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?aoa?ao ii oeceea

ia oaio:

“Aoiiiia yae?i”

Iineaa 1996

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \t “Caa1;1;Caa2;2” 1 Enoi?ey ioe?uoee a iaeanoe no?iaiey
aoiiiiai yae?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305349 PAGEREF _Toc354305349 3

1.1 Iiaeaee aoiia aei Ai?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305350 PAGEREF
_Toc354305350 3

1.2 Ioe?uoea aoiiiiai yae?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305351 PAGEREF
_Toc354305351 4

1.3 Aoii Ai?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305352 PAGEREF _Toc354305352 7

1.4 ?anuaieaiea yae?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305353 PAGEREF
_Toc354305353 9

1.5 I?ioiiii-iaeo?iiiay iiaeaeue yae?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305354
PAGEREF _Toc354305354 11

1.6 Eneonnoaaiiay ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305355
PAGEREF _Toc354305355 12

2 No?iaiea e aaaeiaeoea naienoaa aoiiiuo yaea? GOTOBUTTON
_Toc354305356 PAGEREF _Toc354305356 13

2.1 Iniiaiua naienoaa e no?iaiea yae?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305357
PAGEREF _Toc354305357 13

2.2 Yia?aey nayce yaea?. Aeaoaeo iannu GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305358
PAGEREF _Toc354305358 15

2.3 ssaea?iua neeu GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305359 PAGEREF _Toc354305359
18

2.4 ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue, g-eceo/aiea, a e b-?aniaae GOTOBUTTON
_Toc354305360 PAGEREF _Toc354305360 19

Eeoa?aoo?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc354305361 PAGEREF _Toc354305361 21

1 Enoi?ey ioe?uoee a iaeanoe no?iaiey aoiiiiai yae?a

Eco/aiea aoiiiiai yae?a auioaeaeaao caieiaoueny yeaiaioa?iuie
/anoeoeaie. I?e/eia yoiai ynia: a yae?ao aoiiia /anoeoe oae iaei, /oi
naienoaa eaaeaeie ec ieo a ioaeaeueiinoe ia on?aaeiythony, a, iai?ioea,
ea?atho ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue.

1.1 Iiaeaee aoiia aei Ai?a

?acaeoea enneaaeiaaiee ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eceo/aiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
eaaioiaie oai?ee – n ae?oaie, i?eaaee e nicaeaieth eaaioiaie iiaeaee
aoiia ?aca?oi?aea – Ai?a. Ii nicaeaieth yoie iiaeaee i?aaeoanoaiaaee
iiiuoee iino?ieoue iiaeaeue aoiia ia iniiaa i?aaenoaaeaiee eeanne/aneie
yeaeo?iaeeiaieee e iaoaieee. A 1904 aiaeo iiyaeeenue ioaeeeaoeee i
no?iaiee aoiia, iaeie ec eioi?uo i?eiaaeeaaeaee yiiineiio oeceeo Oaioa?i
Iaaaiea, ae?oaea – aiaeeeneiio oeceeo Ae.Ae. Oiiniio.

Iaaaiea i?aaenoaaee no?iaiea aoiia aiaeiae/iui no?iaieth nieia/iie
nenoaiu: ?ieue Nieioea ea?aao iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiay oeaio?aeueiay
/anoue aoiia, aie?oa eioi?ie ii onoaiiaeaiiui eieueoeaia?aciui i?aeoai
aeaeaeoony “ieaiaou” – yeaeo?iiu. I?e iacia/eoaeueiuo niauaieyo
yeaeo?iiu aicaoaeaeatho yeaeo?iiaaieoiua aieiu.

A aoiia Oiiniia iieiaeeoaeueiia yeaeo?e/anoai “?ani?aaeaeaii” ii noa?a,
a eioi?oth ae?aieaiu yeaeo?iiu. A i?inoaeoai aoiia aiaei?iaea yeaeo?ii
iaoiaeeony a oeaio?a iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiie noa?u. A
iiiaiyeaeo?iiiuo aoiiao yeaeo?iiu ?aniieaaathony ii onoie/eaui
eiioeao?aoeeyi, ?ann/eoaiiui Oiiniiii. Oiinii n/eoae eaaeaeoth oaeoth
eiioeao?aoeeth ii?aaeaeythuae oeie/aneea naienoaa aoiiia. Ii i?aaei?eiye
iiiuoeo oai?aoe/anee iauynieoue ia?eiaee/aneoth nenoaio yeaiaioia Ae.E.
Iaiaeaeaaaa. Iicaeiaa Ai? oeacae, /oi ni a?aiaie yoie iiiuoee eaeay i
?acaeaeaiee yeaeo?iiia a aoiia ia a?oiiu naeaeaeanue enoiaeiui ioieoii.

Ii anei?a ieacaeinue, /oi iiaua iiuoiua oaeou ii?iaa?aatho iiaeaeue
Oiiniia e, iaiai?io, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho a iieueco ieaiaoa?iie iiaeaee.
Yoe oaeou auee ioe?uou ?aca?oi?aeii. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue ioe?uoea yaea?iiai no?iaiey aoiia.

1.2 Ioe?uoea aoiiiiai yae?a

Oiiaeiaeaiea aoiia ieaiaoiie nenoaia aeaeaeinue aua a ia/aea XX aaea. Ii
yoo iiaeaeue auei o?oaeii niaianoeoue n iiaeaeyie yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, e
iia auea inoaaeaia, onooiea ianoi iiaeaee Oiiniia. Iaeiaei a 1904 aiaeo
ia/aeenue enneaaeiaaiey, i?eaaaeoea e ooaa?aeaeaieth ieaiaoa?iie
iiaeaee.

I?e eco/aiee a-/anoeoe ?aca?oi?ae, enoiaey ec iiaeaee Oiiniia,
iiaen/eoae, /oi ?annaeaaiea a-/anoeoe ia iiaeao aeaaaoue aieueoeo oaeia
ioeeiiaiee aeaaea i?e iiiaeo noieeiiaaieyo n /anoeoeae. E caeanue
?aca?oi?ae ia?aoeeny e ieaiaoa?iie iiaeaee.

7 ia?oa 1911 aiaea ?aca?oi?ae naeaeae a oeeinioneii iauanoaa a
Iai/anoa?a aeieeaae “?annayiea a e b-eo/ae e no?iaiea aoiia”. A
aeieeaaea ii, a /anoiinoe, aiai?ee: “?annayiea ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe
iiaeao auoue iauyniaii, anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue oaeie aoii, eioi?ue ninoieo
ec oeaio?aeueiiai yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea, nin?aaeioi/aiiiai a oi/ea e
ie?oaeaiiiai iaeii?iaeiui noa?e/aneei ?ani?aaeaeaieai i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai
yeaeo?e/anoaa ?aaiie aaee/eiu. I?e oaeii ono?ienoaa a e b-/anoeoeu,
eiaaea iie i?ioiaeyo ia aeeceii ?annoiyiee io oeaio?a aoiia, eniuouaatho
aieueoea ioeeiiaiey, oioy aa?iyoiinoue oaeiai ioeeiiaiey iaea”.

Aaaeiui neaaenoaeai oai?ee ?aca?oi?aea auei oeacaiea ia ca?yae aoiiiiai
oeaio?a, eioi?ue ?aca?oi?ae iieiaeee ?aaiui ±Ne. Ca?yae ieacaeny
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiui aoiiiiio aano. “Oi/iia cia/aiea ca?yaea
oeaio?aeueiiai yae?a ia auei ii?aaeaeaii,- ienae ?aca?oi?ae, – ii aeey
aoiia cieioa iii i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaii 100 aaeeieoeai ca?yaea”.

Ec iineaaeothueo enneaaeiaaiee e yenia?eiaioia Aaeaa?a e Ia?aenaia,
i?aaei?eiyaoeo i?iaa?eo oi?ioe ?aca?oi?aea, aicieeei i?aaenoaaeaiea i
yae?a eae onoie/eaie /anoe aoiia, ianouae a naaa ii/oe anth ianno aoiia
e iaeaaeathuae iieiaeeoaeueiui (?aca?oi?ae n/eoae ciae ca?yaea
iaii?aaeaeaiiui) ca?yaeii. I?e yoii /enei yeaiaioa?iuo ca?yaeia
ieacaeinue i?iii?oeeiiaeueiui aoiiiiio aano.

Ca?yae yae?a ieacaeny aaaeiaeoae oa?aeoa?enoeeie aoiia. A 1913 aiaeo
auei iieacaii, /oi ca?yae yae?a niaiaaeaao n iiia?ii yeaiaioa a oaaeeoea
Iaiaeaeaaaa. Ai? ienae: ”N naiiai ia/aea auei ynii, /oi aeaaiaea?y
aieueoie ianna yae?a e aai iaeie i?ioyaeaiiinoe a i?ino?ainoaa
n?aaieoaeueii n ?acia?aie anaai aoiia no?iaiea yeaeo?iiiie nenoaiu
aeieaeii caaenaoue ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii io iieiiai yeaeo?e/aneiai
ca?yaea yae?a. Oaeea ?annoaeaeaiey n?aco iaaiaeeee ia iuneue i oii, /oi
any niaieoiiinoue oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo naienoa eaaeaeiai yeaiaioa
iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny iaeiei oeaeui /eneii…”

Iinea ciaeiinoaa n ?aca?oi?aeii Ai?, ioeacaaoenue io eco/aiey
yeaeo?iiiie iiaeaee, ia/ae ?aaioo a aai a?oiia. Ia?aoeaoenue e
ieaiaoa?iie iiaeaee, Ai? nicaeae ia aa iniiaa oai?eth aoiia
?aca?oi?aea-Ai?a. ?aca?oi?ae iiiye ?aaiethoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? eaeae Ai?a e
ianoaeee n iei iniiau yoie oai?ee, auneacae e?eoe/aneea caia/aiey, iinea
/aai noaouee Ai?a auee iioaeeeiaaiu.

Ai a?aiy Ia?aie Ie?iaie aieiu Ai? i?iaeieaeaao ?aaioaoue a eaai?aoi?ee
?aca?oi?aea. A 1915 aiaeo ii iioaeeeiaae ?aaiou “I na?eaeueiii niaeo?a
aiaei?iaea” e “I eaaioiaie oai?ee eceo/aiey a no?oeoo?a aoiia”. A 1916
aiaeo auea iioaeeeiaaia noaouey Ciiia?oaeueaea, aaea ii ?anniio?ae
aeaeaeaiea yeaeo?iia ii yeeeioe/aneei i?aeoai e iaiauee i?aaeea
eaaioiaaiey Ai?a. Ai? n ainoi?aii ioicaaeny ia yoie noaouea. Oai?ey
aoiia iinea ioe?uoee Ciiia?oaeueaea noaea iacuaaoueny oai?eae Ai?a –
Ciiia?oaeueaea.

A 1936 aiaeo Ai? aunooiee ni noaoueae “Caoaao iaeo?iia e no?iaiea
yae?a”, a eioi?ie i?aaeeiaeee eaiaeueioth iiaeaeue yae?a e iaoaieci
caoaaoa iaeo?iia yae?ii. No?aiii, ii ie Ai?, ie ae?oaea ia iiaee n?aco
i?aaeneacaoue aeaeaiea yae?a, iiaeneacuaaaiia eaiaeueiie iiaeaeueth,
iiea a ia/aea 1939 a. ia auei ioe?uoi aeaeaiea o?aia.

1.3 Aoii Ai?a

Ai?, eae e Oiinii aei iaai, euao oaeia ?aniieiaeaiea yeaeo?iiia a aoiia,
eioi?ia iauynieei au aai oece/aneea e oeie/aneea naienoaa. Ai? aa?ao ca
iniiao iiaeaeue ?aca?oi?aea. Aio oaeaea ecaanoii, /oi ca?yae yae?a e
/enei yeaeo?iiia a iai, ?aaiia /eneo aaeeieoe ca?yaea, ii?aaeaeyaony
ianoii yeaiaioa a ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaia yeaiaioia Iaiaeaeaaaa. Oaeei
ia?acii, yoi aaaeiue oaa a iiieiaiee oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa yeaiaioa.
Ii inoathony iaiiiyoiuie aeaa aaue: iaiau/aeiay onoie/eainoue aoiiia,
ianiaianoeiay n i?aaenoaaeaieai i aeaeaeaiee yeaeo?iiia ii caieiooui
i?aeoai, e i?ienoiaeaeaiea eo niaeo?ia, ninoiyueo ec aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeiee. Oaeay ii?aaeaeaiiinoue niaeo?a, aai y?ei
au?aaeaiiay oeie/aneay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, i/aaeaeii, eae-oi naycaia
ni no?oeoo?ie aoiia. Ana yoi o?oaeii oaycaoue n oieaa?naeueiinoueth
yeaeo?iia, ca?yae e ianna eioi?iai ia caaenyo io i?e?iaeu aoiia, a
ninoaa eioi?iai iie aoiaeyo. Onoie/eainoue aoiia a oeaeii i?ioeai?a/eo
caeiiai yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, niaeanii eioi?ui yeaeo?iiu, niaa?oay
ia?eiaee/aneea aeaeaeaiey, aeieaeiu iai?a?uaii eceo/aoue yia?aeth e,
oa?yy aa, “iaaeaoue” ia yae?i. E oiio aea e oa?aeoa? aeaeaeaiey
yeaeo?iia, iauyniyaiue caeiiaie yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, ia iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue
e oaeei oa?aeoa?iui eeiae/aoui niaeo?ai, eioi?ua iaaethaeathony ia naiii
aeaea. Eeiee niaeo?a a?oiie?othony a na?ee, iie naouathony a
ei?ioeiaieiiaii “oainoa” na?ee, /anoiou eeiee niioaaonoaothueo na?ee
iiae/eiaiu no?aiiui a?eoiaoe/aneei caeiiai.

“Iniiaiui ?acoeueoaoii ouaoaeueiiai aiaeeca aeaeeiie na?ee eeiae/aouo
niaeo?ia e eo acaeiiioiioaiee, – ienae Ai?, – auei onoaiiaeaiea oiai
oaeoa, /oi /anoioa u eaaeaeie eeiee niaeo?a aeaiiiai yeaiaioa iiaeao
auoue i?aaenoaaeaia n iaiaueiiaaiiie oi/iinoueth oi?ioeie u = T? – T??,
aaea T? e T?? – eaeea-oi aeaa /eaia ec iiiaeanoaa niaeo?aeueiuo
yeaiaioia O, oa?aeoa?ecothueo yeaiaio”.

Ai?o oaeaeinue iaeoe iauyniaiea yoiai iniiaiiai caeiia niaeo?ineiiee. Ii
aeey yoiai aio i?eoeinue aaanoe a oeceeo aoiia i?aaenoaaeaiey i
noaoeeiia?iuo ninoiyieyo aoiiia, iaoiaeynue a eioi?uo yeaeo?ii ia
eceo/aao, oioy e niaa?oaao ia?eiaee/aneia aeaeaeaiea ii e?oaiaie i?aeoa.

1.4 ?anuaieaiea yae?a

A 1919 aiaeo ?aca?oi?aeii auei naeaeaii iiaia nainaoeeiiiia ioe?uoea –
?anuaieaiea yae?a.

?aca?oi?ae eco/ae noieeiiaaiea a-/anoeoe n eaaeeie aoiiaie. Noieeiiaaiey
a-/anoeoeu n yae?aie oaeeo aoiiia aeieaeiu eo onei?youe. Oae, i?e oaea?a
a-/anoeoeu i yae?i aiaei?iaea iii oaaee/eaaao naith nei?inoue a 1,6
?aca, e yae?i ioae?aao o a-/anoeoeu 64% aa yia?aee.

I?eai?, i?eiaiyaoeeny ?aca?oi?aeii aeey eceo/aiey oaeeo noieeiiaaiee,
i?aaenoaaeye niaie eaooiioth eaia?o aeeeiie 18 ni, aunioie 6 ni e
oe?eiie 2 ni. Enoi/ieeii a-/anoeoe neoaeee iaoaeee/aneee aeene, iie?uoue
aeoeaiui aauanoaii. Aeene iiiauaeny aioo?e eaia?u e iia onoaiaaeeaaoueny
ia ?aciuo ?annoiyieyo io ye?aia ec na?ienoiai oeeiea. Eaia?a iiaea
caiieiyoueny ?acee/iuie aacaie. A /anoiinoe, aa caiieiyee acioii.

N iiiiuueth iiiai/eneaiiuo iiuoia ?aca?oi?ae iieacae, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa
oaeeo noieeiiaaiee iieo/athony /anoeoeu n iaeneiaeueiui i?iaaaii, oaeei
aea, eae o I-aoiiia. “Ec iieo/aiiuo aei neo ii? ?acoeueoaoia, – ienae
?aca?oi?ae, – o?oaeii ecaaaeaoue caeeth/aiey, /oi aoiiu n aieueoei
i?iaaaii, aicieeathuea i?e noieeiiaaiee a-/anoeoe n acioii, yaeythony ia
aoiiaie acioa, ii, ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, aoiiaie aiaei?iaea eee aoiiaie n
iannie 2. Anee yoi oae, oi iu aeieaeiu caeeth/eoue, /oi aoii acioa
?aniaaeaaony aneaaenoaea a?iiaaeiuo nee, ?acaeaathueony i?e noieeiiaaiee
n auno?ie a-/anoeoeae, e /oi inaiaiaeaeathueeny aiaei?iaeiue aoii
ia?acoao ninoaaioth /anoue aoiia”.

Oae auei ioe?uoi yaeaiea ?anuaieaiey yaea? acioa i?e oaea?ao auno?uo
a-/anoeoe e aia?aua auneacaia iuneue, /oi yae?a aiaei?iaea
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ninoaaioth /anoue yaea? aoiiia. Aiineaaenoaee
?aca?oi?ae i?aaeeiaeee oa?iei “i?ioii” aeey yoie ninoaaiie /anoe yae?a.
?aca?oi?ae caeai/eaae naith noaoueth neiaaie: “?acoeueoaou a oeaeii
oeacuaatho ia oi, /oi anee a-/anoeoeu eee iiaeiaiua ei auno?i
aeaeaeoueany /anoeoeu ni cia/eoaeueii aieueoae yia?aeae iiaee au
i?eiaiyoueny aeey iiuoia, oi iiaeii auei au iaia?oaeeoue ?ac?ooaiea
yaea?iuo no?oeoo? iiiaeo eaaeeo aoiiia”.

A 1920 aiaeo ?aca?oi?ae a eaeoeee “Ioeeaa?iia no?iaiea aoiia” aeaeaao
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi nouanoaotho yae?a n iannie 3 e 2 e yae?a n
iannie yae?a aiaei?iaea, ii n ioeaaui ca?yaeii. I?e yoii ii enoiaeee ec
aeiioacu, auneacaiiie aia?aua I. Neeiaeianeie-Eth?e, /oi a ninoaa yae?a
aoiaeyo yeaeo?iiu.

?aca?oi?ae ieoao, /oi aio “eaaeaony aanueia i?aaaeiiiaeiaiui, /oi iaeei
yeaeo?ii iiaeao naycaoue aeaa I-yae?a e, aiciiaeii, aeaaea e iaeii
I-yae?i. Anee ni?aaaaeeeai ia?aia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, oi iii oeacuaaao ia
aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey aoiia n iannie ieiei 2 e n iaeiei ca?yaeii.
Oaeia aauanoai ioaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae ecioii aiaei?iaea. Aoi?ia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea caeeth/aao a naaa iuneue i aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey
aoiia n iannie 1 e ioeeaa?iui ca?yaeii, ?aaiui ioeth. Iiaeiaiua
ia?aciaaiey i?aaenoaaeythony aiieia aiciiaeiuie”. Oae auea auneacaia
aeiioaca i nouanoaiaaiee iaeo?iia e oyaeaeiai ecioiia aiaei?iaea.

1.5 I?ioiiii-iaeo?iiiay iiaeaeue yae?a

A 1932 aiaeo Ae.Ae. Eaaiaiei iioaeeeiaae caiaoeo, a eioi?ie auneacae
i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi iaeo?ii yaeyaony ia?yaeo n i?ioiiii no?oeoo?iui
yeaiaioii yae?a. Iaeiaei i?ioiiii-iaeo?iiiay iiaeaeue yae?a auea
ano?a/aia aieueoeinoaii oeceeia neaioe/anee. Aeaaea ?aca?oi?ae iieaaae,
/oi iaeo?ii – yoi eeoue neiaeiia ia?aciaaiea i?ioiia e yeaeo?iia.

A 1933 aiaeo Eaaiaiei ia eiioa?aioeee a Eaieia?aaea naeaeae aeieeaae i
iiaeaee yae?a, a eioi?ii ii caueuae i?ioiiii-iaeo?iiioth iiaeaeue,
noi?ioee?iaaa iniiaiie oacen: a yae?a eiathony oieueei oyaeaeua
/anoeoeu. Eaaiaiei ioaa?a eaeae i neiaeiie no?oeoo?a iaeo?iia e i?ioiia.
Ii aai iiaieth, iaa /anoeoeu aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue iaeeiaeiaie noaiaiueth
yeaiaioa?iinoe, o.a. e iaeo?ii, e i?ioii iiaoo ia?aoiaeeoue ae?oa a
ae?oaa. A aeaeueiaeoai i?ioii e iaeo?ii noaee ?anniao?eaaoueny eae aeaa
ninoiyiey iaeiie /anoeoeu – ioeeiia, e eaeay Eaaiaiei noaea
iauai?eiyoie, a a 1932 aiaeo a ninoaaa einie/aneeo eo/ae auea ioe?uoa
aua iaeia yeaiaioa?iay /anoeoea – iiceo?ii.

1.6 Eneonnoaaiiay ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue

A 1934 aiaeo O?aaea?ee AEieei e E?ai Eth?e niiaueee i a ioe?uoee eie
iiaiai aeaea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe. Ei oaeaeinue aeieacaoue iaoiaeii eaia?u
Aeeueniia, /oi iaeioi?ua eaaeea yeaiaiou (aa?eeeee, ai?, aethieiee)
enioneatho iieiaeeoaeueiua yeaeo?iiu i?e aiiaa?aee?iaea eo a-/anoeoeaie
iieiiey. AEieei e Eth?e, enneaaeoy yoi yaeaiea, iieacaee, /oi a yoii
neo/aa aicieeaao iiaue yoai ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe, nii?iaiaeaeaaiue
enioneaieai iieiaeeoaeueiuo yeaeo?iiia. Iie aia?aua eneonnoaaiii aucaaee
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue, nicaeaa iiaua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ecioiiu, ia
iaaethaeaaiua aei yoiai a i?e?iaea e auee iaa?aaeaeaiu ca yoi
auaeathuaany ioe?uoea Iiaaeaaneie i?aieae.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue oai?ey aoiiiiai yae?a iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea, e a neaaeothuae aeaaa ?anniao?eaaaony aa aeooaeueiia
ninoiyiea.

2 No?iaiea e aaaeiaeoea naienoaa aoiiiuo yaea?

2.1 Iniiaiua naienoaa e no?iaiea yae?a

1. ssae?ii iacuaaaony oeaio?aeueiay /anoue aoiia, a eioi?ie
nin?aaeioi/aia i?aeoe/anee any ianna aoiia e aai iieiaeeoaeueiue
yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae. Ana aoiiiua yae?a ninoiyo ec yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe:
i?ioiiia e iaeo?iiia, eioi?ua n/eoathony aeaoiy ca?yaeiauie ninoiyieyie
iaeiie /anoeoeu – ioeeiia. I?ioii eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiue yeaeo?e/aneee
ca?yae, ?aaiue ii aaniethoiie aaee/eia ca?yaeo yeaeo?iia. Iaeo?ii ia
eiaao yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea.

e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo iaeo?iiiaeaoeoeeoiuo yaea? N?Z, aaea N – /enei
iaeo?iiia a yae?a. Aeey eaaeeo yaea? N/Z»1; aeey yaea? oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a eiioea ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu, N/Z»1,6.

3. *enei ioeeiiia a yae?a A=N+Z iacuaaaony ianniaui /eneii. Ioeeiiai
(i?ioiio e iaeo?iio) i?eienuaaaony ianniaia /enei, ?aaiia aaeeieoea,
yeaeo?iio – ioeaaia cia/aiea A.

, aaea O – neiaie oeie/aneiai yeaiaioa.

Anaai ecaanoii ieiei 300 onoie/eauo ecioiiia oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia e
aieaa 2000 anoanoaaiiuo e eneonnoaaiii iieo/aiiuo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
ecioiiia.

i, iiaeao auoue enoieeiaaia eae i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue iauaia yae?a
/eneo ioeeiiia a iai.

Ieioiinoue yaea?iiai aauanoaa ninoaaeyao ii ii?yaeeo aaee/eiu 1017 ea/i3
e iinoiyiia aeey anao yaea?. Iia cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeeo ieioiinoe
naiuo ieioiuo iau/iuo aauanoa.

5. ssaea?iua /anoeoeu eiatho nianoaaiiua iaaieoiua iiiaiou, eioi?uie
ii?aaeaeyaony iaaieoiue iiiaio yae?a ?myae a oeaeii. Aaeeieoeae
ecia?aiey iaaieoiuo iiiaioia yaea? neoaeeo yaea?iue iaaiaoii myae:

(a NE)

(a NAN).

?ac iaiueoa iaaiaoiia Ai?a, ioeoaea neaaeoao, /oi iaaieoiua naienoaa
aoiiia ii?aaeaeythony iaaieoiuie naienoaaie aai yeaeo?iiia.

6. ?ani?aaeaeaiea yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea i?ioiiia ii yae?o a iauai
neo/aa ianeiiao?e/ii. Ia?ie ioeeiiaiey yoiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey io
noa?e/anee neiiao?e/iiai yaeyaony eaaae?oiieueiue yeaeo?e/aneee iiiaio
yae?a Q. Anee ieioiinoue ca?yaea n/eoaaony aacaea iaeeiaeiaie, oi Q
ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei oi?iie yae?a.

2.2 Yia?aey nayce yaea?. Aeaoaeo iannu

1. Ioeeiiu a yae?ao iaoiaeyony a ninoiyieyo, nouanoaaiii ioee/athueony
io eo naiaiaeiuo ninoiyiee. Ca eneeth/aieai yae?a iau/iiai aiaei?iaea ai
anao yae?ao eiaaony ia iaiaa aeaoo ioeeiiia, iaaeaeo eioi?uie nouanoaoao
iniaia yaea?iia neeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea – i?eoyaeaiea – iaania/eaathuaa
onoie/eainoue yaea?, ianiio?y ia iooaeeeaaiea iaeiieiaiii ca?yaeaiiuo
i?ioiiia.

2. Yia?aeae nayce ioeeiia a yae?a iacuaaaony oece/aneay aaee/eia, ?aaiay
oie ?aaioa, eioi?oth ioaeii niaa?oeoue aeey oaeaeaiey ioeeiia ec yae?a
aac niiauaiey aio eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee.

Yia?aey nayce yae?a ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiie oie ?aaiou, eioi?oth ioaeii
niaa?oeoue, /oiau ?anuaieoue yae?i ia ninoaaeythuea aai ioeeiiu aac
i?eaeaiey ei eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee. Ec caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee
neaaeoao, /oi i?e ia?aciaaiee yae?a aeieaeia auaeaeyoueny oaeay aea
yia?aey, eaeoth ioaeii cao?aoeoue i?e ?anuaieaiee yae?a ia ninoaaeythuea
aai ioeeiiu. Yia?aey nayce yae?a yaeyaony ?aciinoueth iaaeaeo yia?aeae
anao naiaiaeiuo ioeeiiia, ninoaaeythueo yae?i, e eo yia?aeae a yae?a.

3. I?e ia?aciaaiee yae?a i?ienoiaeeo oiaiueoaiea aai iannu: ianna yae?a
iaiueoa, /ai noiia iann ninoaaeythueo aai ioeeiiia. Oiaiueoaiea iannu
yae?a i?e aai ia?aciaaiee iauyniyaony auaeaeaieai yia?aee nayce. Anee
Wna – aaee/eia yia?aee, auaeaeythuaeny i?e ia?aciaaiee yae?a, oi
niioaaonoaothuay ae ianna Dm, ?aaiay

iacuaaaony aeaoaeoii iannu e oa?aeoa?ecoao oiaiueoaiea noiia?iie iannu
i?e ia?aciaaiee yae?a ec ninoaaeythueo aai ioeeiiia. Anee yae?i n iannie
Myae ia?aciaaii ec Z i?ioiiia n iannie mp e ec (A-Z) iaeo?iiia n iannie
mn, oi

Dm=Zmp+(A-Z)mn-Myae.

Aianoi iannu yae?a Iyae aaee/eio Dm iiaeii au?aceoue /a?ac aoiiioth
ianno Iao:

Dm=ZmI+(A-Z)mn-Mao,

aaea mH – ianna aiaei?iaeiiai aoiia.

I?e i?aeoe/aneii au/eneaiee Dm iannu anao /anoeoe e aoiiia au?aaeathony
a aoiiiuo aaeeieoeao iannu.

Aeaoaeo iannu neoaeeo ia?ie yia?aee nayce yae?a:

Wna=Dmn2=[Zmp+(A-Z)mn-Myae]n2

Iaeiie aoiiiie aaeeieoea iannu niioaaonoaoao aoiiiay aaeeieoea yia?aee
(a.a.y.): a.a.y.=931,5016 IyA.

. Aaee/eia wna ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 8 IyA/ioeeii. Ii ia?a oaaee/aiey
/enea ioeeiiia a yae?a oaeaeueiay yia?aey nayce oauaaao.

5. E?eoa?eai onoie/eainoe aoiiiuo yaea? yaeyaony niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
/eneii i?ioiiia e iaeo?iiia a onoie/eaii yae?a aeey aeaiiuo eciaa?ia.
(A=const).

2.3 ssaea?iua neeu

1. ssaea?iia acaeiiaeaenoaea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi a yae?ao
nouanoaotho iniaua yaea?iua neeu, ia naiaeyueany ie e iaeiiio ec oeiia
nee, ecaanoiuo a eeanne/aneie oeceea (a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo e
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo).

2. ssaea?iua neeu yaeythony ei?ioeiaeaenoaothueie neeaie. Iie
i?iyaeythony eeoue ia aanueia iaeuo ?annoiyieyo iaaeaeo ioeeiiaie a
yae?a ii?yaeea 10-15 i. Aeeeia (1,51/42,2)10-15 i iacuaaaony ?aaeeonii
aeaenoaey yaea?iuo nee.

.

4. ssaea?iua neeu iaeaaeatho naienoaii ianuuaiey, eioi?ia i?iyaeyaony a
oii, /oi ioeeii a yae?a acaeiiaeaenoaoao eeoue n ia?aie/aiiui /eneii
aeeaeaeoeo e iaio ninaaeieo ioeeiiia. Eiaiii iiyoiio iaaethaeaaony
eeiaeiay caaeneiinoue yia?aee nayce yaea? io eo ianniauo /enae A.
I?aeoe/anee iieiia ianuuaiea yaea?iuo nee aeinoeaaaony o a-/anoeoeu,
eioi?ay yaeyaony i/aiue onoie/eaui ia?aciaaieai.

2.4 ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue, g-eceo/aiea, a e b-?aniaae

1. ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoueth iacuaaaony i?aa?auaiea iaonoie/eauo ecioiiia
iaeiiai oeie/aneiai yeaiaioa a ecioiiu ae?oaiai yeaiaioa,
nii?iaiaeaeathuaany enioneaieai iaeioi?uo /anoeoe.

Anoanoaaiiie ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoueth iacuaaaony ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue,
iaaethaeathuayny o nouanoaothueo a i?e?iaea iaonoie/eauo ecioiiia.

Eneonnoaaiiie ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoueth iacuaaaony ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue ecioiiia,
iieo/aiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa yaea?iuo ?aaeoeee.

2. Iau/ii ana oeiu ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe nii?iaiaeaeathony enioneaieai
aaiia-eceo/aiey – aeanoeiai, ei?ioeiaieiiaiai yeaeo?iaieiiaiai
eceo/aiey. Aaiia-eceo/aiea yaeyaony iniiaiie oi?iie oiaiueoaiey yia?aee
aicaoaeaeaiiuo i?iaeoeoia ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo i?aa?auaiee. ssae?i,
eniuouaathuaa ?aaeeiaeoeaiue ?aniaae, iacuaaaony iaoa?eineei;
aicieeathuaa aei/a?iaa yae?i, eae i?aaeei, ieacuaaaony aicaoaeaeaiiui, e
aai ia?aoiae a iniiaiia ninoiyiea nii?iaiaeaeaaony enioneaieai g-oioiia.

3. Aeueoa-?aniaaeii iacuaaaony enioneaiea yae?aie iaeioi?uo oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia a-/anoeoe. Aeueoa-?aniaae yaeyaony naienoaii oyaeaeuo yaea? n
ianniauie /eneaie A>200 e ca?yaeaie yaea? Ze>82. Aioo?e oaeeo yaea?
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea iainiaeaiiuo a-/anoeoe, ninoiyueo eaaeaeay ec
aeaoo i?ioiiia e aeaoo iaeo?iiia.

4. Oa?ieiii aaoa-?aniaae iaicia/atho o?e oeia yaea?iuo i?aa?auaiee:
yeaeo?iiiue (b-) e iiceo?iiiue (b+) ?aniaaeu, a oaeaea yeaeo?iiiue
caoaao. Ia?aua aeaa oeia i?aa?auaiey ninoiyo a oii, /oi yae?i enioneaao
yeaeo?ii (iiceo?ii) e yeaeo?iiiia aioeiaeo?eii (yeaeo?iiiia iaeo?eii).
Yoe i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeyo iooai i?aa?auaiey iaeiiai aeaea ioeeiia a
yae?a a ae?oaie: iaeo?iia a i?ioii eee i?ioiia a iaeo?ii. A neo/aa
yeaeo?iiiiai caoaaoa i?aa?auaiea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi en/acaao iaeei
ec yeaeo?iiia a aeeaeaeoai e yae?o neia. I?ioii, i?aa?auaynue a iaeo?ii,
eae au “caoaaouaaao” yeaeo?ii; ionthaea i?iecioae oa?iei ”yeaeo?iiiue
caoaao”. Yeaeo?iiiue caoaao a ioee/ea io b± -caoaaoa nii?iaiaeaeaaony
oa?aeoa?enoe/aneei ?aioaaiianeei eceo/aieai.

5. b–?aniaae i?ienoiaeeo o anoanoaaiii-?aaeeiaeoeaiuo, a oaeaea
eneonnoaaiii-?aaeeiaeoeaiuo yaea?; b+-?aniaae oa?aeoa?ai oieueei aeey
yaeaiey eneonnoaaiiie ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. A?eai?ueaa A.E., Iyeeoaa A.ss. Neeu a i?e?iaea.

// I., Iaoea, 1983 a.

2. Eoae?yaoeaa I.N. Eo?n enoi?ee oeceee.

// I., I?inaauaiea, 1982 a.

3. ssai?neee A.I., Aeaoeao A.A. Ni?aai/iee ii oeceea.

// I., Iaoea, 1990 a.

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Aoiiiia yae?i

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