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Iiaue aaciaaeiue naa?oi?iaiaeiee K-Bi-O

Oi?ioi ecaanoii naiaenoai naa?oi?iaiaeyueo niaaeeiaiee BaBi(Pb)O3. Ana
yoe naa?oi?iaiaeieee yaeythony “/aoaa?iuie”: Ba-Pb-Bi-O eee Ba-K-Bi-O. A
ssiiiee (ISTEC, Oieei) iooai neioaca i?e aunieii aeaaeaiee aia?aua
iieo/eee o?ieiie naa?oi?iaiaeiee K1-xBi1+xO3 [N.R.Khasanova et al.,
Physica C 305 (1998) 275]. Aaee/eia Tc ninoaaeyao ieiei 10E i?e 0? x?
0.1 e ii/oe ia caaeneo io x a yoii aeeaiaciia, a oaaee/aiea x>0.1 aaaeao
e iioa?a naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe. Ii aeaiiui ?aioaaiianeie e yeaeo?iiiie
aeeo?aeoeee e?enoaeee/aneay no?oeoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eoae/aneee
ia?ianeeo.

?aaecey neiiao?ee ia?aiao?a ii?yaeea a “yeaeo?iiiuo” AONI

Aieueoeinoai (oioy e ia ana) yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo aiai?eo i oii,
/oi a AONI n aeu?i/iui oeiii i?iaiaeeiinoe ia?aiao? naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai
ii?yaeea D eiaao d-aieiiaoth neiiao?eth. Oaeeo AONI iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai (YBa2Cu3O7,

La2-xSrxCuO4, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 e o.ae.). *oi eanaaony iaiiiai/eneaiiuo
ecaanoiuo ia naaiaeiy AONI n yeaeo?iiiui oeiii i?iaiaeeiinoe, iaeaieaa
eco/aiiui ec eioi?uo yaeyaony Nd2-xCexCuO4, oi aeieaia a?aiy n/eoaeinue,
/oi a ieo D eiaao s-aieiiaoth neiiao?eth.

A?oiia yiiineeo oeceeia ec Nagoya University, Tohoku University e Japan
Science and Technology Corporation auiieieea enneaaeiaaiey
eaace/anoe/iuo niaeo?ia aicaoaeaeaiee a iiiie?enoaeeao

Nd2-xCexCuO4 iaoiaeii STM/STS [1]. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iieacaee, /oi
D ia oieueei aiecio?iiai a eiioeueniii i?ino?ainoaa, ii e eiaao

d-aieiiaoth neiiao?eth. Aaoi?u [1] ianoaeaeatho, oei yoie neiiao?ee –
dxy-aieia eee dx2-y2-aieia – e neeiiythony a iieueco iineaaeiae.

[1] F.Hayashi et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jap., 1998, 67, p.3234

Naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoue Tl1.8Ba2.0Ca2.6Cu3.0O10+d a ii?icioth iiaiaeo i?e
aunieii aeaaeaiee

Ecaanoii, /oi e?eoe/aneay oaiia?aoo?a Tc aieueoeinoaa AONI oaaee/eaaaony
iiae aeaaeaieai, aeinoeaay ?aei?aeiie aaee/eiu Tc» 160E a HgBa2Ca2Cu3Ox
i?e P» 30AIa. Iaaeaaii iiyaeeinue niiauaiea [1] ia aiiiaeueiii ?inoa Tc
iieee?enoaeee/aneeo ia?acoeia AONI Tl1.8Ba2.0Ca2.6Cu3.0O10+d i?e P»
5AIa. Aaoi?u [1] iaia?oaeeee, /oi Tc auno?i oaaee/eaaaony n ?inoii P io
naiaai ia/aeueiiai cia/aiey Tc=129E i?e P=0 e aeinoeaaao aaee/eiu
Tc=255E (iau/iay aeey ?onneie ceiu oaiia?aoo?a!) i?e P=4.3AIa. Aio
oieueei Tc, ecia?aiiay a [1], e niaeaeaieth, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia
oaiia?aoo?o ioeaaiai nii?ioeaeaiey, a eeoue oaiia?aoo?o ia/aea
oiaiueoaiey (oioy e i/aiue ?aceiai) R(T) i?e ioeaaeaeaiee ia?acoea.
Caiaoei, /oi noaouey [1] i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiaia?aciue
“eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiue aeiaa?ao”: iia iaienaia eeoaeneeie oeceeaie ia
aiaeeeneii ycuea e iioaeeeiaaia a oe?aeineii aeo?iaea.

[1] C.Y.Han et al., OIO, 1998, 24, p.305

Caaa?oaia nai?ea iaaieoiie nenoaiu RHIC (Brookhaven)

1800 naa?oi?iaiaeyueo iaaieoia onoaiiaeaiu e /anoe/ii eniuoaiu a aaeeiie
iaaieoiie nenoaia eieeaeaea?a oyaeaeuo ?aeyoeaenoneeo eiiia (RHIC). Ia
eo ecaioiaeaiea iio?aaiaaeenue 21iei. iao?ia naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai
i?iaiaeieea e 900 ouny/ /ania ?aai/aai a?aiaie. Ieaie?oaony, /oi ia?aue
eniuoaoaeueiue “ione” io/ea eiiia aoaeao i?iecaaaeai a ia?oa 1999 aiaea,
a a ethea iaeeaeathony yenia?eiaiou ii ia?aiio noieeiiaaieth io/eia.
Iinoaaueeii ia?ae/iiai io/ea eiiia aeey RHIC noaiao noa?aeoee
a?oeoyaaineee neio?io?ii (AGS), iino?iaiiue aua a 1960 aiaeo.

CERN Courier, December 1998

Naa?oi?iaiaeyuee oeeueo?

O/aiua International Superconductivity Technology Center (Tokyo)
niaianoii n NEC Corp. (Tokyo) ?ac?aaioaee AONI oeeueo? aeey
eniieueciaaiey a niooieeiauo nenoaiao nayce e ia aaciauo noaioeeyo
nioiauo oaeaoiiia. A i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee i?aiaeieaia i?iaeaia, noiyaoay
ia?aae oaeeie oeeueo?aie. I?aaeiea eiino?oeoeee AONI oeeueo?ia ia
niaianoeiu n aunieeie o?iaiyie iiuiinoe, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey nenoai
einie/aneie nayce. AONI oeeueo?, aiiine?iaaiiue o. NEC, auaea?aeeaaao a
10 ?ac aieaa aunieea o?iaie iiuiinoe a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie AONI
oeeueo?aie.

Eiioaeo:

G. Pindoria, e-mail: HYPERLINK “mailto:[email protected]” Ioeaea!
Caeeaaeea ia ii?aaeaeaia.

Aeaaioneee ecioii-yooaeo a naa?oi?iaiaeieea La2-xSrxCuO4

Eaioaiiaay ea?aieea oaea i?eianea Alex’o Muller’o iiaaeaaneoth i?aieth.
E aio – iiaue iiaea?ie. Muller n niaaoi?aie iaia?oaeee a
naa?oi?iaiaeieea La2-xSrxCuO4 aeaaioneee ecioii-yooaeo.

Aeaa a?oiiu yenia?eiaioaoi?ia, aicaeaaeyaiua A.Bianconi (?eineee
oieaa?neoao) e K.A.Muller’ii (Oeth?eoneee oieaa?neoao) enneaaeiaaee
no?oeoo?o niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee a La1.94Sr0.06CuO4 aaeece e?ay
?aioaaiianeiai iiaeiuaiey (iaoiaeii XANES, /oanoaeoaeueiui e eieaeueiui
eneaaeaieyi eenei?iaeiiai ie?oaeaiey aoiiia iaaee). Yenia?eiaiou
i?iaiaeeeenue ia enoi/ieea neio?io?iiiiai eceo/aiey a A?aiiaea.

Aeae niaeo?a ii?aaeaeyaony noaoenoe/aneei ?ani?aaeaeaieai “iaiiaaiiuo
oioia?aoee” e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee (n oa?aeoa?iui a?aiaiai 10-15n) ia
ianooaaao ii?yaeea 5A. A yenia?eiaioa aeey ia?acoea La2-xSrxCuO4 ieaea
iaeioi?ie oaiia?aoo?u O* oi?ia niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee ?acei eciaiyeanue,
/oi aaoi?u naycuaatho n caii?aaeeaaieai oeoeooaoeee e aicieeiiaaieai
iiey?iiiiai oii?yaei/aiey oeia iiein (lattice-charge stripes). I?e
caiaia 16O ia 18O oaiia?aoo?a O* aic?anoaao ni 110E aei 170E. I?e yoii
ecioii-yooaeo aeey oaiia?aoo?u naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai ia?aoiaea On ai?acaei
iaiueoa e ae?oaiai ciaea: aeey ia?acoea n 16O On» 8E, a o ia?acoea n 18O
On i?eia?ii ia 1E ieaea. Noieue ia?iiiue ecioiie/aneee naeaea
oaiia?aoo?u O* aaoi?u iauyniytho aaaeiie ?ieueth iiey?iiiuo yooaeoia a
ia?aciaaiee iiein. Oaeay eioa?i?aoaoeey iaeeaaeuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua
ia?aie/aiey ia aiciiaeiua iee?ineiie/aneea iaoaieciu, ioaaonoaaiiua ca
aicieeiiaaiea, eae iiein/aoie no?oeoo?u, oae e naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai
ninoiyiey.

HYPERLINK “http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/9812425” Ioeaea! Caeeaaeea
ia ii?aaeaeaia. , aa?ney io 5.01.99

Aa?oiaa e?eoe/aneia iiea ai?iea?aeaea YNi2B2C

Ecia?aiey aa?oiaai e?eoe/aneiai iiey Hc2 a naa?oi?iaiaeieeao
ineiaeiythony iaee/eai “ia?aceoiiai” ia?aiaaieoiiai neaiaea,
iaoneiaeaiiiai ianiaa?oainoaii ia?acoea (iaee/eai iaeanoae ii?iaeueiie
oacu). Iiyoiio a oiaea yenia?eiaioia ii ii?aaeaeaieth Hc2(T) a
ai?iea?aeaea YNi2B2C a?oiia aia?eeaineeo e thaeiiei?aeneeo oeceeia
oaeaeeea iniaia aieiaiea ea/anoao enneaaeiaaiiuo eie iiiie?enoaeeia
[M.-O.Mun et al., Physica C 303 (1998) 57]. Ei oaeaeinue iiieceoue
ia?aiaaieoiue neaiae aei o?iaiy 10% io ieieiaeueiiai i?eaiaeeiiai a
eeoa?aoo?a e iieo/eoue oaeei ia?acii aieaa aeinoiaa?iua cia/aiey Hc2.
Ieacaeinue, /oi ai anai eco/aiiii aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? 9K N oao ii? ia oaeaaony ie iaaeaaeii iiaeoaa?aeeoue yoio yooaeo, ie
iaaeaaeii aai cae?uoue. Auei i?iaaaeaii iiiaeanoai yenia?eiaioia,
eioi?ua aeaaaee iiia?aiaiii oi iieiaeeoaeueiue, oi io?eoeaoaeueiue
?acoeueoao. NASA auaeaeeea aieueoea aeaiueae ia i?iaaaeaiea yenia?eiaioa
e aeey eiinoeueoaoeee i?eaeaneea naiiai aaoi?a, ii eoia iiea
io?eoeaoaeueiue. Aeaaiay neiaeiinoue ninoieo a oii, /oi eciaiaiea aana
ianoieueei iaei, /oi o?oaeii ecaaaeaoue iinoi?iiieo aicaeaenoaee. E?iia
oiai, nai Iiaeeeaoiia oie?aao ia iniaoth no?oeoo?o iieo/aiiiai
iaoa?eaea, eioi?oth o?oaeii aini?iecaanoe.

Eae au oi ie auei, aieueoeinoai oeceeia neaioe/anee aini?eiyei
?acoeueoaou Iiaeeeaoiiaa, iniiauaaynue ia iieiaeaieyo iauae oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe, niaeanii eioi?ie a?aaeoaoeey aiiaua ia neea, a
ene?eaeaiea 4-o ia?iiai i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie, /oi yaeyaony neaaenoaeai
niaiaaeaiey a?aaeoaoeeiiiiai ca?yaea n eia?oeeiiiie iannie.

Ii naiia ii?aceoaeueiia a yoie enoi?ee oi, /oi aua aei iiuoa
Iiaeeeaoiiaa Li e Torr iioaeeeiaaee aeaa ?aaiou, a eioi?uo
i?aaeneacuaaee aaia?aoeeth a?aaeoaoeee i?e a?auaiee naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai
aeenea a ia?aiaiiii iaaieoiii iiea.

Ca aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai niauoee iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ia no?aieoea a
Eioa?iaoa:

HYPERLINK “http://www.inetarena.com/~noetic/pls/gravity/html” Ioeaea!
Caeeaaeea ia ii?aaeaeaia.

I?aa?auaiea oaieiaie yia?aee a yeaeo?e/aneoth a iaiaeii?iaeiii
naa?oi?iaiaeyuai eieueoea

Oioaeinue au ia?aoeoue aieiaiea /eoaoaeae Ia?nO’a ia eioa?aniue
?acoeueoao ?aaiou [1], a eioi?ie ?anniao?eaaaony yooaeo Eeooea-Ia?ena a
iaiaeii?iaeiii naa?oi?iaiaeyuai eieueoea. Aua a 1962 aiaeo Eeooe e Ia?en
[2] iaia?oaeeee, /oi oaiia?aoo?a ia?aoiaea oiieinoaiiiai oeeeeiae?a
iaeiai ?aaeeona a naa?oi?iaiaeyuaa ninoiyiea ia?eiaee/anee (n ia?eiaeii
?aaiui eaaioo iioiea) caaeneo io aaee/eiu iaaieoiiai iioiea. Yoio yooaeo
aue iauyniai I.Oeieoaiii [3], eae iaeii ec i?iyaeaiee iae?ineiie/aneie
eaaioiaie i?e?iaeu naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe (ni. oaeaea [4]). Ia?eiaee/aneia
niauaiea e?eoe/aneie oaiia?aoo?u naycaii n eaaioiaaieai nei?inoe
naa?oi?iaiaeyueo yeaeo?iiia, aiaeiae/ii oiio, eae yoi eiaao ianoi a
aoiia. Nei?inoue no?aieony i?eia?anoe ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiia cia/aiea.
I?e iioiea aioo?e oeeeeiae?a, e?aoiii eaaioo iioiea, ieieiaeueii
aiciiaeiia cia/aiea nei?inoe ?aaii ioeth. Ii i?e iioiea, ia e?aoiii
eaaioo, nei?inoue ia iiaeao auoue ?aaia ioeth. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
caaeneiinoe yia?aee naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai ninoiyiey io iioiea e, eae
neaaenoaea, e ia?eiaee/aneiio niauaieth e?eoe/aneie oaiia?aoo?u a
iaaieoiii iiea. Yoi niauaiea eiaao caiaoioth aaee/eio a eieueoea
(oeeeeiae?a), ?aaeeon eioi?iai n?aaiei n ei??aeyoeeiiiie aeeeiie [4].

I.Oeieoai [3] ?anniao?eaae iaeii?iaeiia eieueoei. A neo/aa
iaiaeii?iaeiiai eieueoea, iaeei o/anoie eioi?iai eiaao iiieaeaiioth
e?eoe/aneoth oaiia?aoo?o a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaei [1], aneaaenoaea
oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo oeoeooaoeee ia o/anoea n iaiueoei On i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao, niioaaonoaothueo ?acenoeaiiio ia?aoiaeo yoiai o/anoea,
iiyaeyaony iai?yaeaiea, aaee/eia eioi?iai ia?eiaee/anee caaeneo io
aaee/eiu iioiea aioo?e eieueoea, n ia?eiaeii, ?aaiui eaaioo iioiea. I?e
ia?aoiaea a naa?oi?iaiaeyuaa ninoiyiea o/anoea n iaeiaiueoae On a
eieueoea aicieeaao oie oeene?iaaiiiai iai?aaeaiey, a i?e ia?aoiii
ia?aoiaea a ii?iaeueiia ninoiyiea ia ?anniao?eaaaiii o/anoea iiyaeyaony
iai?yaeaiea, oae eae aneaaenoaea eiia/iie eiaeoeoeaiinoe eieueoea oie ia
iiaeao caoooiooue iaiiaaiii. I?e ia?eiaee/aneii eee oaioe/aneii
ia?aaiaea o/anoea n iaeiaiueoei On ec ii?iaeueiiai ninoiyiey a
naa?oi?iaiaeyuaa e ia?aoii ia iai aicieeiao iai?yaeaiea n iinoiyiiie
ninoaaeythuae, caaenyuae ia?eiaee/anee io aaee/eiu iaaieoiiai iioiea
aioo?e eieueoea. Eoae, naa?oi?iaiaeyuaa eieueoei yaeyaony oaieiaie
iaoeiie, a eioi?ie oaieiaay yia?aey iiaeao auoue i?aia?aciaaia a
yeaeo?e/aneoth yia?aeth iinoiyiiiai oiea. Aac o/aoa oeoeooaoeee
iaeneiaeueiue eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai aeaenoaey oaieiaie iaoeiu,
?aaeecoaiue a oeeeea Ea?ii, i?iii?oeeiiaeai aiieeooaea eciaiaiey
oaiia?aoo?u [5].

Iaeiaei ia?aoiae ec ii?iaeueiiai ninoiyiey a naa?oi?iaiaeyuaa e ia?aoii
iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue e aac eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u aneaaenoaea
oeoeooaoeee, anee ?aciinoue yia?aee ?anniao?eaaaiiai o/anoea a
ii?iaeueiii e naa?oi?iaiaeyuai ninoiyieyo ia i?aauoaao kBT. Yoi
aiciiaeii aaeece e?eoe/aneie oaiia?aoo?u, oae eae i?e O=On yoa ?aciinoue
?aaia ioeth. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iinoiyiiia iai?yaeaiea iiaeao aicieeaoue a
iaiaeii?iaeiii naa?oi?iaiaeyuai eieueoea e i?e iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?a,
aeeceie e e?eoe/aneie. Aaoi?u aeatho iiae?iaiia iauyniaiea iaiau/iiio
yaeaieth.

A.V.Nikulov and I.N.Zhilyaev, “The Little-Parks Effect in an
Inhomogeneous Superconducting Ring.” J. of Low Temp.Phys. 1998,112(3/4),
p.227-236

W.A.Little and R.D.Parks, Phys.Rev.Lett.,1962, 9, p.9

M.Tinkham, Phys.Rev. 1963,129, p.2413

I.Oeieoai, Aaaaeaiea a naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoue. Aoiiecaeao I.1980

*.Eeooaeue, Noaoenoe/aneay oa?iiaeeiaieea. “Iaoea”, I., 1977

?aceee ?ino e?eoe/aneie oaiia?aoo?u “iiaiai” AONI PrBa2Cu3Ox iiae
aeaaeaieai

A oa/aiea i/aiue aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie iinea ioe?uoey AONI a 1986 aiaeo
ainiiaenoaiaaei iiaiea, /oi niaaeeiaiea PrBa2Cu3Ox yaeyaony
“ianaa?oi?iaiaeyuei eneeth/aieai” ec AONI-na?ee ReBa2Cu3Ox (Re –
?aaeeicaiaeueiue yeaiaio). Eaeea oieueei aa?nee ia auaeaeaaeenue aeey
iauyniaiey yoiai “oaeoa”: ?ac?ua eoia?ianeeo ia? iaaieoiuie iiiaioaie
aoiiia i?acaiaeeia, oiaiueoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee iineoaeae ca?yaea eee eo
eieaeecaoeey e o.ae. Yoe nii?u caeii/eeenue a 1996 aiaeo iinea ioe?uoey
naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe a oiieeo ieaieao PrBa2Cu3Ox [1] e aai iineaaeothuaai
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey ae?oaeie aaoi?aie [2]. Naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoue
iaaethaeaeanue oaeaea e a iiiie?enoaeeao PrBa2Cu3Ox [3]. I?e/eia oiai,
ii/aio iaeei ec aeaoo (iaeeiaeiauo ia ia?aue acaeyae) ia?acoeia
PrBa2Cu3Ox yaeyaony iieoi?iaiaeieeii, a ae?oaie – naa?oi?iaiaeieeii,
iiea iaeiicia/ii ia onoaiiaeaia, oioy e auyniaii, /oi eo no?oeoo?u
ianeieueei ?acee/athony (ii aanueia iacia/eoaeueii).

A yoii aiaeo PrBa2Cu3Ox i?aiiaeian i/a?aaeiie nth?i?ec. ssiiineea oeceee
ec National Research Institute for Metals, Electrotechnical Laboratory e
Ibaraki University enneaaeiaaee aeeyiea aunieiai aeaaeaiey P ia Tc
iiiie?enoaeea PrBa2Cu3Ox n ?acee/iui niaea?aeaieai eenei?iaea [4,5].
Aaee/eia Tc ii?aaeaeyeanue ii ioeth yeaeo?inii?ioeaeaiey e i?e P=0
ninoaaeyea 56.5 e 81E aeey x = 6.6 e 6.8 niioaaonoaaiii. Oaaee/aiea P
i?eaaei e ?aceiio ?inoo Tc ia?acoea n x = 6.6. Ia ia/aeueiii yoaia
nei?inoue ?inoa Tc ninoaaeyea dTc/dP = 7.4E/AIa. I?e P = 9.3AIa
(iaeneiaeueiia aeaaeaiea a yoii yenia?eiaioa) aaee/eia Tc aic?inea aei
105E, i?e/ai i?iecaiaeiay dTc/dP i?e oaeeo aunieeo aeaaeaieyo oioue e
oiaiueoeeanue, ii inoaeanue iieiaeeoaeueiie, oi anoue iaeneioi Tc aua ia
aue aeinoeaioo. Yoio ?acoeueoao ?acei eiio?anoe?oao n aeaiiuie aeey AONI
YBa2Cu3Ox, o eioi?iai i?e x = (6.8 ? 7) aaee/eia Tc ii/oe ia caaeneo io
P e inoaaony ia o?iaia ieiei 90E aieioue aei P = 10AIa. Ii iiaieth
aaoi?ia [4,5] i?e/eia ?aciiai ioeeeea PrBa2Cu3Ox e YBa2Cu3Ox ia aunieia
aeaaeaiea e?iaony a ?acee/iii oa?aeoa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey iineoaeae ca?yaea
iaaeaeo no?oeoo?iuie aaeeieoeaie yeaiaioa?iie y/aeee e, niioaaonoaaiii n
aai ?acee/iui ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai iiae aeaaeaieai. Eioa?anii, /oi Tc
iiiie?enoaeea PrBa2Cu3Ox n x = 6.8 oaaee/eaaaony iiae aeaaeaieai ia oae
auno?i, eae i?e x = 6.6, oioy e i?aauoaao 100E i?e P = 10AIa.

H.A.Blackstead et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 6122 (1996)

T.Usagawa et al., Jpn. J. Appl.Phys. (Part 2) 36, L1583 (1997)

Z.Zou et al., Jpn. J. Appl.Phys. (Part 2) 36, L18 (1997)

Z.Zou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1074 (1998)

J.Ye et al., Phys. Rev. B 58, 619 (1998)

E?oaeia iaoae caiaieoaeue cieioa

Iaiai?einy, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao oieueei i AONI oieiaaiaeao.
Iaoaeee/aneay iaiei/ea aeey AONI oieiaaiaeia yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii
icaai/aiiinoe e oaoiieiaia, e eiino?oeoi?ia. Ia naaiaeiy aa iioeiaeueiue
ninoaa ninoieo ec na?aa?a n 10%(!) cieioa. Aei?iai. A iiaoth aieaa
aeaoaaoth iaiei/eo aeaeoo 1eA oieiaaiaeu, ?ac?aaioaiiua oaiaeaiii
Eaeeei-Oeeia (ni. Ia?nO, auione 7 oaeouaai aiaea). Iieneii “caiaieoaey
cieioa” oii?ii caieiaeenue A.N.E?oaeia (ENOOO ?IOe EE) e E.E.Aeeiia
(AIEEII). E, eae aeaeii ec i?aaenoaaeaiiie ieaea oaaeeoeu, eo iiene
caaa?oeeny oniaoii. Aeaaea 1% iaeaeaiiiai caiaieoaey aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau
ninoaaeoue caei?iaoth eiieo?aioeeth cieioiniaea?aeauei nieaaai.

PRIVATE Iaoa?eae r 300 /r 77 r 300 /r 4.2

Ag 6.0 102-103

Ag+1% Au 2.9 4.9

Ag+10% Au 1.4 2.0

Ag+1%X (aac oa?iiia?aaioee) 1.1 1.67

Ag+1%X (600iN, 0.5 /an.) 2.1 7.1

Ecaanoii, /oi oieiaaiaeu – iaeii ec (i/aiue!) iaiiiai/eneaiiuo ?uii/iuo
?ano?ninaa?aaathueo AONI ecaeaeee. Ii ioeaieai, i?eiaiaiea AONI
oieiaaiaea oaaee/eaaao ia 70% ?ano?n oieiaeeeueiiai ono?ienoaa. A
eiino?oeoeeyo oieiaaiaeia ec ii?iaeueiiai iaoaeea nouanoaoao aeaa
iaoaiecia oaieii?eoiea a oieiaeeeueiee – aeaeioeaai oaiei (iniaaiii a
aeeeiiuo e oiieeo eiino?oeoeeyo) e oaieii?iaiaeiinoue (iniaaiii a
oienouo e ei?ioeeo eiino?oeoeeyo). AONI oieiaaiae eneeth/aao /anoue
oaieii?eoiea, iaoneiaeaiioth aeaeioeaaui oaieii (ai anyeii neo/aa, a
iaeaieaa e?eoe/aneie ieceioaiia?aoo?iie /anoe oieiaaiaea). Yoio oaeo
neeueii ?acaycuaaao ?oee eiino?oeoi?o, aeiioneay aeeeiiua e oiieea
eiino?oeoeee. Iaeiaei, ana AONI ninoaau – i/aiue o?oieea, aeey i?eaeaiey
i?i/iinoe e aeaeinoe eo iaiaoiaeeii caeeth/aoue a niioaaonoaothuoth
iaiei/eo. Ecaanoia oaeaea i?eaycaiiinoue AONI ninoaaia e oi?ioi
oaieii?iaiaeyuaio na?aa?o eee nieaaai ia aai iniiaa. A /anoiinoe, aeey
iaiei/ee oieiaaiaeia, eae i?aaeei, eniieuecothony nieaau Ag+N%Au. Iienee
caiaieoaey na?aa?a iiea ia iaeaeaiu, ii aio aeey cieioa, iioiaea, iaoee.
Ec i?aaeeiaeaiiiai A.N.E?oaeiaui e E.E.Aeeiiaui nieaaa Ag+1%X oaea
ecaioiaeaia noaiaea?oiay o?oaea, eioi?ay aoaeao neoaeeoue iaiei/eie aeey
iieo/aiey i?ioyaeaiiiai eonea AONI eaiou. Iiaeiaeaeai aeaeueiaeoeo
?acoeueoaoia.

I?iaeaeaeaiea iaeiieoaeae a yia?ainenoaio ooaoa Ea?ieeia

Iaaeaaii iiaeienaii niaeaoaiea iaaeaeo American Superconductor Corp.
(ASC) e Carolina Power & Light (CP&L) i iienea ?aoaiee, iniiaaiiuo ia
eniieueciaaiee naa?oi?iaiaeieeiauo iaaieoiuo iaeiieoaeae yeaeo?iyia?aee
(SMES’ia) aeey i?iiuoeaiiuo eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/. Iaaeaaii?eyoiua
iiaiaeiua oneiaey, eioeeaeaiou ia o?ainii?oa e iai?aaeneacoaiue auoiae
ec no?iy iai?oaeiaaiey iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e ia?a?uaai a iiaea/a
yeaeo?iyia?aee eee e nea/eai iai?yaeaiey a naoe. Niaeanii ioeaieai,
oaeea auoiaeu ec no?iy a yeaeo?inaoe iaoiaeyony aia?eeaineie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aaeaaiaeii a ieeeea?aeu aeieea?ia ca n/ao iia?aaeaeaiey
iai?oaeiaaiey e i?a?uaaiey iai?a?uaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeeeeia.
Neooaoeeth iiaoo a ei?ia eciaieoue naa?oi?iaiaeieeiaua iaeiieoaee.
Na?eth oaeeo iaeiieoaeae (SMES’ia) ia iniiaa yeaeo?iiaaieoia ec
ieceioaiia?aoo?iuo naa?oi?iaiaeieeia ia ?aciua aeeaiaciiu iiuiinoe
auioneaao o. ASC. Aa i?iaeoeoeey ?aciauaaony ia ii?oaoeaiii o?aeea?a
aeeeiie ieiei 12i. Eniieuecoaiay iiuiay yeaeo?iieea “/oanoaoao”
iaiiaaiiia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iiuiinoe a naoe e a oa/aiea 2 nae
ia?aeeth/aao naoue ia ieoaiea io iaeiieoaey. Iinea noaaeeecaoeee
yeaeo?e/aneie iiuiinoe a naoe inouanoaeyaony ia?aoiia ia?aeeth/aiea. A
oaeouai aiaeo o. ASC oniaoii aiaae?eea a IONI iaeiieoaee AONI
oieiaaiaeu, oiaiueoea aaeaaiaeiua yenieoaoaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu aeey
iio?aaeoaey ia 55%.

A ?aieao iiaeienaiiiai niaeaoaiey o. CP&L, yeaeo?inenoaiie eioi?ie
iieuecothony aieaa 1iei aeeoaeae ooaoa Ea?ieeia, aa?ao ia naay
ia?eaoeiaiaua oneoae ii i?iaeaeaeaieth iaeiieoaeae, a

o. ASC – iinoaaeo ono?ienoa, iao/aiea ia?niiaea e oaoie/aneoth
iiaeaea?aeeo yenieoaoaoeee iaeiieoaeae.

Aeey aieaa iieiie eioi?iaoeee eiioaeo:

Kathy Cadigan

Corporate Communications,

American Superconductor Corporation,

Two Technology Drive,

Westborough, MA 01581;

phone (508) 836-4200 ext. 222.

Nii?u i aeiiey?iiiie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe a AONI

Yeaeo?ii-oiiiiiia acaeiiaeaenoaea i?iyaeyao naay ii-?aciiio: io
n?aaieoaeueii neaaie ia?aii?ie?iaee iannu iineoaeae ca?yaea (a iaoaeeao)
aei oi?ie?iaaiey ii/oe eieaeeciaaiiuo eaace/anoeoe (a eiiiuo e?enoaeeao
e ieneaeao). Oaeea eaace/anoeoeu iacuaatho iiey?iiaie iaeiai ?aaeeona.
Eiioeaioeey iiey?iia ainoiaeeo aua e ?aaioai Eaiaeao ia/aea 30-o aiaeia.
Iiey?ii ia?acoaony aneaaenoaea neeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaeo?iia n
aeonoe/aneei eee eieaeueiui oiiiiii (oi anoue n eneaaeaieai
e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee, eieaeeciaaiiui ia ?annoiyiee ii?yaeea ?acia?a
iaeiie yeaiaioa?iie y/aeee).

Aeey oiai /oiau iauynieoue iaeioi?ua iaiau/iua naienoaa oaeueeiaaieaeia,
O.Aiaea?nii a 1975 aiaeo aaae iiiyoea aeiiey?iia iaeiai ?aaeeona [1]:
eaace/anoeoeu, i?aaenoaaeythuae niaie aeaa yeaeo?iia, eieaeeciaaiiuo a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe ae?oa io ae?oaa. I?e/eiie ia?aciaaiey
aeiiey?iia yaeyaony (eae e aeey iiey?iia) neeueiia eieaeueiia eneaaeaiea
?aoaoee yeaeo?iiaie. Cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a iaoeo i aeiiey?iiao aian
ecaanoiue o?aioeocneee oecee A.*ae?aaa?oe, eioi?ue nia/aea a ?aieao
aeiiey?iiiie oai?ee iauyniee ?yae iaiau/iuo naienoa ieneaea Ti4-xVxO7
[2], a caoai iieacae, /oi i?e oaaee/aiee eiinoaiou yeaeo?ii-oiiiiiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey iniiaiia ninoiyiea nenoaiu aieueoiai /enea yeaeo?iiia
iai?a?uaiui ia?acii yaiethoeeiie?oao io naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai ninoiyiey oeia
AEO e aeeyeaeo?e/aneiio ninoiyieth, a eioi?ii eoia?ianeea ia?u
eieaeeciaaiu a oi?ia ianneaiuo aeiiey?iiia.

Oioy ioe?uoea aunieioaiia?aoo?iie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe Aeae.Aaaeii?oeai e
E.Itheea?ii a 1986 aiaeo iaycaii io/anoe “iiey?iiiie eaeaieiaee” (aeaa
oiiiyioouo iiaaeaaneeo eao?aaoa iieaaaee, /oi iaaeii-ieneaeiua
niaaeeiaiey iiaoo eiaoue aunieoth e?eoe/aneoth oaiia?aoo?o Tc
aneaaenoaea iaee/ey a ieo iiey?iiia), a oa aiaeu aii?in i
aica-yeiooaeiianeie eiiaeainaoeee aeiiey?iiia eae i?e/eiu
aunieioaiia?aoo?iie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe ana?ueac ia ?anniao?eaaeny.
Iaeiaei aua a 1981 aiaeo A.Aeaenaiae?ia e Ae.?aiieiaa? iioaeeeiaaee
noaoueth [4], aaea auaeaeioee eaeath, /oi aeiiey?iiu iaeiai ?aaeeona
iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iiaeaeaeiua aiciiu, eioi?ua iiaoo
ia?aoiaeeoue a naa?ooaeo/aa ninoiyiea, oi anoue ia?aciauaaoue
aica-eiiaeainao. A oi a?aiy yoa ?aaioa n/eoaeanue iaoiaee/aneie. Ii
ianeieueei eao nionoy iaeei ec aa aaoi?ia (A.Aeaenaiae?ia) e ecaanoiue
aiaeeeneee oai?aoee I.Iioo ia iieiii na?ueaca cayaeee, /oi
aunieioaiia?aoo?iay naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoue anoue ia /oi eiia eae
aica-eiiaeainaoeey aeiiey?iiia iaeiai ?aaeeona [5,6]. A iieueco oaeiai
noeaia?ey naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe AONI naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea, ii eo iiaieth,
ieceay (~ 1021 ni-3) eiioeaio?aoeey iineoaeae ca?yaea e iaeay (~
ianeieueeeo iaiiiao?ia) aeeeia eiaa?aioiinoe.

Oaeia “iaiauaiea” oai?ee aeiiey?iiiie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe ia AONI aucaaei
?aceia aic?aaeaiea ni noi?iiu A.*ae?aaa?oe (iaeiiai ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia
oai?ee aeiiey?iiia [2,3]) e Ae.?aiieiaa?a (niaaoi?a A.Aeaenaiae?iaa ii
?aaioa [4], n eioi?ie ana ia/eiaeinue). Eo a?aoiaiou i?eaaaeaiu a
iaaeaaii iioaeeeiaaiiie ?aaioa [7] (ioiaoei, /oi “oa?iaee” iie
aeiaieueii aeieai – ianeieueei eao). Yoeo a?aoiaioia ianeieueei, ii ana
iie eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth nooue: anee iu aa?ai yenia?eiaioaeueiia (aeey
AONI) cia/aiea eaeie-oi oece/aneie aaee/eiu A e iiaenoaaeyai aai a iaeio
ec oi?ioe oai?ee naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe aeiiey?iiia, oi aeey ae?oaie
aaee/eiu (iaciaai aa B) iu iieo/aai cia/aiea, eioi?ia i?eia?ii ia
ii?yaeie ioee/aaony io yenia?eiaioaeueiiai. Anee iu oaia?ue aicueiai
ae?oaoth oi?ioeo yoie oai?ee, naycuaathuoth B ia n A, a, neaaeai, n
aaee/eiie C, oi iu iieo/ei ae?oaia cia/aiea B (eiuie neiaaie, a oai?ee
ionoonoaoao “aioo?aiiaa niaeaniaaiea”), i?e/ai iii iiyoue aea aoaeao
aeaeaei io yenia?eiaioaeueiiai. Iaeaieaa iaaeyaeii yoi i?iyaeyaony i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee yooaeoeaiie iannu iineoaeae m* ii yenia?eiaioaeueiui
cia/aieyi Tc, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aeoaeia i?iieeiiaaiey iaaieoiiai iiey,
n ae?oaie. E?iia oiai, oneiaea oi?ie?iaaiey aeiiey?iiia ianoieueei
aeanoeia (a eiie?aoii – o?aaoao oaeie aieueoie aaee/eiu m*), /oi
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiay oaiia?aoo?a naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai ia?aoiaea
(aica-eiiaeainaoeee aeiiey?iiia) ieacuaaaony e?aeia ieceie – a eo/oai
neo/aa 10-2 E, /oi, eiia/ii, neeoeii iaei aeey iauyniaiey
aunieioaiia?aoo?iie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe.

Eoae, niaeanii ?aaioa [7], aica-eiiaeainaoeey aeiiey?iiia eae i?e/eia
naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe AONI eneeth/aaony. Ii aaoi?u [7] iioee aeaeueoa. Iie
iinoaaeee aii?in oae: niaeanoaony ee oai?ey aica-eiiaeainaoeee
eieaeueiuo yeaeo?iiiuo ia? (eaeiaa au ie auea oece/aneay i?e/eia eo
ia?aciaaiey) n yenia?eiaioaeueiuie aeaiiuie aeey AONI? Ioaao ieacaeny
io?eoeaoaeueiui: iao, ia niaeanoaony. Aeaei a oii, /oi iaeei
“eiaa?aioiue iauai” a AONI aeeth/aao, niaeanii ?aciui ioeaieai, io 6 aei
10 iineoaeae ca?yaea, oiaaea eae oai?ey aica-yeiooaeiianeie
eiiaeainaoeee eieaeueiuo ia? ?aaioaao, anee ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ia?aie
aieueoa aeeeiu eiaa?aioiinoe. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa naii iiiyoea eieaeueiuo
ia? oa?yao niune, oae eae acaeiiaeaenoaea (“ia?ae?uoea” ii oa?ieiieiaee
aaoi?ia [7]) iaaeaeo yeaeo?iiaie ?aciuo “ia?” n?aaieii n
acaeiiaeaenoaeai yeaeo?iiia a iaeiie ioaeaeueiie “ia?a”.

Ia auaea?aeeaatho e?eoeee, eae ooaa?aeaeaaony a [7], e iiiuoee i?eaea/ue
eieaeueiua ia?u aeey iauyniaiey inaaaeiuaee, iaaethaeaaiie a AONI i?e
T>Tc. I?e yoii noi?iiieee eieaeueiuo ia? iieaaatho, /oi aaee/eia
inaaaeiuaee, iaaethaeaaiie a iaeioi?uo iaeanoyo ciiu A?eeethyia iaoiaeii
oioiyienneiiiie niaeo?ineiiee n oaeiaui ?ac?aoaieai (ARPES), anoue ia
/oi eiia eae yia?aey ?aniaaea eieaeueiie ia?u ia aeaa yeaeo?iia (eee
aeiiey?iia ia aeaa iiey?iia). Oaeay eioa?i?aoaoeey iieiinoueth
i?ioeai?a/eo yenia?eiaioo, eai ARPES naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i neeueiie
caaeneiinoe inaaaeiuaee io eaaceeiioeuena. Ii anee au inaaaeiuaeue
iiyaeyeanue ec-ca ?aniaaea eieaeueiuo ia?, oi aa aaee/eia (?aaiay
yia?aee nayce yeaeo?iiia a iaeiie ia?a) ia caaenaea au io eiioeuena.
Aieaa oiai, nae/an oaea iiaeii n/eoaoue aeieacaiiui iaee/ea a AONI /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiie iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie (ia eioi?ie e ia?acoaony inaaaeiuaeue),
a eieaeueiua ia?u, aoaeo/e aiciiaie, ia eiatho iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi noaouey [7] iaienaia a eneeth/eoaeueii “aeeaii”
noeea, aieaa oa?aeoa?iii aeey iiioey?iiai aeo?iaea, iaaeaee aeey “nooeo”
Physical Review Letters. I?ioeeoe?oai aa caeeth/eoaeueiue aacaoe,
noa?aynue i?e ia?aaiaea auoue ii aiciiaeiinoe aeeaea e i?eaeiaeo: “A
yoii niiauaiee iu iicaaioeeenue i oii, /oiau ?ac e iaanaaaea iieacaoue,
/oi noeaia?ee aeiiey?iiiie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe AONI ia oaeiaeaoai?yao
yenia?eiaioaeueiui ia?aie/aieyi e yaeyaony oai?aoe/anee i?ioeai?a/eaui.
Oioy aica-yeiooaeiianeay eiiaeainaoeey neeueii naycaiiuo yeaeo?iiiuo ia?
a i?eioeeia aiciiaeia, a ioiioaiee AONI yenia?eiaioaeueiua ia?aie/aiey
oaeiau, /oi yoio noeaia?ee ia ?aaeecoaony. *oi eanaaony aii?ina i oii,
iiaoo ee aeiiey?iiu ea?aoue ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee aiciiiuo eaace/anoeoe e
eo eiiaeainaoeee, iu eneeth/aai oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue. Eae iaeiaaeaeu
caiaoee Aldous Huxley, o?aaaaeey i?ae?aniuo oai?ee caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi iie /anoi ?ac?ooathony aacia?aciuie oaeoaie. E yoiio noieo
aeiaaaeoue, /oi o?aaaaeey ia noieue i?ae?aniuo oai?ee ninoieo a oii, /oi
iie aeaaea ia iiaoo auoue ?ac?ooaiu: iiaeiaii ia?niiaaeai
ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiuo oeeueiia, iie i?iaeieaeatho ianeaaeaeaoueny naiei
i?aeanoiui nouanoaiaaieai, iiea ia eii/eony ieaiea.”

Ioaao A.Aeaenaiae?iaa ia canoaaee naay aeieai aeaeaoue (e niaeaeaieth, e
iaio ia niia i?eniaaeeieoueny iaaeaaii ooaaeoee ec aeecie I.Iioo).
Aoeaaeueii a aeaiue auoiaea a naao iiia?a Physical Review Letters ni
noaoueae [7] A.Aeaenaiae?ia iiianoee “comment” e iae a ein-aeaiinianeii
aaiea yeaeo?iiiuo i?ai?eioia [8]. Ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aic?aaeaiey
aaoi?ia [7] i?ioea aeiiey?iiiie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe AONI “anoue
?acoeueoao iai?aaeeueiiai i?eaeeaeaiey aeey yia?aaoe/aneiai niaeo?a
aeiiey?iiia e iai?aaeeueiiai i?eiaiaiey oai?ee aeiiey?iiia”.

Eniieuecoy ?acaeooth ei iaaeaaii aeaoociiioth iiaeaeue, A.Aeaenaiae?ia
iieo/ee oi?ioeo aeey Tc, eioi?ay naiaiaeia io iiaeaiii/iuo ia?aiao?ia e
aeeth/aao a naay, e?iia ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo eiinoaio, eiioeaio?aoeeth
iineoaeae n e aeoaeiu i?iieeiiaaiey iaaieoiiai iiey l ab e l c aaeieue
acaeiii ia?iaiaeeeoey?iuo e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee. I?e
iiaenoaiiaea a yoo oi?ioeo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo (aeey Y-123) cia/aiee n, l
ab e l c iieo/aaony Tc » 100 K, /oi aiai?eo i naiiniaeaniaaiiinoe
aeiiey?iiiiai iiaeoiaea e naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, ii iiaieth A.Aeaenaiae?iaa,
i oii, /oi AONI iaoiaeyony a ?aaeeia aica-yeiooaeiianeie eiiaeainaoeee.

A.Aeaenaiae?ia oaeaea iiae/a?eioe, /oi ii n I.Iiooii iaiaeiie?aoii
ioia/aee, /oi aeiiey?iiu iaeiai ?aaeeona a iaaeii-ieneaeiuo eoi?aoao
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia “onsite”, a ”intersite” ia?aciaaiey. Yoi
yaeyaony neaaenoaeai iaye?aie?iaaiiiai yeaeo?ii-oiiiiiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey e i/aiue nouanoaaiii, iineieueeo eiaiii aeey “onsite“
aeiiey?iiia aaoi?u [7] aeatho ioeaieo yooaeoeaiie iannu aeiiey?iia,
caauoaiioth ia aeaa ii?yaeea ii n?aaiaieth n yenia?eiaioii.

E?iia oiai, A.Aeaenaiae?ia ioiaoee, /oi aeeeia eiaa?aioiinoe a
ca?yaeaiiii aica-aaca, i eioi?ie eaeao ?a/ue a [7], ia eiaao ie/aai
iauaai n ?acia?ii aiciia. Iia, a /anoiinoe, iiaeao auoue oaeie aea
aieueoie, eae e a AEO-naa?oi?iaiaeieea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eaiaeeiua a
[7] a?aoiaiou iaaa?iu. Iai?aaeeueiui n/eoaao A.Aeaenaiae?ia e
ooaa?aeaeaiea aaoi?ia [7] i “aacaeenia?neiiiinoe” oioiyienneiiiie
niaeo?aeueiie ooieoeee aeiiey?iiiiai niaaeeiaiey, iineieueeo aeu?ea
(eioi?ay ia?acoaony i?e oioinoeioee?iaaiiii ?ac?uaa aeiiey?iia e
enioneaiee yeaeo?iia) aeaeaeaony a iiey?iiiie ciia, iaeaaeathuae
aeenia?neae (/oi e “aeaeeo” ARPES).

E iniiaiui aea yenia?eiaioaeueiui a?aoiaioai a iieueco aeiiey?iiiie
naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe AONI A.Aeaenaiae?ia i?e/eneyao iiaaaeaiea Hc2 e
oaeaeueiie oaieiaieinoe a ie?anoiinoe naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai ia?aoiaea. Ii
aeaeaao auaiae, /oi iao iaeiicia/iuo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo naeaeaoaeuenoa
i?ioea aeiiey?iiiie oai?ee. Naie eiiiaioa?ee A.Aeaenaiae?ia caeii/ee
oae: “ssnii, iaeiaei, /oi ethaay oai?ey, i?ae?ania iia eee iao, ia
iiaeao auoue ?ac?ooaia “aacia?aciuie” a?oaoaeoaie, iiaeiaiuie oai, /oi
i?eaaaeaiu a [7]”.

I oii, /oi i?iecioei iinea yoiai “iaiaia ethaaciinoyie”, ?anneacae
P.Rodgers a caiaoea [9]. Ieaea aeaii aa e?aoeia eceiaeaiea.

A iaeiii ec eioa?aueth A.Aeaenaiae?ia iacaae iineaaeiee (oeeoe?iaaiiue
auoa) aacaoe noaouee [7] “iacaei?iaui e iaiioeae?iaaiiui” e ioiaoee, /oi
oaeiai aea iiaiey i?eaea?aeeaathony iiiaea ae?oaea oeceee. Ia yoi
Ae.?aiieiaa? aic?acee, /oi oiiiyiooue aacaoe aue aeiaaaeai e noaouea [7]
“aeey oiai, /oiau oniieieoue neooaoeeth”, a ia n i?iaieaoeeiiiuie
oeaeyie. ?aaeoeey “AONI-niiauanoaa” ia ?aaioo [7] ieacaeanue
iaiaeiicia/iie. Iai?eia?, A.Aa?eeinia iaienae Ae.?aiieiaa?o ienueii, a
eioi?ii auee oaeea neiaa: “ss iieo/ee oaeiaieuenoaea io /oaiey aaoae
noaouee i?i aeiiey?iiioth naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoue. ss iieiinoueth niaeanai n
iae e ioeaiee aeaa iineaaeieo i?aaeeiaeaiey”. A oi aea a?aiy A.Aeoii
iacaae oii noaouee [7] “aaniieacii iieaie/aneei”. “ss iia au caiaoeoue a
oii aea aeooa”, – neacae A.Aeoii, – “/oi e?anioa iaoiaeeony a aeacao
c?eoaey. A nicaeaaoaeny aea neooaoeee anoue ianeieueei c?eoaeae”.

A ea/anoaa yiea?aoa e naiae “iaiauathuae” caiaoea [9] P.Rodgers aua?ae
auneacuaaiea Ae.?aiieiaa?a: “Ie? oai?ee AONI – i/aiue aeaeeeaoiue, n
aieueoei eiee/anoaii ieioie e?iae e ?oeiiaoiiai aiy”. Aaaeii, /oi oeceee
a?aiyony oieueei… a iieneao enoeiu.

Ii iaoa?eaeai neaaeothueo ioaeeeaoeee:

P.W.Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1975, 34, p.953

B.K.Chakraverty et al., Phys. Rev. B, 1978, 17, p.3780

B.K.Chakraverty, J. Phys. (Paris) Lett., 1979, 40, L-99

A.S.Alexandrov and J.Ranninger, Phys. Rev. B, 1981, 23, p.1796

N.F.Mott, Physica C, 1993, 205, p.191

A.S.Alexandrov and N.F.Mott, “High Temperature Superconductors and Other
Superfluids”, London, 1994

B.K.Chakraverty, J.Ranninger, D.Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1998, 81,
p.433

A.S.Alexandrov, cond-mat/9807185

P.Rodgers, Science, 1998, 281, p.1427

Eaaioiai-eeanne/aneee iaoaee

A iniiaa nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i naienoaao iaoaeeia eaaeeo oai?ey
oa?ie-aeeaeeinoe Eaiaeao. Niaeanii yoie oai?ee, nouanoaoao acaeiii
iaeiicia/iia niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo iniiaiui e ieceieaaeaueie
aicaoaeaeaiiuie ninoiyieyie nenoaiu acaeiiaeaenoaothueo yeaeo?iiia (oi
anoue oa?ie-aeeaeeinoe) e niioaaonoaothueie ninoiyieyie nenoaiu
iaacaeiiaeaenoaothueo yeaeo?iiia (oi anoue oa?ie-aaca). I?e iaee/ee
neieue oaiaeii neeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ia?acothueie
oa?ie-aeeaeeinoue /anoeoeaie ieacuaaaony, /oi acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo
eaace/anoeoeaie (yeaiaioa?iuie aicaoaeaeaieyie iaae iniiaiui ninoiyieai)
yaeyaony i/aiue neaaui a ia?o iaeinoe yia?aee yoeo aicaoaeaeaiee e :
Eioaineaiinoue ?annayiey eaace/anoeoe ae?oa ia ae?oaa (oi anoue eo
ia?aoiia a?aiy aeecie) i?iii?oeeiiaeueia e 2, oi anoue noaiiaeony
iaiueoa e i?e aeinoaoi/ii iaeuo e.

Oai?ey oa?ie-aeeaeeinoe i?eiaieia e nenoaiai n ?acia?iinoueth aeaa e
aieaa. A iaeiiia?iuo nenoaiao iia ia ?aaioaao, e iiene oaeiai oeia
nenoai aue i?aaeiaoii eioaineaiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Ii aaaeue ia?acoeu e
iaoa?eaeu, eioi?ua enneaaeothony yenia?eiaioaeueii, ia iiaoo auoue
“/enoi” iaeiiia?iuie! Iie “a eo/oai neo/aa” neeueii aiecio?iiiu, e
iiyoiio iaeiiia?iua iiaeaee, no?iai aiai?y, iai?eiaieiu e iienaieth eo
naienoa. Aaaeue iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, ii e?aeiae ia?a, acaeiiaeaenoaea
iaaeaeo “iaeiiia?iuie eiiiiiaioaie” oaeeo ia?acoeia. A yoi
acaeiiaeaenoaea iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e “ainnoaiiaeaieth”
oa?ie-aeeaeeinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iaaei aua
aeieacaoue, /oi a ?aaeueiuo (a ia iiaeaeueiuo) e, aiiaua aiai?y,
iauaiiuo ia?acoeao aiciiaeii ia?ooaiea oai?ee oa?ie-aeeaeeinoe.

Oaeia aeieacaoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeaii a ?aaioa [D.G.Clarke et al.,
Science 279 (1998) 2071] nio?oaeieeia Joseph Henry Laboratories of
Physics, Princeton University. Iie enneaaeiaaee aeeyiea neeueiiai
iaaieoiiai iiey ia i?aaie/aneee i?iaiaeiee (TMTSF)2PF6. Yoi niaaeeiaiea
iaeaaeaao i/aiue neeueiie aiecio?iieae yeaeo?inii?ioeaeaiey
(1:100:100000) i?e eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?a. I?e ii?iaeueiii aeaaeaiee iii
yaeyaony aeeyeaeo?eeii n aieiie nieiiaie ieioiinoe, a i?e P>6eaa?
noaiiaeony naa?oi?iaiaeieeii n Tc» 1E. Oaaee/aiea iaaieoiiai iiey aei
H>H*» 7Oe i?eaiaeeo ia oieueei e en/aciiaaieth naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe, ii e
e iieiie iioa?e eiaa?aioiinoe a aeaeaeaiee yeaeo?iiia ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii
i?iaiaeyuei e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneei neiyi, oiaaea eae eiaa?aioiinoue
nio?aiyaony a eaaeaeii ioaeaeueii acyoii neia. Yoi ninoiyiea ia yaeyaony
oa?ie-aeeaeeinoiui. Aaoi?u iacaaee aai “eaaioiai-eeanne/aneei iaoaeeii”,
eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony eaaioiaui oa?aeoa?ii ia?aiina ca?yaea a neiyo e
eeanne/aneei – ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii neiyi. Iineieueeo aaee/eia H*
oiaiueoaaony n ?inoii P, oi ia eneeth/aii, /oi oaeia ninoiyiea iiaeao
?aaeeciaaoueny e a ionoonoaea iaaieoiiai iiey, ii i?e i/aiue aunieeo
aeaaeaieyo.

Eciaiaiea neiiao?ee ia?aiao?a ii?yaeea AONI i?e aeiie?iaaiee

Ethaiiuoiua ?acoeueoaou iieo/aiu i?e enneaaeiaaiee AONI Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d
n ?acee/iui niaea?aeaieai eenei?iaea iaoiaeii oioiyienneiiiie
niaeo?ineiiee (ARPES). Ioee ia?aiao?a naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai ii?yaeea D ,
eioi?ua i?enoonoaotho a “iioeiaeueii aeiie?iaaiiuo” ia?acoeao n
iaeneiaeueiie Tc, ionoonoaotho a ia?acoeao n “ecauoi/iui aeiie?iaaieai”
(overdoped). Yoi aeiaieueii oaeeaeoaeueii aua e iioiio, /oi yeaeo?iiiay
ciiiay no?oeoo?a iaieo oeiia ia?acoeia i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaa.
Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua i?ioeai?a/ao aeiioaca i “/enoie” dx2-y2-neiiao?ee D .
Ii-aeaeeiiio, D yaeyaony aeaooeiiiiiaioiie (ii e?aeiae ia?a) aaee/eiie,
i?e/ai “oaeaeueiue aan” eaaeaeie eiiiiiaiou eciaiyaony i?e aeiie?iaaiee.

(Ii iaoa?eaeai “High-Tc Update”).

R.Gatt et al., “Superconducting Gap Symmetry and Doping in
Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x“, preprint.

I.Vobornik et al., “Electronic Structure of Overdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x“,
preprint.

(oaenou iaieo i?ai?eioia iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu ii cai?ino o M.Onellion;
e-mail: [email protected]).

Naa?oi?iaiaeieeiaue iaeiieoaeue aeey eiioi?oiiai aiiioaaaeeua io
Intermagnetics

Intermagnetics General Corp. iinoaaeea e onoaiiaeea naa?oi?iaiaeyuoth
iaaieoioth iaeiieoaeueioth nenoaio iiuiinoueth 6IAeae (6MJ microSMES) ia
aaca AAN NOA a Tyndall (Florida). Cenoaia IPQ-750TM aeeth/aao oaeaea
?ao?eaea?aoi? (nryocooler), AONI oieiaaiaeu, iiuioth yeaeo?iieeo n
eiiia?/aneie nenoaiie aania?aaieiiai ieoaiey (UPS). Iaeiieoaeue
eioaa?e?iaai a aaoiiiiiue eiiieaen ia?aaeaeaeiiai aiiaioaaaeeua
(“Mobile/Relo-catable Shelter”) e ?ann/eoai ia aania?aaieioth ?aaioo a
oa/aiea 24 /ania a nooee. Eiiiaeoiia aiiaioaaaeeua eiaao ?acia?u 16 x
2.8 x 2.8i3.

AAN NOA yaeyaony eeaea?ii a i?iaeaeaeaiee iaeiieoaeae a aiaiioth
oaoieeo. Ia naaiaeiy, e?iia Intermagnetics, eiiia?/aneea iaeiieoaee
ecaioaaeeaaao e onoaiaaeeaaao American Superconductor.

“?ac?ooaiea” iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie a aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo naa?oi?iaiaeieeao n
ieceei o?iaiai aeiie?iaaiey

Yeaeo?iiu yaeythony oa?ieiiaie, iiyoiio ie iaeii eaaioiaia ninoiyiea ia
iiaeao auoue caiyoi n?aco aeaoiy yeaeo?iiaie (i?eioeei Iaoee). Yoi,
nianoaaiii, e i?eaiaeeo e ?aciiia?aceth naienoa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aoiiia
a Ia?eiaee/aneie Oaaeeoea. *oi eanaaony aieueoeo aoiiiuo nenoai, oi
eiaiii a neeo i?eioeeia Iaoee yeaeo?iiu ia “naaeeaathony” a iaeii
ninoiyiea n ieieiaeueiie yia?aeae, a iaeii?iaeii ?ani?aaeaeythony ii
eiioeueniiio i?ino?ainoao, caieiay ninoiyiey n yia?aeyie, ia
i?aauoathueie iaeioi?oth ieieiaeueioth yia?aeth, eioi?ay iacuaaaony
yia?aeae Oa?ie. Oaeei ia?acii, yeaeo?iiu eae au oi?ie?otho a eiioeueniii
i?ino?ainoaa (a ia?eiaee/aneeo nenoaiao – a ciia A?eeethyia) iaeia
iiaeiaea “eaiee”. Yia?aey yeaeo?iiiuo ninoiyiee ia iiaa?oiinoe yoie
“eaiee” (iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie) ?aaia yia?aee Oa?ie. Aeaoi?iaoeey e
eieaaaiey iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie ii?aaeaeytho eieeaeoeaiua naienoaa iaoaeeia.

AONI, ioe?uoua 12 eao iacaae, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ea/anoaaiii iiaue oei
iaoaeeia: ia?aiauaiea yeaeo?iiia a AONI ia?aie/aii i?iaiaeyueie neiyie
CuO2; a iai?aaeaiee, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iii yoei neiyi, i?iaiaeeiinoue i/aiue
ieceay, a ciia A?eeethyia yaeyaony i?aeoe/anee aeaoia?iie. Iiiaea
iaiau/iua naienoaa AONI i?ienoaeatho, ii-aeaeeiiio, ec ei??aee?iaaiiiai
aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiiie aeeaeeinoe a i?aaeaeao neiaa CuO2. Niaoeeoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe yoiai aeaeaeaiey oi?ie?othony i?e oaiia?aoo?a, i?aauoathuae
oaiia?aoo?o naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai ia?aoiaea Tc, e “inoaaeytho naie neaaeu”
ia iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie.

Aaeeinoaaiiue, ecaanoiue ia naaiaeiy iaaeaaeiue niinia
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie a AONI –
yoi oioiyienneiiiay niaeo?ineiiey n oaeiaui ?ac?aoaieai. Eiaaea
aunieiyia?aaoe/iue oioii ?annaeaaaony ia enneaaeoaiii ia?acoea, ii
“aunaeyao” yeaeo?ii ec caiyoiai ei ninoiyiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai a
yeaeo?iiiie aeeaeeinoe ia?acoaony “aeu?ea”. Aiaeec eioaineaiinoe auaeouo
yeaeo?iiia aeaao eioi?iaoeeth ia ecia/aeueiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee yeaeo?iiia
ii yia?aee e eiioeueno. Yoei iaoiaeii auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi a AONI n
iioeiaeueiui o?iaiai aeiie?iaaiey (oi anoue n oaeie eiioeaio?aoeeae
iineoaeae ca?yaea, i?e eioi?ie Tc eiie?aoiie nenoaiu iaeneiaeueia)
aeaoia?iay iiaa?oiinoue Oa?ie eiaao oi?io eaaae?aoa ni ne?oaeaiiuie
e?ayie [1,2].

Ii-ae?oaiio ianoiyo aeaea a “underdoped” AONI, aaea o?iaaiue
aeiie?iaaiey (eiioeaio?aoeey iineoaeae) ieaea iioeiaeueiie aaee/eiu.
Anee i?e oaiia?aoo?a auoa iaeioi?ie oaiia?aoo?u T*>Tc oaeaea
iaaethaeaaony “eaaae?aoiiiaeiaiay” iiaa?oiinoue Oa?ie, oi iiieaeaiea
oaiia?aoo?u ieaea T* aaaeao e iiyaeaieth a ieioiinoe yeaeo?iiiuo
ninoiyiee ia o?iaia Oa?ie oae iacuaaaiie “inaaaeiuaee”, oi anoue, /enei
yeaeo?iiia ia iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie ?acei oiaiueoaaony. I?e aeaeueiaeoai
ioeaaeaeaiee ia?acoea aei Tc i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae a naa?oi?iaiaeyuaa
ninoiyiea, oi acoue ia iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie aicieeaao ia inaaaei-, a
naa?oi?iaiaeyuay uaeue. Iiea ia iiiyoii, naycaii ee iaee/ea inaaaeiuaee
ni naa?oi?iaiaeyueie ei??aeyoeeyie yeaeo?iiia, eioi?ua ?acaeaathony aua
a ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee, eee aea inaaaeiuaeue eiaao ae?oaia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea (iai?eia?, iia iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaia nieiiauie
ei??aeyoeeyie a ninaaeieo neiyo CuO2).

A iaaeaaiae ?aaioa [3] aieueoiai eieeaeoeaa aia?eeaineeo, eiaeeeneeo e
yiiineeo oeceeia (Argonne National Laboratory, University of Illinois at
Chicago; Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; Tohoku University,
Nagoya University, National Research Institute for Metals, University of
Tsukuba) auea aeaoaeueii i?iia?aia iiaa?oiinoue Oa?ie “under-doped”
iiiie?enoaeea AONI Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d n Tc=85E. Auynieeinue, /oi
oi?ie?iaaiea inaaaeiuaee aaaeao e “?ac?uao” iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie. A
i?ienoiaeeo yoi oae. Inaaaeiuaeue i?e T*=180K aicieeaao ia?aiia/aeueii a
/aou?ao oi/eao iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a oeaio?ao noi?ii
“ne?oaeaiiiai eaaae?aoa”. I?e yoii iai?a?uaiinoue iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie
ieacuaaaony ia?ooaiiie. Ii ia?a iiieaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u inaaaeiuaeue
“?aniiecaaony” ii iai?aaeaieth e ne?oaeaiiui oaeai (aeoaai).
Iiaa?oiinoue Oa?ie i?e yoii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /aou?a ia naycaiiua
ae?oa n ae?oaii aeoae, ?acia?u eioi?uo ii ia?a ioeaaeaeaiey
oiaiueoathony (ii oi?ia aeoa i?e yoii ia eciaiyaony!). Iieiinoueth aeoae
en/acatho eeoue i?e T=Tc. I?e oaiia?aoo?a ieaea Tc ia iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie
eiaaony naa?oi?iaiaeyuay uaeue. Ii ia ia anae iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie. Aeaei a
oii, /oi naa?oi?iaiaeyuay uaeue neeueii aiecio?iiia e ?aaia ioeth a
/aou?ao oi/eao iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie. Eioa?anii, /oi yoi eiaiii oa oi/ee, a
eioi?uo “noeiiioeenue” /aou?a aeoae i?e iiaeoiaea e Tc “naa?oo”!

PRIVATE “TYPE=PICT;ALT=wpe24.jpg (15125 bytes)” Aiaeiae/iua ?acoeueoaou
auee iieo/aiu e aeey ae?oaiai “underdoped” ia?acoea n Tc=77E. A aio a
“overdoped” iiiie?enoaeeao n Tc=82 e 87E, o eioi?uo eiioeaio?aoeey
iineoaeae auoa iioeiaeueiie, inaaaeiuaee i?e T>Tc iaia?oaeaii ia auei.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, iaaeaeo inaaaeiuaeueth e naa?oi?iaiaeyuae uaeueth a AONI
eiaaony eaeay-oi naycue, eioi?ay iiaeao ieacaoueny aanueia
iao?eaeaeueiie, eae iao?eaeaeueia e iaiau/iay (caaenyuay io oaiia?aoo?u)
aiecio?iiey inaaaeiuaee. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi a ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee AONI
i?enoonoaotho ae?ooaeueiua yeaeo?iiiua ia?u, a?aiy aeecie eioi?uo t
naycaii n iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth eo yia?aee nayce D e niioiioaieai t D e
~h [4]. Eiaaea aaee/eia D e noaiiaeony n?aaieia ni naa?oi?iaiaeyuae
uaeueth a ii?aaeaeaiiie oi/ea iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie, oi a yoie oi/ea
“ioe?uaaaony” inaaaeiuaeue.

Eae au oi ie auei, i?eaaaeaiiua a [3] ?acoeueoaou iicaieytho i?eie?eoue
aieueoia eiee/anoai eiathueony a eeoa?aoo?a i?ioeai?a/eauo aeaiiuo,
iieo/aiiuo i?e enneaaeiaaiee inaaaeiuaee ?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iineieueeo inaaaeiuaeue neeueii aiecio?iiia a
eiioeueniii i?ino?ainoaa, oi oaiia?aoo?iay caaeneiinoue eiie?aoiie
oece/aneie aaee/eiu (yeaeo?e/aneie i?iaiaeeiinoe, oaeaeueiie
oaieiaieinoe, ooiiaeueiiai oiea e o.ae.) ii?aaeaeyaony eiie?aoiie
caaeneiinoueth niioaaonoaothuaai iao?e/iiai yeaiaioa io eiioeuena, a yoe
iao?e/iua yeaiaiou aeey ?aciuo oece/aneeo aaee/ei iiaoo nouanoaaiii
?acee/aoueny.

A yeaeo?iiiii Aaiea i?ai?eioia oaea iiyaeeenue ia?aua oai?aoe/aneea
?aaiou [5-7], iinayuaiiua iauyniaieth aeaiiuo ?aaiou [3] e oi?ioee?iaea
niioaaonoaothueo iiaeaeae.

Aiaeiae/iua ?acoeueoaou auee iieo/aiu e aeey ae?oaiai “underdoped”
ia?acoea n Tc=77E. A aio a “overdoped” iiiie?enoaeeao n Tc=82 e 87E, o
eioi?uo eiioeaio?aoeey iineoaeae auoa iioeiaeueiie, inaaaeiuaee i?e T>Tc
iaia?oaeaii ia auei. Ii-aeaeeiiio, iaaeaeo inaaaeiuaeueth e
naa?oi?iaiaeyuae uaeueth a AONI eiaaony eaeay-oi naycue, eioi?ay iiaeao
ieacaoueny aanueia iao?eaeaeueiie, eae iao?eaeaeueia e iaiau/iay
(caaenyuay io oaiia?aoo?u) aiecio?iiey inaaaeiuaee. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi a
ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee AONI i?enoonoaotho ae?ooaeueiua yeaeo?iiiua ia?u,
a?aiy aeecie eioi?uo t naycaii n iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth eo yia?aee nayce D
e niioiioaieai t D e ~h [4]. Eiaaea aaee/eia D e noaiiaeony n?aaieia ni
naa?oi?iaiaeyuae uaeueth a ii?aaeaeaiiie oi/ea iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie, oi a
yoie oi/ea “ioe?uaaaony” inaaaeiuaeue.

Eae au oi ie auei, i?eaaaeaiiua a [3] ?acoeueoaou iicaieytho i?eie?eoue
aieueoia eiee/anoai eiathueony a eeoa?aoo?a i?ioeai?a/eauo aeaiiuo,
iieo/aiiuo i?e enneaaeiaaiee inaaaeiuaee ?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iineieueeo inaaaeiuaeue neeueii aiecio?iiia a
eiioeueniii i?ino?ainoaa, oi oaiia?aoo?iay caaeneiinoue eiie?aoiie
oece/aneie aaee/eiu (yeaeo?e/aneie i?iaiaeeiinoe, oaeaeueiie
oaieiaieinoe, ooiiaeueiiai oiea e o.ae.) ii?aaeaeyaony eiie?aoiie
caaeneiinoueth niioaaonoaothuaai iao?e/iiai yeaiaioa io eiioeuena, a yoe
iao?e/iua yeaiaiou aeey ?aciuo oece/aneeo aaee/ei iiaoo nouanoaaiii
?acee/aoueny.

A yeaeo?iiiii Aaiea i?ai?eioia oaea iiyaeeenue ia?aua oai?aoe/aneea
?aaiou [5-7], iinayuaiiua iauyniaieth aeaiiuo ?aaiou [3] e oi?ioee?iaea
niioaaonoaothueo iiaeaeae.

C.G.Olson et al., Science 1989, 245, p.731

J.C.Campuzano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 1990, 64, p.2308

M.R.Norman et al., Nature 1998, 392, p.157

P.Coleman, Nature 1998, 392, p.134

G.Preosti et al.,

http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/9808298

J.Kishine and K.Yonemitsu,…/cond-mat/9808303

V.J.Emery and S.A.Kivelson,…/cond-mat/9809083

Aiiiaeee niaeo?a iaeii/anoe/iuo aicaoaeaeaiee a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d

Niaeanii noaiaea?oiie oai?ee naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe AEO, aaee/eia
e?eoe/aneie oaiia?aoo?u Tc ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiie naa?oi?iaiaeyuae uaee
D , eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaoneiaeaia oa?aeoa?iie yia?aeae oiiiiia
(eee eaeeo-oi ae?oaeo “nia?eaathueo aiciiia”). Ia?aoiae a
naa?oi?iaiaeyuaa ninoiyiea i?eaiaeeo e iiaeeoeeaoeee oieueei oao
iaeii/anoe/iuo aicaoaeaeaiee, yia?aey eioi?uo iaiueoa eee ii?yaeea D (oi
anoue » 2kBTc, oae eae 2D /kBTc» 3.5 a iiaeaee AEO). A iau/iuo
naa?oi?iaiaeieeao D ia ianeieueei ii?yaeeia iaiueoa yia?aee Oa?ie,
iiyoiio o?aaiaaiea niaianoiiai auiieiaiey caeiiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee e
eiioeuena i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee aeaoo yeaeo?iiia i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi
nia?eaathony yeaeo?iiu, iaoiaeyueany a i/aiue oceie iaeanoe eiioeueniiai
i?ino?ainoaa: iieiue eiioeuen aeaoo yeaeo?iiia a eoia?ianeie ia?a K» 0,
oae /oi oaeoe/anee nia?eaathony eeoue yeaeo?iiu n eiioeuenaie k» -k? .

Niaa?oaiii ae?oaay ea?oeia ioe?ueanue a?oiia aia?eeaineeo, aano?aeeeneeo
e yiiineeo o/aiuo i?e enneaaeiaaiee iaeii/anoe/iie niaeo?aeueiie
ieioiinoe iioeiaeueii aeiie?iaaiiuo iiiie?enoaeeia Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d
iaoiaeii oioiyienneiiiie niaeo?ineiiee n oaeiaui ?ac?aoaieai.
Ieacaeinue, /oi i?e iiieaeaiee oaiia?aoo?u ieaea Tc iaeii/anoe/iue
niaeo? eciaiyaony a i/aiue oe?ieii eioa?aaea yia?aee, aieioue aei 300iyA
(eee 40kBTc) i?e iaeioi?uo cia/aieyo eiioeuena. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi a
AONI, aa?iyoii, a nia?eaaiee o/anoaotho i?aeoe/anee ana yeaeo?iiu, a ia
oieueei oa ec ieo, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a oceie “ei?i/ea” aaeece
iiaa?oiinoe Oa?ie. Eae neaaenoaea, ia eneeth/aii, /oi aaee/eia Tc a AONI
ia?aie/eaaaony ia neeie nia?eaathuaai acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaeo?iiia, a
eaeeie-oi ae?oaeie, iiea iai iaecaanoiuie oaeoi?aie. Iieo/aiiua
?acoeueoaou noaayo iiae niiiaiea i?eiaieiinoue eaeeo au oi ie auei
oai?ee n?aaeiaai iiey e AONI.

E?iia oiai, ieacaeinue, /oi eiaao ianoi aiiiaeueii aieueoie (aaee/eiie
Q» (0.45p ;0)) ia?aiin niaeo?aeueiiai aana io iaeiiai eiioeuena e
ae?oaiio. Ii iiaieth aaoi?ia, yoio yooaeo iiaeao auoue naycai n
“iieineaie” (stripes), oi anoue n iee?ineiie/aneeie iaiaeii?iaeiinoyie
?ani?aaeaeaiey ca?yaea a AONI.

Z.-X.Shen et al., Science, 1998, 280, 259

I?eiane a neiyo CuO2 e iaaeaeo ieie

Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey ?acee/iuo oeiia i?eianae ia naienoaa AONI
YBa2Cu4O8 auiieiaii a ?aaioa iiaicaeaiaeneeo o/aiuo ec New Zealand
Institute for Industrial Research [1]. Iie iieacaee, /oi /anoe/iia
caiauaiea Y ia Ca e Ba ia La i?aeoe/anee ia aeeyao ia Tc, oiaaea eae
caiauaiea Cu ia Zn eee Ni i?eaiaeeo e auno?ie aeaa?aaeaoeee
naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iieiinoueth niaeanothony n
aeaoia?iie ea?oeiie, niaeanii eioi?ie aunieioaiia?aoo?iay
naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoue iaoneiaeaia nia?eaaieai a neiyo CuO2. Anee
oeaeinoiinoue iineaaeieo ia?ooaaony (eae i?e caiauaiee aoiiia iaaee), oi
Tc iaaeaao. Anee aea aoiiiue aanii?yaeie aicieeaao ca i?aaeaeaie yoeo
neiaa (eae i?e caiauaiee aoiiia eoo?ey e aa?ey), oi Tc ia iaiyaony.
Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou aiai?yo aua e i neaaie ?iee acaeiiaeaenoaey
iaaeaeo neiyie CuO2 aeey naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe AONI.

E oai ia iaiaa, yoi iaaeneiaaia acaeiiaeaenoaea ana aea iaaei
o/eouaaoue. Yenia?eiaiou ii caiauaieth Bi ® Bi0.6Pb0.4 (aoiiu naeioea
?aniieaaathony aia neiaa CuO2) a iiiie?enoaeeao AONI Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8,
i?iaaaeaiiua a University of Kentucky, NOA [2], naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi
Tc i?e oaeii caiauaiee oiaiueoaaony aanueia i?eee/ii – ia ~20E (oioy
naa?oi?iaiaeyuay uaeue inoaaony iaeciaiiie!). Cia/eo, iaaeieineinoiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea, eioi?ia ia?ooatho aoiiu naeioea i?e oaeii caiauaiee,
ana aea ieacuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiia aeeyiea ia aunieioaiia?aoo?ioth
naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoue.

G.V.M.Williams and J.L.Tallon,

Phys. Rev. B 1998, 57, 10984

J.Kane, Physica C 1998, 294, 176

AONI i?iaiaea i?ioee ia?aue eeeiiao?

A ioaeaeaiee Cables and Component oe?iu Alcatel ecaioiaeaiu AONI
i?iaiaeieee i?yiioaieueiiai na/aiey (eiino?oeoeey caiaoaioiaaia oe?iie)
ia iniiaa Bi-2212 e Bi-2223 aeeeiie 1000i e 400i niioaaonoaaiii.
I?iaiaeieee ecaioiaeaiu ia caaiaea oe?iu (Jeumont, O?aioeey) ii
oaoiieiaee “ii?ioie-a o?oaa”. Alcatel, ?aaioathuay niaianoii n iaiaoeeie
oe?iie Hoechst AG, eniieueciaaea i?aeo?ni?u nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Oe?ia cayaeyao, /oi aa i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe aeinoaoi/iu aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa aei 150ei i?iaiaeieeia a aiae. E?eoe/aneay ieioiinoue oiea
aeinoeaaao 20eA/ni2 (77E, Bi-2223) e 60eA/ni2 (4.2E, Bi-2212). Alcatel
aioiaeony ecaioiaeoue ec i?iecaaaeaiiuo i?iaiaeieeia AONI nieaiieae e
ieineee iaaieo n iieai a ianeieueei oanea.

A i?ioeanna “ii?ioie-a-o?oaa” iaeaieaa aei?iaie eiiiiiaio – na?aa?yiay
o?oaea. Ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia Texas Center for Superconductivity,
noieiinoue Bi-i?iaiaeieea a na?aa?yiie o?oaea ninoaaeyao
19.2aeiee./eA-iao?, a oi a?aiy eae noieiinoue aiaeiaa a ieeaeaaie o?oaea
– oieueei 0.12aeiee./eA-iao?. Ii yoie i?e/eia oaoanneee oeaio?
nin?aaeioi/eeny ia oaoiieiaee Bi-2212 iie?uoee ia Ni iiaeeiaeea. Oneeey
– ia aanieiaeiu: ia naaiaeiy aeinoeaiooa ieioiinoue e?eoe/aneiai oiea 5?
105A/ni2 (4.2E, nianoaaiiia iiea) e 3? 105A/ni2 (4.2E, 8O). Yoe
?acoeueoaou aeecee e eo/oei iieo/aiiui iaoiaeii “ii?ioie-a-o?oaa” n
na?aa?yiie o?oaeie. Aeey naieo iie?uoee oaoanoeu eniieuecotho
aeaoonooiai/aoue i?ioeann “?aniueaiea/i?anniaaiea” (two step
spray/press), cia/eoaeueii aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue e aeaoaaue a
n?aaiaiee n i?ioeannii “ii?ioie-a-o?oaa”. I?ioeann ninoieo a ?aniueaiee
neiy BSCCO/nie?o ia Ni iiaeeiaeeo, nooea, ia?aiio i?anniaaieth e
i?ieaoea, oaenoo?e?iaaieth a aoiinoa?a O2/Ar. Aeey oneeaiey aaeaacee
ieeaeaaay iiaeeiaeea i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iie?uaaeanue neiai Ag-Pd oieueiie
200ii. Eiio?ieue iaoiaeii ?aioaaiianeie aeeo?aeoeee auyaeyao /enooth
Bi-2212 oaco (On a aeeaiaciia 66-77E) n oi?ioi i?eaioe?iaaiiuie ca?iaie
aaeieue c-ine. Iaeioi?ay iiaeeoeeaoeey i?ioeanna iicaieyao oaeaea
inaaeaeaoue Bi-2223 oaco. Oanoe?othony oaeaea e ae?oaea aeaoaaua
iaaieoiua e iaiaaieoiua iiaeeiaeee.

I ?ac?aaioea aeeeiiuo AONI eaio niiauaao MM Cables, ioaeaeaiea oe?iu
Metal Manufactures Limited (Aano?aeey). MM Cables iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue
eaiou nenoaiu Bi-2223 iai?a?uaiie aeeeiie aei 1000i. Iia yaeyaony iaeiie
ec 5-oe oe?i a ie?a, niiniaiuo yoi aeaeaoue. Oe?ia iinoaaeyao AONI
eaaaeue e iaaieueoea ecaeaeey ec iaai a no?aiu aceaonei-oeoiieaaineiai
?aaeiia. Oniao yaeeny ?acoeueoaoii eioaineaiuo enneaaeiaaiee
iauaaeeiaiiie a?oiiu nio?oaeieeia MM Cables, the University of
Wollongong, and the CSIRO Division of Telecommunications and Industrial
Physics. Eaiou, ninoiyuea ec 37 Bi-2223 aeee a Ag iaiei/ea, ecaioiaeaiu
iaoiaeii ii?ioie-a-o?oaa. E?eoe/aneee oie, ecia?aiiue i?e 77E a
nianoaaiiii iaaieoiii iiea ii e?eoa?eth 1ieA/ni, ninoaaee 8000A/ni2. MM
Cables ?ac?aaaouaaao oaeaea oeaeoth na?eth AONI i?iaiaeia e eaio,
iioeiece?iaaiiuo aeey ?acee/iuo i?eiaiaiee. Noaiaea?oiay i?iaeoeoeey
aeeth/aao eaiou, niaea?aeauea aei 61 aeeeu a /enoi na?aa?yiie iaiei/ea
eee a iaiei/ea ia iniiaa nieaaa na?aa?a, n e?eoe/aneei oieii aei
20000A/ni2 (77E). Ii o?aaiaaieth caeac/eea ana i?iaiaeieee iiaoo auoue
iie?uou iai?a?uaiui eciee?othuei neiai. MM Cables ia iniiaa AONI eaio
ecaioaaeeaaao ?acee/iua iaaieueoea ono?ienoaa, a oii /enea AONI iaaieou
n aeeaiao?ii ioaa?noey 50ii, aaia?e?othuea iiea 0.5Oe (4.2E) ai aiaoiai
iiea aei 5Oe. Oe?ia iinoaaeyao oaeaea AONI i?iaiaea ?acee/iuo
eiioeao?aoeee, aeeth/athueo oaenoe?iaaiiua i?iaiaea n oiaiueoaiiuie
iioa?yie ia ia?aiaiiii oiea, e?oaeua e eaioi/iua eiino?oeoeee, e?oaeua
i?iaiaea, oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?uo ia caaenyo io i?eaioaoeee aiaoiaai
iaaieoiiai iiey, oieiaaiaeu. Oaoiieiaey e eiino?oeoeey AONI ecaeaeee
oe?iu caueuaia iaoaioaie.

Nordic Superconductor Technologies (NST, Aeaiey) ecaioaaeeaaao iaoiaeii
“ii?ioie-a-o?oaa” AONI (BSCCO-2223) eaioo aeeeiie 1230i e e?eoe/aneie
ieioiinoueth oiea 23.3eA/ni2. Oe?ia i?iecaiaeeo AONI eaiou aieueoie
aeeeiu a na?aa?yiie iaiei/ea e a iaiei/eao ec nieaaa na?aa?a,
oi?i/iaiiiai ieeneaieai, e ec Ag-Au nieaaa. NST auea o/?aaeaeaia a 1997
aiaeo eiaiii n oeaeueth ?ac?aaioee, i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaaee AONI eaio.

Oieeaeueiue AONI eaaaeue c i/aiue ieceeie iioa?yie ia ia?aiaiiii oiea
?ac?aaioaee niaianoii aeaa yiiineea oe?iu – Chubu Electric Power Co. e
Fujikura. Eaaaeue ninoieo ec o?ainiiie?iaaiiiai naaiaioiiai i?iaiaeieea
BSCCO a na?aa?yiie iaiei/ea, nie?aeueii iaiioaiiiai aie?oa o?oaee-eaiaea
aeey oeaaeiaaaioa. I?iaiaeiee iie?uo oi?ioi i?iaiaeyuei ecieyoeeiiiui
neiai ia iniiaa aea?eaeiuo iieeia?ia. Eaaeaeue i?iaiaeiee ninoieo ec 5
AONI eaio n eciee?iaaiiuie iiaa?oiinoyie. Oaoiieiaey eaaei
o?ainoi?ie?oaony aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eaaaey ia iniiaa YBCO.

AONI oieiaaiaeu oaea iioee a aeaei

Niaoeeaeenou Tohoku Univ. e CREST (ssiiiey) onoaiiaeee AONI oieiaaiaeu
ia naa?oi?iaiaeyuee (Nb3Sn) iaaieo n 52ii oaieui ioaa?noeai e iieai
15.1Te. Aeeeia Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+d oieiaaiaeia – 180ii, aiaoiee aeeaiao?
23ii, aioo?aiiee aeeaiao? – 20ii . Oieiaaiae i?iioneaao e?eoe/aneee oie
aei 1000A i?e 77E a ionoonoaee iaaieoiiai iiey.

Aiaeiaueia ia?aiai AONI iaaieoa

A 1997a. ia onei?eoaea aai-aea-A?aaoa (The Institute for Geological and
Nuclear Sciences, Wellington, Iiaay Caeaiaeey) onoaiiaeai AONI iaaieo
aeey ia?aeeth/aiey eiiiiai eo/a. A nicaeaiee e onoaiiaea iaaieoa
i?eieiaee o/anoea aia?eeaineay oe?ia American Superconductor Corp.,
Alphatech International (Auckland, Iiaay Caeaiaeey), ISYS (Palo Alto,
NOA) e The Institute for Industrial Research (Wellington, Iiaay
Caeaiaeey). Onoaiiaea naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai iaaieoa iicaieyea oaaee/eoue
i?ioiaeaeaiea eiiiiai eo/a aac oaaee/aiey iiuiinoe ieoaiey eee onoaiiaee
oyaeaeiai oa??iiaaieoiiai na?aea/ieea a iau/iii iaaieoa. Iaaieo ninoieo
ec aeaoo ?yeno?aeiauo eaoooae ec i?iaiaeia Bi-2223, aaia?e?othueo
iaeii?iaeiia iiea 0.72Oe e iiiauaiiuo iaaeaeo aeaoiy oa??iiaaieoiuie
iiethnaie (410? 700ii2). Aeaa 100A AONI eaoooee eiatho ?aai/oth
oaiia?aoo?o 50E e ioeaaeaeathony iaeiieaneaaeiui ?ao?eaea?aoi?ii
Aeaeeoi?aea-IaeIaaiia. A oa/aiea ia?aiai aiaea ?aaiou iaaieo iaoiaeeeny
aacaaa?eeii a ?aai/ai ninoiyiee a oa/aiea 9600 /ania e auaea?aeae 15
oa?iioeeeeia aac auoiaea ec no?iy. Nio?oaeieee, ?aaioathuea ia
onei?eoaea, ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi onoaiiaea AONI iaaieoa i?eaaea e
cia/eoaeueiiio oeo/oaieth oa?aeoa?enoee eiiiiai eo/a ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
aia?oo?u iaaieoa e iaeii?iaeiinoe iiey. Nio?oaeiee iaeiiai ec
?ac?aaio/eeia iaaieoa – The Institute for Industrial Research, niiauaao,
/oi ca i?ioaaeoee aiae ni aeiy onoaiiaee iaaieoa e?eoe/aneea ia?aiao?u
AONI i?iaiaeieeia auee oeo/oaiu a 2 ?aca aeey aeeeiiuo i?iaiaeieeia e a
3 ?aca – aeey ei?ioeeo eoneia.

STI iieo/eea caeac ia ecaioiaeaiea 16 nenoai AONI oeeueo?ia aeey nioiauo
noaioeee

Superconductor Technologies, Inc (STI) iieo/eea caeac io i?iaaeaea?neie
neoaeau nioiaie nayce ia ecaioiaeaiea 16-oe nenoai oeeueo?ia –
SuperFilterTM. Yoi – naiue aieueoie caeac a ie?a ia i?iecaiaenoai
naa?oi?iaiaeyueo ono?ienoa aeey nenoai nayce ca anth enoi?eth. A oa/aiea
II eaa?oaea 1998a. oe?ia oaea i?iaaea n aeanoyueie ?acoeueoaoaie
eniuoaiey 14 nenoai oeeueo?ia a 12-oe i?iaaeaea?neeo neoaeaao. Eniuoaiey
iieacaee, /oi i?eiaiaiea nenoaiu SuperFilter oaaee/eaaao ia 100%
i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue oaeaoiiiiai eaiaea. Iaeeaeay ?inoa caeacia, STI
caioneaao iiaua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe aeey auionea SuperFilter –
iiiauaiea ieiuaaeueth 1800i2. Nae/an oe?ia iiaeao auioneaoue iaeio
nenoaio a aeaiue, a e eiioeo aiaea oaaee/eo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aei 3
nenoai a aeaiue. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee aeeth/aao inaaeaeaiea AONI
ieaiie, ecaioiaeaiea iee?inoai, nai?eo e oiaeiaeo noai, ecaioiaeaiea
aeuetha?ia, nai?eo ?ao?eaea?aoi?ia (cryocooler), nai?eo e eniuoaiea anae
nenoaiu.

Ae?oaie i?iecaiaeeoaeue AONI nenoai aeey aaciauo noaioeee nioiaie nayce
– Conductus, Inc , iieo/ee caeacu ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth ClearSiteTM aeey
i?iaaeaea?a Booz-Allen & Hamilton. ClearSiteTM eiiaeie?oao eo/oea
ea/anoaa AONI oeeueo?ia e e?eiaaiiuo iaeiooiyueo aui?yieoaeae. Nenoaia
auea oniaoii eniuoaia a iieaauo oneiaeyo.

Iioaioeeae ia?iiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aeo?ae a naa?oi?iaiaeieea aoi?iai
?iaea. I?yiia ecia?aiea

Iaaieoiua aeo?e a naa?oi?iaiaeieeao aoi?iai ?iaea i?eaeaeatho e naaa
aieiaiea ni a?aiaie i?aaeneacaiey eo nouanoaiaaiey Aa?eeiniaui. Eiaiii
naienoaa eieeaeoeaa iaaieoiuo aeo?ae ii?aaeaeytho oaeea aaaeiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee naa?oi?iaiaeieeia eae e?eoe/aneee oie e aa?oiaa
e?eoe/aneia iiea. Yoe naienoaa, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaoneiaeaiu aeaoiy
oaeoi?aie: 1) acaeiiaeaenoaeai aeo?ae ae?oa n ae?oaii e 2)
acaeiiaeaenoaeai aeo?ae n oeaio?aie ieiieiaa, ia?acothueieny aneaaenoaea
ia?ooaiey eaeaaeueiie ia?eiaee/iinoe e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee
naa?oi?iaiaeieea. Iee?ineiie/aneea iaoaieciu, ioaaonoaaiiua ca
oiiiyiooua aeaa acaeiiaeaenoaey, aeoeaii enneaaeiaaeenue oai?aoeeaie.
*oi aea eanaaony yenia?eiaioa, oi aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie oeceee iiaee
noaeeoue ia yoeo acaeiiaeaenoaeyo eeoue einaaiii, aiaeece?oy iiaaaeaiea
iaaieoiiai iioiea a naa?oi?iaiaeieeao.

?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee iaaethaeaiey iaaieoiuo aeo?ae “a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie”
n iiiiuueth ei?aioeaaneie iee?ineiiee [1,2] a i?eioeeia aeaeaao
aiciiaeiuie i?yiua ecia?aiey eae iioaioeeaea ieiieiaa, oae e iioaioeeaea
acaeiiaeaenoaey aeo?ae iaaeaeo niaie. Ei?aioeaaneay iee?ineiiey iniiaaia
ia ioeeiiaiee yeaeo?iiiiai eo/a i?inaa/eaathuaai yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia
iaaieoiui iieai, /oi iicaieyao iaaethaeaoue a naa?oi?iaiaeieea
ioaeaeueiua aeo?e e ioneaaeeaaoue eo aeaeaeaiea.

Aia?aua yoa iaoiaeeea i?eiaiaia e enneaaeiaaieth iaaieoiuo aeo?ae a
?aaioa [3] eieeaeoeaa aia?eeaineeo (University of Chicago, Argonne
National Laboratory) e yiiineeo (Hitachi Ltd.) oeceeia. Auea eco/aia
oiieay ieaiea ieiaey oieueiie 100ii e n?aaeiei ?acia?ii ca?ai ieiei
300iei. Ia?acaoe iiiauaee ia iiaenoaaeo yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia e
ioeaaeaeaee a ionoonoaea iiey aei T =4.5K Tc oae iacuaaaiie
“inaaaeiuaee” eiie?aoece?oao yoio aii?in: naycaii ee iaee/ea inaaaeiuaee
n “i?aaenouanoaothueie” ia?aie, eee aea inaaaeiuaeue eiaao ae?oaoth
oece/aneoth i?e?iaeo?

Niaa?oaiii iiaue iiaeoiae e enneaaeiaaieth inaaaeiuaee i?aaeeiaeai a
?aaioa oaaeoea?neeo (Univ. de Geneve) e yiiineeo (Univ. Tsukuba)
oeceeia. Iie eco/aee oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaieoiuo aeo?ae a iiiie?enoaeeao
Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d iaoiaeii neaie?othuae ooiiaeueiie niaeo?ineiiee (NON)
i?e T=4.2E. Eae ecaanoii, NON “aeaeeo” eieaeueioth ieioiinoue
eaace/anoe/iuo ninoiyiee, a neeo /aai, nianoaaiii, e noaiiaeony
aiciiaeiui iaaethaeaiea eciee?iaaiiuo iaaieoiuo aeo?ae (ieioiinoue
ninoiyiee ?acee/ia aia aeo?y, oi anoue a naa?oi?iaiaeyuae iaeanoe, e a
aai na?aeoeaaeia – ei?a, oi anoue a eieaeueii ianaa?oi?iaiaeyuae
iaeanoe).

*oi aea iieacae yenia?eiaio? A na?aeoeaaeiao aeo?ae ia auei iaia?oaeaii
eaace/anoe/iuo ninoiyiee, caoi ca?aaeno?e?iaaia “uaeaaay no?oeoo?a”,
i?e/ai iineaaeiyy eciaiyeanue i?iii?oeeiiaeueii enoeiiie
naa?oi?iaiaeyuae uaee (auee eco/aiu iiiie?enoaeeu n ?acee/iui
niaea?aeaieai eenei?iaea, oi anoue n ?acee/iuie Tc). Aieaa oiai,
enneaaeiaaiea oaiia?aoo?iie caaeneiinoe inaaaeiuaee i?e T > Tc e
“ieceioaiia?aoo?iie uaee” a ei?ao iaaieoiuo aeo?ae iieacaei, /oi
iineaaeiyy – yoi e anoue oa naiay inaaaeiuaeue, eieaeueii nio?aieaoayny
aieioue aei aaeeaauo oaiia?aoo? a iaeanoyo ii?iaeueiie oacu. Iaeaieaa
i?aaaeiiiaeiaiia iauyniaiea iieo/aiiui ?acoeueoaoai, ii iiaieth aaoi?ia,
– yoi iaee/ea a ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee AONI (eae ai anai ia?acoea i?e T >
Tc, oae e eeoue aioo?e iaaieoiuo aeo?ae i?e T

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