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Реакция деления ядер. Жизненный цикл нейтронов

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IINEIANEEE EIAEAIA?II-OECE*ANEEE

EINOEOOO

Eaoaae?a ? 33

E. Aeaaeeie?neee

Iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee oece/aneeo i?ioeannia

“?aaeoeey aeaeaiey yaea?. AEeciaiiue oeeee iaeo?iiia”

Iineaa

1996 1. INIIAU ssAeA?IIE YIA?AAOEEE

1.1 Niiniau iieo/aiey yia?aee

A iaoa a?aiy, n eaaeaeui aiaeii aic?anoatho iio?aaiinoe /aeiaa/anoaa a
yia?aee. Ia iieo/aiea iaiaoiaeeiiai eiee/anoaa yia?aee cao?a/eaaaony
i?eia?ii 30% i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneeee /aeiaaea. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii,
/oi iieiue caian yia?aee a i?e?iaea a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii nio?aiaiey
yia?aee ia iaiyaony. Iiyoiio i?ioeann iieo/aiey yia?aee i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ia?aaiae yia?aee ec naycaiiie ( yia?aey iieiy ) a naiaiaeioth
oi?io ( yia?aeth ioiineoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey oae). Naiaiaeiay yia?aey
auno?i ?annaeaaaony a i?ino?ainoaa, iiyoiio aa iiaeii eniieueciaaoue.

Eoae iu i?eoiaeei e oiio, /oi iaiaoiaeeii oiaoue aucuaaoue i?ioeannu,
eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e oauee iannu oae e yeaeaaeaioiiio auea?uoo naiaiaeiie
yia?aee. Eiia/ii, iieo/aoue yia?aeth iiaeii eeoue i?e oneiaee
nouanoaiaaiey aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa oiieeaa. Ionoue iee?i/anoeoeu
aauanoaa oiieeaa iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee n yia?aeae E1 e nouanoaoao
ae?oaia aiciiaeiia ninoiyiea yoeo /anoeoe n yia?aeae E2 ( E1 > E2 ). A
i?eioeeia anoue aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea ai aoi?ia ninoiyiea, ii aio
i?aiyonoaoao nouanoaiaaiea yia?aaoe/aneiai aa?uea?a, oi anoue iaeioi?iai
iaiaoiaeeiiai i?iiaaeooi/iiai ninoiyiey n yia?aeae E’ ( E’ > E1 ). Oaeei
ia?acii i?ioeann naeeaaiey oiieeaa aeieaeai auoue eieoeee?iaai iaeioi?ui
aiaoiei aicaoaeaeaieai.

1.2 Niiniau i?aaiecaoeee ?aaeoeee ai?aiey, oeaiiua ?aaeoeee

Nouanoaoao aeaa niiniaa aicaoaeaeaiey ?aaeoeee ai?aiey oiieeaa. Ia?aue
– eniieueciaaiea eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee noieeiiaaiey /anoeoe (
oa?iiyaea?iue i?ioeann ). Ae?oaie niinia ninoieo a eniieueciaaiee
yia?aee nayce i?eniaaeeiythueony /anoeoe. Aeey aicaoaeaeaiey oaeie
?aaeoeee ioaeii iai?aaeyoue a oiieeai aeoeaiua /anoeoeu.

Aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia eiee/anoai aauanoaa iiaeao eniuoaoue i?aa?auaiea
eeoue i?e naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuaeny oeaiiie ?aaeoeee. Oeaiiay ?aaeoeey
iaeaaeaao neaaeothuei aaaeiui naienoaii – aeo ?aaeoeee aicaoaeaeaaony
i?e iiaeiuaiee /anoeoeu, a a ?acoeueoaoa aa aeieaeiu iiyaeyoueny
aoi?e/iua aeoeaiua /anoeoeu.

I?e yaea?iuo i?aa?auaieyo iineoaeai oeaiiiai i?ioeanna iiaeao neoaeeoue
iaeo?ii, iineieueeo ii ia eiaao yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea e iiaeao
aani?aiyonoaaiii naeeaeaoueny n aoiiiuie yae?aie. N?aaee ecaanoiuo
yaea?iuo ?aaeoeee eeoue iaeia iaeaaeaao naienoaii oeaiiuo ?aaeoeee. Yoi
?aaeoeey aeaeaiey oyaeaeuo yaea?, eioi?ua eaaei aicaoaeaeathony
iaeo?iiii e aeatho a n?aaeiai 2,5 ia aeo aeaeaiey aoi?e/iuo iaeo?iiia.
Iniiaioth o?oaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia i?aaiecaoeey oeaiiie
?aaeoeee, a iieo/aiea /enouo aeaeyueony aauanoa. Aaaeiie /a?oie oeaiiuo
yaea?iuo ?aaeoeee yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi eo nei?inoe ia caaenyo io
oaiia?aoo?u n?aaeu, /oi yaeyaony eo aeaaiui i?aeiouanoaii ia?aae
i?ioeannaie n oaieiaui aicaoaeaeaieai.

2. ACAEIIAeAENOAEA IAEO?IIIA N ssAeA?IUI AAUANOAII, ?AAEOeEss AeAEAIEss
ssAeA?.

2.1. Iauea naaaeaiey i yaea?iuo ?aaeoeeyo acaeiiaeaenoaey iaeo?iiia n
yae?aie

A nayce n auoaneacaiiui niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, eaeia cia/aiea naaiaeiy
eiaao eniieueciaaiea yaea?iie yia?aee. Ono?ienoai, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey
i?aaiecaoeee e iiaeaea?aeaiey oeaiiie ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey yaea? n oeaeueth
iieo/aiey yia?aee iacuaaaony yaea?iui yia?aaoe/aneei ?aaeoi?ii.

A iniiaa ?aaiou yaea?iiai ?aaeoi?a eaaeao i?ioeannu acaeiiaeaenoaey
iaeo?iiia n yaea?iui aauanoaii, iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony –
?aaeoeey aeaeaiey yaea?, ?aaeoeey ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa (iiaeiuaiey)
e ?aaeoeey ?annayiey.

aeaeaiea (fission)

n A iiaeiuaiea (capture)

?annayiea (scattaring)

ssaea?iua ?aaeoeee iiae/eiythony caeiiai eaaioiaie iaoaieee, iiyoiio
iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue i aa?iyoiinoe i?ioaeaiey oie eee eiie ec ieo.
Ia?ie aa?iyoiinoe aeaiiiai oeia ?aaeoeee yaeyaony yooaeoeaiia
(iee?ineiie/aneia) na/aiea.

2.2. Yooaeoeaiua na/aiey yaea?iuo ?aaeoeee

?anniio?ei oiieoth ieanoeieo, niaea?aeauoth Ny yaea?, ia eioi?oth
iaaeaao iioie iaeo?iiia ni nei?inoueth v e eiioeaio?aoeeae n.

Iaeaeai eiee/anoai ?aaeoeee oiai eee eiiai oeia.

Ionoue eiee/anoai ?aaeoeee ?aaii R, oiaaea

R = ( Ny ( (1)

( = n v – ieioiinoue iioiea iaeo?iiia, ( – iee?ineiie/aneia na/aiea
acaeiiaeaenoaey. ( ecia?yaony a aa?iao ( 1 a = 10-24 ni2 ).

Iiaeii caienaoue o?aaiaiea (1 ) aeey o?ao iniiaiuo yaea?iuo ?aaeoeee:

Rf = ( Ny (f – ?aaeoeey aeaeaiey

Rc = ( Ny (c – ?aaeoeey ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa

Rs = ( Ny (s – ?aaeoeey ?annayiey

(total = (f + (c+ (s

Aiiaua aiai?y, iee?ineiie/aneea na/aiey acaeiiaeaenoaey anao ?aaeoeee
caaenyo io ianniaiai /enea yae?a e io yia?aee iaeo?iia. I?e yoii aeae
caaeneiinoe ((EI) ii?aaeaeyaony oai, e eaeie iaeanoe i?eiaaeeaaeeo
yia?aey iaeo?iia EI . A niioaaonoaee n yoei i?eiyoi aeaeeoue iaeanoue
yia?aee ia o?e /anoe: Iaeanoue oaieiauo iaeo?iiia, aaea E 0.1 IyA;

2.3 ?aaeoeey ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa e ?aaeoeey ?annayiey

?anniio?ei ei?ioei aeaa aaaeiuo oeia yaea?iuo ?aaeoeee – caoaaoa
(iiaeiuaiey) e ?annayiey , a caoai ia?aeaeai e iiae?iaiiio iienaieth
o?aoueaai – ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey yaea?, eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey oeaiiie ?aaeoeee.

2.3.1 ?aaeoeey ?annayiey

Nouanoaoao aeaa oeia ?aaeoeee ?annayiey: oi?oaia acaeiiaeaenoaea, i?e
eioi?ii noiia?iay eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iaeo?iia e
yae?a ia iaiyaony iinea ?aaeoeee e iaoi?oaia acaeiiaeaenoaea, i?e
eioi?ii /anoue eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee eaeao ia aicaoaeaeaiea eiia/iiai
yae?a e caoai enioneaaony a aeaea (-eaaioa.

E0 A E1

n A

n E2

n

n A A+1 (

A

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ?aaeoeey iaoi?oaiai ?annayiey i?ienoiaeeo eeoue
i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo cia/aieyo yia?aee iaeo?iia (Eii? ( 0,1 IyA), a oi
a?aiy eae yia?aey oi?oaiai ?annayiey aiciiaeia anaaaea.

Cia/aiea ?aaeoeee ?annayiey a yaea?iie yia?aaoeea o?oaeii
ia?aioeaieoue, iineieueeo eiaiii ia iae iniiaaiu nenoaiu caiaaeeaiey
iaeo?iiia a ?aaeoi?a. A ea/anoaa aauanoa-caiaaeeeoaeae iau/ii
eniieuecotho oyaeaeoth e eaaeoth aiaeo, a?aoeo.

2.3.2 ?aaeoeey iiaeiuaiey (caoaaoa)

Aeaiiay ?aaeoeey ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a oeceea ?aaeoi?a, iineieueeo
iia yaeyaony eiieo?e?othuae ii ioiioaieth e ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey.

(

n A A+1

A+1

A ?acoeueoaoa iaeo?ii auauaaao ec oeaiiie ?aaeoeee. (c caaeneo io
yia?aee iaeo?iia e io ianniaiai /enea A. A iaeanoe oaieiauo iaeo?iiia
na/aiea iiae/eiyaony caeiio (c(E) ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii nei?inoe
iaeo?iia v (eee eaaae?aoiiio ei?ith ec E). I?e oaaee/aiee yia?aee
iaeo?iia ia/eiaaony ?aciiainiay iaeanoue, a eioi?ie (c eiaao iiiaeanoai
iaeneioiia e ieieioiia.

2.4 ?aaeoeey aeaeaiey yaea?

Aeaiiay ?aaeoeey iaeaieaa niaoeeoe/ia aeey ss?. Noaiaoe/ii yoo
?aaeoeeth iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue oae:

2.4.1 Iauay noaia ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey

n

A1 (ine

n A A+1 (iai (

(

n n A2 (ine

n (

(

Iiae aeaenoaeai iaeo?iia yae?i oyaeaeiai yeaiaioa aeaeeony ia aeaa
/anoe (ineieea) ioiioaiea iann eioi?uo iau/ii (aeey /anoi eniieuecoaiuo
yeaiaioia) aeecei e 95/140. Ioeeeaeu, eioi?ua aeaeyony iaeo?iiaie – yoi
oyaeaeua ioeeeaeu. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo aeaeyony oaieiauie iaeo?iiaie:
U235, Pu239, Pu241 (a i?e?iaea ano?a/aaony oieueei U235, niaea?aeaiea
eioi?iai a anoanoaaiiii U238 ninoaaeyao 0.714%). Ae?oaea ioeeeaeu,
iai?eia?, anoanoaaiiue o?ai, aeaeyony oieueei auno?uie iaeo?iiaie.
Aiiaua aiai?y, i?ioeann ia i?ioaeaao ii no?iaie noaia, iineieueeo
nouanoaoao iiiai aa?eaioia aeaeaiey ia ?acee/iua ineieee.

2.4.2 Yia?aaoe/aneee aaeain ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey

?anniio?ei yia?aaoe/aneee aaeain ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey.

Ionoue Eia/ = 0.025 yA – n?aaeiyy yia?aey oaieiaiai aeaeaeaiey i?e 200
N. Oiaaea Eauaeae= 200 IyA.

aeae iieo/aaiie yia?aee E, IyA

Eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey ineieeia oaiei 167

Eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey ( oaiei 6

Eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey n oaiei 5

Eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey ( oaiei 8

Eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey ( yia?aey oa?yaony 12

2.4.3 Na/aiea aeaeaiey.

?en. 2 ?en. 3

?en. 1

Caaeneiinoue (f(E) eiaao aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiue aeae, iineieueeo ia
e?eaoth E-1/2 iaeeaaeuaaaony iiiai ?aciiainia. Anee au oa?aeoa? yoie
caaeneiinoe iienuaaeny oi?ioeie (f(E) = E-1/2, oi a?aoee caaeneiinoe
f(E) = (f E1/2 aeey U235 a iaeanoe oaieiauo iaeo?iiia, ecia?aaeaiiue ia
?en. 1 eiae aeae i?yiie, ia?aeeaeueiie ine aanoeenn. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea
yoa caaeneiinoue eiaao i?eaaaeaiiue ia ?en. 1 aeae, n ?aciiainii a oi/ea
E = 0,3 yA.

Ia ?en. 2 i?eaaaeaia noaiaoe/iay caaeneiinoue (f e (total io E a neo/aa
eiaaea aeaeaiea yae?a yeaiaioa aiciiaeii e oaieiauie iaeo?iiaie. Ia ?en.
3 i?eaaaeaia caaeneiinoue na/aiey aeaeaiey aeey U238, ec eioi?ie aeaeii,
/oi aeaeaiea yoiai yae?a aiciiaeii oieueei auno?uie iaeo?iiaie (Eii? >
1). Na/aiey aeaeaiey yaea? iaeo?iiaie ?acee/iuo yia?aee iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue ii niaoeeaeueiui oaaeeoeai.

2.4.4 Ia?aciaaiea iaeo?iiia

Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiie auoa noaiu, i?e ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey e?iia
iiauo yaea? iiaoo iiyaeyoueny (-eaaiou, (-/anoeoeu ?aniaaea, (-eaaiou
?aniaaea, iaeo?iiu aeaeaiey e iaeo?eii. N oi/ee c?aiey oeaiiie yaea?iie
?aaeoeee iaeaieaa aaaeiui yaeyaony ia?aciaaiea iaeo?iiia. N?aaeiaa /enei
iiyaeaoeony a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey iaeo?iiia iaicia/atho (f .
Yoa aaee/eia caaeneo io ianniaiai /enea aeaeyuaainy yae?a e yia?aee
acaeiiaeaenoaothuaai n iei iaeo?iia. ia?aciaaaoeany iaeo?iiu iaeaaeatho
?acee/iie yia?aeae (iau/ii io 0,5 aei 15 IyA), /oi oa?aeoa?ecoaony
niaeo?ii iaeo?iiia aeaeaiey. Aeey U235 n?aaeiaa cia/aiea yia?aee
iaeo?iiia aeaeaiey ?aaii 1.93 IyA.

A i?ioeanna yaea?iie ?aaeoeee iiaoo iiyaeyoueny eae yae?a
niinianoaothuea iiaeaea?aeaieth oeaiiie ?aaeoeee (oa eioi?ua enioneatho
caiacaeuaathuee iaeo?ii), oae e yae?a, ieacuaathuea iaaeaaii?eyoiia
aicaeaenoaea ia aa oiae (anee iie iaeaaeatho aieueoei na/aieai
?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa).

2.4.5 Caiacaeuaathuea iaeo?iiu

Caeai/eaay ?anniio?aiea ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey, iaeuecy ia oiiiyiooue i
oaeii aaaeiii yaeaiee eae caiacaeuaathuea iaeo?iiu. Oa iaeo?iiu, eioi?ua
ia?acothony ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?e aeaeaiee oyaeaeuo ioeeeaeia
(iaiiaaiiua iaeo?iiu), a a ?acoeueoaoa ?aniaaea ineieeia iacuaathony
caiacaeuaathueie iaeo?iiaie. Oa?aeoa?enoeee caiacaeuaathueo iaeo?iiia
caaenyo io i?e?iaeu ineieeia. Iau/ii caiacaeuaathuea iaeo?iiu aeaeyo ia
6 a?oii ii neaaeothuei ia?aiao?ai: T – n?aaeiaa a?aiy aeecie ineieeia,
(i – aeiey caiacaeuaathueo iaeo?iiia n?aaee anao iaeo?iiia aeaeaiey,
(i/( – ioiineoaeueiay aeiey caiacaeuaathueo iaeo?iiia aeaiiie a?oiiu, E
– eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey caiacaeuaathueo iaeo?iiia.

A neaaeothuae oaaeeoea i?eaaaeaiu oa?aeoa?enoeee caiacaeuaathueo
iaeo?iiia i?e aeaeaiee U235

? a?oiiu T, nae. (i (i/( , % E, IyA

1 80.0 0.21 3.3 0.25

2 32.8 1.40 21.9 0.56

3 9.0 1.26 19.6 0.43

4 3.3 2.52 39.5 0.62

5 0.88 0.74 11.5 0.42

6 0.33 0.27 4.2 –

A oeaeii:

Ncai / (Ncai + Niai) = ( = 0.0065; Tcai ( 13 nae.; Tiai ( 0.001 nae.

Ia yoii iu caeii/ei ?anniio?aiea ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey yaea? e ia?aeaeai e
eco/aieth oeaiiie ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey e aeeciaiiiai oeeeea iaeo?iiia.

3. AEECIAIIUE OeEEE IAEO?IIIA

3.1 Aiciiaeiinoue oeaiiie ?aaeoeee

A ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey yae?a iiyaeyaony a n?aaeiai 2.5 iaeo?iia.
Iiyoiio iiaeii i?aaieciaaoue oeaiioth ?aaeoeeth aeaeaiey, i?e eioi?ie
iiaua iaeo?iiu, a naith i/a?aaeue aeoeae?otho ?aaeoeeth aeaeaiey yaea?
oiieeaa. Iaeiaei iiieii ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey anaaaea i?enoonoaotho
eiieo?e?othuay ?aaeoeey ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa e ooa/ea iaeo?iiia ec
aeoeaiie ciiu ?aaeoi?a. A ninoaa AC anaaaea aoiaeyo oaieiiineoaeue,
eiino?oeoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu e caiaaeeeoaeue, eioi?ua oaaee/eaatho caoaao
iaeo?iiia.

Oaeei ia?acii iu i?eoiaeei e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eco/aiey oiai, i?e eaeeo
oneiaeyo aiciiaeia oeaiiay ?aaeoeey aeaeaiey a ss? ia oaieiauo iaeo?iiao
(eiaiii oaeea ?aaeoi?u iau/ii i?eiaiythony aeey yia?aaoe/aneeo oeaeae).
Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue ?aaeoi?u, eniieuecothuea
anoanoaaiiue U238, iaiaauaiiue U235. E?iia oiai aeey i?inoiou aoaeai
n/eoaoue, /oi aeoeaiay ciia ?aaeoi?a – aaneiia/iay e aiiiaaiiay.

3.2 Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee oeaiiie ?aaeoeee

?anniio?ei niioiioaiey, oa?aeoa?ecothuea i?ioaeaiea oeaiiie ?aaeoeee
aeaeaiey.

3.2.1 Eiyooeoeeaio ?aciiiaeaiey ia auno?uo iaeo?iiao

Ionoue a n?aaea anoue N auno?uo iaeo?iiia, iie aoaeoo
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n yae?aie n?aaeu, a oii /enea e n yae?aie U238, oa
ec ieo eioi?ua eiatho yia?aeth auoa ii?iaa aeaeaiey (1 IyA) iiaoo
aucuaaoue aeaeaiea o?aia e ia?aciaaiea iiauo auno?uo iaeo?iiia. I?e yoii
eo yia?aey aoaeao iaiueoa ii?iaa aeaeaiey.

Eiyooeoeeaio ?aciiiaeaiey ia auno?uo iaeo?iiao ( – /enei iaeo?iiia
ooaaeoeo iiae ii?ia aeaeaiey U238 ia iaeei auno?ue iaeo?ii (iiyaeaoeeny
a ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey yaea? U235).

ssnii, /oi aaee/eia ( oai aieueoa, /ai aieueoa aeiey U238 a oiieeaa.
Iiaeii ioeaieoue, /oi (max = 1.35 (anee aeiey U238 ?aaia 100%). Aeey
oaieiauo ?aaeoi?ia ( = 1.01 – 1.03.

3.2.2 Aa?iyoiinoue ecaaaeaoue ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa

Ionoue a n?aaea anoue N iaeo?iiia, yia?aey eioi?uo iaiueoa ii?iaa
aeaeaiey U238. Ca n/ao ?annayiey ii yae?ao n?aaeu iie oa?ytho naith
yia?aeth e iiiaaeatho a iaeanoue yia?aee, a eioi?ie iaoiaeyony
aeaaioneea ?aciiainu na/aiey caoaaoa U238. Aaaaeai aaee/eio ( –
aa?iyoiinoue ecaaaeaoue ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa.

( oai aieueoa, /ai auno?aa iaeo?iiai a i?ioeanna caiaaeeaiey oaeanony
i?aiaeieaoue ?aciiainioth iaeanoue. ( oiaiueoaaony i?e oaaee/aiee aeiee
yaea? U238 a n?aaea. A aiiiaaiiii ?aaeoi?a ( ( 0.65, a a aaoa?iaaiiii (
( 0.93.

3.2.3 Eiyooeoeeaio oaieiaiai eniieueciaaiey

Ionoue a n?aaea anoue N oaieiauo iaeo?iiia, oiaaea a i?ioeanna
aeeooocee /anoue ec ieo caoaaoeony a oiieeaa. Iaicia/ei aeieth
caoaa/aiiuo a oiieeaa iaeo?iiia (. ssnii, /oi eiyooeoeeaio oaieiaiai
eniieueciaaiey iiaeii oaaee/eoue, eniieuecoy aaoa?iaaiioth no?oeoo?o
aeoeaiie ciiu ?aaeoi?a.

3.2.4 Eiee/anoai enioneaaiuo U235 auno?uo iaeo?iiia

Ionoue a oiieeaa iiaeioeeinue N oaieiauo iaeo?iiia. ssnii, /oi ia
anyeia iiaeiuaiea i?eaiaeeo e aeaeaieth e enioneaieth iiauo auno?uo
iaeo?iiia. Aaaaeai aaee/eio (oyo ?aaioth eiee/anoao aoi?e/iuo iaeo?iiia
aeaeaiey ia iaeei oaieiaie iaeo?ii, iiaeiuaiiue a oiieeaa. ssnii, /oi
(oyo oai aieueoa, /ai auoa aeiey U235 a oiieeaa.

3.3 AEeciaiiue oeeee iaeo?iiia

?anniio?ei aeeciaiiue oeeee iaeo?iiia a oaieiaii ss?, aeoeaiay ciia
eioi?iai aaneiia/ia e aiiiaaiia.

Ionoue ia iaeioi?ii yoaia oeaiiie ?aaeoeee a ?anniao?eaaaiie n?aaea
i?enoonoaoao N1 auno?uo iaeo?iiia aeaeaiey 1 iieieaiey. Ca n/ao
acaeiiaeaenoaey n yae?aie U238 iiae ii?ia aeaeaiey yoeo yaea? (1 IyA)
oeaeao ( N1 iaeo?iiia (( – eiyooeoeeaio ?aciiiaeaiey ia auno?uo
iaeo?iiao).

A ?acoeueoaoa ?annayiey ia yae?ao n?aaeu yoe iaeo?iiu aoaeoo
caiaaeeyoueny e iiiaaeoo a iaeanoue i?iiaaeooi/iuo yia?aee. Ieiiaaoue
yoo iaeanoue, ecaaaeaa iiaeiuaiey yae?aie U238 oaeanony ( ( N1 iaeo?iiai
(( – aa?iyoiinoue ecaaaeaoue ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caoaaoa).

*anoue ec yoeo iaeo?iiao, eioi?ua oaia?ue noaee oaieiauie, caoaaoeony a
oiieeaa. Eiee/anoai caoaa/aiiuo a oiieeaa iaeo?iiia aoaeao ?aaii ( ( (
N1 (( – eiyooeoeeaio oaieiaiai eniieueciaaiey).

Iaeioi?ua ec iaeo?iiia, caoaa/aiiuo a oiieeaa eieoeee?otho aeaeaiea
yaea? U235 e iiyaeaiea iiauo auno?uo iaeo?iiia. Eiee/anoai iaeo?iiia
aoi?iai iieieaiey N2 = (oyo ( ( ( N1.

?en. 4

Eoae, iu aeaeei, /oi ?aaeoeey aeaenoaeoaeueii yaeyaony
naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuaeny e oeeeee/aneie. Oeeee aeecie iaeo?iiia
noaiaoe/ii i?aaenoaaeai ia ?en. 4. Ia aeaiiie noaia, a ioee/ea io
auoai?eaaaeaiiiai iienaiey ?anniio?aiea ia/eiaaony ni noaaeee oaieiauo
iaeo?iiia.

Iiaeii auaanoe eiyooeoeeaio ?aciiiaeaiey iaeo?iiia a aaneiia/iie
aiiiaaiiie n?aaea:

K( = Ni+1/Ni = (oyo ( ( ( – oi?ioea 4-o niiiiaeeoaeae.

Aeey eiia/iuo n?aae iiaeii aaanoe eiyooeoeeaio

Kyo = (oyo ( ( ( P, aaea P – aa?iyoiinoue ecaaaeaoue ooa/ee.

Ia yoii ?anniio?aiea oece/aneeo iniia i?ioaeaiey oeaiiie yaea?iie
?aaeoeee a ss? iiaeii caaa?oeoue. Eniieuecoy iienaiioth oeaiioth
yaea?ioth ?aaeoeeth, iiaeii ia?aaiaeeoue yia?aeth ec oi?iu yia?aee nayce
/anoeoe a yae?a a eeiaoe/aneoth yia?aeth aeaeaeaiey /anoeoe, oi anoue a
oaiei. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue ?aiaa iniiaioth o?oaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ia i?aaiecaoeey oeaiiie ?aaeoeee, a iieo/aiea /enouo aeaeyueony
aauanoa e ae?oaea oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea ithainu yaea?iie
yia?aaoeee.

E E O A ? A O O ? A

1. ?oaeee A. I. Oece/aneea iniiau yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia. I.: Aoiiecaeao,
1980.

2. Eeeiia A. I. ssaea?iay oeceea e yaea?iua ?aaeoi?u. I.: Aoiiecaeao,
1971.

3. Ieaiaooeei I. I., Ieaiaooeei A. I., ssaea?iua yia?aaoe/aneea
onoaiiaee. I.: Yia?aiaoiiecaeao, 1986.

4. Aiaeueyiia E. ss. e ae?. Eiino?oe?iaaiea yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia. I.:
Yia?aiaoiiecaeao, 1982

5. Eaia?ii E. ssaea?iua ?aaeoi?u. I.: Yia?aiaoiiecaeao, 1987

6. Oeoia N. A., O?iyineee A. A. Yeaiaioa?iay oai?ey yaei?iuo ?aaeoi?ia.
I.: Aoiiecaeao, 1978

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