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Ядерные реакторы и безопасность

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13

ssAeA?IUA ?AAEOI?U E AACIIANIINOUe

AAAAeAIEA

1. IIIssOEA OeAIIIE ?AAEOeEE

2. EIYOOEOeEAIO ?ACIIIAEAIEss

3. ?ACAEOEA OeAIIIE ?AAEOeEE AI A?AIAIE

4. AeAEssUEANss IAOA?EAEU

5. I?EIOeEIU IINO?IAIEss ssAeA?IUO ?AAEOI?IA

6. EIINO?OEOEAIUA INIAAIIINOE IINO?IAIEss ssAeA?IUO ?AAEOI?IA

7. AACIIANIINOUe ssAeA?IUO ?AAEOI?IA

AEAEEIA?AOE*ANEEE NIENIE

AAAAeAIEA

Aic?anoathuaa cia/aiea yaea?iie oaoieee a iauai yia?aaoe/aneii aaeaina
auaeaeaaao naaiaeiy eae iaeio ec aeooaeueiuo caaea/ aeaeueiaeoaa
niaa?oainoaiaaiea yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia. I?aaeaea anaai yoi ioiineony e oai
?aaeoi?ai, ia iniiaa eioi?uo ieaie?oaony ?acaeoea yaea?iie yia?aaoeee a
aeeaeaeoea 10-15 eao.

ssaea?iue ?aaeoi? (aoiiiue ?aaeoi?) – yoi ono?ienoai aeey inouanoaeaiey
oi?aaeyaiie yaea?iie oeaiiie ?aaeoeee. I?eioeei aeaenoaey yaea?iiai
?aaeoi?a iniiaai ia eniieueciaaiee yia?aee aeaeaiey yaea? oyaeaeuo
yeaiaioia e inouanoaeyaony /a?ac eiiieaen naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathueony
yaea?ii-oece/aneeo, oeie/aneeo e oaieioece/aneeo i?ioeannia.

1. Iiiyoea oeaiiie ?aaeoeee

A iniiaa oeaiiiai i?ioeanna anaaaea eaaeeo yeciyia?aaoe/aneay ?aaeoeey,
iaeaaeathuay oai naienoaii, /oi aicaoaeaeaaony /anoeoeae e ii?iaeaeaao
aoi?e/iua /anoeoeu. Anee a eaaeaeii aeoa ?aaeoeee iiyaeyaony oieueei
iaeia /anoeoea iineoaeue, oi oeaiiay ?aaeoeey iacuaaaony
ia?acaaoaeaiiie. Ia?acaaoaeaiiay oeaiiay ?aaeoeey ia iiaeao noaoue
naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuaeny. Anee a eaaeaeii aeoa ?aaeoeee eee a iaeioi?uo
caaiueyo oeaie iiyaeyaony aieaa iaeiie /anoeoeu, oi aicieeaao
?acaaoaeaiiay oeaiiay ?aaeoeey, eai iaeia eo aoi?e/iuo /anoeoe
i?iaeieaeaao ia/aooth oeaiue, a ae?oaea aeatho iiaua oeaie, eioi?ua
niiaa aaoayony. I?aaaea , n i?ioeannii aaoaeaiey eiieo?e?otho
i?ioeannu, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e ia?uaai oeaiae. Anee /enei ia?acothueony
iiauo oeaiae i?aainoiaeeo /enei ia?uaia, oeaiiay ?aaeoeey auno?i
?ani?ino?aiyaony ii anaio iauaio aauanoaa i?e iiyaeaiee oioy au iaeiie
ia/aeueiie /anoeoeu. Ninoiyiea i?e eioi?ii /enei iiauo oeaiae ?aaii
/eneo ia?uaia iacuaaaony e?eoe/aneei. [ 1 ]

Aeaeaiea oyaeaeiai yae?a aicaoaeaeaaony iaeiei iaeo?iiii, a a
?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey iiyaeyaony aieaa iaeiiai iaeo?iia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaeoeey aeaeaiey iiaeao ii?iaeeoue
naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuothny oeaiioth ?aaeoeeth, iineoaeyie eioi?ie aoaeoo
neoaeeoue iaeo?iiu.

2. Eiyooeoeeaio ?aciiiaeaiey

Eaaeaeay iiaay oeaiue ia/eiaaony iaeiie /anoeoeae e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
?aciiiaeaiea oeaiae anoue ?aciiiaeaiea /anoeoe. Iiyoiio aeey iienaiey
?acaeaathueony a ?acaaoaeaiiuo oeaiiuo ?aaeoeeyo yaeaiee iieuecothony
iiiyoeai eiyooeoeeaioa ?aciiiaeaiey /anoeoe, iiae eioi?uie
iiae?acoiaaathony iaeo?iiu. Eaaeaeue iaeo?ii, o/anoaothuee a oeaiiii
i?ioeanna, i?ioiaeeo oeeee ia?auaiey: ?iaeaeaaony a ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey,
iaeioi?ia a?aiy nouanoaoao a naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee, caoai eeai oa?yaony,
eeai ii?iaeaeaao iiaue aeo aeaeaiey e aeaao iaeo?iiu neaaeothuaai
iieieaiey.

Eiyooeoeeaioii ?aciiiaeaiey iaeo?iiia k iacuaaaony ioiioaiea /enea
iaeo?iiia iineaaeothuaai iieieaiey e eo /eneo a i?aaeoanoaothuai
iieieaiee ai anai iauaia ?aciiiaeathuae iaeo?iiu n?aaeu. Iieieaiey
iaeo?iiia i?e iai?a?uaiii eo ia?auaiee ?acaeaeaiu n?aaeiei a?aiaiai
iaeo?iiiiai oeeeea. [ 1 ]

E?eoe/aneia ninoiyiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony oneiaeai k = 1. I?e k 1
ninoiyiea aauanoaa iacuaaaony iiaee?eoe/aneei e oeaiiay ?aaeoeey
caoooaao, anee a ia/aeueiue iiiaio a n?aaea nouanoaiaaei eaeia-oi /enei
iaeo?iiia, a anee a ia/aeueiue iiiaio iaeo?iiia ia auei, oi oeaiiay
?aaeoeey aiiaua iaaiciiaeia. A iaaee?eoe/aneii ninoiyiee k 1 e
oeaiiay ?aaeoeey eaaeiiia?acii ia?anoaao aei oao ii?, iiea a neeo
eaeeo-eeai i?e/ei ia noaiao k 1. Iineieueeo oyaeaeua yae?a iiaoo
aeaeeony naiii?iecaieueii, oi eaeia-oi iaeia /enei iaeo?iiia anaaaea
i?enoonoaoao a n?aaea, aeeth/athuae oyaeaeua ioeeeaeu, a cia/eo, anaaaea
iaoiaeeony ia?aue iaeo?ii, ia/eiathuee oeaiiie i?ioeann. E?iia oiai,
naiaiaeiua iaeo?iiu iiyaeythony iianthaeo eae i?iaeoeou yaea?iuo
?aaeoeee, aicaoaeaeaaiuo einie/aneeie /anoeoeaie, oae /oi i?e
aeinoeaeaiee ninoiyiey n k 1 oeaiiay ?aaeoeey aeaeaiey ia/eiaaony naia
ii naaa e iaiaaeeaiii.

3. ?acaeoea oeaiiie ?aaeoeee ai a?aiaie

Eciaiaiea /enea iaeo?iiia a iae?eoe/aneii ?aaeoi?a ii?aaeaeyaony
ioee/eai /enea k io aaeeieoeu e a?aiaiai iaeo?iiiie oeeeea . Anee a
iaeioi?ue iiiaio a?aiaie a ?aaeoi?a eiaaony n iaeo?iiia, oi ii
ii?aaeaeaieth eiyooeoeeaioa ?aciiiaeaiey eo /enei ii i?ioanoaee iaeiiai
oeeeea ia?auaiey noaiiaeony ?aaiui kn , a i?e?auaiea ca a?aiy oeeeea
ninoaaeo kn – n = n ( k – 1 ). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eciaiaiea /enea
iaeo?iiia a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie

dn n ( k-1 )

= .

dt

?aoaiea yoiai o?aaiaiey aeaao caaeneiinoue /enea iaeo?iiia io a?aiaie e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, yia?aiauaeaeaiea a ?aaeoi?a. A n?aaeao ec /enouo
aeaeyueony iaoa?eaeia a?aiaia iaeo?iiiuo oeeeeia eiatho ii?yaeie 10 -8
n. I?e k = 1,1 iaeei ia/aeueiue iaeo?ii /a?ac 6 ien ii?iaeaeaao 10
26 iaeo?iiia, /oi yeaeaaeaioii aeaeaieth 40 ea o?aia a iiiaio t = 6
ien. Yoa ioeaiea iieacuaaao, /oi nei?inoue ia?anoaiey oeaiiie ?aaeoeee
aeaeaiey iiaeao auoue iaiau/aeii auniea, a i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaiiia
yia?aiauaeaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yaea?iue ac?ua. Iiuiinoe yaea?iuo
ac?uaia iau/ii ioeaieaatho a yeaeaaeaioao iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai
oeie/aneiai ac?ua/aoiai aauanoaa – o?eieo?ioieoiea ( OIO ).
Auaeaeythuayny i?e aeaeaiee 1 ea o?aia yia?aey ?aaia yia?aee ,
inaiaiaeaeathuaeny i?e ac?uaa 20 000 o OIO. [ 1 ]

4. Aeaeyueany iaoa?eaeu

A ea/anoaa aeaeyuaainy aauanoaa eniieuecothony iau/ii ecioiiu o?aia
233 U, 235 U, 238 U, ecioiiu oi?ey 232 Th, a oaeaea ecioiiu
ieooiiey 239 Pu , 240 Pu , 241 Pu. [ 2 ]

A /enoii aeaeyuainy iaoa?eaea, iai?eia? a 235 U, oeaiiay ?aaeoeey
eaaei inouanoaeia, iaeiaei noieiinoue /enouo aeaeyueony iaoa?eaeia
i/aiue auniea ec-ca neiaeiie oaoiieiae iieo/aiey, e eo i?eiaiaiea
ia?aie/eaaaony aeaaiui ia?acii aiaiiuie oeaeyie. Aeey iieo/aiey yia?aee
a yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ao oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue i?e?iaeiue eee
iaiaauaiiue ecioiiii 235 U o?ai.

Ecioiiiue ninoaa eiathuaainy a i?e?iaea o?aia i?eaaaeai a oaaeeoea 1

Oaaeeoea 1

EcioiiNiaea?aeaiea, %238 U99,28235 U0,714234 U0,006

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi i?e?iaeiue o?ai ii/oe iaeiiecioiiiue yeaiaio.
Ec-ca iaeie eiioeaio?aoeee 235 U iieo/aiea oeaiiie ?aaeoeee
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a iaoaeee/aneii i?e?iaeiii o?aia iaaiciiaeii. Aianoa n
oai oeaiiay ?aaeoeey iiaeao auoue iieo/aia a nianyo i?e?iaeiiai eee
neaaiiaiaauaiiiai o?aia n aauanoaaie caiaaeeeoaeyie iaeo?iiia. I?e
aeinoaoi/ii aieueoii eiee/anoaa aoiiia-caiaaeeeoaeae a niane iaeo?iiu
nei?aa caiaaeeythony aei oaieiaie yia?aee, /ai iiaeiuathony a 238 U. A
yoii neo/aa aeaaea i?e iaeie eiioeaio?aoeee 235 U a nianyo n oyaeaeie
aiaeie, aa?eeeeai e a?aoeoii iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi e?eoe/aneia
ninoiyiea i?e eniieueciaaiee i?e?iaeiiai o?aia.

5. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia

Aeinoeaeaiea e?eoe/aneiai ninoiyiey i?aaenoaaeyao iaeaieueoee eioa?an
n oi/ee c?aiey iieo/aiey eiio?iee?oaiiai enoi/ieea yia?aee. A
e?eoe/aneii ninoiyiee /enei iaeo?iiia ia iaiyaony ai a?aiaie.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /enei aeoia aeaeaiey a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie, a cia/eo, e
yia?aiauaeaeaiea iinoiyiiu. Aaniethoiia cia/aiea yia?aiauaeaeaiey i?e
yoii iiaeao auoue iieo/aii ethaui n iiiiuueth nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
oeaiiie ?aaeoeeae. Aaaaeaiea a ?aciiiaeathuoth n?aaeo
aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa aeaeyuaainy iaoa?eaea i?eaiaeeo e
ecauoi/iiio ?aciiiaeaieth oeaiae ?aaeoeee, o.a. nii?iaiaeaeaaony
iiauoaieai k. Iai?ioea, aaaaeaiea iiaeioeoaey iaeo?iiia oaaee/eaaao
/enei ia?uaia oeaiae e nieaeaao k. E?iia oiai aiciiaeii i?eiaiaiea
aauanoa-io?aaeaoaeae iaeo?iiia, ia?aiauaiea eioi?uo aaeece
?aciiiaeathuae n?aaeu oiaiueoaao eee oaaee/eaaao iioa?e iaeo?iiia
ec-ca ooa/ee, /oi oaeaea eciaiyao /enei ia?uaia oeaiae. Iaieioeyoeee
oeacaiiuie yeaiaioaie oi?aaeaiey iicaieytho ia/eiaoue oeaiioth
?aaeoeeth, aeinoeaaoue ethaiai o?iaiy iiuiinoe, iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
noaoeeiia?iue ?aaeei a e?eoe/aneii ninoiyiee e i?ae?auaoue oeaiiie
i?ioeann. Onoaiiaea n eiio?iee?oaiie oeaiiie ?aaeoeeae aeaeaiey e
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yaea?iue ?aaeoi?.

Oneiaii iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa eiioeaioeee iino?iaiey yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?a
– eiioeaioeeth ?aaeoi?a eae oaieioaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa e eiioeaioeeth
?aaeoi?a eae oeceei-oeiiie/aneiai aiia?aoa. [ 3 ]

A eiioeaioeeth ?aaeoi?a eae oaieioaoie/ineiai aiia?aoa iieiaeaiu aeaa
i?eioeeia:

– inaiaiaeeoue yaea?iue ?aaeoi? io anao oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia
?aaaia?aoeee yaea?iiai ai?th/aai e inoaaeoue aio aaeeinoaaiioth
ooieoeeth aaia?aoi?a oaieiaie yia?aee;

– iaeneiaeueii eieaeeciaaoue a ?aaeoi?a iaeanoue, caiyooth aeaeyueieny
iaoa?eaeaie e i?iaeoeoaie aeaeaiey.

Oaeie iiaeoiae e no?ieoaeuenoao ?aaeoi?ia aeae aiciiaeiinoue ia ia?aii
yoaia ?acaeoey yaea?iie yia?aaoeee iaeaieaa auno?i nicaeaoue aoiiiua
yia?aionoaiiaee, iineieueeo a ieo oaeaeinue naanoe e ieieioio eiee/anoai
i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee, a aii?inu ?aaaia?aoeee
ai?th/aai ii nouanoao auee ioeiaeaiu aei eo/oeo a?aiai. Yoa eiioeaioeey
aiieiuaia ai anao nia?aiaiiuo ?aaeoi?ao. Yoa aea eiioeaioeey eaaeeo a
iniiaa ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneeo ?aaeoi?ao ia auno?uo
iaeo?iiao, aaciioeaaeaeaaiuo aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo ?aaeoi?ao e ae?.

Iaaeinoaoeii oaieioaoie/aneie eiioeaioeee yaeyaony iaiieiia
eniieueciaaiea oao iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua caeiaeaiu a
naiii oaiiiaia aeaeaiey yaea? oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia.

Aeueoa?iaoeaie yaeyaony eiioeaioeey ?aaeoi?a eae oeceei-oeie/aneiai
aiia?aoa. A ?aaeoi?ao yoiai oeia inouanoaeyaony iai?a?uaiia oi?aaeaiea
yaea?ii-oece/aneeie, oeie/aneeie e oaieioaoie/aneeie i?ioeannaie,
i?ioaeathueie a oiieeaa, a oaeaea iai?a?uaiay ei??aeoe?iaea
oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa yaea?iiai oiieeaa. ?aoaiea yoie caaea/e a
i?eioeeia iicaieyao iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaaoue aiciiaeiinoe,
caeiaeaiiua a oece/aneie i?e?iaea aeaeaiey yaea?. Ioee/eoaeueiie
iniaaiiinoueth ?aaeoi?ia oeceei-oeie/aneie eiioeaioeee yaeyaony
iauaaeeiaiea n oie eee eiie noaiaiueth iieiiou a iaeiii aiia?aoa
nianoaaiii yaea?iiai ?aaeoi?a e nenoaiu ?aaaia?aoeee ai?th/aai. E
?aaeoi?ai yoiai oeia ioiinyony aacioaciua ?aaeoi?u, aiiiaaiiua ?aaeoi?u
ia aiaeiuo ?anoai?ao eee noniaiceyo o?aia, ?aaeoi?u n
aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneei oiieeaii e aeeaeeinieaaua ?aaeoi?u. [ 3 ]

ssaea?iay yia?aaoeea ia ia?aii yoaia ?acaeoey aeieaeia aace?iaaoueny
ia ?aaeoi?ao oaieioece/aneie eiioeaioeee e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia
i?inoaeoai ec ieo – eaaeiaiaeiii , o.e. ia?aae ?aaeoi?aie
oaieioece/aneie eiioeaioeee noaaeoueny oieueei iaeia caaea/a –
i?aia?aciaaiea yia?aee aeaeaiey yaea? a oaieiaoth, e iiyoiio nicaeaiea
oaeeo ?aaeoi?ia naycaii n inaiaieai n?aaieoaeueii iaiueoaai /enea
i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee. E?iia oiai ia ia?aii yoaia
?acaeoey yae?aiie yia?aaoeee i?iaeaia en/a?iaiey ?ano?nia yaea?iiai
oiieeaa aua ino?i ia noieo. Iiyoiio ieacaeinue yeiiiie/anee
oeaeaniia?aciui no?ieoue yaea?iua ?aaeoi?u n iaiioeiaeueiui
eniieueciaaieai iaeo?iiia aeaeaiey. Ia yoii yoaia aeaaea iieiue ioeac
io ia?a?aaioee e ?aaaia?aoeee oiieeaa ia eeieoe?oao ?acaeoea yaea?iie
yia?aaoeee.

Iaeiaei oaeay neooaoeey ia iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny iaia?aie/aiii aeieai.
Ioeaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo caiania o?aia e niiinoaaeaiea eo n
i?aaeiieaaaaiuie oaiiaie ?acaeoey yaea?iie yia?aaoeee i?eaiaeyo e
auaiaeo, /oi /a?ac 20-30 eao ?ano?nu aeaoaaiai o?aia aoaeoo aeecee e
en/a?iaieth. Iiyoiio i?iaeaia ia?a?aaioee yaea?iiai oiieeaa e yoiio
a?aiaie aeieaeia auoue ?aoaia. ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu ia iniiaa
?aaaia?aoeee oaa?aeioiieeaiuo o?aiiauo noa?aeiae naycaii n ?yaeii iiauo
aeiiieieoaeueiuo o?oaeiinoae. Iaeia ec ieo o?ainii?oe?iaaiea iaeo/aiiuo
yeaiaioia ia ?aaeeioaoie/aneea i?aaei?eyoey.

6. Eiino?oeoeaiua iniaaiiinoe iino?iaiey yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia

ssaea?iua ?aaeoi?u ninoiyo eo iyoe iniiaiuo yeaiaioia: aeaeyuaainy
aauanoaa, caiaaeeeoaey auno?uo iaeo?iiia, nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey, nenoai
aaciianiinoe e ?aaoee?iaaiey. Oa /anoue ?aaeoi?a, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo
aeaeyueeny iaoa?eae e, nianoaaiii a eioi?ie i?ioaeaao oeaiiay
naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuayny ?aaeoeey aeaeaiey,. iacuaaaony aeoeaiie ciiie
?aaeoi?a. [ 3 ]

Anee caiaaeeeoaeue e o?ai ninoaaeytho ?aaiiia?ioth nianue, iai?eia?,
?anoai? niee o?aia a aiaea, ?aaeoi? iacuaaaony aiiiaaiiui. Anee o?ai
?aciauai a caiaaeeeoaee a aeaea iainiaeaiiuo aeieia, oi ?aaeoi?
iacuaaaony aaoa?iaaiiui.

Aeey oaeianoaa ia?auaiey n o?aiii e ioaiaea ec ?aaeoi?a oaiea
o?aiiaua aeiee iau/ii aeaeatho a aeaea oeeeeiae?e/aneeo noa?aeiae eee
nai?ie noa?aeiae, eee aea a aeaea ieanoei (eannao), ?aniieiaeaiiuo ii
iauaio caiaaeeeoaey a ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea. Oii?yaei/aiiay nenoaia
o?aiiauo noa?aeiae ia?acoao ?aoaoeo aeoeaiie ciiu aaoa?iaaiiiai
?aaeoi?a. Iniiaiuie ia?aiao?aie ?aoaoee yaeythony:

– ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo inyie noa?aeiae ( oaa ?aoaoee);

– aeeaiao? o?aiiaiai noa?aeiy.

Yoe aaee/eiu ii?aaeaeytho niioiioaiea iauaiia o?aia e caiaaeeeoaey
a aeoeaiie ciia e a eiia/iii n/aoa eiee/anoai aauanoaa aeoeaiie ciiu.
*aua anaai ine o?aiiauo noa?aeiae ?aniieaaathony eeai a oaeao
eaaae?aoia e oiaaea ?aoaoea iacuaaaony eaaae?aoiie, eeai a oaeao
i?aaeeueiuo o?aoaieueieeia, oiaaea ?aoaoea iacuaaaony o?aoaieueiie eee
aaeniaiiaeueiie. O?aiiaue noa?aeaiue eee nai?ea noa?aeiae aianoe n
i?eeaaathuei e iei caiaaeeeoaeai ninoaaeytho yeaiaioa?ioth y/aeeo
aeoeaiie ciiu. Iaeo?iiiue eee oaieiaie aaeain iaeiie y/aeee yaeyaony
aaeainii anae aeoeaiie ciiu.

Oeaio?aeueiay /anoue y/aeee, naiaiaeiay io caiaaeeeoaey , iacuaaaony
oaoiieiae/aneei eaiaeii. Ii ine oaoiieiae/aneiai eaiaea ?aniieaaaaony
o?aiiaue noa?aeaiue eee nai?ea noa?aeiae. A iauaia o?aia auaeaeyaony
aieaa 90% anae yia?aee aeaeaiey -/anoeoe e ieiei iieiaeiu yia?aee
-eaaioia. Iiyoiio o?aiiaua noa?aeie iacuaatho oaieiauaeaeythueie
yeaiaioaie eee oayeaie. Aeey ioaiaea oaiea aaeieue iiaa?oiinoe oayea
iai?aaeyaony iioie aauanoaa – oaieiiineoaey , aeeaeeinoe eee aaca.
Anee oaieiiineoaeue aeieaeai auoue ioaeaeai io caiaaeeeoaey, ii
iai?aaeyaony ii niaoeeaeueiie o?oaa. Yoie o?oau iiaeao e ia auoue anee
caiaaeeeoaeue e oaieiiineoaeue iaeii e oiaea aauanoai eee anee
aeiioneaaony iinooieaiea oaieiiineoaey a caiaaeeeoaeue.
Oaieiauaeaeythuee yeaiaio, eae i?aaeei eiaao iaiei/eo,
i?aaeioa?auathuoth oeie/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea aauanoaa o?aiiaiai aeiea
n oaieiiineoaeai, aai y?iceth a iioiea oaieiiineoaey, a oaeaea
iinooieaiea a oaieiiineoaeue i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey. A neo/aa iiiaaeaiey
i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey a oaieiiineoaeue aai ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aic?anoaao, /oi yaeyaony iaaeaeaoaeueiui.
Iaoa?eaeu o?oa, iaiei/ae oayeia, a oaeaea aiciiaeiuo ae?oaeo
eiino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia iacuaatho eiino?oeoeeiiiuie iaoa?eaeaie
aeoeaiie ciiu ?aaeoi?a.

7. Aaciianiinoue yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia

Aaciianiinoue yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia iau/ii ?anniao?eaatho n aeaoo oi/ae
c?aiey : yaea?iie e ?aaeeaoeeiiiie. Ioeaiea yaea?iie aaciianiinoe
i?aaeiieaaaao aiaeec oao oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeoi?a, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho
ianooaa aiciiaeiuo eciaiaiee iiuiinoe ?aaeoi?a, aicieeathueo i?e
?acee/iuo aaa?eeiuo neooaoeeyo a nenoaia. Iiae ?aaeeaoeeiiiie
aaciianiinoueth iiieiatho ia?u , i?eieiaaiua aeey caueou
ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea e ianaeaiey io iaeiio?iee?oaiie ooa/ee
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe i?e ethaii ?aaeeia ?aaiou ?aaeoi?a, aeeth/ay aaa?eeiue.
. ?aaeeaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony iaaeaaeiinoueth nenoaiu e
noaiaiueth aa?aioee a neo/aa i?aaeaeueii aiciiaeiuo aaa?ee.

Iiaeii iaeeaeaoue, /oi , ii ia?a oiai eae yaea?iay yia?aaoeea aoaeao
i?eia?aoaoue aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea a no?oeoo?a anae yia?aaoeee a
oeaeii, i?aeiouanoaa oaieioaoie/aneie eiioeaioeee aoaeoo ana aieueoa
oo?a/eaaoueny. A yoeo oneiaeyo aic?anoao i?eoyaaoaeueiinoue
eiioeaioeee oeceei-oeie/aneiai iai?aaeaiey a ?aaeoi?ino?iaiee, eioi?ay
iicaieeo aeinoeaiooue aieaa aunieeo ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee AYN e
?aoeoue ?yae caaea/ yia?aaoeee, iaaeinooiiuo aeey oaa?aeioiieeaiuo
?aaeoi?ia.

AEN? a ioiioaiee yaea?iie aaciianiinoe eiatho ?yae oa?aeoa?iuo
iniaaiiinoae ii n?aaiaieth n oaa?aeioiieeaiuie ?aaeoi?aie ninoiyueie a
neaaeothuai:

– ia?aaea/a oaiea io oiieeaa e i?iiaaeooi/iiio oaieiiineoaeth
i?ienoiaeeo aia aeoeaiie ciiu ?aaeoi?a, iiyoiio ?ac?ooaiea iiaa?oiinoe
?acaeaea iaaeaeo oiieeaii e oaieiiineoaeai ia i?eaiaeeo e na?ueaciui
ia?ooaieyi ?aaeeia ?aaiou aeoeaiie ciiu e eciaiaieyi ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe;

– oiieeai a AEN? auiieiyao iaeiia?aiaiii ooieoeeth oaieiiineoaey ia?aiai
eiioo?a, iiyoiio a i?eioeeia eneeth/aaony aanue eiiieaen i?iaeai,
eioi?ua aicieeatho a oaa?aeioiieeaiuo ?aaeoi?ao i?e aaa?eyo, i?eaiaeyueo
e iioa?a oaieiiineoaey;

– iai?a?uaiue auaiae i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey, iniaaiii iaeo?iiiuo yaeia, a
oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue iai?a?uaiie iiaeieoee oiieeaii naiaeeo e ieieioio
ia/aeueiue caian ?aaeoeaiinoe, eiiiaine?oaiue iiaeiuathueie noa?aeiyie.

E eciaiaieth ?aaeoeaiinoe AEN? iiaoo i?eaanoe neaaeothuea aaa?eeiua
neooaoeee:

– oaaee/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee aeaeyueony iaoa?eaeia a oiieeaiie niee;

– eciaiaiea yooaeoeaiie aeiee caiacaeuaathueo iaeo?iiia;

– eciaiaiea ninoaaa e ieioiinoe oiieeaiie niee e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aa a
aeoeaiie ciia;

– eciaiaiea oaiia?aoo?u aeoeaiie ciiu.

Iiae?iaiue aiaeec aaa?eeiuo neooaoeee i?eaaaeaiiue a [ 3 ] iieacuaaao,
/oi iniaaiiinoe i?enouea AEN? iicaieytho iaania/eoue aeinoaoi/ii
aunieoth yaea?ioth aaciianiinoue e iaaeaaeii eneeth/eoue aiciiaeiinoue
ia?ooaiey aa?iaoe/iinoe oiieeaiiai eiioo?a

Aunieay yaea?iay aaciianiinoue, i?enouay AEN?, eiaao naith ia?aoioth
noi?iio e nii?yaeaia n i?iaeaiaie, eioi?uo iao o oaa?aeioiieeaiuo
?aaeoi?ia. A ioee/ee io ieo ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iaoa?eaeu a AEN? iaoiaeyony
a aeeaeeie eee aaciaie oi?ia i?e aunieie oaiia?aoo?a e oee?eoee?oao a
oiieeaiii eiioo?a e eiioo?a nenoaiu ia?a?aaioee oiieeaa. Iianiinoue
ooa/ee ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe i?e ia?ooaiee aa?iaoe/iinoe oiieeaiiai eiioo?a
caeanue cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieay, /ai o oaa?aeioiieeaiuo ?aaeoi?ia i?e
ia?ooaiee oayeia. Iiyoiio ?aaeeiaeoeaiay aaciianiinoue AEN? a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue naycaia n iaaeaaeiie aa?iaoecaoeeae oiieeaiiai eiioo?a.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai i?e nicaeaiee yaea?iiai ?aaeoi?a yaeyaony
i?iaeaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey e a iniaaiiinoe nenoaiu
aaa?eeiiai ioeeth/aiey (NAI). NAI aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue
aaoiiaoe/aneoth inoaiiaeo ?aaeoi?a ( auno?ia aaoaiea oeaiiie ?aaeoeee)
i?e aicieeiiaaiee aaa?eeiie neooaoeee. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoiai o?aaiaaiey
NAI aeieaeia eiaoue oe?iei ?acaaoaeaiioth nenoaio aaoiiaoe/aneiai
aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey aaa?eeiuo neooaoeee ( niauoee, ninoiyiee
iai?oaeiaaiey, cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?ece?othueo ninoiyiea
yaea?iiai ?aaeoi?a e aai nenoai). [ 4 ]

E?iia oiai nouanoaoao i?iaeaia o?ainii?oe?iaee iaeo/aiiuo yeaiaioia ia
?aaeeioeie/aneea i?aaei?eyoey, /oi icia/aao /oi ?aaeeiaeoeaiua yeaiaiou
aoaeoo “?aciacaiu” ii aanueia oe?ieie oa??eoi?ee. I?e yoii aicieeaao
eae iianiinoue ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai caa?yciaiey n?aaeu aneaaenoaea
aiciiaeiuo aaa?ee, oae e iianiinoue oeuaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia.

AEAEEIA?AOE*ANEEE NIENIE

1. Eeeiia A.I. ssaea?iay oeceea e yaea?iua ?aaeoi?u. I.:
Aoiiecaeao,1985.

2. ssai?neee A.I., Aeaoeao A.A. Ni?aai/iee ii oeceea . I.: Iaoea,1974.

3. Aeeieei A.E., Iiaeeia A.I. AEeaeeinieaaua yaea?iua ?aaeoi?u.
I.:Aoiiecaeao, 1978.

4. Eiiaeoen ?.?. Iao?aaeeoeeiiiua n?aaenoaa oi?aaeaiey yaea?iuie
?aaeoi?aie. I.: Ecae-ai IAOO, 1992.

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