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Aunieioaiia?aoo?iay naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoue

Ioe?uoea a eiioea 1986 aiaea iiaiai eeanna aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo
naa?oi?iaiaeyueo iaoa?eaeia ?aaeeeaeueii ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe
i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe aeey nicaeaiey iiaie
oaoieee e ieaaeao ?aaiethoeeiiece?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia yooaeoeaiinoue
io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

ssaeaiea, caeeth/athuaany a iieiii en/aciiaaiee yeaeo?e/aneiai
nii?ioeaeaiey i?iaiaeieea i?e aai ioeaaeaeaiee ieaea e?eoe/aneie
oaiia?aoo?u, auei ioe?uoi a 1911 aiaeo, iaeiaei i?aeoe/aneia
eniieueciaaiea yoiai yaeaiey ia/aeinue a na?aaeeia oanoeaeanyouo aiaeia,
iinea oiai eae auee ?ac?aaioaiu naa?oi?iaiaeyuea iaoa?eaeu, i?eaiaeiua
aeey oaoie/aneeo i?eiaiaiee. A nayce n oai, /oi e?eoe/aneea oaiia?aoo?u
yoeo iaoa?eaeia ia i?aauoaee 20 E, ana nicaeaiiua naa?oi?iaiaeieeiaua
ono?ienoaa yenieoaoe?iaaeenue i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeeaeeiai aaeey, o.a.
i?e 4-5 E. Ianiio?y ia aeaoeoeeoiinoue yoiai oeaaeiaaaioa, aunieea
yia?aicao?aou ia aai iaeeaeaiea, neiaeiinoue e aunieoth noieiinoue
nenoai oaieiecieyoeee ii oeaeiio ?yaeo iai?aaeaiee ia/aeinue
i?aeoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiiianooaaiuie i?eiaiaieyie naa?oi?iaiaeieeia yaeeenue yeaeo?iiaaieou
onei?eoaeae ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe, oa?iiyaea?iuo onoaiiaie,
IAAe-aaia?aoi?ia. Auee nicaeaiu iiuoiua ia?acoeu naa?oi?iaiaeieeiauo
yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?ia, eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/e, iaeiieoaeae yia?aee,
iaaieoiuo naia?aoi?ia e ae?. A iineaaeiea aiaeu a ?acee/iuo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao ia/aeinue ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai
aeeaaiinoe/aneeo iaaeeoeeineeo ssI?-oiiia?aoia ni naa?oi?iaiaeieeiauie
iaaieoaie, iioaioeeaeueiue ?uiie eioi?uo ioeaieaaaony a ianeieueei
ie?ae. aeieea?ia.

Ioe?uoea aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo naa?oi?iaiaeieeia, e?eoe/aneay
oaiia?aoo?a eioi?uo n caianii i?aauoaao oaiia?aoo?o eeiaiey aeeaeeiai
acioa, i?eioeeieaeueii iaiyao yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee
naa?oi?iaiaeieeiauo ono?ienoa, iineieueeo noieiinoue oeaaeiaaaioa e
cao?aou ia iiaeaea?aeaiea iaiaoiaeeiie oaiia?aoo?u nieaeathony a 50-100
?ac. E?iia oiai, ioe?uoea aunieioaiia?aoo?iie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe
(AONI) niyei oai?aoe/aneee cai?ao ia aeaeueiaeoaa iiauoaiea
e?eoe/aneie oaiia?aoo?u n 30 – aieioue aei eiiiaoiie. Oae, ni a?aiaie
ioe?uoey yoiai yaeaiey e?eoe/aneay oaiia?aoo?a iiauoaia n 30 – 130 E.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay i?ia?aiia i?aaeoniao?eaaao
oe?ieee eiiieaen ?aaio, aeeth/athueo a naay ooiaeaiaioaeueiua e
i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu oaoie/aneie
?aaeecaoeee aunieioaiia?aoo?iie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe.

A niioaaonoaee ni no?oeoo?ie i?ia?aiiu aeaaiuie iai?aaeaieyie ?aaio
yaeythony:

1. ENNEAAeIAAIEA I?E?IAeU E NAIENOA AONI.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie yoiai iai?aaeaiey yaeythony
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ii auyniaieth iaoaiecia
aunieioaiia?aoo?iie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe, ?ac?aaioea oai?ee AONI,
i?iaiice?iaaiea iienea iiauo niaaeeiaiee n aunieeie e?eoe/aneeie
ia?aiao?aie e ii?aaeaeaiea eo oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa.

2. AEEssIEA AIAOIEO OAEOI?IA IA NAIENOAA AONI IAOA?EAEIA.

Ii aeaiiiio iai?aaeaieth aoaeoo i?iaiaeeoueny enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey
aunieeo aeaaeaiee, iaoaie/aneeo e oaieiauo aicaeaenoaee,
eiiece?othueo eceo/aiee, yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iieae e ae?oaeo aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia ia naienoaa AONI iaoa?eaeia e au?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
aii?inai nicaeaiey AONI iaoa?eaeia n iioeiaeueiuie oaoiieiae/aneeie e
oaoie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

3. IAO*IUA INIIAU E OAOIIEIAEE IIEO*AIEss AONI IAOA?EAEIA.

Aeaaiuie caaea/aie enneaaeiaaiee ii aeaiiiio iai?aaeaieth
yaeythony ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia iieo/aiey aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo
naa?oi?iaiaeyueo iaoa?eaeia n caaeaiiuie naienoaaie, neioac iiauo
iaoa?eaeia n iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey oaoie/aneie ?aaeecaoeee ia?aiao?aie,
?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo naa?oi?iaiaeieeia
caaeaiiuo oaoie/aneeo oi?i. Eeth/aauie aii?inaie
yoiai iai?aaeaiey e anae i?ia?aiiu a oeaeii yaeyaony nicaeaiea
oaoiieiae/iuo e noaaeeueiuo oiieiieaii/iuo no?oeoo?, i?eaieaiuo aeey
?aaeecaoeee a neaaioi/iie oaoieea, e iniaaiii neeueiioi/iuo
oieiianoueo yeaiaioia a aeaea i?iaiaeia, eaio, eaaaeae e ae?. aeey
eniieueciaaiey a neeueiioi/iie oaoieea.

4. NEAAIOI*IUA I?EIAIAIEss AONI.

Nicaeaiea eiie?aoiuo oaoie/aneeo ecaeaeee ia iniiaa AONI
iaoa?eaeia iaeaieaa ?aaeueii a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy eiaiii a neaaioi/iie
oaoieea, o.a. a iee?iyeaeo?iieea e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea.

A ?aieao i?ia?aiiu i?aaeiieaaaaony ?ac?aaioea e inaiaiea na?eeiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa o?ao eeannia yeaeo?iiiuo naa?oi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ia:

– NEAEAeu (i?eai?u ia iniiaa aeaeicaoniiianeeo ia?aoiaeia) eae
aeaoaeoi?u neaauo iaaieoiuo iieae aeey i?eiaiaiey a iaaeeoeeia
(iaaieoiyioeaoaeia?aoey), aaieiaee e aaioeceea (iiene iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo, eco/aiea aaieiae/aneiai no?iaiey caiiie ei?u, i?iaiic
caieao?ynaiee), iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiee (ia?ac?ooathuee eiio?ieue iaoa?eaeia,
eiino?oeoeee), aiaiiie oaoieea (iaia?oaeaiea iaaieoiuo aiiiaeee, a
/anoiinoe, aeoaeiiuo iiaeaiaeiuo eiaeie), iao/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo,
nayce e iaaeaaoeee.

Oe?ieia inaiaiea e aiaae?aiea NEAEAe iaaieoiiao?e/aneiai iaoiaea
ecia?aiee iicaieeo a ei?ioeee n?ie ea/anoaaiii eciaieoue iiiaea aeaeu
ecia?eoaeueiie oaoieee, iiauneoue a nioie e aieaa ?ac
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue i?eai?ia e oi/iinoue ecia?aiee, iiaeaanoe
ecia?eoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe oe?ieie iiiaieeaoo?u aeao/eeia e
oai?aoe/aneiio i?aaeaeo, auaanoe ecia?eoaeueioth oaoieeo ia
aunoee ea/anoaaiii iiaue o?iaaiue.

– Aiaeiai-oeeo?iaua i?eai?u (AOeI), eniieuecothuea naa?oauno?ua
(aeiee ieeinaeoiaeu) ia?aeeth/aiey io aeaeicaoniiianeiai e
“aeaa?ianeiio” ?aaeeio ?aaiou, aeey i?eiaiaiee a iiaaeoeo nenoaiao
nayce, oeeo?iauo au/eneeoaeueiuo ono?ienoaao aeey ia?aaioee e aiaeeca
aiaeiaiauo neaiaeia e ae?.

– I?eai?u, iniiaaiiua ia yooaeoa iiyaeaiey ia aeaeicaoniiianeii
ia?aoiaea iinoiyiiiai iai?yaeaiey i?e iiaea/a ia iaai NA* neaiaea,
aeey eniieueciaaiey a i?aoeeceiiiuo ecia?eoaeueiuo nenoaiao (iai?eia?,
yoaeii Aieueoa).

Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea AONI iaeaeao a au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea. Oaea a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?ac?aaioaiu, ecaioiaeaiu e eniuoaiu iaeaou y/aeee
iaiyoe, naa?o/oanoaeoaeueiue yeaiaio n/eouaaiey ia AONI ieaieao n
e?aoiui nieaeaieai yia?aiauaeaeaiey ii n?aaiaieth n iieoi?iaiaeieeiauie
oneeeoaeyie n/eouaaiey, naa?onei?inoiua eeiee nayce, eioi?ua iicaieyo
oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoai a 10 – 100 ?ac. Aiaae?aiea AONI
a au/eneeoaeueioth oaoieeo aeano e?aoiia oaaee/aiea aa auno?iaeaenoaey e
noaiaie eioaa?aoeee. Oae, ia?aoiae ia AONI niaaeeiaiey e nieaeaiea
?aai/ae oaiia?aoo?u iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo noia?YAI iicaieeo iiauneoue eo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue n 10o9 aei 10o12 iia?aoeee/nae.

Iaeiie ec ia?niaeoeaiuo iaeanoae i?eiaiaiey AONI aoaeao einie/aneay
oaoieea – ai?oiaua e “caai?oiaua” ecia?eoaeueiay aiia?aoo?a e
au/eneeoaeueiua nenoaiu (aiciiaeia ?aaioa aac niaoeeaeueiuo ono?ienoa
ioeaaeaeaiey, oae eae “oaiaaay” oaiia?aoo?a o niooieeia – 90 E). I?e
yoii i?e ia?aoiaea ia AONI oaeaeueiay ianna ioeaaeaeathuae nenoaiu
nieceony a 50 ?ac, iauai oiaiueoeony a 1000 ?ac, iaaeaaeiinoue
aic?anoao a 10 ?ac.

Oe?ieea ia?niaeoeau eniieueciaaiey AONI ioe?uaathony a NA*-oaoieea
e a nicaeaiee aeao/eeia aeaeeiiai e EE aeeaiaciia n aunieie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoueth.

5. NEEUeIIOI*IUA I?EIAIAIEss AONI.

I?eiaiaiea AONI a neeueiioi/iie oaoieea aoaeao eiaoue iaeaieaa
?aaeeeaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey aeey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Yoi iai?aaeaiea aeeth/aao a naay nicaeaiea yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneeo
ono?ienoa e nenoai, au?aaaouaathueo, ia?aaeathueo e i?aia?acothueo
yeaeo?iyia?aeth a i?iiuoeaiiuo ianooaaao. Iniiaie yoiai iai?aaeaiey
yaeyaony niiniaiinoue naa?oi?iaiaeieeia ianoe aac iioa?ue
aunieea ieioiinoe (10o9-10o10 A/i2) o?ainii?oiiai oiea a neeueiuo
iaaieoiuo iieyo i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieaea e?eoe/aneie. Yoi naienoai
naa?oi?iaiaeieeia iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneia
iai?oaeiaaiea ?acee/iiai iacia/aiey n oeo/oaiiuie ianniaaaa?eoiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, aieaa aunieei EIAe e cia/eoaeueii (a aeanyoee ?ac)
nieaeaiiuie yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie ?anoiaeaie.

Oae, i?e ia?aaea/a ii eaaaeueiui eeieyi yeaeo?iia?aaea/ iiuiinoae
nauoa 20 iei. eAo ia ?annoiyiea nauoa 2000 ei iaeeaeaaony nieaeaiea
yeaeo?e/aneeo iioa?ue ia 10%, /oi niioaaonoaoao naa?aaeaieth io 7 aei 10
iei. o.o.o. a aiae. I?e yoii i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou ia naa?oi?iaiaeyuoth
eaaaeueioth EYI iiaoo auoue ia aieueoa, /ai ia aunieiaieueoioth EYI
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eniieiaiey. Neio?iiiua naa?oi?iaiaeyuea aaia?aoi?u aeey
OYN, AYN e AYN aoaeoo eiaoue ia 0,5-0,8% aieaa aunieee EIAe e ia 30%

iaiueoea aaniaaaa?eoiua iieacaoaee. I?aaeiieaaaaony nicaeaiea
naa?oi?iaiaeieeiauo eiaeoeoeaiuo iaeiieoaeae yia?aee, eioi?ua ii
n?aaiaieth n aeae?iaeeoioee?othueie noaioeeyie, aaeeinoaaiiui oeiii
iaeiieoaeae yia?aee, iaoaaeoei i?iiuoeaiiia i?eiaiaiea a yia?aaoeea,
aoaeoo iaeaaeaoue nouanoaaiii aieaa aunieei EIAe (aei 97-98% aianoi
70%). A ?aieao i?ia?aiiu i?aaeiieaaaaony nicaeaiea oe?ieie aaiiu
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneeo e yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneeo ono?ienoa, i?e yoii ianooaau
noiia?iie yeiiiiee yeaeo?iyia?aee ca n/ao ianniaiai i?eiaiaiey AONI
aoaeoo noieue aaeeee, /oi iicaieyo ?aaeeeaeueiui ia?acii ia?aniio?aoue
neiaeeaoothny yenoaineaioth no?aoaaeth ?acaeoey oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai
eiiieaena.

Niaeanii no?oeoo?a i?ia?aiiu, i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ?ac?aaioea e
auione naa?oi?iaiaeyueo ono?ienoa e nenoai, nicaeaiea eioi?uo
yeiiiie/anee e oaoie/anee oeaeaniia?acii ia iniiaa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
aaeeaauo naa?oi?iaiaeieeia. Yoi naa?oi?iaiaeyuea naia?aoi?u,
ssI?-oiiia?aou, iaaieoiua nenoaiu aeey oaea?aeaiey ieaciu a OIEIIAEao e
onei?eoaeyo ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe e ae?. Nicaeaiea oaeeo nenoai e?iia
?aaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa io eo aiaae?aiey caeiaeeo
iaiaoiaeeioth oaoie/aneoth e oaoiieiae/aneoth iniiao aeey auno?iai
ia?aoiaea ia AONI ii ia?a nicaeaiey oaoiieiae/iuo AONI i?iaiaeieeia.

6. E?EINOAOE?IAAIEA.

Iineieueeo ianiio?y ia cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea e?eoe/aneeo
oaiia?aoo? iiauo naa?oi?iaiaeyueo iaoa?eaeia eo aaniethoiia cia/aiea
inoaaony ia o?iaia e?eiaaiiuo oaiia?aoo?, iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo
iai?aaeaiee enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie yaeyaony nicaeaiea
aunieiyeiiiie/iuo, iaaeaaeiuo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo iaeeaeeoaeueiuo e
?ao?eaea?aoi?iuo acioiuo onoaiiaie, nenoai e?einoaoe?iaaiey aeey
eiie?aoiuo naa?oi?iaiaeyueo ecaeaeee, a oaeaea iiene i?eioeeieaeueii
iiauo iaoiaeia iieo/aiey oieiaea a aeeaiaciia ?aai/eo oaiia?aoo? AONI.

I?aaeoniao?eaaaony nicaeaiea nenoai aeeaaiinoeee e eiio?iey
ia?aiao?ia e?einoaoe?othueo ono?ienoa.

E?iia oiai, aeey ecaeaeee e nenoai, nicaeaaaaiuo ia iniiaa
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo naa?oi?iaiaeieeia, aoaeoo ?ac?aaioaiu e ecaioiaeaiu
aaeeaaua onoaiiaee iiaiai iieieaiey n aunieeie oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeie
iieacaoaeyie.

7. IAANIA*AIEA ?AAIO II I?IA?AIIA AONI.

A ?aieao yoiai iai?aaeaiey i?aaeoniao?eaaaony i?iaaaeaiea oe?ieiai
eiiieaena ?aaio ii iao/ii-oaoie/aneiio i?iaiice?iaaieth e
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiio iainiiaaieth i?eiaiaiey AONI, ?ac?aaioea e
aiaae?aiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, nicaeaiea aac
aeaiiuo ii AONI. E?iia oiai aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny eiiieaeniay i?ia?aiia
iiaeaioiaee e ia?aiiaeaioiaee eaae?ia ?acee/iie eaaeeoeeaoeee aeey ?aaio
ii i?iaeaiaoeea AONI.

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