiae/a?eeaae, /oi “n oi/ee c?aiey
eeanne/aneie oeceee yoa naycue i?aaenoaaeyaony niaa?oaiii iaiauynieiie e
ai?acaei aieaa iaiiiyoiie ii neaaenoaeyi, e eioi?ui iia i?eaiaeeo, /ai
naycue iaaeaeo i?ino?ainoaaiiuie ia?aiaiiuie e a?aiaiai, onoaiiaeaiiay
oai?eae ioiineoaeueiinoe.” Eaaioiaie eiioeaioeee a ?acaeoee oeceee auei
noaeaeaii nua?aoue ia?iiioth ?ieue.

Neaaeothuei oaaii a ?acaeoee eaaioiaie eiioeaioeee auei ?anoe?aiea
A.Yeiooaeiii aeiioacu Ieaiea, /oi iicaieeei aio iauynieoue
caeiiiia?iinoe oioiyooaeoa, ia oeeaaeuaathueany a ?aiee eeanne/aneie
oai?ee. Nouiinoue oioiyooaeoa caeeth/aaony a enioneaiee aauanoaii
auno?uo yeaeo?iiia iiae aeaenoaeai yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey. Yia?aey
enioneaaiuo yeaeo?iiia i?e yoii io eioaineaiinoe iiaeiuaaiiai eceo/aiey
ia caaeneo e ii?aaeaeyaony aai /anoioie e naienoaaie aeaiiiai aauanoaa,
ii io eioaineaiinoe eceo/aiey caaeneo /enei enioneaaiuo yeaeo?iiia.
Aeaoue iauyniaiea iaoaiecio inaiaiaeaeaaiuo yeaeo?iiia ia oaeaaaeinue,
iineieueeo a niioaaonoaee n aieiiaie oai?eae naaoiaay aieia, iaaeay ia
yeaeo?ii, iai?a?uaii ia?aaeaao aio yia?aeth, i?e/ai aa eiee/anoai a
aaeeieoeo a?aiaie aeieaeii auoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eioaineaiinoe aieiu,
iaaeathuae ia iaai. Yeiooaei a 1905 aiaeo auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea i
oii, /oi oioiyooaeo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeene?aoiii no?iaiee naaoa, o.a.
i oii, /oi eceo/aaiay yeaeo?iiaaieoiay yia?aey ?ani?ino?aiyaony e
iiaeiuaaony iiaeiaii /anoeoea (iacaaiiie caoai oioiiii). Eioaineaiinoue
iaaeathuaai naaoa i?e yoii ii?aaeaeyaony /eneii naaoiauo eaaioia,
iaaeathueo ia iaeei eaaae?aoiue naioeiao? inaauaaiie ieineinoe a
naeoiaeo. Ionthaea /enei oioiiia, eioi?ua enioneathony aaeeieoeae
iiaa?oiinoe a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie. aeieaeii auoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
eioaineaiinoe inaauaiey. Iiiaie?aoiua iiuou iiaeoaa?aeeee yoi iauyniaiea
Yeiooaeia, i?e/ai ia oieueei ni naaoii, ii e n ?aioaaiianeeie e
aaiia-eo/aie. Yooaeo A.Eiiioiia, iaia?oaeaiiue a 1923 aiaeo, aeae iiaua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa nouanoaiaaiey oioiiia – auei iaia?oaeaii oi?oaia
?annayiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey iaeuo aeeei aiei (?aioaaiianeiai e
aaiia-eceo/aiey) ia naiaiaeiuo yeaeo?iiao, eioi?ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony
oaaee/aieai aeeeiu aieiu. Niaeanii eeanne/aneie oai?ee, i?e oaeii
?annayiee aeeeia aieiu ia aeieaeia iaiyoueny. Yooaeo Eiiioiia
iiaeoaa?aeee i?aaeeueiinoue eaaioiauo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia yeaeo?iiaaieoiii
eceo/aiee eae i iioiea oioiiia – ii iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae oi?oaia
noieeiiaaiea oioiia e yeaeo?iia, i?e eioi?ii oioii ia?aaeaao yeaeo?iio
/anoue naiae yia?aee, a iioiio aai /anoioa oiaiueoaaony, a aeeeia aieiu
oaaee/eaaaony.

Iiyaeeenue e ae?oaea iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey oioiiiie eiioeaioeee. Iniaaiii
ieiaeioai?iie ieacaeanue oai?ey aoiia I.Ai?a (1913 a.), auyaeaoay naycue
no?iaiey iaoa?ee n nouanoaiaaieai eaaioia e onoaiiaeaoay, /oi yia?aey
aioo?eaoiiiuo aeaeaeaiee iiaeao iaiyoueny oaeaea eeoue nea/eiia?acii.
Oaeei ia?acii, i?eciaiea aeene?aoiie i?e?iaeu naaoa ninoiyeinue. Ii
aaaeue ii nooe naiae yoi auei aic?iaeaeaiea ioaa?aiooie ?aiaa
ei?ioneoey?iie eiioeaioeee naaoa. Iiyoiio aiieia anoanoaaiii aicieeee
i?iaeaiu: eae niaianoeoue aeene?aoiinoue no?oeoo?u naaoa n aieiiaie
oai?eae (oai aieaa, /oi aieiiaay oai?ey naaoa iiaeoaa?aeaeaeanue oeaeui
?yaeii yenia?eiaioia), eae niaianoeoue nouanoaiaaiea eaaioa naaoa n
yaeaieai eioa?oa?aioeee, eae yaeaiey eioa?oa?aioeee iauynieoue n
iiceoeee eaaioiaie eiioeaioeee? Oaeei ia?acii, aicieeea iio?aaiinoue a
eiioeaioeee, eioi?ay oaycuaaea au ei?ioneoey?iue e aieiiaie aniaeou
eceo/aiey.

a) I?eioeei niioaaonoaey

Aeey ono?aiaiey o?oaeiinoe, aicieeoae i?e eniieueciaaiee eeanne/aneie
oeceee aeey iainiiaaiey onoie/eainoe aoiiia (aniiiiei, /oi iioa?y
yia?aee yeaeo?iiii i?eaiaeeo e aai iaaeaieth ia yae?i), Ai?
i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi aoii a noaoeeiia?iii ninoiyiee ia eceo/aao (ni.
i?aaeuaeouee ?acaeae). Yoi icia/aei, /oi yeaeo?iiaaieoiay oai?ey
eceo/aiey aeey iienaiey yeaeo?iiia, aeaeaeoueony ii noaaeeueiui i?aeoai,
ia aiaeeony. Ii eaaioiaay eiioeaioeey aoiia, ioeacaaoenue io
yeaeo?iiaaieoiie eiioeaioeee, ia iiaea iauynieoue naienoaa eceo/aiey.
Aicieeea caaea/a: iiiuoaoueny onoaiiaeoue ii?aaeaeaiiia niioaaonoaea
iaaeaeo eaaioiauie yaeaieyie e o?aaiaieyie yeaeo?iaeeiaieee n oeaeueth
iiiyoue, ii/aio eeanne/aneay yeaeo?iiaaieoiay oai?ey aeaao aa?iia
iienaiea yaeaiee aieueoiai ianooaaa. A eeanne/aneie oai?ee aeaeaeoueeny
a aoiia yeaeo?ii eceo/aao iai?a?uaii e iaeiia?aiaiii naao ?aciuo /anoio.
A eaaioiaie aea oai?ee yeaeo?ii, iaoiaeyueeny aioo?e aoiia ia
noaoeeiia?iie i?aeoa, iaiai?io, ia eceo/aao – eceo/aiea eaaioa
i?ienoiaeeo eeoue a iiiaio ia?aoiaea n iaeiie i?aeou ia ae?oaoth, o.a.
eceo/aiea niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai yeaiaioa yaeyaony
aeene?aoiui i?ioeannii. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeeoei aeaa niaa?oaiii ?acee/iuo
i?aaenoaaeaiey. Iiaeii ee eo i?eaanoe a niioaaonoaea e anee aea, oi a
eaeie oi?ia?

I/aaeaeii, /oi niioaaonoaea n eeanne/aneie ea?oeiie aiciiaeii eeoue i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii enioneaiee anao niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee. A oi aea a?aiy
i/aaeaeii, /oi n eaaioiaie iiceoeee eceo/aiea eaaeaeiai eaaioa yaeyaony
aeoii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui, a iiyoiio aeey iieo/aiey iaeiia?aiaiiiai
enioneaiey anao niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue oeaeue
aieueoie ainaiaeue aoiiia iaeeiaeiaie i?e?iaeu, a eioi?ii
inouanoaeythony ?acee/iua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ia?aoiaeu, i?eaiaeyuea e
enioneaieth ?acee/iuo niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee eiie?aoiiai yeaiaioa. A yoii
neo/aa iiiyoea eioaineaiinoe ?acee/iuo eeiee niaeo?a iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaenoaaeyoue noaoenoe/anee. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eioaineaiinoe
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai eceo/aiey eaaioa iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue ainaiaeue
aieueoiai /enea iaeeiaeiauo aoiiia. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiay oai?ey iicaieyao
aeaoue iienaiea iae?ineiie/aneeo yaeaiee, a eaaioiaay oai?ey oao
yaeaiee, a eioi?uo aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho iiiaeanoai eaaioia. Iiyoiio
aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua eaaioiaie oai?eae, aoaeoo
no?aieoueny e eeanne/aneei a iaeanoe iiiaeanoaa eaaioia. Niaeaniaaiea
eeanne/aneie e eaaioiaie oai?ee e neaaeoao eneaoue a yoie iaeanoe. Aeey
au/eneaiey eeanne/aneeo e eaaioiauo /anoio iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue,
niaiaaeatho ee yoe /anoiou aeey noaoeeiia?iuo ninoiyiee, eioi?ua
ioaa/atho aieueoei eaaioiaui /eneai. Ai? auaeaeioe i?aaeiieiaeaiea i
oii, /oi aeey i?eaeeaeaiiiai au/eneaiey ?aaeueiie eioaineaiinoe e
iiey?ecaoeee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eeanne/aneea ioeaiee eioaineaiinoae e
iiey?ecaoeee, yeno?aiiee?oy ia iaeanoue iaeuo eaaioiauo /enae oi
niioaaonoaea, eioi?ia auei onoaiiaeaii aeey aieueoeo eaaioiauo /enae.
Aeaiiue i?eioeei niioaaonoaey iaoae iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea: oece/aneea
?acoeueoaou eaaioiaie oai?ee i?e aieueoeo eaaioiauo /eneao aeieaeiu
niaiaaeaoue n ?acoeueoaoaie eeanne/aneie iaoaieee, a ?aeyoeaenoneay
iaoaieea i?e iaeuo nei?inoyo ia?aoiaeeo a eeanne/aneoth iaoaieeo.
Iaiauaiiay oi?ioee?iaea i?eioeeia niioaaonoaey iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia
eae ooaa?aeaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio iiaay oai?ey, eioi?ay i?aoaiaeoao
ia aieaa oe?ieoth iaeanoue i?eiaieiinoe ii n?aaiaieth ni noa?ie,
aeieaeia aeeth/aoue a naay iineaaeithth eae /anoiue neo/ae.
Eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeia niioaaonoaey e i?eaeaiea aio aieaa oi/iie oi?iu
niinianoaiaaee nicaeaieth eaaioiaie e aieiiaie iaoaieee.

E eiioeo ia?aie iieiaeiu XX aaea a enneaaeiaaieyo i?e?iaeu naaoa
neiaeeeenue aeaa eiioeaioeee – aieiiaay e ei?ioneoey?iay, eioi?ua
inoaeenue ia a ninoiyiee i?aiaeieaoue ?acaeaeythuee eo ?ac?ua. Aicieeea
ianoiyoaeueiay iio?aaiinoue nicaeaoue iiaoth eiioeaioeeth, a eioi?ie
eaaioiaua eaeae aeieaeiu ea/ue a aa iniiao, a ia aunooiaoue a ?iee
iaeiai “aeiaanea”. ?aaeecaoeey yoie iio?aaiinoe auea inouanoaeaia
nicaeaieai aieiiaie iaoaieee e eaaioiaie iaoaieee, eioi?ua ii nooe
ninoaaeee aaeeioth iiaoth eaaioiaoth oai?eth – ?acee/ea caeeth/aeinue a
eniieuecoaiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo ycueao. Eaaioiaay oai?ey eae
ia?aeyoeaenoneay oai?ey aeaeaeaiey iee?i/anoeoe yaeeanue naiie aeoaieie
e oe?ieie oece/aneie eiioeaioeeae, iauyniythuae naienoaa
iae?ineiie/aneeo oae. A ea/anoaa aa iniiau auee iieiaeaiu eaeay
eaaioiaaiey Ieaiea-Yeiooaeia-Ai?a e aeiioaca i aieiao iaoa?ee aea
A?ieey.

a) Aieiiaay iaoaieea

Aa iniiaiua eaeae iiyaeeenue a 1923-1924 aa., eiaaea E. aea A?ieeai auea
auneacaia iuneue i oii, /oi yeaeo?ii aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue e aieiiauie
naienoaaie, iaaayiiay aiaeiaeae ni naaoii. E yoiio a?aiaie
i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeene?aoiie i?e?iaea eceo/aiey e nouanoaiaaiee oioiiia
oaea aeinoaoi/ii oe?aieeenue, iiyoiio aeey iieiiai iienaiey naienoa
eceo/aiey iaaei auei iii/a?aaeii i?aaenoaaeyoue aai oi eae /anoeoeo, oi
eae aieio. A iineieueeo Yeiooaei oaea iieacae, /oi aeoaeeci eceo/aiey
naycai n nouanoaiaaieai eaaioia, oi anoanoaaiii auei iinoaaeoue aii?in i
aiciiaeiinoe iaia?oaeaiey iiaeiaiiai aeoaeecia e a iiaaaeaiee yeaeo?iia
(e aiiaua iaoa?eaeueiuo /anoeoe). Aeiioaca aea A?ieey i aieiao iaoa?ee
iieo/eea iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea iaia?oaeaiiui a 1927 a. yaeaieai aeeo?aeoeee
yeaeo?iiia: ieacaeinue, /oi io/ie yeaeo?iiia aeaao aeeo?aeoeeiiioth
ea?oeio. (Iicaea aoaeao iaia?oaeaia aeeo?aeoeey e o iieaeoe.)

Enoiaey ec eaeae aea A?ieey i aieiao iaoa?ee, Y.O?aaeeiaa? a 1926 a.
auaae iniiaiia o?aaiaiea iaoaieee (eioi?oth ii iacaae aieiiaie),
iicaieythuaa ii?aaeaeeoue aiciiaeiua ninoiyiey eaaioiaie nenoaiu e eo
eciaiaiea ai a?aiaie. O?aaiaiea niaea?aeaei oae iacuaaaioth aieiiaoth
ooieoeeth ( (ine-ooieoeeth), iienuaathuoth aieio (a aano?aeoiii,
eiioeao?aoeeiiiii i?ino?ainoaa). O?aaeeiaa? aeae iauaa i?aaeei
i?aia?aciaaiey aeaiiuo eeanne/aneeo o?aaiaiee a aieiiaua, eioi?ua
ioiinyony e iiiaiia?iiio eiioeao?aoeeiiiiio i?ino?ainoao, a ia
?aaeueiiio o?aoia?iiio. Ine-ooieoeey ii?aaeaeyea ieioiinoue aa?iyoiinoe
iaoiaeaeaiey /anoeoeu a aeaiiie oi/ea. A ?aieao aieiiaie iaoaieee aoii
iiaeii auei i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea yae?a, ie?oaeaiiiai naiaia?aciui
iaeaeii aa?iyoiinoe. N iiiiuueth ine-ooieoeee ii?aaeaeyaony aa?iyoiinoue
i?enoonoaey yeaeo?iia a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe i?ino?ainoaa.

a) Eaaioiaay (iao?e/iay) iaoaieea.

I?eioeei iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe

A 1926 a. A.Aaecaiaa?a ?ac?aaaouaaao naie aa?eaio eaaioiaie oai?ee a
aeaea iao?e/iie iaoaieee, iooaeeeaaynue i?e yoii io i?eioeeia
niioaaonoaey. Noieeioaoenue n oai, /oi i?e ia?aoiaea io eeanne/aneie
oi/ee c?aiey e eaaioiaie ioaeii ?aceiaeeoue ana oece/aneea aaee/eiu e
naanoe eo e iaai?o ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia, niioaaonoaothueo ?acee/iui
aiciiaeiui ia?aoiaeai eaaioiaiai aoiia, ii i?eoae e oiio, /oiau
eaaeaeoth oece/aneoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo eaaioiaie nenoaiu i?aaenoaaeyoue
oaaeeoeae /enae (iao?eoeae). I?e yoii ii niciaoaeueii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny
oeaeueth iino?ieoue oaiiiaiieiae/aneoth eiioeaioeeth, /oiau eneeth/eoue
ec iaa ana, /oi iaaiciiaeii iaaethaeaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii. A yoii neo/aa
iao ieeaeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaiaeeoue a oai?eth iieiaeaiea, nei?inoue eee
o?aaeoi?eth yeaeo?iiia a aoiia, iineieueeo iu ia iiaeai ie ecia?youe, ie
iaaethaeaoue yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee. A ?an/aou neaaeoao aaiaeeoue eeoue oa
aaee/eiu, eioi?ua naycaiu n ?aaeueii iaaethaeaaiuie noaoeeiia?iuie
ninoiyieyie, ia?aoiaeaie iaaeaeo ieie e nii?iaiaeaeathueie eo
eceo/aieyie. A iao?eoeao yeaiaiou auee ?aniieiaeaiu a no?iee e noieaoeu,
i?e/ai eaaeaeue ec ieo eiae aeaa eiaeaena, iaeei ec eioi?uo
niioaaonoaiaae iiia?o noieaoea, a ae?oaie – iiia?o no?iee.
Aeeaaiiaeueiua yeaiaiou (o.a. yeaiaiou, eiaeaenu eioi?uo niaiaaeatho)
iienuaatho noaoeeiia?iia ninoiyiea, a iaaeeaaiiaeueiua (yeaiaiou n
?aciuie eiaeaenaie) – iienuaatho ia?aoiaeu ec iaeiiai noaoeeiia?iiai
ninoiyiey a ae?oaia. Aaee/eia aea yoeo yeaiaioia naycuaaaony n
aaee/eiaie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie eceo/aiea i?e aeaiiuo ia?aoiaeao,
iieo/aiiuie n iiiiuueth i?eioeeia niioaaonoaey. Eiaiii oaeei niiniaii
Aaecaiaa?a no?iee iao?e/ioth oai?eth, ana aaee/eiu eioi?ie aeieaeiu
iienuaaoue eeoue iaaethaeaaiua yaeaiey. E oioy iaee/ea a aiia?aoa aai
oai?ee iao?eoe, ecia?aaeathueo eii?aeeiaou e eiioeuenu yeaeo?iiia a
aoiiao, inoaaeyao niiiaiea a iieiii eneeth/aiee iaiaaethaeaaiuo aaee/ei,
Aaecaiaa?oo oaeaeinue nicaeaoue iiaoth eaaioiaoth eiioeaioeeth,
ninoaaeaooth iiaoth nooiaiue a ?acaeoee eaaioiaie oai?ee, nooue eioi?ie
ninoieo a caiaia oece/aneeo aaee/ei, eiathueo ianoi a aoiiiie oai?ee,
iao?eoeai – oaaeeoeai /enae. ?acoeueoaou, e eioi?ui i?eaiaeeee iaoiaeu,
eniieuecoaiua a aieiiaie e iao?e/iie iaoaieea, ieacaeenue iaeeiaeiauie,
iiyoiio iaa eiioeaioeee e aoiaeyo a aaeeioth eaaioiaoth oai?eth eae
yeaeaaeaioiua. Iaoiaeu iao?e/iie iaoaieee, a neeo naiae aieueoae
eiiiaeoiinoe /anoi auno?aa i?eaiaeyo e ioaeiui ?acoeueoaoai. Iaoiaeu
aieiiaie iaoaieee, eae n/eoaaony, eo/oa niaeanoaony n ia?acii iuoeaiey
oeceeia e eo eiooeoeeae. Aieueoeinoai oeceeia i?e ?an/aoao iieuecoaony
aieiiaui iaoiaeii e eniieuecoao aieiiaua ooieoeee.

Aaecaiaa?a noi?ioee?iaae i?eioeei iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui eii?aeeiaou e eiioeuen ia iiaoo iaeiia?aiaiii i?eieiaoue oi/iua
cia/aiey. Aeey i?aaeneacaiey iieiaeaiey e nei?inoe /anoeoeu aaaeii
eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue oi/ii ecia?youe aa iieiaeaiea e nei?inoue. I?e yoii
/ai oi/iaa ecia?yaony iieiaeaiea /anoeoeu (aa eii?aeeiaou), oai iaiaa
oi/iuie ieacuaathony ecia?aiey nei?inoe.

Oioy naaoiaia eceo/aiea ninoieo ec aiei, iaeiaei a niioaaonoaee n eaeaae
Ieaiea, naao aaaeao naay eae /anoeoea, eai eceo/aiea e iiaeiuaiea aai
inouanoaeyaony a aeaea eaaioia. I?eioeei iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe aea
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi /anoeoeu iiaoo aanoe naay eae aieiu – iie
eae au “?aciacaiu” a i?ino?ainoaa, iiyoiio iiaeii aiai?eoue ia ia eo
oi/iuo eii?aeeiaoao, a eeoue i aa?iyoiinoe eo iaia?oaeaiey a
ii?aaeaeaiiii i?ino?ainoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, eaaioiaay iaoaieea oeene?oao
ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaie aeoaeeci – a iaeieo neo/ayo oaeiaiaa /anoeoeu
n/eoaoue aieiaie, a ae?oaeo, iaiai?io, aieiu /anoeoeaie. Iaaeaeo aeaoiy
aieiaie-/anoeoeaie iiaeii iaaethaeaoue yaeaiea eioa?oa?aioeee. Anee
a?aaie iaeiie aieiu niaiaaeatho n aiaaeeiaie ae?oaie aieiu, oi iie aanyo
ae?oa ae?oaa, a anee a?aaie e aiaaeeiu iaeiie aieiu niaiaaeatho n
a?aaiyie e aiaaeeiaie ae?oaie aieiu, oi iie oneeeaatho ae?oa ae?oaa.

ae) Eioa?i?aoaoeee eaaioiaie oai?ee.

I?eioeei aeiiieieoaeueiinoe

Aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea eaaioiaie oai?ee i?eaaei e eciaiaieth
eeanne/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i no?oeoo?a iaoa?ee, aeaeaeaiee,
i?e/eiiinoe, i?ino?ainoaa, a?aiaie, oa?aeoa?a iiciaiey e o.ae., /oi
niinianoaiaaei ei?aiiiio i?aia?aciaaieth ea?oeiu ie?a. Aeey
eeanne/aneiai iiieiaiey iaoa?eaeueiie /anoeoeu auei oa?aeoa?ii ?aceia aa
auaeaeaiea ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iaeaaeaiea nianoaaiiui aeaeaeaieai e
ianoii iaoiaeaeaiey a i?ino?ainoaa. A eaaioiaie oai?ee /anoeoea noaea
i?aaenoaaeyoueny eae ooieoeeiiaeueiay /anoue nenoaiu, a eioi?oth iia
aeeth/aia, ia eiathuay iaeiia?aiaiii eii?aeeiao e eiioeuena. A
eeanne/aneie oai?ee aeaeaeaiea ?anniao?eaaeinue eae ia?aiin /anoeoeu,
inoathuaeny oiaeaeanoaaiii naiie naaa, ii ii?aaeaeaiiie o?aaeoi?ee.
Aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa? aeaeaeaiey /anoeoeu iaoneiaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ioeaca io oaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaeaeaiey. Eeanne/aneee (aeeiaie/aneee)
aeaoa?ieci onooiee ianoi aa?iyoiinoiiio (noaoenoe/aneiio). Anee ?aiaa
oeaeia iiieiaeinue eae noiia ninoaaeythuee /anoae, oi eaaioiaay oai?ey
auyaeea caaeneiinoue naienoa /anoeoeu io nenoaiu, a eioi?oth iia
aeeth/aia. Eeanne/aneia iiieiaiea iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna auei
naycaii n iiciaieai iaoa?eaeueiiai iauaeoa eae nouanoaothuaai naiiai ii
naaa. Eaaioiaay oai?ey i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea caaeneiinoue ciaiey ia
iauaeoa io enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ioeaaeo?. Anee eeanne/aneay oai?ey
i?aoaiaeiaaea ia caaa?oaiiinoue, oi eaaioiaay oai?ey n naiiai ia/aea
?acaa?ouaaeanue eae iacaaa?oaiiay, iniiauaathuayny ia ?yaea aeiioac,
niune eioi?uo aia/aea aue aeaeaei ia ynai, a iiyoiio aa iniiaiua
iieiaeaiey iieo/aee ?aciia enoieeiaaiea, ?aciua eioa?i?aoaoeee.

?aciiaeaney auyaeeenue i?aaeaea anaai ii iiaiaeo oece/aneiai niunea
aeaienoaaiiinoe iee?i/anoeoe. Aea A?ieeue aia/aea auaeaeioe eiioeaioeeth
aieiu-ieeioa, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie aieia e /anoeoea ninouanoaotho,
aieia aaaeao ca niaie /anoeoeo. ?aaeueiui iaoa?eaeueiui ia?aciaaieai,
nio?aiythuei naith onoie/eainoue, yaeyaony /anoeoea, iineieueeo eiaiii
iia iaeaaeaao yia?aeae e eiioeuenii. Aieia, ianouay /anoeoeo, oi?aaeyao
oa?aeoa?ii aeaeaeaiey /anoeoeu. Aiieeooaea aieiu a eaaeaeie oi/ea
i?ino?ainoaa ii?aaeaeyao aa?iyoiinoue eieaeecaoeee /anoeoeu ?yaeii n
yoie oi/eie. O?aaeeiaa? i?iaeaio aeaienoaaiiinoe /anoeoeu ?aoaao ii nooe
iooai aa niyoey. Aeey iaai /anoeoea aunooiaao eae /enoi aieiiaia
ia?aciaaiea. Eia/a aiai?y, /anoeoea anoue ianoi aieiu, a eioi?ii
nin?aaeioi/aia iaeaieueoay yia?aey aieiu. Eioa?i?aoaoeee aea A?ieey e
O?aaeeiaa?a i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ii nooe iiiuoee nicaeaoue iaaeyaeiua
iiaeaee a aeooa eeanne/aneie oeceee. Iaeiaei yoi ieacaeinue
iaaiciiaeiui.

Aaecaiaa?aii auea i?aaeeiaeaia eioa?i?aoaoeey eaaioiaie oai?ee, enoiaey
(eae auei iieacaii ?aiaa) ec oiai, /oi oeceea aeieaeia iieueciaaoueny
oieueei iiiyoeyie e aaee/eiaie, iniiaaiiuie ia ecia?aieyo. Aaecaiaa?a
iiyoiio e ioeacaeny io iaaeyaeiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iia a
aoiia. Iae?ii?eai?u ia iiaoo aeaoue iienaiea aeaeaeaiey /anoeoeu n
iaeiia?aiaiiie oeenaoeeae eiioeuena e eii?aeeiao (o.a. a eeanne/aneii
niunea) ii i?e/eia i?eioeeieaeueii iaiieiie eiio?iee?oaiinoe
acaeiiaeaenoaey i?eai?a n /anoeoeae – a neeo niioiioaiey
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoae ecia?aiea eiioeuena ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoe
ii?aaeaeeoue eii?aeeiaou e iaiai?io. Eia/a aiai?y, ii i?e/eia
i?eioeeieaeueiie iaoi/iinoe ecia?aiey i?aaeneacaiey oai?ee iiaoo eiaoue
eeoue aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?, i?e/ai aa?iyoiinoue yaeyaony neaaenoaeai
i?eioeeieaeueiie iaiieiiou eioi?iaoeee i aeaeaeaiee /anoeoeu. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai i?eaaei e auaiaeo i e?ooaiee i?eioeeia i?e/eiiinoe a
eeanne/aneii niunea, i?aaeiieaaaaoei i?aaeneacaiea oi/iuo cia/aiee
eiioeuena e eii?aeeiaou. A ?aieao eaaioiaie oai?ee, oaeei ia?acii, ?a/ue
eaeao ia ia ioeaeao iaaethaeaiey eee yenia?eiaioa, a i i?eioeeieaeueiii
iaaeinoaoea ciaiee, eioi?ua e au?aaeathony n iiiiuueth ooieoeee
aa?iyoiinoe.

Eioa?i?aoaoeey eaaioiaie oai?ee, inouanoaeaiiay Aaecaiaa?aii, auea
?acaeoa Ai?ii e iieo/eea iacaaiea eiiaiaaaaineie. A ?aieao aeaiiie
eioa?i?aoaoeee iniiaiui iieiaeaieai eaaioiaie oai?ee aunooiaao i?eioeei
aeiiieieoaeueiinoe, icia/athuee o?aaiaaiea i?eiaiyoue aeey iieo/aiey a
i?ioeanna iiciaiey oeaeinoiie ea?oeiu eco/aaiiai iauaeoa
acaeiieneeth/athuea eeannu iiiyoee, i?eai?ia e enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
i?ioeaaeo?, eioi?ua eniieuecothony a naieo niaoeeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo e
acaeiicaiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. Aeaiiue i?eioeei iaiiieiaao niioiioaiea
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoae Aaecaiaa?aa. Anee ?a/ue eaeao ia ii?aaeaeaiee
eiioeuena e eii?aeeiaou eae acaeiieneeth/athueo e acaeiiaeiiieiythueo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ioeaaeo?, oi aeey ioiaeaeanoaeaiey yoeo
i?eioeeiia anoue iniiaaiey. Iaeiaei niune i?eioeeia aeiiieieoaeueiinoe
oe?a, /ai niioiioaiey iaii?aaeaeaiiinoae. Aeey oiai, /oiau iauynieoue
onoie/eainoue aoiia, Ai? niaaeeiee a iaeiie iiaeaee eeanne/aneea e
eaaioiaua i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeaeaeaiee yeaeo?iia. I?eioeei
aeiiieieoaeueiinoe, oaeei ia?acii, iicaieee eeanne/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey
aeiiieieoue eaaioiauie. Auyaea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aieiiauo e
ei?ioneoey?iuo naienoa naaoa e ia iaeaey eo aaeeinoaa, Ai? neeiieeny e
iunee i aeaoo, yeaeaaeaioiuo ae?oa ae?oao, niiniaao iienaiey – aieiiaii
e ei?ioneoey?iii – n iineaaeothuai eo niaiauaieai. Oae /oi oi/iaa
aiai?eoue i oii, /oi i?eioeei aeiiieieoaeueiinoe aunooiaao ?acaeoeai
niioiioaiey iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, au?aaeathueo nayce eii?aeeiaou e
eiioeuena.

?yae o/aiuo enoieeiaaee ia?ooaiea i?eioeeia eeanne/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia
a ?aieao eaaioiaie oai?ee a iieueco eiaeaoa?iecia. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
aea caeanue i?eioeei aeaoa?ieiecia eciaiye naith oi?io. A ?aieao
eeanne/aneie oeceee, anee a ia/aeueiue iiiaio a?aiaie ecaanoiu
iieiaeaiey e ninoiyiea aeaeaeaiey yeaiaioia nenoaiu, iiaeii iieiinoueth
i?aaeneacaoue aa iieiaeaiea a ethaie aoaeouee iiiaio a?aiaie. Ana
iae?ineiie/aneea nenoaiu auee iiae/eiaiu yoiio i?eioeeio. Aeaaea a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea i?eoiaeeeinue aaiaeeoue aa?iyoiinoe, anaaaea
i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi ana yeaiaioa?iua i?ioeannu no?iai aeaoa?iece?iaaiu
e /oi oieueei eo aieueoia /enei e aanii?yaei/iinoue iiaaaeaiey
canoaaeyao ia?auaoueny e noaoenoe/aneei iaoiaeai. A eaaioiaie oai?ee
neooaoeey i?eioeeieaeueii eiay. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeiia
aeaoa?iecaoeee caeanue iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue eii?aeeiaou e eiioeuenu, e yoi
niioiioaieai iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe cai?auaaony. Eniieueciaaiea aa?iyoiinoe
caeanue eiaao eiie niune ii n?aaiaieth ni noaoenoe/aneie iaoaieeie: anee
a noaoenoe/aneie iaoaieea aa?iyoiinoe eniieueciaaeenue aeey iienaiey
e?oiiiianooaaiuo yaeaiee, oi a eaaioiaie oai?ee aa?iyoiinoe, iaiai?io,
aaiaeyony aeey iienaiey naieo yeaiaioa?iuo i?ioeannia. Ana yoi icia/aao,
/oi a ie?a e?oiiiianooaaiuo oae aeaenoaoao aeeiaie/aneee i?eioeei
i?e/eiiinoe, a a iee?iie?a – aa?iyoiinoiue i?eioeei i?e/eiiinoe.

Eiiaiaaaaineay eioa?i?aoaoeey i?aaeiieaaaao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iienaiea
yenia?eiaioia a iiiyoeyo eeanne/aneie oeceee, a n ae?oaie – i?eciaiea
yoeo iiiyoee iaoi/ii niioaaonoaothueie aeaenoaeoaeueiiio iieiaeaieth
aauae. Eiaiii yoa i?ioeai?a/eainoue e iaoneiaeeaaao aa?iyoiinoue
eaaioiaie oai?ee. Iiiyoey eeanne/aneie oeceee ninoaaeytho aaaeioth
ninoaaioth /anoue anoanoaaiiiai ycuea. Anee iu ia aoaeai eniieueciaaoue
yoeo iiiyoee aeey iienaiey i?iaiaeeiuo yenia?eiaioia, oi iu ia niiaeai
iiiyoue ae?oa ae?oaa.

Eaeaaeii eeanne/aneie oeceee yaeyaony iieiay iauaeoeaiinoue ciaiey. Ii a
iiciaiee iu eniieuecoai i?eai?u, a oai naiui, eae aiai?eo Aaeica?aa?a, a
iienaiea aoiiiuo i?ioeannia aaiaeeony noauaeoeaiue yeaiaio, iineieueeo
i?eai? nicaeai iaaethaeaoaeai. “Iu aeieaeiu iiiieoue, /oi oi, /oi iu
iaaethaeaai, – yoi ia naia i?e?iaea, a i?e?iaea, eioi?ay aunooiaao a oii
aeaea, a eaeii iia auyaeyaony aeaaiaea?y iaoaio niiniao iinoaiiaee
aii?inia iao/iay ?aaioa a oeceea ninoieo a oii, /oiau noaaeoue aii?inu i
i?e?iaea ia ycuea, eioi?ui iu iieuecoainy, e iuoaoueny iieo/eoue ioaao a
yenia?eiaioa, auiieiaiiii n iiiiuueth eiathueony o ian a ?anii?yaeaiee
n?aaenoa. I?e yoii aniiieiathony neiaa Ai?a i eaaioiaie oai?ee: anee
euoo aa?iiiee a aeecie, oi ieeiaaea iaeuecy caauaaoue, /oi a ea?a aeecie
iu iaeiia?aiaiii e c?eoaee, e o/anoieee. Iiiyoii, /oi a iaoai iao/iii
ioiioaiee e i?e?iaea iaoa nianoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue noaiiaeony aaaeiie
oai, aaea iai i?eoiaeeony eiaoue aeaei n iaeanoyie i?e?iaeu, i?iieeiooue
a eioi?ua iiaeii oieueei aeaaiaea?y aaaeiaeoei oaoie/aneei n?aaenoaai”

Eeanne/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie oaeaea ieacaeinue
iaaiciiaeiui eniieueciaaoue aeey iienaiey aoiiiuo yaeaiee. Aio /oi ienae
ii yoiio iiaiaeo ae?oaie nicaeaoaeue eaaioiaie oai?ee: “nouanoaiaaiea
eaaioa aeaenoaey iaia?oaeeei niaa?oaiii iai?aaeaeaeaiioth naycue iaaeaeo
aaiiao?eae e aeeiaieeie: ieacuaaaony, /oi aiciiaeiinoue eieaeecaoeee
oece/aneeo i?ioeannia a aaiiao?e/aneii i?ino?ainoaa caaeneo io eo
aeeiaie/aneiai ninoiyiey. Iauay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe oaea iao/eea ian
?anniao?eaaoue eieaeueiua naienoaa i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie a caaeneiinoe
io ?ani?aaeaeaiey aauanoaa ai Anaeaiiie. Iaeiaei nouanoaiaaiea eaaioia
o?aaoao ai?acaei aieaa aeoaieiai i?aia?aciaaiey e aieueoa ia iicaieyao
iai i?aaenoaaeyoue aeaeaeaiea oece/aneiai iauaeoa aaeieue ii?aaeaeaiiie
eeiee a i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie (ie?iaie eeiee). Oaia?ue iaeuecy
ii?aaeaeeoue ninoiyiea aeaeaeaiey, enoiaey ec e?eaie, ecia?aaeathuae
iineaaeiaaoaeueiua iieiaeaiey iauaeoa a i?ino?ainoaa n oa/aieai a?aiaie.
Oaia?ue ioaeii ?anniao?eaaoue aeeiaie/aneia ninoiyiea ia eae neaaenoaea
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie eieaeecaoeee, a eae iacaaeneiue e
aeiiieieoaeueiue aniaeo oece/aneie ?aaeueiinoe”

Aeeneonnee ii i?iaeaia eioa?i?aoaoeee eaaioiaie oai?ee iaiaaeeee aii?in
i naiii noaoona eaaioiaie oai?ee – yaeyaony ee iia iieiie oai?eae
aeaeaeaiey iee?i/anoeoeu. Aia?aua aii?in oaeei ia?acii aue noi?ioee?iaai
Yiooaeiii. Aai iiceoeey iieo/eea au?aaeaiea a eiioeaioeee ne?uouo
ia?aiao?ia. Yeiooaei enoiaeee ec iiieiaiey eaaioiaie oai?ee eae
noaoenoe/aneie oai?ee, eioi?ay iienuaaao caeiiiia?iinoe, ioiinyueany e
iiaaaeaieth ia ioaeaeueiie /anoeoeu, a eo ainaiaey. Eaaeaeay /anoeoea
anaaaea no?iai eieaeeciaaia, iaeiia?aiaiii iaeaaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiuie
cia/aieyie eiioeuena e eii?aeeiaou. Niioiioaiea iaii?aaeaeaiiinoae
io?aaeaao ia ?aaeueiia ono?ienoai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia o?iaia
iee?ii?ioeannia, a iaiieiioo eaaioiaie oai?ee – i?inoi ia aa o?iaia iu
ia eiaai aiciiaeiinoe iaeiia?aiaiii ecia?youe eiioeuen e eii?aeeiaoo,
oioy iie a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe nouanoaotho, ii eae ne?uoua ia?aiao?u
(ne?uoua a ?aieao eaaioiaie oai?ee). Iienaiea ninoiyiey /anoeoeu n
iiiiuueth aieiiaie ooieoeee Yeiooaei n/eoae iaiieiui, a iioiio e
eaaioiaoth oai?eth i?aaenoaaeye a aeaea iaiieiie oai?ee aeaeaeaiey
iee?i/anoeoeu.

Ai? a aeaiiie aeeneonnee caiye i?ioeaiiieiaeioth iiceoeeth, enoiaeyuoth
ec i?eciaiey iauaeoeaiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe aeeiaie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia
iee?i/anoeoeu eae i?e/eiu noaoenoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a eaaioiaie oai?ee. Ii
aai iiaieth, io?eoeaiea Yiooaeiii nouanoaiaaiey iauaeoeaii
iaii?aaeaeaiiuo aaee/ei inoaaeyao iaiauyniaiiui i?enouea iee?i/anoeoea
aieiiaua /a?ou. Aica?ao e eeanne/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi aeaeaeaiey
iee?i/anoeoeu Ai? n/eoae iaaiciiaeiui.

A 50-o aa. OO aaea Ae.Aii aa?ioeny e eiioeaioeee aieiu-ieeioa aea
A?ieey, i?aaenoaaea ine-aieio a aeaea ?aaeueiiai iiey, naycaiiiai n
/anoeoeae. Noi?iiieee eiiaiaaaaineie eioa?i?aoaoeee eaaioiaie oai?ee e
aeaaea /anoue aa i?ioeaieeia iiceoeeth Aiia ia iiaeaea?aeaee, iaeiaei
iia niinianoaiaaea aieaa oaeoaeaiiie i?i?aaioea eiioeaioeee aea A?ieey:
/anoeoea noaea ?anniao?eaaoueny a aeaea iniaiai ia?aciaaiey,
aicieeathuaai e aeaeaeouaainy a ine-iiea, ii nio?aiythuaai naith
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue. ?aaiou I.Aeaeuea, E.ssiioe, ?ac?aaaouaaaoeo
aeaiioth eiioeaioeeth, auee ioeaiaiu iiiaeie oeceeaie eae neeoeii
“eeanne/iuie”.

A ioa/anoaaiiie oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?a niaaoneiai ia?eiaea
eiiaiaaaaineay eioa?i?aoaoeey eaaioiaie oai?ee auea iiaeaa?aiooa e?eoeea
ca “i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e iiceoeaenoneei onoaiiaeai” a o?aeoiaea i?ioeanna
iiciaiey. Iaeiaei ?yaeii aaoi?ia ionoaeaaeanue ni?aaaaeeeainoue
eiiaiaaaaineie eioa?i?aoaoeee eaaioiaie oai?ee. Niaia eeanne/aneiai
eaeaaea iao/iiai iiciaiey iaeeanne/aneei nii?iaiaeaeaeanue iiieiaieai
oiai, /oi iaaethaeaoaeue, iuoaynue iino?ieoue ea?oeio iauaeoa, ia iiaeao
ioaea/ueny io i?ioeaaeo?u ecia?aiey, o.a. enneaaeiaaoaeue ieacuaaaony ia
a ninoiyiee ecia?youe ia?aiao?u eco/aaiiai iauaeoa oaeeie, eaeeie iie
auee aei i?ioeaaeo?u ecia?aiey. A.Aaecaiaa?a, Y.O?aaeeiaa? e I.Aee?ae
iieiaeeee i?eioeei iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a iniiao eaaioiaie oai?ee, a ?aieao
eioi?ie /anoeoeu oaea ia eiaee ii?aaeaeaiiuo e ia caaenyueo ae?oa io
ae?oaa eiioeuena e eii?aeeiao. Eaaioiaay oai?ey, oaeei ia?acii, aianea a
iaoeo yeaiaio iai?aaeneacoaiinoe, neo/aeiinoe. E oioy Yeiooaei ia niia
niaeaneoueny n yoei, eaaioiaay iaoaieea niaeaniauaaeanue n
yenia?eiaioii, a iioiio noaea iniiaie iiiaeo iaeanoae ciaiey.

a) Eaaioiaay noaoenoeea

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?acaeoeai aieiiaie e eaaioiaie iaoaieee ?acaeaaeanue
ae?oaay ninoaaiay /anoue eaaioiaie oai?ee – eaaioiaay noaoenoeea eee
noaoenoe/aneay oeceea eaaioiauo nenoai, ninoiyueo ec aieueoiai /enea
/anoeoe. Ia iniiaa eeanne/aneeo caeiiia aeaeaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo /anoeoe
auea nicaeaia oai?ey iiaaaeaiey eo niaieoiiinoe – eeanne/aneay
noaoenoeea. Aiaeiae/ii yoiio ia iniiaa eaaioiauo caeiiia aeaeaeaiey
/anoeoe auea nicaeaia eaaioiaay noaoenoeea, iienuaathuay iiaaaeaiea
iae?iiauaeoia a neo/ayo eiaaea caeiiu eeanne/aneie iaoaieee ia i?eiaieiu
aeey iienaiey aeaeaeaiey ninoaaeythueo eo iee?i/anoeoe – a aeaiiii
neo/aa eaaioiaua naienoaa i?iyaeythony a naienoaao iae?iiauaeoia. Aaaeii
eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iiae nenoaiie a aeaiiii neo/aa iiieiathony eeoue
acaeiiaeaenoaothuea ae?oa n ae?oaii /anoeoeu. Eaaioiaay nenoaia i?e yoii
ia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae niaieoiiinoue /anoeoe, nio?aiythueo naith
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue. Eiuie neiaaie, eaaioiaay noaoenoeea o?aaoao ioeaca
io i?aaenoaaeaiey ?acee/eiinoe /anoeoe – yoi iieo/eei iacaaiea i?eioeeia
oiaeaeanoaaiiinoe. A aoiiiie oeceea aeaa /anoeoeu iaeiie i?e?iaeu
n/eoaeenue oiaeaeanoaaiiuie. Iaeiaei yoa oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue ia
i?eciaaaeanue aaniethoiie. Oae, aeaa /anoeoeu iaeiie i?e?iaeu iiaeii
auei ?acee/aoue oioy au iuneaiii.

A eaaioiaie noaoenoeea aiciiaeiinoue ?acee/eoue aeaa /anoeoeu
iaeeiaeiaie i?e?iaeu iieiinoueth ionoonoaoao. Eaaioiaay noaoenoeea
enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi aeaa ninoiyiey nenoaiu, eioi?ua ioee/athony ae?oa
io ae?oaa eeoue ia?anoaiiaeie aeaoo /anoeoe iaeeiaeiaie i?e?iaeu,
oiaeaeanoaaiiu e ia?acee/eiu. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiia iieiaeaiea
eaaioiaie noaoenoeee – i?eioeei oiaeaeanoaaiiinoe iaeeiaeiauo /anoeoe,
aoiaeyueo a eaaioiaoth nenoaio. Yoei eaaioiaua nenoaiu ioee/athony io
eeanne/aneeo nenoai.

Ai acaeiiaeaenoaee iee?i/anoe aaaeiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo nieio –
nianoaaiiiio iiiaioo eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey iee?i/anoeoeu. (A 1925 a.
Ae.Oeaiaaeii e N.Aaoaenieoii aia?aua auei ioe?uoi nouanoaiaaiea nieia o
yeaeo?iia). Niei ae yeaeo?iiia, i?ioiiia, iaeo?iiia, iaeo?eii e ae?.
/anoeoe au?aaeaaony iieooeaeie aaee/eiie, o oioiiia e ie-iaciiia –
oeaei/eneaiiie aaee/eiie (1 eee 0). A caaeneiinoe io nieia
iee?i/anoeoea iiae/eiyaony iaeiiio ec aeaoo ?aciuo oeiia noaoenoeee.
Nenoaiu oiaeaeanoaaiiuo /anoeoe n oeaeui nieiii (aiciiu) iiae/eiythony
eaaioiaie noaoenoeea Aica-Yeiooaeia, oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth eioi?ie
yaeyaony oi, /oi a eaaeaeii eaaioiaii ninoiyiee iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny
i?iecaieueiia /enei /anoeoe. Aeaiiue oei noaoenoeee aue i?aaeeiaeai a
1924 a. O.Aica e caoai oniaa?oainoaiaaia Yiooaeiii). A 1925 a. aeey
/anoeoe n iieooeaeui nieiii (oa?ieiiia) Y.Oa?ie e I.Aee?ae (iacaaeneii
ae?oa io ae?oaa) i?aaeeiaeeee ae?oaie oei eaaioiaie noaoeee, iieo/eaoee
eiy Oa?ie-Aee?aea. Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth yoiai oeia noaoeee
yaeyaony oi, /oi a eaaeaeii eaaioiaii ninoiyiee iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny
i?iecaieueiia /enei /anoeoe. Yoi o?aaiaaiea iacuaaaony i?eioeeiii
cai?aoa A.Iaoee, eioi?ue aue ioe?uo a 1925 a. Noaoenoeea ia?aiai oeia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony i?e enneaaeiaaiee oaeeo iauaeoia, eae aaniethoii
/a?iia oaei, aoi?iai oeia – yeaeo?iiiue aac a iaoaeeao, ioeeiiu a
aoiiiuo yae?ao e o.ae.

I?eioeei Iaoee iicaieee iauynieoue caeiiiia?iinoe caiieiaiey yeaeo?iiaie
iaiei/ae a iiiaiyeaeo?iiiuo aoiiao, aeaoue iainiiaaiea ia?eiaee/aneie
nenoaia yeaiaioia Iaiaeaeaaaa. Yoio i?eioeei, au?aaeaao niaoeeoe/aneia
naienoai /anoeoe, eioi?ua aio iiae/eiythony. E nae/an o?oaeii iiiyoue,
ii/aio aeaa oiaeaeanoaaiiua /anoeoeu acaeiii cai?auatho ae?oa ae?oao
caieiaoue iaeii e oi aea ninoiyiea. Iiaeiaiiai oeia acaeiiaeaenoaey a
eeanne/aneie iaoaieea ia nouanoaoao. Eaeiaa aai oece/aneay i?e?iaea,
eaeiau oece/aneea enoi/ieee cai?aoa – i?iaeaia, aeaeouay ?ac?aoaiey.
Naaiaeiy ynii iaeii: oece/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey i?eioeeia cai?aoa a
?aieao eeanne/aneie oeceee iaaiciiaeia.

Aaaeiui auaiaeii eaaioiaie noaoenoeee yaeyaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
/anoeoea, aoiaeyuay a eaeoth-eeai nenoaio, ia oiaeaeanoaaiia oaeie aea
/anoeoea, ii aoiaeyuae a nenoaio ae?oaiai oeia eee naiaiaeioth. Ionthaea
neaaeoao aaaeiinoue caaea/e auyaeaiey niaoeeoeee iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai naienoaa nenoai.

ae) Eaaioiaay oai?ey iiey

Eaaioiaay oai?ey iiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?ani?ino?aiaiea eaaioiauo
i?eioeeiia ia iienaiea oece/aneeo iieae a eo acaeiiaeaenoaeyo e
acaeiii?aa?auaieyo. Eaaioiaay iaoaieea eiaao aeaei n iienaieai
acaeiiaeaenoaee n?aaieoaeueii iaeie yia?aee, i?e eioi?uo /enei
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo /anoeoe nio?aiyaony. I?e aieueoeo yia?aeyo
acaeiiaeaenoaey i?inoaeoeo /anoeoe (yeaeo?iiia, i?ioiiia e o.ae.)
i?ienoiaeeo eo acaeiii?aa?auaiea, o.a. iaeie /anoeoeu en/acatho, ae?oaea
?iaeaeathony, i?e/ai /enei eo iaiyaony. Aieueoeinoai yeaiaioa?iuo
/anoeoe ianoaaeeueii, niiioaiii ?aniaaeaaony aei oao ii?, iiea ia
ia?acothony noaaeeueiua /anoeoeu – i?ioiiu, yeaeo?iiu, oioiiu e
iaeo?iiu. I?e noieeiiaaieyo yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, anee yia?aey
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo /anoeoe aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea, i?ienoiaeeo
iiiaeanoaaiiia ?iaeaeaiea /anoeoe ?acee/iiai niaeo?a. Iineieueeo
eaaioiaay oai?ey iiey i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iienaiey i?ioeannia i?e
aunieeo yia?aeyo, iiyoiio aeieaeia oaeiaeaoai?youe o?aaiaaieyi oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe.

Nia?aiaiiay eaaioiaay oai?ey iiey aeeth/aao o?e oeia acaeiiaeaenoaey
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe: neaaua acaeiiaeaenoaey, iaoneiaeeaathuea aeaaiui
ia?acii ?aniaae iaonoie/eauo /anoeoe, neeueiua e yeaeo?iiaaieoiua,
ioaaonoaaiiua ca i?aa?auaiea /anoeoe i?e eo noieeiiaaiee.

Eaaioiaay oai?ey iiey, iienuaathuay i?aa?auaiea yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, a
ioee/ea io eaaioiaie iaoaieee, iienuaathuae eo aeaeaeaiea, ia yaeyaony
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie e caaa?oaiiie, iia iieia o?oaeiinoae e i?ioeai?a/ee.
Iaeaieaa ?aaeeeaeueiui niiniaii eo i?aiaeieaiey n/eoaaony nicaeaiea
aaeeiie oai?ee iiey, a iniiao eioi?ie aeieaeai auoue iieiaeai aaeeiue
caeii acaeiiaeaenoaey ia?ae/iie iaoa?ee – ec iauaai o?aaiaiey aeieaeai
auaiaeeoueny niaeo? iann e nieiia anao yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, a oaeaea
cia/aiey ca?yaeia /anoeoe. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi eaaioiaay
oai?ey iiey noaaeo caaea/o au?aaioee aieaa aeoaieiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia
yeaiaioa?iie /anoeoea, aicieeathuae ca n/ao iiey nenoaiu ae?oaeo
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey n ca?yaeaiiuie /anoeoeaie
(aeaaiui ia?acii yeaeo?iiaie, iiceo?iiaie, ithiiaie) eco/aaony eaaioiaie
yeaeo?iaeeiaieeie, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aeene?aoiinoe yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iiea ninoieo
ec oioiiia, iaeaaeathueo ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiauie naienoaaie.
Acaeiiaeaenoaea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey n ca?yaeaiiuie /anoeoeaie
eaaioiaay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea ?anniao?eaaao eae iiaeiuaiea e enioneaiea
/anoeoeaie oioiiia. *anoeoea iiaeao enionoeoue oioiiu, a caoai
iiaeioeoue eo.

Eoae, iooiae eaaioiaie oeceee io eeanne/aneie caeeth/aaony a ioeaca io
oiai, /oiau iienuaaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua niauoey, i?ienoiaeyuea a
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, e eniieueciaaiee noaoenoe/aneiai iaoiaea n aai
aieiaie aa?iyoiinoe. Oeaeue eeanne/aneie oeceee caeeth/aaony a iienaiee
iauaeoia a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie e a oi?ie?iaaiee caeiiia, eioi?ua
oi?aaeytho eciaiaieai yoeo iauaeoia ai a?aiaie. Eaaioiaay oeceea,
eiathuay aeaei n ?aaeeiaeoeaiui ?aniaaeii, aeeo?aeoeeae, enioneaieai
niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee e oiio iiaeiaiuie yaeaieyie, ia iiaeao
oaeiaeaoai?eoueny eeanne/aneei iiaeoiaeii. Noaeaeaiea oeia “oaeie-oi
iauaeo eiaao oaeia-oi naienoai”, oa?aeoa?iia aeey eeanne/aneie iaoaieee,
a eaaioiaie oeceea caiaiyaony noaeaeaieai oeia “oaeie-oi iauaeo eiaao
oaeia-oi naienoai n oaeie-oi noaiaiueth aa?iyoiinoe”. Oaeei ia?acii, a
eaaioiaie oeceea eiatho ianoi caeiiu, oi?aaeythuea eciaiaieyie
aa?iyoiinoe ai a?aiaie, a eeanne/aneie aea oeceea iu eiaai aeaei n
caeiiaie, oi?aaeythueie eciaiaieyie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iauaeoa ai
a?aiaie. ?aciua ?aaeueiinoe iiae/eiythony ?acee/iui ii oa?aeoa?o
caeiiai.

Eaaioiaay oeceea a ?acaeoee oece/aneeo eaeae e aiiaua noeey iuoeaiey
caieiaao iniaia ianoi. E /eneo aaee/aeoeo nicaeaiee /aeiaa/aneiai oia
ioiineony, ianiiiaiii e oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe – niaoeeaeueiay e iauay,
i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie iiaoth nenoaio eaeae, iauaaeeieaooth iaoaieeo,
yeaeo?iaeeiaieeo e oai?eth oyaioaiey e aeaaooth iiaia iiieiaiea
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Ii yoi auea oai?ey, eioi?ay a ii?aaeaeaiiii
niunea auea caaa?oaieai e neioacii oeceee XIX aaea, o.a. iia ia icia/aea
iieiiai ?ac?uaa n eeanne/aneeie oai?eyie. Eaaioiaay aea oai?ey ii?uaaea
n eeanne/aneeie o?aaeeoeeyie, iia nicaeaea iiaue ycue e iiaue noeeue
iuoeaiey, iicaieythuee i?iieeaoue a iee?iie? n aai aeene?aoiuie
yia?aaoe/aneeie ninoiyieyie e aeaoue aai iienaiea n iiiiuueth aaaaeaiey
oa?aeoa?enoee, ionoonoaiaaaoeo a eeanne/aneie oeceea, /oi a eiia/iii
n/aoa iicaieeei iiiyoue nouiinoue aoiiiuo i?ioeannia. Ii aianoa n oai
eaaioiaay oai?ey aianea a iaoeo yeaiaio iai?aaeneacoaiinoe, neo/aeiinoe,
/ai iia ioee/aeanue io eeanne/aneie iaoee.

4. Eiioeaioeee oeceee aoiiiuo e yaea?iuo i?ioeannia

a) Iiaeaee aoiia

?aoathuei iiiaioii a ?acaeoee oai?ee no?iaiey aoiia auei ioe?uoea
yeaeo?iia. Iaee/ea a yeaeo?e/anee iaeo?aeueiii aoiia io?eoeaoaeueii
ca?yaeaiiie /anoeoeu iiaoaeaeaei i?aaeiieaaaoue iaee/ea /anoeoeu n
iieiaeeoaeueiui ca?yaeii. Iiaeaeue Ae.Oiiniia, ia aoaeo/e a ninoiyiee
iauynieoue oa?aeoa? aoiiiuo niaeo?ia, eceo/aaiuo aoiiaie, onooieea ianoi
ieaiaoa?iie iiaeaee Y.?aca?oi?aea. Enneaaeoy ?annayiea aoiiaie aauanoaa
aeueoa-/anoeoe, eceo/aaiuo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie aauanoaaie, ii ioe?ue aoiiiia
yae?i e iino?iee ieaiaoa?ioth iiaeaeue aoiia. Ieacaeinue, /oi aoii
ninoieo ia ec iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiiai iaeaea, a eioi?ii (iiaeiaii
ecthio a aoeea) iaoiaeyony yeaeo?iiu, eae yoi i?aaeiieaaae Ae.Oiinii, a
ec yeaeo?iia e yae?a ?acia?ii ieiei 10-13 ni., a eioi?ii nin?aaeioi/aia
ii/oe any ianna aoiia. Aoii iiaeiaai Nieia/iie nenoaia: a oeaio?a iaai
iaoiaeeony oyaeaeia yae?i, aie?oa iaai a?auathony yeaeo?iiu. Iaeiaei,
niaeanii yeaeo?iaeeiaieea Iaenaaeea, oaeie aoii ia iiaeao auoue
onoie/eaui: aeaeaaynue ii e?oaiaui (eee yeeeioe/aneei) i?aeoai, yeaeo?ii
eniuouaaao onei?aiea, a iiyoiio ii aeieaeai eceo/aoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiua
aieiu, ianouea yia?aeth. Iioa?y yia?aee i?eaaaeao yeaeo?ii e iaaeaieth
ia yae?i. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeiaiue aoii ia iiaeao auoue onoie/eaui, a
iioiio a ?aaeueiinoe ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue. Oaeei ia?acii,
eeanne/aneay oeceea ia iiaea iaeoe iauyniaiey onoie/eainoe aoiiia.

?ac?aaioea neaaeothuae iiaeaee aoiia i?eiaaeeaaeeo I.Ai?o. Acya ca
iniiao iiaeaeue ?aca?oi?aea, ii eniieueciaae e eaeae eaaioiaie oai?ee.
Ai? auaeaeioe i?aaeiieiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio a aoiiao nouanoaotho
iniaua noaoeeiia?iua ninoiyiey, a eioi?uo yeaeo?iiu ia eceo/atho –
eceo/aiea i?ienoiaeeo eeoue i?e ia?aoiaea ec iaeiiai noaoeeiia?iiai
ninoiyiey a ae?oaia.

Aioo?aiiaa no?iaiea aoiia eco/aoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaiciiaeii,
iineieueeo iee?ineiie/aneea ?acia?u iaaeinooiiu i?yiiio aini?eyoeth,
iiyoiio i no?oeoo?a aoiia iiaeii noaeeoue ii aa einaaiiui i?iyaeaieyi
iae?ineiie/aneiai ianooaaa. Oaeei i?iyaeaieai yaeyaony eceo/aiea aoiiia
iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaa?aaa eee aiaoiaai yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. Eco/aiea
niaeo?ia eceo/aiey iicaieyao iieo/eoue aeaiiua i aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?a
aoiia – aeey eaaeaeiai aoiia oa?aeoa?iu iniaaiiinoe niaeo?a.
Eeanne/aneay oeceea ia iiaea iauynieoue caeiiu, eioi?ui iiae/eiyeenue
aoiiiua niaeo?u. Iiaeaeue Ai?a auyaeea enoeiiia cia/aiea niaeo?aeueiuo
caeiiia e iicaieeea onoaiiaeoue, eae yoe caeiiu io?aaeatho eaaioiaue
oa?aeoa? aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u aoiia – onoie/eainoue no?oeoo?u aoiia
ieacaeanue ia?ac?uaii naycaiiie n nouanoaiaaieai eaaioia. A iiaeaee Ai?a
eaaeaeue aoii iaeaaeaao iaeioi?ie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth eaaioiauo
(noaoeeiia?iuo) ninoiyiee. Eaaeaeue aeae aoiia eiaao naith
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eaaioiauo cia/aiee yia?aee, niioaaonoaothueo
?acee/iui aiciiaeiui noaoeeiia?iui ninoiyieyi. Auaiae i oii, /oi a
onoie/eaii ninoiyiee aoii ia aeieaeai eceo/aoue, ia niioaaonoaiaae
aeaiiui eeanne/aneie yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, niaeanii eioi?ui yeaeo?iiu,
aeaeaeoueany n onei?aieai, aeieaeiu auee iai?a?uaii eceo/aoue
yeaeo?iiaaieoiua aieiu. Ai? e i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi eaaeaeay niaeo?aeueiay
eeiey niioaaonoaoao iaiiaaiiiio ia?aoiaeo aoiia ec iaeiiai eaaioiaiai
ninoiyiey a ae?oaia, eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaiueoei cia/aieai yia?aee.
Ecauoie yia?aee i?e yoii oiineony a aeaea ioaeaeueiuo eaaioia (oioiiia).

Iiaeaeue aoiia Ai?a iieacaea naith ieiaeioai?iinoue a i?eiaiaiee e aoiio
aiaei?iaea, iicaieea iiiyoue no?oeoo?o iioe/aneiai niaeo?a. Ii iiiuoea
i?eiaieoue aeaiioth iiaeaeue e aieaa neiaeiui aoiiai, eiathuei aieueoaa
/enei yeaeo?iiia, auyaeea ia?aie/aiiinoue aeaiiie iiaeaee – ?acoeueoaou
aa i?eiaiaiey eeoue aanueia i?eaeeceoaeueii niioaaonoaiaaee aeaiiui
yenia?eiaioa. E?iia oiai, iiaeaeue aoiia Ai?a ?aniieaaaea iaoiaeii
eaaioiaaiey aeaenoaey eeoue aeey iaeiiia?iiai aeaeaeaiey
(i?aaeeiaeaiiiai aua Ieaieii). Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii auei iaeoe iaoiaeu
eaaioiaaiey aeey neo/aaa iiiaiia?iiai aeaeaeaiey. Yoio iaoiae aue
iaeaeai a 1916 a. *.Aeeueniiii e A.Ciiia?oaeueaeii (ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii
ae?oa n ae?oaii) e eniieueciaai aeey ?aoaiey oao caaea/, eioi?ua ia
iiaee auoue ?aoaiu n iiiiuueth iiaeaee aoiia Ai?a. Oaeei iooai auea
nicaeaia eiioeaioeey oiieie no?oeoo?u eeiee niaeo?a. Eceo/aiea eeiee
niaeo?a aiaei?iaea n iiiiuueth niaeo?ia?aoia n aunieie ?ac?aoathuae
niiniaiinoueth iicaieeei auyaeoue oiieoth no?oeoo?o niaeo?a –
ieacaeinue, /oi niaeo?aeueiua eeiee naie ninoiyo ec ?yaea aeecei
?aniieiaeaiiuo ae?oa e ae?oao eeiee. Ciiia?oaeueae auneacae
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i nayce oiieie no?oeoo?u niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee n
?aeyoeaenoneeie yooaeoaie e i?aaeiieiaeee aianoi o?aaiaiee
iuethoiiianeie iaoaieee eniieueciaaoue o?aaiaiey ?aeyoeaenoneie
iaoaieee. I?aaeiieiaeaiey Ciiia?oaeueaea aeaee ?acoeueoaou, niaeanoaiua
n yenia?eiaioaeueiuie aeaiiuie. Aianoa n oai iieo/aiiay Ciiia?oaeueaeii
ea?oeia niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee ieacaeanue cia/eoaeueii aaaeiaa ?aaeueiie,
iiyoiio aai iiaeaeue ia iiaea aeaoue aeinoaoi/ii iieiua iauyniaiey
oiieie no?oeoo?u niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee.

Aeey iiaeaee aoiia Ai?a iniiaiiieaaathuei yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii,
/oi yeaeo?iiu aioo?e aoiia iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny eeoue a noaoeeiia?iuo
ninoiyieyo, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiui eaaioiaui cia/aieyi
yia?aee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua yia?aaoe/aneea
o?iaie, ia eioi?uo iaoiaeyony yeaeo?iiu. Eae ecaanoii, aoii eaaeaeiai
iineaaeothuaai yeaiaioa eiaao ia iaeei yeaeo?ii aieueoa, /ai
i?aaeuaeouaai. Cia/eo, ii ia?a aic?anoaee aoiiiiai iiia?a oneiaeiyaony
no?oeoo?a yeaeo?iiiuo iaiei/ae aoiiia. Ia iniiaa ciaiey yoie no?oeoo?u
iiaeii onoaiaaeeaaoue oece/aneea e oeie/aneea naienoaa yeaiaioia. A
ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaia Ae.E.Iaiaeaeaaaa yeaiaiou ?aniieiaeaiu a ii?yaeea
aic?anoaee aoiiiiai aana, i?e/ai a ?aniieiaeaiiuo oaeei ia?acii
yeaiaioao iaia?oaeeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay ia?eiaee/iinoue a oeie/aneeo
naienoaao yoeo yeaiaioia. Oece/aneay i?e?iaea yoie ia?eiaee/iinoe
ieacuaaaony aanueia neiaeiie. Oai?ey aoiia aeieaeia eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue
iauynieoue yoo i?e?iaeo. Aeey yoiai iiaeaeue Ai?a iaiaoiaeeii auei
aeiiieieoue o?aaiaaieai, /oiau ia iaeiii yia?aaoe/aneii o?iaia iiaei
iaoiaeeoueny eeoue ia?aie/aiiia /enei yeaeo?iiia (yaeaiea ianuuaiey
yia?aaoe/aneiai o?iaiy yeaeo?iiaie). Anee au aeaiiiai ianuuaiey ia
nouanoaiaaei, oi a ii?iaeueiii (noaaeeueiii) ninoiyiee aoiia ana
yeaeo?iiu aoiia auee au ia iecoai o?iaia, eioi?ue niioaaonoaoao
iaeiaiueoae yia?aee. Ii aneaaenoaea ianuuaiey o?iaiae iiaeiaiay
neooaoeey ieacuaaaony iaaiciiaeiie.

Aeaeaaynue ii ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaia yeaiaioia, iiaeii aeaeaoue, eae
iinoaiaiii caiieiythony ae?oa ca ae?oaii iecoea yia?aaoe/aneea o?iaie –
eae oieueei iecoee o?iaaiue ieacuaaaony caiieiaiiui, ianoaao i/a?aaeue
neaaeothuaai o?iaiy. Oiieay no?oeoo?a niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee i?e yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ?anuaieaiee yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae yeaeo?iiia aioo?e
aoiia ia ?yae iiaeo?iaiae. Caiieiythuea yoe o?iaie iiaeo?iaie yeaeo?iiu
(iaeaaeathuea ii/oe iaeeiaeiaie yia?aeae) ia?acotho iaiei/eo. I?e
caiieiaiee ae?oa ca ae?oaii iineaaeothueo o?iaiae, oaeei ia?acii,
ia?acothony ?acee/iua iaiei/ee. Eciaiyaiay i?e aeaeaeaiee ii oaaeeoea
Iaiaeaeaaaa ia?eiaee/iinoue naienoa iauyniyaony oa?aeoa?ii caiieiaiey
iaiei/ae yeaeo?iiaie. Oaeei ia?acii, enneaaeiaaiea niaeo?ia ea?aao
ia?iiioth ?ieue a eco/aiee aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u aoiia.

Iiaeaeue Ai?a, iicaieyy ii?aaeaeeoue /anoioo eceo/aiey, ia aeaaaea
aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeyoue eioaineaiinoue eceo/aiey e aai iiey?ecaoeeth,
/oi niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeeii aeey ooi/iaiey i?e?iaeu eceo/aiey, eioi?ia
aicieeaao i?e ia?aoiaeao yeaeo?iiia aioo?e aoiia ec iaeiiai
noaoeeiia?iiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia. Ai? yoio iaaeinoaoie iuoaeny
ono?aieoue n iiiiuueth i?eioeeia niioaaonoaey. E?iia oiai, iiaeaeue Ai?a
auea iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiie: ioaa?aay ?yae iieiaeaiee eeanne/aneie
iaoaieee e yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, iia eniieueciaaea eae eeanne/aneea iiiyoey
e oi?ioeu, oae e eaaioiaua. Ai? iiieiae ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa?
nianoaaiiie iiaeaee aoiia. I?eioeei niioaaonoaey oeacuaae ia iaeii ec
iiauo iai?aaeaiee. Iaeiaei aiineaaenoaee, n nicaeaieai eaaioiaie
iaoaieee, auei auyniaii, /oi i?e iienaiee no?iaiey aoiia eeanne/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iiaoo eiaoue ianoa.

a) No?oeoo?a aoiiiiai yae?a

Enneaaeiaaiea no?oeoo?u aoiia iinoaaeei aii?in i oii, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie yae?i, eaeiaa aai no?oeoo?a. A yae?a nin?aaeioi/aia ii/oe any
ianna aoiia (ianna yeaeo?iiia, aoiaeyueo a aoii, i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueii iaea
ii n?aaiaieth n iannie yae?a), iii eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiue ca?yae,
yeaeaaeaioiue noiia?iiio ca?yaeo aoiaeyueo a iaai yeaeo?iiia. Ca?yae
yae?a ethaiai yeaiaioa ?aaai aai ii?yaeeiaiio iiia?o a ia?eiaee/aneie
nenoaia yeaiaioia. I?iaeaia no?oeoo?u aoiiiiai yae?a iieo/eea ?ac?aoaiea
n ioe?uoeai a 1932 aiaeo Ae.*aaeaeeii iaeo?iia – o?aoueae yeaiaioa?iie
/anoeoeu iinea yeaeo?iia e i?ioiia. Ianna iaeo?iia aeecea e ianna
i?ioiia. Yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae o i?ioiia ionoonoaoao Ae.Ae.Eaaiaiei
noi?ioee?iaae i?ioiii-iaeo?iiioth eiioeaioeeth no?iaiey aoiiiiai yae?a,
eioi?oth caoai ?ac?aaioae A.Aaecaiaa?a. ssae?a, ninoiyuea ec i?ioiiia e
iaeo?iiia iieo/eee iacaaiea ioeeiiia. A oii aea 1932 aiaeo a einie/aneeo
eo/ao E.Aiaea?niiii aue ioe?uo iiceo?ii – iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiue
yeaeo?ii, iaania/eaoee neiiao?eth iaaeaeo iieiaeeoaeueiui e
io?eoeaoaeueiui ca?yaeaie ai acaeiiioiioaieyo /anoeoe. Aai nouanoaiaaiea
auei i?aaeneacaii I.Aee?aeii, enoiaeeaoei ec oiai, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiua
ca?yaeu ai Anaeaiiie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie naiaai ?iaea iaaeinoathuea
/anoe ie?iaiai io?eoeaoaeueiiai ca?yaea – iiceo?ii anoue “aeu?ea” a
?ani?aaeaeaiee yeaeo?iiia n io?eoeaoaeueiie yia?aeae. Noieeiiaaiea
yeaeo?iia e iiceo?iia i?eaiaeeo e aiieaeeyoeee – eo i?aa?auaieth a aeaa
oioiia, enioneaaiua a i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo.

a) I?ioeannu yaea?iiai i?aa?auaiey

Neaaeothuee aii?in, eioi?ue anoae ia?aae oeceeaie iinea auyaeaiey
no?oeoo?u aoiiiiai yae?a, eanaeny nee, ne?aieythueo ioeeiiu a yae?a. A
nayce n aai ?anoe?aieai auynieeinue, /oi acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo
iaeo?iiii e i?ioiiii ia noieue i?inou, eae eacaeinue aia/aea.
Ieacaeinue, /oi oi/iaa aiai?eoue i no?oeoo?a aoiiiiai yae?a, ninoiyuae
ec i?ioiiia, iaeo?iiia e iaciiia. Iaciiu, nouanoaiaaiea eioi?uo auei a
1935 aiaeo i?aaeneacaii A.THeaaie e ioe?uoi *.Aiaea?niiii e
N.Iaaeaea?iaea?ii, e ieacaeenue neeaie i?eoyaeaiey, eioi?ua ii aaee/eia
i?aainoiaeyo yeaeo?e/aneea neeu, aeaenoaothuea iaaeaeo iaeiieiaiii
ca?yaeaiiuie i?ioiiaie. ssaea?iua neeu – yoi aeae iniiaiuo oece/aneeo
nee, aeaenoaothueo a i?e?iaea, ia?yaeo n a?aaeoaoeeiiiuie e
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuie.

Ec anao iacaaiiuo /anoeoe iaeo?ii ieacaeny iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiui aeey
inouanoaeaiey i?ioeanna yaea?iiai i?aa?auaiey, iineieueeo aaeaeo
ionoonoaey o iaai ca?yaea ii niiniaai aeoaaea i?iieeiooue a aauanoai,
aoiaeeoue a iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua yae?a aoiiia, eioi?ua
iooaeeeaatho iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua i?ioiiu e aeueoa-/anoeoeu.
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio a e?aoeee n?ie auei eco/aii aeaenoaea iaeo?iiia ia
?acee/iua yae?a, /oi i?eaaei e ioe?uoeth eneonnoaaiiie ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe.
?aoathuaa aeinoeaeaiea a yoie iaeanoe i?eiaaeeaaeeo O.AEieei Eth?e e
E.Eth?e, onoaiiaeaoei, /oi ii/oe ana iiaeaa?aiooua aiiaa?aee?iaea aoiiu
noaiiayony ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie. Yoi icia/aei, /oi anoanoaaiiay
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue yaeyaony eeoue inoaoi/iie aeoeaiinoueth aoiiia,
eioi?ua aua ia oniaee aeinoe/ue onoie/eauo ninoiyiee. Ciaiea aoiiiuo
i?aa?auaiee iiaei iiii/ue iauynieoue, eaeei ia?acii aicieeee yeaiaiou.

Ia/aaoaany n 30-o aa. OO aaea nicaeaiea onei?eoaeae aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue enneaaeiaaiee a yoie iaeanoe. O.A.Aaoa e
A.A.Aaiia niinianoaiaaee onoaiiaeaieth aa?iyoiuo oeeeeia oa?iiyaea?iuo
?aaeoeee, yaeythueony enoi/ieeaie aioo?ecaacaeiie yia?aee. Noaei ynii,
/oi enoi/ieeii aieueoae /anoe yia?aee Anaeaiiie yaeythony yaea?iua
i?ioeannu. Anoaea caaea/a auyniaiey iaoaiecia aunaiaiaeaeaiey yoie
yia?aee. Y.Oa?ie, iiaeaa?aioa aiiaa?aee?iaea iaeo?iiaie oyaeaeua
yeaiaiou, iaia?oaeee ia?iiioth yooaeoeaiinoue iaaeeaiiuo iaeo?iiia.
I.Aai e O.Oo?aniai ioe?uee aeaeaiea yaea? o?aia iiae aeaenoaeai
iaeo?iiia. I.Aai e E.Iaeoia? enneaaeiaaee i?iaeoeou ?aniaaea iaeo/aiiiai
o?aia e iouneaee n?aaee ieo yeaiaiou aei aoiiiiai iiia?a 96. Aeaeaiea
yaea? noaei onoaiiaeaiiui oaeoii.

Oyaeaeua yae?a iiaoo eiaoue aieueoa iaeo?iiia ii ioiioaieth e /eneo
i?ioiiia ii n?aaiaieth n eaaeeie yae?aie. I?e ?anuaieaiee aoiia o?aia
inaiaiaeaeaaony ianeieueei iaeo?iiia. Oae ioe?ueanue aiciiaeiinoue
oeaiiie ?aaeoeee. Anee a oiaea yaea?iiai i?ioeanna iiaeii auei
aeiaeoueny iieo/aiey aieueoa /ai iaeiiai yooaeoeaiiai iaeo?iia ia
eaaeaeue ia?aiia/aeueii cao?a/aiiue iaeo?ii, ?aaeoeey oauno?yeanue. E
anee yoei i?ioeannii ia oi?aaeyoue, a aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeaaoueny,
oi ii i?eaiaeee e ac?uao. A neo/aa aea oi?aaeaiey iu eiaai aeaei n
yaea?iui ?aaeoi?ii. Ana yoi i?eaaei e nicaeaieth Oa?ie yaea?iiai
?aaeoi?a, inouanoaeaieth oeaiiie ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey yaea?, aoiiiiai e
oa?iiyaea?iiai i?oaeey, aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee. (I ia?eiaoeyo anaai
yoiai iiaeii iiciaeiieoueny a niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a). A enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa ia/aeanue iiaay aoiiiay y?a, ioe?uoay aoiiiie oeceeie.

N/eoaaony, /oi ?aaeecaoeey eiioeaioeee aoiiiie yaea?iie oeceee noaea
i?eia?ii naiiai auno?iai i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey iaoee. Ioeaieaay yoi,
Ae.Aa?iae ienae: “Anee au yoi ioe?uoea auei niaa?oaii a aieaa niieieiua
a?aiaia XIX aaea, iii ?ac?aaaouaaeinue au a eiia/iii n/aoa aeey
i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey e, auoue iiaeao, eao /a?ac 50 eee ieiei oiai
iaoei au naia aiieiuaiea a iiauo iaoeiao aeey au?aaioee yia?aee.
Ionoonoaea iaoa?eaeueiie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe e oio oaeo, /oi eaieoaeu
auee aeiaeaiu a oaea nouanoaiaaaoea enoi/ieee yia?aee, iiaee au,
iaeiaei, aua ia aaneiia/ii aeieaia a?aiy caaea?aeaoue ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa aoiiiie yia?aee. Ii, eae ecaanoii, ioe?uoea yaea?iiai
aeaeaiey i?iecioei a eaioi iiaie ie?iaie aieiu. Ii n/anoueth aeey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aiaeee e Aia?eee, iaeioi?ua ec oao, eoi aue ecaiai ec
naiae ?iaeeiu iaoeenoaie e oaoenoaie, ioaeaaaee naaa yniue io/ao a
aiaiiuo aiciiaeiinoyo naeaeaiiiai ioe?uoey. Iaeiaei aieaa oaeeaeoaeueiui
auei, auoue iiaeao, oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ei oaeaeinue oaaaeeoue
aiaiiua e a?aaeaeaineea aeanoe a iaiaoiaeeiinoe e?aeia yia?ae/iie
?ac?aaioee i?iaeoa, aeaaiui ia?acii iioiio, /oi anee au iie yoiai ia
naeaeaee, oi i?ioeaiee, ianiiiaiii, ia?aui nicaeae au naith aiiao“.

Oae eee eia/a, iiyaeaiea iiaeiaiuo iao/iuo eiioeaioeee ia oieueei
ii?aaeaeyao oa?aeoa? nia?aiaiiie yiioe, ii e aoaeouaa iauanoaa.
Iiyaeaiea eiioeaioeee, iaoiaiea ?anii?yaeeony eioi?uie iiaeao a?iceoue
oie/oiaeaieai /aeiaa/anoaa, aeoeaii aeeyao ia oa?aeoa? e oi?iu e oi?iu
nioeeaeueiiai ono?ienoaa. *aeiaa/anoai, aunaiaiaeea eieinnaeueiua neeu,
oaia?ue ia?a/aii iinoiyiii aeoiaoue iaae oai, eae ?anii?yaeeoueny eie.
Yoa i?iaeaia /aeiaa/anoaa a i?aeoe/anee iaic?eiia a?aiy – aa/iay.
Iiyoiio /aeiaa/anoai aeieaeii iao/eoueny aeeoue n yoie i?iaeaiie.

5. Eiioeaioeee oeceee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe

a) Nia?aiaiiue noaoon iiiyoey Yeaiaioa?iie /anoeoeu

I?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi ana ai Anaeaiiie aeaeeony ia aauanoai e neeu,
auoothuea e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, aicieeei aeaaii. Aua A?enoioaeue (ni.
?acaeae “A?enoioaeueneay oeceea”) iieaaae, /oi ia aauanoai, ninoiyuaa ec
caiee, aicaeooa, iaiy e aiaeu, aeaenoaotho aeaa neeu: neea oyaeanoe e
neea eaaeinoe. Ia?aay aea/ao caieth e aiaeo aiec, aoi?ay iiaeieiaao
iaiiue e aicaeoo aaa?o. A?enoioaeth aauanoai i?aaenoaaeyeinue
iai?a?uaiui, a Aeaiie?eoo – ca?ienoui, ninoiyuei ec aoiiia. Nii? iaaeaeo
noi?iiieeaie aeaiiuo eiioeaioeee aeioae aei OO aaea. A aai ?ac?aoaiee
aaaeiue aeeaae i?eiaaeeaaeeo Yeiooaeio, eioi?ue a 1905 a. (aua aei
ioaeeeaoeee noaouee i niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe) auneacae
i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi a?ioiianeia aeaeaeaiea (ia?aaoey?iia, oaioe/aneia
aeaeaeaiea iaeue/aeoeo /anoe/ae, acaaoaiiuo a aiaea) iiaeii iauynieoue
oaea?aie aoiiia aeeaeeinoe ia yoe /anoe/ee. Eae auei iieacaii ?aiaa,
ia?aay iiiuoea aeieacaoue no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoue aoiia i?aaei?eiye
Aeae.Oiinii. A 1911 a. Y.?aca?oi?ae aeieacae, /oi aoii ninoieo ec
iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiiai yae?a e a?auathueony aie?oa iaai,
io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiuo yeaeo?iiia. A 1932 a. Aeae.*yaeaee
iaia?oaeeaaao, /oi yae?i e?iia iieiaeeoaeueiiai i?ioiia niaea?aeeo ia
ca?yaeaiiue iaeo?ii n iannie ii/oe ?aaiie ianna i?ioiia. A 1969 a.
yenia?eiaiou I.Aaee-Iaia ii acaeiiaeaenoaeth aeaeaeoueony n aieueoeie
nei?inoyie i?ioiiia e yeaeo?iiia iieacuaatho, /oi i?ioiiu ninoiyo ec
Eaa?eia. Oaeei ia?acii, auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ie aoiiu, ie i?ioiiu, ie
iaeo?iiu ia yaeythony iaaeaeeiuie. Ia?aae oeceeaie e anoae aii?in: /oi
aea n/eoaoue yeaiaioa?iuie /anoeoeaie? Iiaeao auoue i?e ia?aoiaea e aua
aieueoei yia?aeyi e yoe yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu ieaaeoony aeaeeiuie?

Oaeei ia?acii, iiiyoea yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oo?aoeei
naie ia?aiia/aeueiue niune eae /anoeoe aeaeaa ia?aceiaeeiuo, iineieueeo
iiiaea ec /anoeoe, n/eoaaoeony yeaiaioa?iuie, eiatho neiaeioth no?oeoo?o
(iai?eia?, i?ioiiu e iaeo?iiu). Ii inoaeanue naia eaeay i nouanoaiaaiee
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe. Oa?iei “yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu” nae/an
oiio?aaeyaony a iaiaa no?iaii cia/aiee, a eiaiii aeey iacaaiey aieueoie
a?oiiu iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoe iaoa?ee, eioi?ua ia yaeythony aoiiaie eee
aoiiiuie yae?aie (ca eneeth/aieai i?ioiia – i?inoaeoaai yae?a aoiia
aiaei?iaea). Eo /enei aaeeei (n ianoaaeeueiuie /anoeoeaie ian/eouaaaony
aieaa 350) e i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe.

A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey auyaeaiiuo yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe
onoaiaaeeaaeenue eo naienoaa. O yeaeo?iiia e i?ioiiia auee auyaeaiu
ianna, ?acia?u, yeaeo?e/aneee ?ac?yae, iaoaie/aneee e iaaieoiue iiiaio.
A ?aieao oai?ee Ai?a auee onoaiiaeaiu iaoaie/aneee e iaaieoiue iiiaiou
yeaeo?iia e i?ioiia, yaeyaoeony /enoi eaaioiauie naienoaaie. Auei
onoaiiaeaii, /oi niei – nianoaaiiue iiiaio eiee/anoaa iee?i/anoeoeu,
eiathuee eaaioiaoth i?e?iaeo e ecia?yaiue a aaeeieoeao Ieaiea, – iiaeao
auoue oeaeui (0,1,2…) eee iieooeaeui (1/2, 3/2…).

Enneaaeiaaiea aaoa-?aniaaea iicaieeei ioe?uoue iiaia naienoai
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe – eo i?aa?auaaiinoe ae?oa a ae?oaa: i?e
aaoa-?aniaaea ec yae?a aueaoaao yeaeo?ii, eioi?ue ?iaeaeaaony a
?acoeueoaoa i?aa?auaiey iaeo?iia a i?ioii e yeaeo?ii. Auei iaia?oaeaii
i?e yoii, /oi yeaeo?iiu, aueaoathuea ec yae?a i?e aaoa-?aniaaea,
iaeaaeatho ?acee/iuie nei?inoyie e yia?aeae, a inoaaoeany iinea
aaoa-?aniaaea yae?a iaeaaeatho i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaie yia?aeae. Ecia?aiey
onoaiiaeee, /oi a neo/aa aueaoa iaaeeaiiuo yeaeo?iiia aaeain yia?aee i?e
aaoa-?aniaaea ia nio?aiyaony, /oi eacaeinue ia?ooaieai caeiia nio?aiaiey
a iee?ii?ioeannao. Eaeay nouanoaiaaiey iaeo?eii, ?iaeaeathuaainy i?e
aaoa-?aniaaea e oiinyuaai iaaeinoathuoth yia?aeth, nio?aieei
ni?aaaaeeeainoue caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee e a iee?iie?a. Ioe?uoea
i?aa?auaiey iaeo?iia a i?ioii e iaeo?ii iieiaeeei ia/aei ioe?uoeyi
ae?oaeo oi?i i?aa?auaiey yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe ae?oa a ae?oaa.

Neaaeothuei auyaeaiiui naienoaii yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe auea niiniaiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiuo /anoeoe acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii. A
eeanne/aneie oeceea yeaeo?e/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo ca?yaeaiiuie
/anoeoeaie inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey. N oi/ee
c?aiey eaaioiaie oeceee acaeiiaeaenoaea /anoeoe anoue i?ioeann iaiaia
oioiiaie, a eioi?ii oioiiu i?iiaaeatho, ioaeaaay naith yia?aeth
ca?yaeaiiui /anoeoeai. Ii aiaeiaee n ia?aciaaieai oioiiia iiyaeeanue
eaeay i oii, /oi iiaeiaiui ia?acii iiaoo ?iaeaeaoueny e yeaeo?iiu.
Iienee nee, naycuaathueo a yae?a i?ioiiu e iaeo?iiu, iiaoaeeee E.A.Oaiia
e Ae.Ae.Eaaiaiei i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi yaea?iua neeu anoue ?acoeueoao
iaiaia yeaeo?iiaie iaaeaeo ioeeiiaie. Yenia?eiaio yoo aeiioaco ia
iiaeoaa?aeee. THeaaa iieacae, /oi yaea?iua neeu iiaoo auoue iauyniaiu
eae ?acoeueoao iaiaia iaaeaeo ioeeiiaie /anoeoeaie n iannie aieueoa
iannu yeaeo?iia e iaiueoae iannu ioeeiiia (/anoeoeu iieo/eee iacaaiea
iaciiia-i?iiaaeooi/iuo /anoeoe), eioi?ua e auee iaia?oaeaiu a
einie/aneeo eo/ao. Ia?aiin/eeaie yaea?iuo nee ieacaeenue iieiaeeoaeueii
e io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua iaciiu n iannie, ?aaiie 273 iannai
yeaeo?iia, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea (-iaciiia eee ieiiia. O iaeo?aeueiuo
iaciiia ianna ieacaeanue ?aaiie 264 iannai yeaeo?iia.

Aee?ae auneacae iuneue i nouanoaiaaiee aioe/anoeoeu aeey yeaeo?iia,
eioi?ay auea ioe?uoa e iacaaia iiceo?iiii. Ieacaeinue, /oi naienoaii
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe yaeyaony nouanoaiaaiea aioe/anoeoe , eiathueo
i?ioeaiiieiaeiue ca?yae e i?ioeaiiieiaeii iai?aaeaiiua iaoaie/aneee e
iaaieoiue iiiaiou. I?e noieeiiaaiee /anoeoeu e aioe/anoeoeu i?ienoiaeeo
aiieaeeyoeey, o.a. eo oie/oiaeaiea n aicieeiiaaieai ae?oaeo /anoeoe.
Oae, noieeiiaaiea yeaeo?iia e iiceo?iia aeaao aeaa oioiia, i?ioiia e
aioei?ioiia – /aou?a iaciia e o.ae.

O /anoeoe auei onoaiiaeaii oaeaea naienoai niiioaiiiai i?aa?auaiey.
Yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu eiatho “a?aiy aeecie” – n?aaeiaa a?aiy naiaai
nouanoaiaaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy e /eneo noaaeeueiuo /anoeoe n
aaneiia/iui a?aiaiai nouanoaiaaiey ioiinyo yeaeo?iiu e iiceo?iiu. E
noaaeeueiui ioiinyo oaeaea i?ioiiu e aioei?ioiiu (oioy auneacuaathony
niia?aaeaiey i eiia/iii n?iea aeecie i?ioiiia), a oaeaea iaeo?eii,
aioeiaeo?eii, oioiiu. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
eeanneoeeaoeee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe (iiaeiaiie ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaia
Ae.E.Iaiaeaeaaaa). Yoa ?aaioa aeaeaei ia caaa?oaia.

a) Nia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i oa?aeoa?a ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo oece/aneeo
acaeiiaeaenoaee e oeiao yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe

A oeceea iiae acaeiiaeaenoaeai iiieiaaony aicaeaenoaea oae eee /anoeoe
ae?oa ia ae?oaa, i?eaiaeyuaa e eciaiaieth ninoiyiey eo aeaeaeaiey. A
iaoaieea Iuethoiia acaeiiaeaenoaey oa?aeoa?ecothony neeie, aieaa iauae
oa?aeoa?enoeeie acaeiiaeaenoaey yaeyaony iioaioeeaeueiay yia?aey. A
o?aeoiaea acaeiiaeaenoaey enoi?e/anee niaiyee ae?oa ae?oaa ?aciua
eiioeaioeee. Ia?aie aicieeea eiioeaioeey aeaeueiiaeaenoaey, nouiinoue
eioi?ie caeeth/aaony a i?aaenoaaeaiee, /oi acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo
oaeaie iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii /a?ac ionoia
i?ino?ainoai, eioi?ia o/anoaoao a ia?aaea/a acaeiiaeaenoaey ia
i?eieiaao, i?e/ai ia?aaea/a acaeiiaeaenoaey i?ienoiaeeo iaiiaaiii. Iinea
ioe?uoey yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey aicieeea eiioeaioeey aeeceiaeaenoaey.
Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi acaeiiaeaenoaea yeaeo?e/anee ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe
inouanoaeyaony ia iaiiaaiii, a n iaeioi?ie eiia/iie nei?inoueth, ?aaiie
nei?inoe naaoa. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iiea aunooiaao iin?aaeieeii,
inouanoaeythuei ia?aaea/o acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo yeaeo?e/anee
ca?yaeaiiuie /anoeoeaie. Aeaiiay eiioeaioeey auea ia?aianaia e ia
ae?oaea acaeiiaeaenoaey. A ?aieao aeaiiie eiioeaioeee acaeiiaeaenoaey
iaaeaeo oaeaie inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaai ?aciiia?aciuo iieae. A ?aieao
eaaioiaie oai?ee o?aeoiaea acaeiiaeaenoaey aue i?eaeai eaaioiaue
oa?aeoa?. Iineieueeo eaaeaeia oaei ninoieo ec eaaioia, oi, iai?eia?,
yeaeo?iiaaieoiia acaeiiaeaenoaea inouanoaeyaony iooai iaiaia oioiiaie e
o.i.

Nouanoaoao /aou?a ?aciiaeaeiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey (nee), eioi?ua oeceee
iaaeathony i?aaenoaaeoue eae i?iyaeaiea iaeiie e oie aea neeu
(acaeiiaeaenoaey). Ieacaeinue. /oi eeanneoeeaoeeth yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe
oaeiaiaa anaai inouanoaeyoue ii oeiai eo acaeiiaeaenoaee.

Ana ecaanoiua /anoeoeu i?eiyoi ?acaeaeyoue ia aeaa a?oiiu, a iaeio ec
eioi?uo aoiaeyo /anoeoeu ni nieiii 1/2 (ec ieo ninoieo aauanoai
Anaeaiiie), a a ae?oaoth – /anoeoeu ni nieiii 0, 1 e 2 (nicaeathuea
neeu, aeaenoaothuea iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie aauanoaa).Ia?aua iiae/eiythony
i?eioeeio cai?aoa Iaoee, (aeanyuaio, /oi aeaa iaeeiaeiaua /anoeoeu ia
iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue a iaeiii e oii aea ninoiyiee). Anee au ia
aeaenoaiaae i?eioeei Iaoee, eaa?ee ia niiaee au iauaaeeieony a i?ioiiu e
iaeo?iiu, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, aianoa n yeaeo?iiaie ia niiaee au
iauaaeeieoueny a aoiiu. A 1928 a. I.Aee?ae ?ac?aaioae oai?eth,
iienuaathuoth yoe /anoeoeu, eioi?ay niaeaniauaaeanue e n eaaioiaie
iaoaieeie, e ni niaoeeaeueiie oai?eae ioiineoaeueiinoe. Oai?ey
iauynieea, ii/aio yeaeo?ii ni nieiie 1/2 i?e iaeiii iieiii iai?ioa ia
aica?auaaony a i?aaeiaa iieiaeaiea e aica?auaaony a iaai eeoue i?e
aeaoe?aoiii iai?ioa. Yoa oai?ey i?aaeneacuaaea oaeaea nouanoaiaaiea
iiceo?iia (aioeyeaeo?iia). Ieacaeinue, /oi eaaeaeie /anoeoea
niioaaonoaoao aioe/anoeoeu, eioi?ua i?e noieeiiaaiee aiieaeee?otho
(oie/oiaeathony).

Neeu iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie aauanoaa ia?aiinyony /anoeoeaie n oeaei/eneaiiui
nieiii, ?aaiui 0, 1 eee 2. Yoe /anoeoeu-ia?aiin/eee ia iiae/eiythony
i?eioeeio cai?aoa Iaoee. Yoi cia/eo, /oi ia?aie/aiey aeey /enea
iaiaieaaaiuo /anoeoe ionoonoaotho, iineieueeo aicieeathuay neea
acaeiiaeaenoaey iiaeao auoue aieueoie:

Ia?aay ec ieo – a?aaeoaoeeiiiay neea, eiathuay oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Ethaay /anoeoea iaoiaeeony iiae aeaenoaeai a?aaeoaoeeiiiie neeu. Aa
aaee/eia caaeneo io iannu eee yia?aee /anoeoeu. A?aaeoaoeeiiiay neea
aeaenoaoao ia aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo e anaaaea aunooiaao eae neea
i?eoyaeaiey. A?aaeoaoeeiiiua neeu ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie i/aiue
neaaua. N/eoaaony, /oi a?aaeoaoeeiiiay neea, aeaenoaothuay iaaeaeo
aeaoiy /anoeoeaie, ia?aiineony /anoeoeae ni nieiii 2 (aa iacuaatho
a?aaeoii). A?aaeoii nianoaaiiie iannie ia iaeaaeaao, iiyoiio ia?aiineiay
ei neea yaeyaony aeaeueiiaeaenoaothuae. N/eoaaony, /oi a?aaeoiiu
?ani?ino?aiythony a aeaea a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo aiei, eioi?ua iiea
caoeene?iaaoue ia oaeaaony aneaaenoaea eo neaaie neeu.

Aoi?ay neea – yeaeo?iiaaieoiay, aeaenoaothuay iaaeaeo yeaeo?e/aneeie
ca?yaeaiiuie /anoeoeaie. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua acaeiiaeaenoaey cia/eoaeueii
neeueiaa a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo. Nouanoaotho aeaa aeaea yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea
– iieiaeeoaeueiue e io?eoeaoaeueiue. Iaaeaeo aeaoiy iieiaeeoaeueiuie eee
io?eoeaoaeueiuie ca?yaeaie aeaenoaoao neea iooaeeeaaiey, iaaeaeo
iieiaeeoaeueiui e io?eoeaoaeueiui – neea i?eoyaeaiey. A aieueoeo oaeao
yeaeo?iiaaieoiay neea neaaa, iineieueeo a ieo iieiaeeoaeueiuo e
io?eoeaoaeueiuo ca?yaeia ii/oe iaeeiaeiai e iie eiiiaine?otho ae?oa
ae?oaa. A iaeuo ianooaaao neooaoeey eiay – a aoiiao e iieaeoeao
aeiieie?otho yeaeo?iiaaieoiua neeu.

O?aoee oei – neaaia acaeiiaeaenoaea, ioaa/athuaa ca ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue e
nouanoaothuaa iaaeaeo anaie /anoeoeaie aauanoaa ni nieiii 1/2 – a iai ia
o/anoaotho /anoeoeu ni nieiii 0, 1, 2 (oioiiu e a?aaeoiiu). A1967 a.
A.Naeai e N.Aaeiaa?a ?ac?aaioaee oai?eth, iauaaeeiythuoth neaaia
acaeiiaeaenoaea e yeaeo?iiaaieoiia (iiaeiaii iauaaeeiaieth Iaenaaeeii
yeaeo?e/anoaa e iaaiaoecia). (Ianeieueei iicaea e iei i?eniaaeeieeny
O.Aeyoio.) Oai?ey i?aaeneacuaaea, /oi /anoeoeu, niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua i?e
ieceeo yia?aeyo, i?e aunieeo yia?aeyo ieacuaathony iaeiie e oie aea
/anoeoeae, ii iaoiaeyuaeny a ?aciuo ninoiyieyo.

*aoaa?oue oei – neeueiia yaea?iia acaeiiaeaenoaea, oaea?aeeaathuaa
eaa?ee aioo?e i?ioiia e iaeo?iia, a i?ioiiu e iaeo?iiu – aioo?e aoiiiiai
yae?a. Ia?aiin/eeii yoiai oeia acaeiiaeaenoaey n/eoaaony /anoeoea ni
nieiii 1 – aethii. Aethiiu acaeiiaeaenoaotho eeoue n aethiiaie e
eaa?eaie.

Nouanoaoao eaeay iauaaeeieoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiia, neaaia e neeueiia
acaeiiaeaenoaey a oai?eth aaeeeiai iauaaeeiaiey (ia naiii aeaea iia ia
noieue aaeeeay, iineieueeo ia o/eouaaao a?aaeoaoeeth, ii nicaeaiea oaeie
oai?ee yaeeinue au oaaii ia iooe e nicaeaieth iieiie oai?ee
iauaaeeiaiey, ioaaouaathuae ana /aou?a oeia acaeiiaeaenoaey – iiae?iaiaa
i eiioeaioeee iauaaeeiaiey oeceee ni. ?acaeae 6). Eaeay aaeeeiai
iauaaeeiaiey caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai. Ecaanoii, /oi neeueiua
acaeiiaeaenoaey i?e aunieeo yia?aeyo noaiiayony neaaaa, /ai i?e ieceeo.
Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua aea e neaaua neeu i?e aunieeo yia?aeyo ?anooo. I?e
eaeii-oi i/aiue aieueoii cia/aiee yia?aee yoe o?e neeu iiaee au
n?aaiyoueny iaaeaeo niaie e noaoue ?aciiaeaeiinoyie iaeiie neeu – i?e
yoii /anoeoeu ni nieiii 1/2 (eaa?ee e yeaeo?iiu) ia?anoaee au
?acee/aoueny. I?aiyonoaea ia yoii iooe caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeey
onei?aiey /anoeoe aei oaeie yia?aee iiiaaeiaeeny au onei?eoaeue ?acia?ii
n Nieia/ioth nenoaio. Oae /oi aiciiaeiinoe yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?eoue
oai?eth aaeeeiai iauaaeeiaiey iao. Iaeiaei aiciiaeia i?iaa?ea
ieceiyia?aaoe/aneeo neaaenoaee. Iaeii ec oaeeo neaaenoaee –
aiciiaeiinoue ?aniaaea i?ioiiia, ninoaaeythueo aieueooth /anoue iannu
iau/iiai aauanoaa ia aieaa eaaeea /anoeoeu (aioeyeaeo?iiu).

Oaeiai ?iaea yenia?eiaiou, iicaieythuea aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua naaaeaiey i
?aniaaea i?ioiia, cao?oaeiaiu. Iaeiaei, eae iieaaaao N.Oieeia, ia
eneeth/aii, /oi naii iaoa nouanoaiaaiea anoue neaaenoaea ia?aoiiai
i?ioeanna – i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey i?ioiiia eee eaa?eia ia naiie
ia/aeueiie noaaeee, eiaaea eaa?eia ia aieueoa, /ai aioeeaa?eia. Ii
iieaaaao, /oi oaeay ea?oeia ia/aea Anaeaiiie auaeyaeeo iaeaieaa
anoanoaaiiie. Aaaeue caiiia aauanoai a iniiaiii ninoieo ec i?ioiiia e
iaeo?iiia, ninoiyueo a naith i/a?aaeue ec eaa?eia. A iaoae Aaeaeoeea
oiaea iao ie aioei?ioiiia, ie aioeiaeo?iiia (ca eneeth/aieai oao
neo/aaa, eiaaea iie ?iaeaeathony a noieeiiaaieyo /anoeoeu e aioe/anoeoeu
i?e aunieeo yia?aeyo) – anee au iaoa Aaeaeoeea eiaea o/anoee
aioeaauanoaa, oi ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea aauanoaa e aioeaauanoaa
iaaethaeaeinue au eceo/aiea aunieie yia?aee aneaaenoaea aiieaeeyoeee. A
i?aaeaeao iaeiie Aaeaeoeee niane aauanoaa e aioeaauanoa auoue ia iiaeao.
Iiyoiio aieaa aa?iyoii i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi ana aaeaeoeee ninoiyo
ec eaa?eia, a ia ec aioeeaa?eia.

Ii ii/aio i?e ia?aciaaiee Anaeaiiie eaa?eia noaei aieueoa, /ai
aioeeaa?eia? ?aiaa n/eoaeinue, /oi caeiiu oeceee iaeeiaeiau aeey /anoeoe
e aioe/anoeoe, o.a. ana i?ioeannu a i?e?iaea ia iaiythony (neiiao?e/iu)
i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii i?iaaaeaiee o?ao i?aia?aciaaiee: ia?aoiaea io /anoeoe
e aioe/anoeoeai (ca?yaeiaia nii?yaeaiea eee i?aia?aciaaiea neiiao?ee N),
ca?eaeueiii io?aaeaiee (i?ino?ainoaaiiay eiaa?ney eee i?aia?aciaaiea
neiiao?ee ?) e caiaia a?aiaie t ia -t (ia?auaiea a?aiaie eee
i?aia?aciaaiea neiiao?ee O).

a) Naycue i?eioeeiia neiiao?ee oece/aneie nenoaiu e caeiiia nio?aiaiey
(oai?aia Y.Iaoa?)

N/eoaaony, /oi oece/aneea oai?ee ii ia/aeueiiio ninoiyieth iauaeoa
ii?aaeaeyao aai iiaaaeaiea a aoaeouai. I?eioeeiu neiiao?ee
(eiaa?eaioiinoe) iinyo iauee oa?aeoa?, o.a. ei iiae/eiythony ana
oece/aneea oai?ee. Neiiao?ey oece/aneeo caeiiia ioiineoaeueii iaeioi?iai
i?aia?aciaaiey icia/aao, /oi i?e inouanoaeaiee aeaiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey
yoe caeiiu ia iaiythony. Eiaiii iiyoiio i?eioeeiu neiiao?ee ieacuaaaony
aiciiaeiui onoaiaaeeaaoue ia iniiaaiee ecaanoiuo oece/aneeo caeiiia. A
1918 a. Y.Iaoa? auea noi?ioee?iaaia oai?aia, onoaiaaeeaathuay naycue
iaaeaeo naienoaaie neiiao?ee oece/aneie nenoaiu e caeiiaie nio?aiaiey:
anee naienoaa nenoaiu ia iaiythony i?e eaeii-eeai i?aia?aciaaiee
ia?aiaiiuo, oi yoiio niioaaonoaoao nio?aiaiea iaeioi?ie oece/aneie
aaee/eiu – iacaaeneiinoe naienoa nenoaiu io auai?a ia/aea ion/aoa
a?aiaie niioaaonoaoao caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee. Iaeiaei, anee oai?ey
eaeiai-eeai oece/aneiai yaeaiey aua ia iino?iaia, oa neiiao?ee, eioi?ua
auee ioe?uou ia iiuoa, eiatho aeey iino?iaiey oai?ee aieueoia cia/aiea.
Ionthaea aiieia iiiyoia aaaeiinoue yenia?eiaioaeueii onoaiiaeaiiuo
neiiao?ee neeueii acaeiiaeaenoaothueo yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe – aae?iiia,
oai?ey eioi?uo aua ia iino?iaia.

A 1956 a. A.Ee e *.ssia iieacaee, /oi ia naiii aeaea caeiiu oeceee ia
nianai iaeeiaeiau aeey /anoeoe e aioe/anoeoe. Ieacaeinue, /oi neaaua
acaeiiaeaenoaey ia iiae/eiythony neiiao?ee ? e neiiao?ee N. Yoi
icia/aei, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa neaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acaeoea Anaeaiiie
iiaeao auoue eiui, /ai ?acaeoea aa ca?eaeueiiai ecia?aaeaiey, /oi
Anaeaiiay, ninoiyuay ec aioe/anoeoe aoaeao aanoe naay eia/a, /ai iaoa
Anaeaiiay, ninoiyuay ec /anoeoe. Auea iaaeaaeaea ia oi, /oi neaaia
acaeiiaeaenoaea aeieaeii ana aea iiae/eiyoueny eiiaeie?iaaiiie
neiiao?ee, o.a., eia/a aiai?y ?acaeoea Anaeaiiie aeieaeii i?ienoiaeeoue
oae, eae e ?acaeoea aa ca?eaeueiiai io?aaeaiey, anee, io?acea Anaeaiioth
a ca?eaea, caiaieoue eaaeaeoth /anoeoeo aioe/anoeoeae. Iaeiaei e yoa
iaaeaaeaea ?ooioea, eiaaea Ae.E?iiei e A.Oeo/ a 1964 a. iaia?oaeeee, /oi
ia?ooaaony e eiiaeie?iaaiiay (N ?) neiiao?ey. (N – caiaia /anoeoeu
aioe/anoeoeae; ? – ca?eaeueiia io?aaeaiea, eiaaea eaaia e i?aaia
iaiythony ianoaie; O – eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiey aeaeaeaiey anao /anoeoe ia
ia?aoiia.) N ? O – oai?aia ooaa?aeaeaea, /oi ethaay oai?ey,
iiae/eiythuayny i?eioeeiai eaaioiaie iaoaieee e oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe,
anaaaea aeieaeia auoue eiaa?eaioia ioiineoaeueii eiiaeie?iaaiiie
neiiao?ee N ? O, o.a. iiaaaeaiea Anaeaiiie ia eciaieony, anee /anoeoeu
caiaieoue aioe/anoeoeaie, io?aceoue ana a ca?eaea e eciaieoue
iai?aaeaiea a?aiaie ia ia?aoiia. ?acoeueoaou, eioi?ua iieo/eee Ae.E?iiei
e A.Oeo/, naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee i oii, /oi i?e caiaia /anoeoeu
aioe/anoeoeae, inouanoaeaiee ca?eaeueiiai io?aaeaiey, ii i?e nio?aiaiee
i?aaeiaai iai?aaeaiey a?aiaie, caeiiu oeceee aeieaeiu eciaieoueny, o.a.
iie ia aoaeoo eiaa?eaioiu ioiineoaeueii neiiao?ee O, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
Anaeaiiay aoaeao aanoe naay i?e yoeo oneiaeyo eia/a.

*oi ec yoiai neaaeoao? Ii iiaieth N.Oieeiaa, ii ia?a ?anoe?aiey
Anaeaiiie iiae aeaenoaeai nee, ia eiaa?eaioiuo ioiineoaeueii neiiao?ee
O, aioeyeaeo?iiu aeieaeiu i?aa?auaoueny a eaa?ee /aua, /ai yeaeo?iiu a
aioeeaa?ee. Iinea oiai eae Anaeaiiay ?anoe?eeanue e ioeaaeaeaeanue,
aioeeaa?ee e eaa?ee aeieaeiu auee aiieaeee?iaaoue. Ii oae eae eaa?eia
auei aieueoa /ai aioeeaa?eia, oi eaa?ee aeieaeiu auee inoaoueny a
eaeii-oi iaaieueoii ecauoea. Ec yoeo oi eaa?eia e ninoieo naaiaeiyoiaa
aauanoai e iu naie. Iiyoiio naii iaoa nouanoaiaaiea iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae ea/anoaaiiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oai?ee aaeeeiai
iauaaeeiaiey. Iineaaeiea ia aeeth/atho a naay a?aaeoaoeeiiiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey. N.Oieeia n/eoaao yoi ia noieue nouanoaaiiui, o.e.
a?aaeoaoeeiiiuie neeaie ii i?e/eia eo iacia/eoaeueiinoe iiaeii
i?aiaa?a/ue a neo/ayo, eiaaea iu eiaai aeaei n yeaiaioa?iuie /anoeoeaie
eee aoiiaie. Aianoa n oai aaaeii o/eouaaoue oio oaeo, /oi
a?aaeoaoeeiiiua neeu yaeythony aeaeueiiaeaenoaothueie e i?iyaeythony eae
neeu i?eoyaeaiey, ?acoeueoaou eo aicaeaenoaey anaaaea noiie?othony.
Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi i?e iaee/ee aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa /anoeoe
aauanoaa a?aaeoaoeeiiiua neeu iiaoo auoue aieueoa anao inoaeueiuo.
Iiyoiio yaiethoeey Anaeaiiie ii?aaeaeyaony eiaiii a?aaeoaoeeae.

Nae/an iiaeii aiai?eoue, /oi i?e acaeiiaeaenoaeyo e i?aa?auaieyo
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe aeaenoaotho caeiiiu nio?aiaiey (o.a. caeiiu,
niaeanii eioi?ui /eneaiiua cia/aiey iaeioi?uo oece/aneeo aaee/ei ia
eciaiythony n oa/aieai a?aiaie i?e ?acee/iuo i?ioeannao) – eae
aaaeiaeoea, no?iaea ec ieo (caeiiu nio?aiaiey yia?aee, eiioeuena,
iiiaioa eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey), oae e i?eaeeaeaiiua, ni?aaaaeeeaua aeey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa i?ioeannia (caeiiu nio?aiaiey eaioiiiiai ca?yaea,
aa?eiiiiai ca?yaea, /aoiinoe).

6. Eiioeaioeee iauaaeeiaiey oeceee

Aaeeioth iieioth oai?eth anaai i?ienoiaeyuaai ai Anaeaiiie iino?ieoue
iaaiciiaeii, iiyoiio nia/aea nicaeathony /anoiua oai?ee, iauaaeeiythuea
eaeea-oi /anoe Anaeaiiie. Iaaeaaeaeu ia nicaeaiea iai?ioeai?a/eaie
aaeeiie oai?ee, a eioi?oth aieaeoo ana /anoiua oai?ee, ia inoaaeytho
oeceeia. Cicaeaiea oaeie oai?ee i?eiyoi iacuaaoue iauaaeeiaieai oeceee.
Aai nicaeaieth Yeiooaei aaconiaoii ioaeae iineaaeiea aiaeu naiae aeecie.
Ii, ioeacaaoenue i?eiyoue ?aaeueiinoue eaaioiaie iaoaieee, aa i?eioeei
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe eae ooiaeaiaioaeueiue i?eioeei ie?icaeaiey, ii ia niia
aeinoe/ue oniao ia yoii iii?eua.

N.Oieeia e ae?oaea oeceee-oai?aoeee n iioeieciii (oioy e inoi?iaeiui)
niio?yo ia aiciiaeiinoue iino?iaiey aaeeiie oai?ee, caaa?oathuae iienee
ieii/aoaeueiuo caeiiia i?e?iaeu.

Nae/an eiaao ianoi iauay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie
/anoioth oai?eth a?aaeoaoeee. Anoue /anoiua oai?ee, iienuaathuea neaaua,
neeueiua e yeaeo?iiaaieoiua acaeiiaeaenoaey, – eo iiaeii iauaaeeieoue a
oai?ee aaeeeiai iauaaeeiaiey. Ii iineaaeiyy oeceeaie ia i?eciaaony
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie, iineieueeo ia aeeth/aao a?aaeoaoeeth e niaea?aeeo
aaee/eiu, eioi?ua ia auaiaeyony oai?aoe/anee, a iiaeae?athony iooai eo
iaeeo/oaai niaeaney n yenia?eiaioii (iai?eia?, ioiineoaeueiua iannu
?aciuo /anoeoe). N/eoaaony, /oi iniiaiie o?oaeiinoueth iino?iaiey
oai?ee, iauaaeeiythuae a?aaeoaoeeth n ae?oaeie neeaie, yaeyaony
iaaeeth/aiiinoue eaaioiai-iaoaie/aneiai i?eioeeia iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a
eeanne/aneoth iauoth oai?eth ioiineoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio enoiaeiui
iiiaioii nicaeaiey aaeeiie oai?ee yaeyaony iauaaeeiaiea iauae oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe e i?eioeeia iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe eaaioiaie iaoaieee. A
?acoeueoaoa yoiai iauaaeeiaiey /a?iua aeu?u (ni. ?acaeae i eiioeaioeeyo
ano?iiiiee) ia?anoatho auoue oaeiauie, en/acatho neiaoey?iinoe,
Anaeaiiay noaiiaeony caieiooie e aaca?aie/iie. Ii a yoii neo/aa
aicieeatho o?oaeiinoe, iaoneiaeaiiua oai, /oi, a niioaaonoaee n
i?eioeeiii iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, i?ino?ainoai aeieaeii auoue caiieiaii
i(a?aie ae?ooaeueiuo /anoeoe e aioe/anoeoe, iaeaaeathueo aaneiia/iie
yia?aeae e aaneiia/iie iannie. Nicaeaaaaiia eie a?aaeoaoeeiiiia
i?eoyaeaiea aeieaeii i?eaanoe e nai?a/eaaieth Anaeaiiie aei aaneiia/ii
iaeuo ?acia?ia. Iiaeiaiua ia?aaeienu aaneiia/iinoe iau/ii ono?aiythony n
iiiiuueth ia?aii?ie?iaee – i?ioeaaeo?u aaaaeaiey iiauo aaneiia/iinoae
aeey eiiiainaoeee noa?uo. A /anoiuo oai?eyo iieo/aiiua n iiiiuueth
ia?aii?ie?iaee i?aaeneacaiey niaeanothony n ?acoeueoaoaie iaaethaeaiee.
A ieaia aea nicaeaiey iieiie oai?ee iaoiae ia?aii?ie?iaie ia iicaieyao
oai?aoe/anee i?aaeneacuaaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiua cia/aiey iann e nee,
iiyoiio eo i?eoiaeeony iiaeae?aoue iiaeaiieie e yenia?eiaioo. Anoue
eeoue aeaa /enea, eioi?ua iiaeii iiaeaiiyoue i?e aeeth/aiee i?eioeeia
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a iauoth oai?eth ioiineoaeueiinoe. Yoi – aaee/eia
a?aaeoaoeeiiiie neeu e einiieiae/aneay iinoiyiiay. Iaeiaei eo eciaiaiey
ia iiaoo ono?aieoue aaneiia/iinoue. Iieo/aaony, /oi iu eiaai oai?eth, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie iaeioi?ua aaee/eiu (iai?eia?, e?eaecia
i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie) yaeythony aaneiia/iuie, oioy ec eciaiaiee
auoaeaao, /oi iie eiia/iu. Iiyoiio aeey auoiaea ec iieiaeaiey noaee
eniieueciaaoue oae iacuaaaioth oai?eth noia?a?aaeoaoeee, eioi?ay
aaneiia/iinoe ono?aiyea, oioy inoaaaeinue niiiaiea a oii, ana ee
aaneiia/iinoe ono?aiyeenue, a caoai oeceee ia?aoeeenue e oai?eyi no?oi a
eioi?uo i?iaiice?iaaeinue nie?auaiea aaneiia/iinoae.

N.Oieeia aeiioneaao o?e aa?eaioa ioaaoa ia aii?in, aiciiaeia ee aaeeiay
oai?ey. Ia?aue aa?eaio: iieiay oai?ey iiaeao auoue noi?ioee?iaaia.
Aoi?ie aa?eaio: aaeeiie iieiie oai?ee iao, a anoue eeoue aaneiia/iay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oai?ee, aeathueo ana aieaa oi/iia iienaiea
Anaeaiiie. O?aoee aa?eaio aaeeiie iieiie oai?ee Anaeaiiie ia nouanoaoao,
niauoey a iineaaeiae i?ienoiaeyo i?iecaieueii e aanii?yaei/ii e ia iiaoo
auoue i?aaeneacaiu aeaeaa iaeioi?iai i?aaeaea. Anee noaaeoue oeaeue –
iaeoe nenoaio caeiiia, aeathueo aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeneacuaaoue niauoey a
i?aaeaeao oi/iinoe, onoaiaaeeaaaiie i?eioeeiii iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, oi oai
naiui o?aoee aa?eaio eneeth/aaony. Aoi?ay aiciiaeiinoue, enoiaeyuay ec
nouanoaiaaiey aaneiia/iie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ana aieaa oi/iuo oai?ee,
niaeanoaony n iaoei iiuoii. Ii iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ana aieaa oi/iuo
oai?ee i?e ia?aoiaea e aieaa aunieei yia?aeyi iiaeao eiaoue i?aaeae. I?e
eaeeo-oi yia?aeyo e aeieaeia nouanoaiaaoue aaeeiay oai?ey Anaeaiiie.
Noieue aunieea yia?aee iiaee aicieeiooue ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey
Anaeaiiie. Iiyoiio eco/aiea ?aiiae Anaeaiiie iiaeao i?eaanoe e
nicaeaieth iieiie aaeeiie oai?ee.

Anee au iieiay aaeeiay oai?ey ieacaeanue iaoaiaoe/anee iai?ioeai?a/eaie
e aa i?aaeneacaiey niaiaaeaee n iiuoii, oi “yoei caaa?oeeanue au
aeeeiiay e oaeeaeoaeueiay aeaaa a enoi?ee eioaeeaeooaeueiie ai?ueau
/aeiaa/anoaa ca iiciaiea Anaeaiiie”. Ii nicaeaiea oaeie oai?ee ia
icia/aao, /oi iu niiaeai i?aaeneacuaaoue niauoey aiiaua, eai
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeneacaiee ia?aie/eaathony, ai-ia?auo, i?eioeeiii
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e, ai-aoi?uo, iaoiaieai iaoiaeeoue oi/iua ?aoaiey
iienuaathueo oai?eth o?aaiaiee (a iioiio iaiaoiaeeia ?ac?aaioea
i?eaeeaeaiiuo iaoiaeia, iicaieythueo i?aaeneacuaaoue ?acoeueoaou a
?aaeueiuo neooaoeeyo).

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie n/eoaeinue, /oi Anaeaiiay ia eciaiyaony ni
a?aiaiai – ec oiai, /oi a?aaeoaoeeiiiua neeu yaeythony anaaaea neeaie
i?eoyaeaiey, neaaeoao, /oi Anaeaiiay aeieaeia eeai ?anoe?youeny, eeai
naeeiaoueny. Ec iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe ecaanoii, /oi a i?ioeii
auei ninoiyiea n aaneiia/iie ieioiinoueth e aieueoie ac?ua, iieiaeeaoee
ia/aei ion/aoo a?aiaie. Anee Anaeaiiay ia/iao naeeiaoueny, oi a aoaeouai
aeieaeii iiyaeoueny aua iaeii ninoiyiea n aaneiia/iie ieioiinoueth
i?iecieaeao aieueoie oeiiie, icia/athuee eiiaoe oa/aiey a?aiaie. A
ia?aciaaaoeony /a?iuo aeu?ao aicieeioo neiaoey?iinoe, a eioi?uo caeiiu
ia?anoaioo aeaenoaiaaoue. (Ni. ?acaeae “Eiioeaioeee ano?iiiiee”).

I?e iauaaeeiaiee eaaioiaie iaoaieee e iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe
iiaeao aicieeiooue iiaay aiciiaeiinoue, eiaaea i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy
ia?acotho eiia/iia /aou?aoia?iia i?ino?ainoai aac neiaoey?iinoae e
a?aieoe. N iiiiuueth yoie aiciiaeiinoe iiaeii auei au iauynieoue
iaeii?iaeiinoue Anaeaiiie a aieueoeo ianooaaao e ioeeiiaiey io
iaeii?iaeiinoe a iaiueoeo ianooaaao (aaeaeoeee, caacaeu, /aeiaa/aneea
nouanoaa), a oaeaea nouanoaiaaiea iaaethaeaaiuo no?ae a?aiaie.

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi aaeeiay iieiay oai?ey nicaeaia – yoi aoaeao iaai?
i?aaee e o?aaiaiee. Ii aaaeue iia ia ioaa/aao ia aii?in, ii/aio aeieaeia
nouanoaiaaoue Anaeaiiay, eioi?oth iienuaaao yoa oai?ey“ Iiea
aieueoeinoai o/aiuo neeoeii caiyou ?acaeoeai iiauo oai?ee, iienuaathueo,
/oi anoue Anaeaiiay, e ei iaeiaaea ni?ineoue naay, ii/aio iia anoue.
Oeeiniou aea, /uey ?aaioa a oii e ninoieo, /oiau caaeaaaoue aii?in
“ii/aio”, ia iiaoo oaiaoueny ca ?acaeoeai iao/iuo oai?ee. A XVIII aaea
oeeiniou n/eoaee ana /aeiaa/aneea ciaiey, a oii, /enea e iaoeo, iieai
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe e caieiaeenue ianoaeaeaieai aii?inia oeia: auei ee
o Anaeaiiie ia/aei? Ii ?an/aou e iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao iaoee XIX e XX
aa. noaee neeoeii neiaeiu aeey oeeinioia e aiiaua aeey anao, e?iia
niaoeeaeenoia. Oeeiniou ianoieueei noceee e?oa naieo cai?inia, /oi naiue
ecaanoiue oeeinio iaoaai aaea Oeoaaiooaei (Aeoaaiooaei -A.E.) ii yoiio
iiaiaeo neacae: “Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi aua inoaaony oeeinioee, – yoi aiaeec
ycuea”. Eaeia oieaeaiea aeey oeeinioee n aa aaeeeeie o?aaeeoeeyie io
A?enoioaey aei Eaioa”.

*anoue aii?inia, ioiinyueony e nicaeaieth aaeeiie oai?ee iiey e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo, aoaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny a ?acaeaeao, iinayuaiiui
ae?oaei iaoeai.

Caeeth/aiea

Eoae, /oi aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nia?aiaiiay oeceea e eaeiaa
oaiaeaioeey aa ?acaeoey? Aoaeao oeaeaniia?acii acaeyiooue ia i?ieaeaiiue
oeceeie iooue aeacaie aa oai?oeia e ioeaieoue aeinoeaiooia eo neiaaie.
I?aaeaea anaai, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeceea eae oeaeinoiia
ia?aciaaiea?

Oeceea, a i?aaenoaaeaiee A.Aaeneiioa, – yoi aea?aai, a ieaeiae /anoe
noaiea eioi?iai iaoiaeyony eeanne/aneay oeceea, yeaeo?iaeeiaieea e
oeceea oaieiou aianoa n oe?iei ?aneeioaoeieny aaoayie, neiaieece?othueie
iaoe?iua i?eeiaeaiey yoeo iai?aaeaiee. Auoa ii noaieo iaoiaeyony aoiiiay
oeceea n aa aaoayie, oaeeie eae oeiey, iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea, yeaeo?iieea e
iioeea. Aua auoa ?aniieiaeaia yaea?iay oeceea n aa iieiaeuie aaoayie,
neiaieece?othueie iaoeo i ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe, iaoiae ia/aiuo aoiiia,
aaieiaeth e ano?ioece/aneea i?eeiaeaiey. Ia aa?oeia, aaea iiea iao
aaoaae, iiiauathony nia?aiaiiua oeceea yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe e
einiiiieiaey. Oanoueaeanyo eao iacaae aa?oooeie aac aaoaae auea aoiiiay
oeceea.

Neaaeothuee aii?in: eaeiaa ?ieue oeceee a nia?aiaiiii ie?a? Ii yoiio
iiaiaeo A.Aaecaiaa?a au?aceeny neaaeothuei ia?acii: “… nia?aiaiiay
oeceea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oieueei iaeio, oioy e aanueia oa?aeoa?ioth
noi?iio iauaai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, eiathuaai oaiaeaioeeth e
iauaaeeiaieth e ?anoe?aieth iaoaai nia?aiaiiiai ie?a… a aeaoo
?aoathueo ioieoao, iia, ii-aeaeeiiio, iiiiaaao iai?aaeoue ?acaeoea ii
ie?iui ?aeuenai. Ai-ia?auo, iia iieacuaaao, /oi i?eiaiaiea i?oaeey a
yoii i?ioeanna eiaei au /oaeiaeuiua iineaaenoaey, e, ai-aoi?uo, naiae
aeinooiiinoueth aeey iiiaeo enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeony niiniaia iuoeaiey
iia i?iaoaeaeaao iaaeaaeaeo , /oi a ieii/aoaeueiii ninoiyiee ?acee/iua
eoeueoo?iua o?aaeeoeee, iiaua e noa?ua, aoaeo ninouanoaiaaoue, /oi
aanueia ?acii?iaeiua /aeiaa/aneea ono?aieaiey iiaoo auoue niaaeeiaiu
aeey oiai, /oiau iiaia ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo iuneyie e aeaenoaeai, iaaeaeo
niaea?aeaoaeueiinoueth e aeoeaiinoueth”.

E aua iaeei aii?in: eaeiaa oeaeue oece/aneie iaoee? A.Yeiooaei e
E.Eioaeueae, caaa?oay naith eieao “Yaiethoeey oeceee”, ioia/atho, /oi
oece/aneea eiioeaioeee no?aiyony i?aaenoaaeoue ea?oeio ?aaeueiinoe e
onoaiiaeoue aa naycue n ie?ii /oanoaaiiuo aini?eyoee. Iaeiei ec
ia?ae/iuo iiiyoee aunooiaao iiiyoea iauaeoa. Iiiyoea ethaiai
iaoa?eaeueiiai iauaeoa nicaeaaony ia iniiaa iiuoa. Oeceea oaeoe/anee
ia/eiaaony n aaaaeaiey iiiyoey iannu, neeu e eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu,
eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e oi?ioee?iaea iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiiu
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aeey oeceea XIX aaea ?aaeueiinoue aiaoiaai ie?a
ninoiyea ec /anoeoe, iaaeaeo eioi?uie aeaenoaotho i?inoua neeu, eioi?ua
caaenaee oieueei io ?annoiyiey. Ii aa?ee a oi, /oi n iiiiuueth yoeo
iiiyoee oaeanony iauynieoue ana yaeaiey i?e?iaeu. Eiaaea oeceee
noieeioeenue n yaeaieyie yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai oa?aeoa?a, auei aaaaeaii
iiiyoea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey (eai iiiyoea yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai yoe?a a
iauyniaiee yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo yaeaiee ia iiaei ane?uoue eo nouiinoue).
Aeey oiai, /oiau iiiyoue, /oi ia iiaaaeaiea oae, a iiaaaeaiea /aai-oi
iaoiaeyuaainy iaaeaeo ieie, o.a. iiey, oii?yaei/eaaao yaeaiey e
iicaieyao iiiyoue eo nouiinoue, o?aaiaaeenue cia/eoaeueiua
ineoieiae/aneea oneeey. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iaoee ioa?ineei noa?ua
iiiyoey e aaaei iiaua. Oae, oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe ioa?ineea iiiyoea
aaniethoiiai i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie e aaaea iiiyoea /aou?aoia?iiai
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiiai eiioeiooia. Eaaioiaay oai?ey ?ane?uea iiaua
nouanoaaiiua /a?ou ?aaeueiinoe: i?a?uaiinoue anoaea ia ianoi
iai?a?uaiinoe, aianoi caeiiia, oi?aaeythueo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie
iauaeoaie, iiyaeeenue aa?iyoiinoiua caeiiu. Ii oeaeue oece/aneeo oai?ee
inoaeanue i?aaeiae – n eo iiiiuueth iu iuoaainy ane?uoue nouiinoue
iaaethaeaaiuo oaeoia, oii?yaei/eoue e iinoe/ue ie? /oanoaaiiuo
aini?eyoee. O.a. iu no?aieiny e oiio, /oiau iaaethaeaaiua oaeou
neaaeiaaee ec iaoaai iiieiaiey ?aaeueiinoe. Aac aa?u ai aioo?aiithth
aa?iiieth iaoaai ie?a, aac aa?u a aiciiaeiinoue ioaaoeoue ?aaeueiinoue n
iiiiuueth oai?aoe/aneeo iino?iaiee ia iiaeao auoue iaoee.

Ia?iiiia ?aciiia?acea oaeoia a iaeanoe aoiiiuo yaeaiee canoaaeyao
ecia?aoaoue e aaiaeeoue a iaeoiae iiaua oece/aneea iiiyoey. Aauanoai
ninoieo ec yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe – yeaiaioa?iuo eaaioia aauanoaa. Naao
oaeaea ninoieo ec oioiiia – eaaioia yia?aee. Iienee ioaaoia ia aii?inu,
/ai yaeyaony naao – aieiie eee eeaiai oioiiia, /ai yaeyaony io/ie
yeaeo?iiia – eeaiai yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe eee aieiie, iiaoaeaeaao aua
aeaeueoa ionooieoue io iaoaie/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey. Eaaioiaay oeceea e
oi?ioee?oao caeiiu, oi?aaeythuea niaieoiiinoyie, a ia eiaeeaeaeooiaie. A
eaaioiaie oeceea iienuaathony ia naienoaa, a aa?iyoiinoe, oi?ioee?othony
caeiiu, oi?aaeythuea eciaiaieyie ai a?aiaie aa?iyoiinoae, ioiinyueany e
aieueoei niaieoiiinoyi eiaeeaeaeooiia, a ia caeiiu, ?ane?uaathuea
aoaeouaa nenoaiu, eae yoi i?enoua eeanne/aneie oeceea.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaiiiaei aieaa noa eao iacaae iaoea auea iienaoaeueiie:
iienaiea aeaeaeaiey oaa?aeuo oae eee aeeaeeinoae a iaoaieea e
aeae?iaeeiaieea, naienoa yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo iieae a
yeaeo?iaeeiaieea, ?aaeoeee aoiiia e iieaeoe a oeiee. Caoai oeaee oeceee
eciaieeenue: io iienaiey iia ia?aoea e iauyniaieth. I?ia?ann iaoee,
inouanoaeaiiue Ieaieii. Yeiooaeiii, ?aca?oi?aeii, Ai?ii.
Ciiia?oaeueaeii, O?aaeeiaa?ii, Aaecaiaa?aii, Iaoee, Aee?aeii, i?eaae e
ioe?uoeth eaaioa aeaenoaey, aoiia, iaeaaeathuaai yae?ii, eaaioiaaiiuo
i?aeo, eaaioiaie iaoaieee, aeeiaieee aoiia. Neaaeothuee yoai a ?acaeoee
oeceee ioe?ueny ?aaioaie I.Neeiaeianeie-Eth?e, iicaieeaoeie i?enooieoue
e eco/aieth aioo?aiiaai no?iaiey aoiiiiai yae?a. Enneaaeiaaiey no?oeoo?u
aoiia auyaeee ia?iiiia ?aciiia?acea yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, /oi canoaaeei
oeceeia eneaoue a yoii ?aciiia?acee aaeeinoai e iuoaoueny no?ieoue
eiioeaioeeth iauaaeeiaiey oeceee. Eeanne/aneee yoai a ?acaeoee oeceee n
iino?iaieai eaaioiaie oai?ee onooiee ianoi iaeeanne/aneiio. Naaiaeiy
oeceea ia/eiaao ia?aoiae e iinoiaeeanne/aneiio yoaio naiaai ?acaeoey.
Neiaeeaoayny ia iaeeanne/aneii yoaia ?acaeoey oeceee ea?oeia ie?a
yaeyaony i?eioeeieaeueii iacaaa?oaiiie – iuouaaony ana aieueoay
iio?aaiinoue a ia?aoiaea e yaiethoeeiiiie ia?aaeeaia. Eiiieaen i?iaeai,
eanathueony yoiai ia?aoiaea, aoaeao ?anniio?ai a ?acaeaea, iinayuaiiii
neia?aaoeea.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu

1. *oi eco/aao oeceea?

2. Eaeiaa nia?aiaiiay no?oeoo?a oeceee?

3. Eaeiau ianoi oeceee a nenoaia iaoe e aa ?ieue a ?acaeoee
anoanoaiciaiey?

4. Eaeiau oeaeue e ?ieue oeceee a nia?aiaiiii ie?a?

5. Eaeiau iniiaiua ia?aaeeaiu oeceee a eiioaenoa aa enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey?

6. Eaeiau iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey oeceee?

7. Eaeiau iniaaiiinoe eeanne/aneie, iaeeanne/aneie e iinoiaeeanne/aneie
oeceee?

8. Eaeiau iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie e iniiaiua oece/aneea eiioeaioeee i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie?

9. A /ai nouiinoue iiiyoey ninoiyiey oece/aneie nenoaiu e eaeiau
iniiaiua yoaiu aai ?acaeoey?

10. Eae ioiinyony iaaeaeo niaie aeeiaie/aneea e noaoenoe/aneea
oece/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe?

11. Eaeiaa nouiinoue ei?ioneoey?iie e eiioeooaeueiie eiioeaioeee a
oeceea?

12. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa oeiu aeaoa?ieiecia e eiaeaoa?ieiecia.

Aa?iae Aeae. Iaoea a enoi?ee iauanoaa. I., 1956. N.119.

Oeeo. ii: Aei?oiai ss.A. Oeeo.ni/.N.77.

Ni. ia yoii: Aa?iae Aeae. Iaoea a enoi?ee iauanoaa. I., 1956.

Ia ono?ienoaa “eiie/aneiai i?eai?a”. ni.: Aei?oiai ss.A. Oeeo.ni/.
N.93.

Ni.: Aei?oiai ss.A. Oeeo. ni/. N.100.

Aa?iae Aeae. Iaoea a enoi?ee iauanoaa. I.,1956.N.215.

Aei?oiai ss.A. Oeac. ni/. N.130.

Oeeo. ii: Aa?iae Aeae. Iaoea a enoi?ee iauanoaa. I.,1956.N.265.
(“Iaoaiaoe/aneea ia/aea iaoo?aeueiie oeeinioee” iioaeeeiaaiu a: E?ueia
A.I. Nia?.ni/. O.7.I.,1936).

Eoae?yaoeaa I.N. Eo?n enoi?ee oeceee. I., 1982 N.144.

Oeeo. ii: Aei?oiaiss.A. Anaie?iay enoi?ey oeceee n ia/aea XIX aei
na?aaeeiu XX aa. I.,1979. N.8.

Eaoy I. Enoi?ey Oeceee.I.,1956.N.46.

Aa?iae Aeae. Iaoea a enoi?ee iauanoaa.I.,1956.N.329.

Yeiooaei A., Eioaeueae E. Yaiethoeey oeceee. I.,1965. N.196.

A?ieeue E. aea. ?aaiethoeey a oeceea. I.,1963. N.84.

Aaecaiaa?a A. Oeceea e oeeinioey. I., 1963. N. 36-37.

A?ieeue aea E. ?aaiethoeey a oeceea.I.,1963.N.187-188.

Ni., iai?.: Aeaenaaa E.N. ?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeaiee i no?oeoo?a aoiia.
Oeeinioneee i/a?e. Iiaineae?ne,1968.

Aa?iae Aeae. Iaoea a enoi?ee iauanoaa.I.,1956.N.414-415

Oieeia N. Io aieueoiai ac?uaa aei /a?iuo aeu?. E?aoeay enoi?ey a?aiaie.
I.,1990. N.70.

Oieeia N. Oai aea. N.71-72

Oieeia N. Oeeo.ni/. N.74.

Ni.: Oieeia N.Oeeo.ni/.N.137-143.

Ni.: Oieeia N. Oai aea.N.142.

Oieeia N. Oeeo.ni/. N.147.

Ni.: Aaeneiio A. Oeceea a aeaaaeoeaoii noieaoee. I.,1977.N.265.

Aaecaiaa?a A. Oeceea e oeeinioey.I.,1963.N.175-176.

Yeiooaei A., Eioaeueae E. Yaiethoeey oeceee I.,1965.N.240-242.

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