.

Радиолокация и ФАР

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1705
Скачать документ

26

Ieai:

1 Aaaaeaiea.

2 ?aaeeieieaoeey.

2.1 Iiuou Aa?oea

2.2 Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu.

2.3 Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee.

2.4 Ianneaiua e aeoeaiua nenoaiu ?aaeeieieaoeee.

2.5 Caaea/e ?aoaaiua ?aaeeieieaoeeae.

3 Oace?iaaiiua aioaiiua ?aoaoee.

3.1 Eae ana ia/eiaeinue.

3.2 Ono?ienoai e i?eioeei ?aaiou.

3.3 Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aioaiiu.

3.4 Oacia?auaoaeue.

3.5 Oa?aeoa?enoeea yenia?eiaioaeueiiai oacia?auaoaey.

4 Caeeth/aiea

Aeaeeia?aoey

1. AAAAeAIEA

Aaea-oi a iyoeaeanyoua aiaeu aieueoeinoai aeeoaeae iaoae no?aiu aia?aua
oneuoaee neiai ?aaeeieieaoeey. Iii i?ieciineeinue, eae i?aaeei, oeoei
aieinii, n aieueoei ii/oaieai e oaaaeaieai e yoiio neiao e ianei a naaa
yeaiaio oiai, /oi i?ieciineaoee yoi neiai i?e/anoai e eaeei-oi aunoei
eeai aiaiiui, eeai iao/iui nae?aoai. Iiioey?iua ianniaua ioaeeeaoeee
oiai a?aiaie a aacaoao e aeo?iaeao, aeaoaeoeaiua iiaanoe e oeeueiu
oaaaeaeaee /eoaoaeae e c?eoaeae a nouanoaiaaiee i/aiue neiaeiiai,
niiniaiiai nioai?eoue /oaei n?aaenoaa, eioi?ia iicaieeo caueoeoue iaoa
iaai io iai?ioaiuo ainoae, aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue naiieaoai eaoaoue a
ethaoth

iiaiaeo, i?e ethaie aeaeeiinoe e aeaeaoue ana, /oi oai?eony a iaaanao,
ia caiea e ia ii?a. Ii oei a?aiy e, eae yoi anaaaea auaaao, ianniaue
eioa?an e ?aaeeieieaoeee oaan, aai auoanieee iiaua iao/iua e oaoie/aneea
oniaoe, a naia ?aaeeieieaoeey noaea ioi?ieyoueny a no?iaoth iao/ioth
aeenoeeieeio n /aoei i/a?/aiiuie a?aieoeaie aiciiaeiinoae e i?eeiaeaiee.

Iio?aaiaaeinue iaiaei a?aiaie, /oiau oniaa?oainoaiaaoue niiniau e
oaoieeo ?aaeeiiaia?oaeaiey oeaeae. I?eai?u ?aaeeiiaia?oaeaiey iieo/eee
ianniaia i?eiaiaiea oieueei ai aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia. Naiieaou e ei?aaee,
iaeo/aaiua ?aaeeiaieiaie, oiiaeiaeythony ca?eaeai. Eiia/ii, iie iaei
iaiiieiatho ?iaioth, iiee?iaaiioth iiaa?oiinoue iau/iiai ca?eaea, e
iiyoiio io?aaeaiea io ieo iieo/aaony aanii?yaei/iui, ?annayiiui ai ana
noi?iiu. Ii /anoue io?aaeaiiuo ?aaeeiaiei iai?aiaiii iiiaaeao e oiio
ianoo, aaea onoaiiaeai /oanoaeoaeueiue ?aaeeii?eaiiee. Nae/an aea
iieo/aaony neaiae: ?aaeeiaieiu /oi-oi “iauoiaee”, iie iaoeioeenue ia
eaeia-oi i?aiyonoaea — iaia?oaeeee oeaeue!

Naaiaeiy iu eiaai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eeanne/aneoth o/aaii-iao/ioth
aeenoeeieeio, aioaaeooth a iaycaoaeueioth i?ia?aiio iiaeaioiaee
niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe ?aaeeioaoieee, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
oaeeaeoaeueiua ii naiei aiciiaeiinoyi iiiai/eneaiiua ?acee/iua
?aaeeieieaoeeiiiua noaioeee e ono?ienoaa, aeaenoaeoaeueii niiniaiua
niaa?oeoue iaaiciiaeiia e oaeaeaoue oi, /oi a aeeoaeneii ieaia a
i?eioeeia iaaiciiaeii oaeaeaoue. ss iinoa?athnue aeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i
oece/aneeo i?eioeeiao, eioi?ua caeiaeaiu a ?aaeeieieaoeee, aa
aiciiaeiinoyo e iaeioi?uo i?iaeaiao, eioi?ua noiyo ia?aae iae eae
iaoeie, a oaeaea i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue iaeioi?ua aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe
?aaeeieieaoeeiiiie oaoieee ?yaeii i?eia?ia.

2. ?AAeEIEIEAOeEss

2 .1 Iiuou Aa?oea

A oeieueiuo o/aaieeao oeceee au iiaeaoa iaeoe iienaiea iiuoa, eioi?ue
i?iecaae a 1888 a. ciaiaieoue oecee Aa?oe (?en. 1). Naiei iiuoii o/aiue
aeieacae, /oi iieo/aiiua ei ?aaeeiaieiu, eioi?ua ii iacaae
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuie, iiaoo io?aaeaoueny io iaoaeee/aneeo oae, iiaeiaii
oiio, eae eo/e naaoa io?aaeathony io ca?eae. Ia ?enoiea au aeaeeoa o?e
iniiaiua aeaoaee. Neaaa ?aniieiaeai i?eai?, eceo/athuee ?aaeeiaieiu,
iai?aaeaiiua io/eii e aieueoiio iaoaeee/aneiio eenoo. Yoa aoi?ay
aeaoaeue ?enoiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ca?eaei aeey ?aaeeiaiei.
Io?aceaoenue io iaoaeee/aneiai eenoa, ?aaeeiaieiu iiiaaeatho e i?eaiiiio
aiia?aoo.

Noieo oa?aoue iaoaeee/aneee eeno, e i?eaiiue aiia?ao ia?anoaiao
neaiaeece?iaaoue i iieo/aiee ei io?aaeaiiuo aiei. Ia ano?a/ay
io?aaeathuae iiaa?oiinoe, ?aaeeiaieiu, ?ani?ino?aiyynue i?yiieeiaeii,
oeaeoo a ie?oaeathuaa i?ino?ainoai, ieioy i?eaiiue aiia?ao. Aeaeueoa au
oaaaeeoanue, /oi yoio iiuo eiaao i?yiia ioiioaiea e iniiaai
?aaeeieieaoeee. Iaiiiiei, /oi a oi a?aiy, eiaaea i?iecaiaeeeny yoio
iiuo, i ?aaeei aua ie/aai ia auei ecaanoii. Oi, /oi iiith iacaaii
?aaeeiaieiaie, a oi a?aiy eiaei ae?oaia iacaaiea: yeaeo?iiaaieoiua
aieiu, eee eo/e Aa?oea. ?aaeeiaieiaie iie noaee iacuaaoueny
cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa, iinea oiai, eae a 1895 a. ?onneee o/aiue Iiiia
aia?aua i?eiaiee yoe eo/e aeey nayce ia ?annoiyiee aac i?iaiaeia.

2.2 Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu

Io?aaeaiea ?aaeeiaiei — ia?aay iniiaa, ia?aue i?eioeei ?aaeeieieaoeee.
Ia aoaeue io?aaeaiey ?aaeeiaiei, ia auei au e ?aaeeieieaoeee.

Iaia?oaeeaaaiay iin?aaenoaii ?aaeeieieaoeee oeaeue auaeaao naay oai, /oi
io?aaeaao iai?aaeaiiua ia iaa ?aaeeiaieiu. Iiea ieeaeeo iauaeoia a
aicaeooa eee ia aiaeiie iiaa?oiinoe iao, ?aaeeiaieiu ia ano?a/atho
io?aaeathueo iiaa?oiinoae, e niaoeeaeueiua i?eaiiua aiia?aou ia
iieo/atho ieeaeeo neaiaeia. Noieo iiyaeoueny oeaee, eae iia nae/an aea
io?aceo io naay aieiu, e i?eaiiua aiia?aou aini?eioo io?aaeaiea.

Naienoaii io?aaeaoue ?aaeeiaieiu iaeaaeatho ia oieueei iaoaeeu, ii e
aiiaua ana oaea, niiniaiua i?iaiaeeoue yeaeo?e/aneee oie. Caiey,
iai?eia?, oiaea io?aaeaao ?aaeeiaieiu: io?aaeatho ?aaeeiaieiu e ai?u,
oieiu, a oaeaea ianneaiua nii?oaeaiey — caeaiey, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua
iinou, iaoaeee/aneea aaoie, aiaa?u e o. i.

Anee ?aaeeiaieiu eceo/athony ai ana noi?iiu ?aaiiia?ii, ia iai?aaeaiii,
oi e io?aaeaiey iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu ni anao iai?aaeaiee. Oeaeueth
iiaeao noaoue aeeaeaeoay aiaeiiaii?iay aaoiy a thaeiii iai?aaeaiee e
iaeiia?aiaiii n iae — yeaaaoi? ia naaa?a, naiieao ia caiaaea e oaa?e/iay
o?oaa aaea-eeai ia ainoiea. *oiau ii?aaeaeeoue, aaea iaoiaeeony
eioa?anothuay ian oeaeue, ioaeii ciaoue iai?aaeaiea ia iaa eee aceioo
(iaeaia).

Ia ?enoiea, caeinoaiaaiiii ec o/aaieea oeceee, iieacaii, /oi ?aaeeiaieiu
iai?aaeythony ia io?aaeathuee iaoaeee/aneee eeno oceei io/eii. I?e
iai?aaeaiiii eceo/aiee ioiaaeatho anyeea niiiaiey a ioiioaiee iaeaiaa
oeaee. Anee ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay noaioeey eceo/aao ?aaeeiaieiu iai?aaeaiii
e i?e yoii iia aea iieo/aao io?aaeaiea, oi oeaeue, i/aaeaeii, iaoiaeeony
eiaiii a oii iai?aaeaiee, eoaea eceo/athony aieiu.

Iai?aaeaiiinoue ninoaaeyao aoi?oth iniiao ?aaeeieieaoeee, aoi?ie aa
i?eioeei.

Eae aeaeeoa, iio/eoaeueiue ?enoiie ec o/aaieea oeceee niaea?aeeo ii/oe
aioiaoth eaeath ?aaeeieieaoeee. ?ieue oeaee a iae ea?aao iaoaeee/aneee
eeno.

Ionoue iaaethaeaoaeue iaoiaeeony a oi/ea 0, ii oi/ao ociaoue, /oi
iaoiaeeony a iaeioi?ie ae?oaie oi/ea 1 e eaeeie oece/aneeie e
aaiiao?e/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie yoi iaeaaeaao. *ai ?aniieaaaao
iaaethaeaoaeue? Ii eiaao aiciiaeiinoue eceo/aoue ?aaeeiaieiu e
eiioeaio?e?iaaoue i?e iiiiue aioaiiu iniiaioth aeieth eceo/aaiie yia?aee
a caaeaiiii iai?aaeaiee. (I?eioeeieaeueiue iiiaio: ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
iniiaiie iioie yia?aee eaeei-oi ia?acii neiioeaio?e?iaai a i?ino?ainoaa,
yia?aey eceo/aaony ii anai iai?aaeaieyi aac eneeth/aiey.)

Iaaethaeaoaeue eiaao aiciiaeiinoue? i?eieiaoue io?aaeaiiua ?aaeeiaieiu n
o?aaoaiiai iai?aaeaiey. (I?eioeeieaeueiue iiiaio: i?eai io?aaeaiiuo
?aaeeiaiei inouanoaeyaony, oai ia iaiaa, ni anao iai?aaeaiee aac
eneeth/aiey.) Iaaethaeaoaeue oaeaea iiaeao iaeaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiuie
naaaeaieyie ia iauaeoa iaaethaeaiey (?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay oeaeue) e ia
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.Neacaiiia iicaieyao ioianoe ?aaeeieieaoeeth e eeanno
caaea/ aeenoaioeeiiiiai ciiaee?iaaiey. ?anniio?ei oaia?ue, eaeea
oece/aneea i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeyo i?e inouanoaeaiee ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiiai
ciiaee?iaaiey. Eoae, iaaethaeaoaeue eceo/aao ?aaeeiaieio, eioi?ay,
nionoy eaeia-oi a?aiy, aeinoeaaao oi/ee 1, aaea iaaiaeeo ia enneaaeoaiii
iauaeoa oiee iaoneiaeaiiua yeaeo?e/aneei e iaaieoiui iieai, eioi?ua,
naith i/a?aaeue, ii?iaeaeatho ?aaeeiaieiu, ?ani?ino?aiythueany ii anai
iai?aaeaieyi, a oii /enea e a iai?aaeaiee ia oi/eo 0. Io?aaeaiiay
?aaeeiaieia aeinoeaaao oi/ee 0, aaea a i?eaiieea ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiie
noaioeee aucuaaao iiyaeaiea niioaaonoaothuaai neaiaea (oiea,
iai?yaeaiey). ssnii, /oi any iieo/aaiay eioi?iaoeey i iaaethaeaaiie
oeaee iiaeao auoue iieo/aia oieueei ec n?aaiaiey eceo/aiiiai e i?eiyoiai
neaiaeia. Aoaeo/e ecaea/aiiie, yoa eioi?iaoeey aoaeao au?aaeaoueny ia
ycuea yeaeo?e/aneeo neaiaeia, a ia ia ycuea eaeeo-eeai oece/aneeo eee
aaiiao?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee oeaee. Ia?aaiae n iaeiiai ycuea ia ae?oaie
yoi ae?oaay naiinoiyoaeueiay caaea/a.

A ?aaeeieieaoeee eniieuecothony ?aaeeiaieiu n aeeeiie aieiu,
i?eoiaeyuaeny ia naioeiao?iaue (?aaea aeaoeeiao?iaue) e ieeeeiao?iaue
aeeaiaciiu. Nai aea aeae eceo/aaiiai neaiaea ieacuaaaony aeinoaoi/ii
i?ino. Eae i?aaeei, yoi iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ei?ioeeo ai a?aiaie
eiioeuenia, neaaeothueo iaeei ca ae?oaei /a?ac a?aiy, iiiai
i?aainoiaeyuaa aeeeoaeueiinoue yoeo eiioeuenia. Oe?eia niaeo?a oaeeo
neaiaeia ?f a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ieacuaaaony ai iiiai
?ac iaiueoa ianouae /anoiou eceo/aaiiai neaiaea f0, oi anoue o
?aaeeieieaoeeiiiuo neaiaeia (ca eneeth/aieai iniauo neo/aaa) ioiioaiea
?f /f0 << 1. Aeey ooieoeee U(t), iaeaaeathueo oaeei naienoaii (oceiiieiniua neaiaeu), eae yoi aia?aua iieacae Aeeueaa?o, aeiionoeii i?aaenoaaeaieaU(t) = A(t)cos(2?f0 t + oe(t)), (1)aaea A(t) e ?(t) - iaaeeaiii ca ia?eiae aunieie /anoiou O = 2?/f0 iaiythueany ai a?aiaie ooieoeee. Ieacuaaaony, oaeia ia aeae i?inoia i?aaenoaaeaiea, eaeiaui yaeyaony au?aaeaiea (1), ianao a naaa na?ueacioth i?iaeaio, i?aa?auathuoth ?aaeeieieaoeeth n oi/ee c?aiey ?aoaiey noiyueo ia?aae iae caaea/ a eeann iniauo iaoe, /oi e?aeia i?eioeeieaeueii.Io?aaeaiiay ?aaeeiaieia, anoanoaaiii, aoaeao oaeaea eiaoue aeae, ii?aaeaeyaiue ?aaainoaii (1). Anee oeaeue iaiiaeaeaeia, oi /anoioa io?aaeaiiiai neaiaea ia eciaieony, a eciaiaiey i?aoa?iyo eeoue aai aiieeooaea e oaca.Iaeo/aieth iiaeaa?aioony oaeaea ana inoaeueiua oeaee e, a /anoiinoe, oa ec ieo, eioi?ua ?aniieiaeaiu ia oii aea ?annoiyiee io ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiie noaioeee (iaciaai yoe oeaee, iai?eia?, 2 e 3), /oi e enneaaeoaiay oeaeue 1.Anoanoaaiii, /oi ?aaeeiaieiu, io?aaeaiiua io oeaeae 1, 2 e 3, iaeiia?aiaiii aeinoeaioo oi/ee 0, aaea ?aniieiaeaia ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay noaioeey. A yoii neo/aa neaiae a oi/ea 0 iaeaeaony i?inoui neiaeaieai o?ao neaiaeia oeia oiai, /oi ii?aaeaeaii ?aaainoaii (1). Yoi cia/eo, /oi e noiia?iue neaiae aoaeao oaeaea eiaoue oio aea aeae, /oi e i?aaenoaaeaiea (1), iacaaeneii io oiai, i?enoonoaoao eee ionoonoaoao iaia?oaeeaaaiay oeaeue.Yoi cia/eo, /oi iacaaeneii io neooaoeee iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey oeaee a iauai neo/aa ia aoiaea ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiiai i?eaiieea anaaaea i?enoonoaoao neaiae iaeiiai e oiai aea aeaea – eaaceaa?iiie/aneia eieaaaiea.Neaaeothuee aaaeiue aii?in ninoieo a oii, /oiau auynieoue, a /oi aiiaua ianao a naaa ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay eioi?iaoeey, oi anoue, eiuie neiaaie, a /oi aiiaua iiaeii iieo/eoue ec ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiuo ecia?aiee. Aeey iieo/aiey ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in ioaea/ainy io aicaeaenoaey iiiao e aeeyiey n?aaeu ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aaeeiaiei. *oiau oaeay ea?oeia i?aaenoaaeyeanue ?aaeueiie, iiaeii i?inoi n/eoaoue, /oi eioaineaiinoue aieiu, io?aaeaiiie io enneaaeoaiie oeaee, nouanoaaiii i?aainoiaeeo niioaaonoaothuea aaee/eiu aeey iiiaoiaiai neaiaea. Eoae, i?enooiei e iieneo ioaaoa ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in. Aeey yoiai, i?aaeaea anaai, auaa?ai iaeioi?oth i?oiaiiaeueioth nenoaio eii?aeeiao (X,Y), a eioi?ie a aeaeueiaeoai aoaeai i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec i?ioaeathueo i?ioeannia. Nia/aea aoaeai n/eoaoue, /oi eceo/aaony ?aaeeiaieia, o eioi?ie yeaeo?e/aneee aaeoi? Erad eiaao oieueei X-eiiiiiaioo (ai?eciioaeueiay iiey?ecaoeey). Anee ia iaeeaaeuaaoue ieeaeeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo ia?aie/aiee, oi yeaeo?e/aneee aaeoi? io?aaeaiiie ?aaeeiaieiu Eref a iauai neo/aa aoaeao eiaoue eioth, /ai aaeoi? Erad , i?eaioaoeeth a i?ino?ainoaa. Eiuie neiaaie, a aua?aiiie nenoaia eii?aeeiao iiea Eref aoaeao eiaoue aeaa eiiiiiaioa (Ex)ref e (Ey)ref. ssnii oaeaea, /oi iaaeaeo eioaineaiinoyie io?aaeaiiie e eceo/aiiie ?aaeeiaiei (a noaei auoue, iaaeaeo aeeeiaie aaeoi?ia Eref e Erad) eiaao ianoi i?yiay i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi (Ex)ref aoaeao i?iii?oeeiiaeueii (Ex)rad , i?yiay i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue aoaeao oaeaea iaaeaeo (Ey)ref e (Ex)rad.Iaicia/ei niioaaonoaothuea eiyooeoeeaiou i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe niioaaonoaaiii SXX e SXY , oi anoue(EX)ref = SXX (EX)rad ,(EY)ref = SXY (EX)rad . (2)Anee aa?iooueny e i?aaenoaaeaieth ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiiai neaiaea a aeaea au?aaeaiey (1), oi o eaaeaeiai ec eiiiiiaioia io?aaeaiiie ?aaeeiaieiu a iauai neo/aa iinea io?aaeaiey io oeaee iiyaeony iaeee oaciaue naeaea ii ioiioaieth e eceo/aiiie ?aaeeiaieia.Caieoai a?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea aeey i?oiaiiaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia yeaeo?e/aneiai aaeoi?a io?aaeaiiie ?aaeeiaieiu a neaaeothuai aeaea:(EX(t))ref = SXX A(t)cos(2pf0 t + j(t) + oXX),(EY(t))ref = SXY A(t)cos(2pf0 t + j(t) + oXY). (3)Eae aeaeii ec oi?ioeu (3), i?e iaeo/aiee oeaee ai?eciioaeueii iiey?eciaaiiie ?aaeeiaieiie io?aaeaiiay ?aaeeiaieia ii?aaeaeyaony iaeioi?uie /aou?ueiy ia?aiao?aie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie ?aaeeieieaoeeiiioth oeaeue: SXX , SXY , oXX , oXY.E aiaeiae/iiio ?acoeueoaoo iu i?eaeai, anee aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue ?aaeeiaieio, eiathuoth eeoue iaeio Y-eiiiiiaioo (aa?oeeaeueii iiey?eciaaiiay ?aaeeiaieia). A yoii neo/aa iu aueaeai ia ae?oaea /aou?a oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiie oeaee:SYY , SYX , oYY , oYX .A iauai neo/aa, anee eceo/aiiay ?aaeeiaieia eiaao i?iecaieueioth iiey?ecaoeeth, oi anoue aeaa eiiiiiaioa yeaeo?e/aneiai aaeoi?a (EX)rad e (EY)rad , iieiia iienaiea ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiie oeaee iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaii i?e iiiiue oiiiyioouo auoa ainueie /enae.Iaeiaei, eae yoi neaaeoao ec yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, ia?ae?anoiua yeaiaiou a ia?a/eneaiiii ia?a/ia oa?aeoa?enoee ieacuaathony ?aaiuie, oi anoue SXY = SYX e ?XY = oYX . Neacaiiia icia/aao, /oi oeaeue iienuaaaony ia ainueiueth, a oanoueth /eneaie. Anee iie?aoueny ia ?aaeueiinoe ecia?aiee, oi niiieoaeueiie i?aaenoaaeyaony iaaeaaeiinoue aaniethoiuo ecia?aiee aiieeooae e oac. Eiaiii iiyoiio ?a/ue, eiia/ii, iiaeao eaeoe ia ioiineoaeueiuo ecia?aieyo, a noaei auoue, ia ioiineoaeueiuo e ii?ie?iaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoeeao. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea /enei ii?aaeaeythueo ?aaeeieieaoeeiiioth oeaeue ia?aiao?ia nie?auaaony aei /aou?ao, a ea/anoaa eioi?uo iiaoo, iai?eia?, aunooiaoue neaaeothuea: SXX/SYY , SXY /SYY , oXX - oYY ,oXY - oYY .I?EIOeEIU ECIA?AIEss EII?AeEIAO OeAEAE. EIAeEEAOI?U ?AAeEIEIEAOI?AEiaaea aioaiia eieaoi?a eceo/aao ciiaee?othuee eiioeuen, oi o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy t1, /oiau ii aeioae aei oeaee. I?e nei?inoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey aiei n, iiiai aieueoae nei?inoe ia?aiauaiey oeaee Voe, iiaeii i?aiaa?a/ue niauaieai oeaee ?D ca yoi a?aiy: anee Voe<>e фi?ioea (5) oi?iuaaony:

AeEe =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 (6)

Aicieeaao aii?in: /oi i?ienoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeaie eca?aiiiai naeoi?a
ea/aiey eo/a, ii?aaeaeaiiiai oi?ioeie (6)? Anee ia i?eiyoue ieeaeeo ia?,
oi i?e d > ?/2 ca i?aaeaeaie naeoi?a ea/aiey aicieeioo aeiiieieoaeueiua
aeeo?aeoeeiiiua iaeneioiu e aeeaa?aiia iai?aaeaiiinoe aioaiiu ia?anoaiao
auoue iaeiiiai?aaeaiiie. Iaeiaei aeiiieieoaeueiua aeeo?aeoeeiiiua
iaeneioiu iiaeii iiaeaaeoue, aua?aa yeaiaioa?iua eceo/aoaee, ec eioi?uo
ninoaaeaia eeiaeea, oaeeie, /oiau eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aeeaa?aiia
iai?aaeaiiinoe eaaeaeiai yeaiaioa?iiai eceo/aoaey iaania/eaaea
iiaeaaeaiea eceo/aiey ca i?aaeaeaie aua?aiiiai naeoi?a ea/aiey eo/a
eeiaeee eceo/aoaeae a oeaeii. Iaeaeai ioiioaiea naeoi?a ea/aiey eo/a e
oe?eia naiiai eo/a eeiaeee eceo/aoaeae. Aeey yoiai ia?aoeiny e oi?ioeai
(6) e (1). Iieo/ei
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 (7)

aaea N – /enei eceo/aoaeae a aioaiia.

Oi?ioea (7) ii?aaeaeyao /enei yeaiaioia, ec eioi?uo aeieaeia ninoiyoue
aioaiia. Yeaiaio aeeth/aao a naay eceo/aoaeue, oacia?auaoaeue e oeaie
oi?aaeaiey oacia?auaoaeai. Oae, iai?eia?, aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi
iai?aaeaiiay aioaiia aeieaeia eiaoue oe?eio eo/a ii?yaeea iaeiiai
oaeiaiai a?aaeona: ?E = 1°. Ionoue ?Ek = 90°, oiaaea N = 90, oi anoue
eiino?oeoeey eeiaeee eceo/aoaeae ieacuaaaony aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiie.

?anniio?ei aioaiio a aeaea ?aoaoee eceo/aoaeae, iaania/eaathuae
yeaeo?iiiia neaie?iaaiea eo/a a aeaoo ieineinoyo. ?aoaoea ninoieo ec
nenoaiu ia?aeeaeueiuo eeiaae eceo/aoaeae, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a iaeiie
ieineinoe. *enei eceo/aoaeae a ninoaaa iaeiie eeiaeee iaciaai /eneii
eceo/aoaeae a ai?eciioaeueiie ieineinoe Na, a naii /enei eeiaae – /eneii
eceo/aoaeae a aa?oeeaeueiie ieineinoe Na.

Oaeei ia?acii, iauaa /enei eceo/aoaeae a ?anniao?eaaaiie ?aoaoea

Niau = Na Na (8)

3.3 Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee OA?

I?eaaaeo iaeioi?ua eiee/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee.

1. Oe?eia eo/a aioaiiu a ai?eciioaeueiie e aa?oeeaeueiie ieineinoyo
niioaaonoaaiii

AeEk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, LA = NAdA
(9)

AeEk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, LA = NAdA
(10)

2. Naeoi? ea/aiey eo/a a ai?eciioaeueiie e aa?oeeaeueiie ieineinoyo

AeEk,A =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,
(11)

AeEk,A =
picscalex100010009000003e40000000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02400480021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbaffffff40020000fa0300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
000240000500000013020002290210000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000020002
001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320aef0343010100000042001500
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e00007f040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a8f035a00010000006400
10000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c000204000000
2d01010004000000f001020008000000320a6c01c000010000006c000a00000026060f00
0a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020222
53797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f0010100030000000000.
(12)

3. Oaeaniue oaie, niaiaaeathuee n naeoi?aie ea/aiey eo/a aioaiiu,

Ae?k = AeEk, a ? AeEk,a . (13)

4. Oaeaniue oaie, caieiaaiue eo/ii aioaiiu, e eiyooeoeeaio iai?aaeaiiiai
aeaenoaey aioaiiu niioaaonoaaiii

Ae? = AeEa ? AeEa, (14)

D =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(15)

Eniieuecoy i?eaaaeaiiua auoa niioiioaiey, eaaei oaaaeeoueny, /oi
ioiioaiea oaeaniuo oaeia, caieiaaiuo naeoi?aie ea/aiey eo/a e naiei
eo/ii aioaiiu, ?aaii iieiiio /eneo yeaiaioia a ninoaaa OA?:
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, (16)

Eiiaeie?oy (13)-(16), iiaeii iieo/eoue oi?ioeo, ii?aaeaeythuoth iauaa
/enei yeaiaioia OA? /a?ac aa eiyooeoeeaio iai?aaeaiiiai aeaenoaey e
oaeaniue oaie neaie?iaaiey:

Niau =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,
(17)

Yoa oi?ioea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ooiaeaiaioaeueiia niioiioaiea oai?ee
OA?. Eaaei iiaen/eoaoue, /oi anee aua?aiiua naeoi?u neaie?iaaiey
ii?aaeaeythony oaeaie ea/aiey eo/a ?k,a = Ek,a = ±30°, a oe?eia eo/a a
ai?eciioaeueiie e aa?oeeaeueiie ieineinoyo ?Ea = AeEa = 1°, oi /enei
yeaiaioia OA? ninoaaeyao 3600.

3.4 Oacia?auaoaeue – ono?ienoai oi?ie?iaaiey oaciauo naeaeaia

Eae auei iieacaii auoa, a oeaie ieoaiey eaaeaeiai eceo/aoaey OA?
aeieaeii iaoiaeeoueny ono?ienoai, iaania/eaathuaa o?aaoaiue oaciaue
naeaea – oacia?auaoaeue.

Oacia?auaoaee aeey OA? iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu:

1) aiaeiaiaua oacia?auaoaee, oaciaue naeaea, a eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iai?a?uaioth ooieoeeth oi?aaeythuaai aicaeaenoaey (iai?yaeaiey eee
oiea);

2) oeeo?iaua (aeene?aoiua) oacia?auaoaee, oaciaue naeaea a eioi?uo
caaeaaony aeaie/iui eiaeii:

Aeoe =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, (18)

aaea
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. (19)

A(q) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie Q-ia?iue aaeoi?, ninoaaeaiiue ec ioeae e
aaeeieoe. Ionoue Q = 3, oiaaea a iaoai ?anii?yaeaiee aoaeao ainaiue
?acee/iuo aaeoi?ia A (q) . I?e iiiiue niioiioaiee (18) e (19) iiaeao
auoue caaeai neaaeothuee iaai? oaciauo naeaeaia: [0°, 45°, 90°, 135°,
180°, 225°, 270°, 315°], eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo ioaa/aao naiaio iiia?o q.

A iniiaa aiaeiaiauo oacia?auaoaeae eaaeeo iaoa?eae, iaaieoiay eee
aeeyeaeo?e/aneay i?iieoeaaiinoue eioi?iai eciaiyaony iiae aiaoiei
aicaeaenoaeai. Oaeei iaoa?eaeii iiaeao neoaeeoue oa??eo, i eioi?ii
e?aoei aiai?eeinue auoa, eee naaiaoiyeaeo?ee, aeeyeaeo?e/aneay
i?iieoeaaiinoue eioi?iai caaeneo io iai?yaeaiiinoe yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey.

Aeene?aoiinoue caaeaiey oac oi?ioi aienuaaaony a no?oeoo?o eiiaiae
oi?aaeythuae YIA, oioy e ii?iaeaeaao iaeioi?ua ioeaee a caaeaiee
eii?aeeiao eo/a aioaiiu, a oaeaea i?eaiaeeo e iacia/eoaeueiiio
oaaee/aieth o?iaiy aieiauo eaianoeia aeeaa?aiiu iai?aaeaiiinoe aioaiiu.
Iaeiaei i?e aieueoii /enea yeaiaioia OA? aicieeoea oaeei iooai
iia?aoiinoe on?aaeiythony e auoiaeyo ia o?iaaiue, eioi?ui iiaeii
i?aiaa?a/ue.

Aeoeaiui yeaiaioii aeene?aoiiai oacia?auaoaey neoaeeo iieoi?iaiaeieeiaue
eeth/, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo iieoi?iaiaeieeiaue p-i-n aeeiae eee
o?aicenoi?. Eniieueciaaiea p-i-n aeeiaea a NA*-oeaiyo iniiaaii ia oii,
/oi p-i-n aeeiae iiaeao eiaoue aeaa ?aciuo ninoiyiey. A iaeiii ec ieo (U
Uc) oie /a?ac aeeiae ia oa/ao, oeaio?aeueiay /anoue aeeiaea (i io
intrinsic – nianoaaiiue, iaeaae?iaaiiue iieoi?iaiaeiee) i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aeeyeaeo?ee, a aeeiae a oeaeii – eiiaeainaoi? n iaeie aieinoueth e
ioiineoaeueii iaeuie iioa?yie. A ae?oaii ninoiyiee (U Uc) p-i-n aeeiae
i?iaiaeeo oie, oeaio?aeueiay /anoue aeeiaea caiieiyaony
eiaeaeoe?iaaiiuie iineoaeyie ca?yaea, e aeeiae a oeaeii i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ?acenoi? n iaeui nii?ioeaeaieai. Ia ?en. 8 i?aaenoaaeaia
i?inoaeoay noaia aeene?aoiiai oacia?auaoaey, eniieuecothuaai i?eioeei
eiiiooe?oaiuo eeiee. A caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey eeth/ae NA* – aieia
iiaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny eeai ii aieaa aeeeiiiio iooe, eeai ii aieaa
ei?ioeiio, i?eia?aoay oaeei ia?acii iaiaoiaeeiue oaciaue naeaea. ?aai/aa
iai?yaeaiea p-i-n aeeiaea ia i?aauoaao 1-2 A, oi?aaeythuee oie /a?ac
aeeiae caaeneo io iiuiinoe NA* – neaiaea, aeey ?aaiou n eioi?ui
i?aaeiacia/ai aeeiae, e iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao 0,1-100 iA. A?aiy
ia?aeeth/aiey p-i-n aeeiaea oaeaea caaeneo io iiuiinoe oi?aaeyaiiai
neaiaea e eaaeeo a i?aaeaeao 0,05 – 5 ien.

3.5 Aeene?aoiue iiiaiiiceoeeiiiue oacia?auaoaeue ia iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo
aeeiaeao naioeiao?iaiai aeeaiaciia

A ia/aea 70uo a iaeiie ec eaai?aoi?ee OAIO aue naeaeai iaeao
oacia?auaoaey, e enneaaeiaaiu aai iaeioi?ua oa?aeoa?enoeee. A ea/anoaa
i?eia?a y i?eaaaeo ?acoeueoaou yoiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao i/aiue i?inoay noaia yeaiaioa?iiai (ia
aeaa iieiaeaiey) io?aaeaoaeueiiai oacia?auaoaey, iicaieythuay iieo/eoue
naeaea oacu a i?aaeaeao 360°. Noaia oaeiai oacia?auaoaey, iieacaiiay ia
?en. 9, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeieth ia?aaea/e n aieiiaui nii?ioeaeaieai
Z0, ia eiioea eioi?ie iiaeeeth/aia io?aaeathuay iaa?ocea. Io?aaeathuay
iaa?ocea auae?aaony a aeaea io?acea eeiee n aieiiaui nii?ioeaeaieai Z1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 Z0, yeaeo?e/aneay aeeeia eioi?iai ?aaia ? e eioi?ue
iaa?oaeai ia eiioea ia?aeeth/aoaeueiui aeeiaeii.

Ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiuo yeaiaioa?iuo io?aaeaoaeueiuo oacia?auaoaeae e
iinoa aue auiieiai yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaeao oacia?auaoaey ia 50-iiiie
neiiao?e/iie iieineiaie eeiee n aeeyeaeo?eeii “Oi?iieano-4”.
Io?aaeathuea iea/e iinoia auee iaa?oaeaiu yeaiaioa?iuie io?aaeaoaeueiuie
oacia?auaoaeyie. N oeaeueth aieaa oi/iie iiaeno?ieee oaciauo aeene?aoia
a io?aaioaiiuo noaiao yeaiaioa?iuo io?aaeaoaeueiuo oacia?auaoaeae aue
naeaeai caian.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey ?ac?aaioaia eiino?oeoeey
aeaenoaothuaai iaeaoa iiiaiiiceoeeiiiiai aeene?aoiiai oacia?auaoaey ia
p-i-n aeeiaeao oeia 2A 503A. Oacia?auaoaeue i/aiue i?ino ii
eiino?oeoeee, iaeaaeaao oi?ioae aini?iecaiaeeiinoueth e i?e
eniieueciaaiee a iai aeeiaeia oeia 2A 503A a naioeiao?iaii aeeaiaciia
aiei eiaao neaaeothuea iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee:

– ?aai/ay iieina /anoio 8%;

– oaciaue aeene?ao 90°;

– iiceoeee oacia?auaoaey 0°- 90°- 180°- 270°;

– iia?aoiinoue onoaiiaee oacu a iieina /anoio 12?;

– n?aaeiea aiineiua iioa?e 1,6 aea;

– ia?aiaae iioa?ue iaaeaeo iiceoeeyie 0,6 aea;

– ENAi ia aoiaea ?1,5;

– eiee/anoai eniieuecoaiuo aeeiaeia 4;

– n?aaeiyy oi?aaeythuay iiuiinoue 0,2 ao.

Ia ?enoiea 10 ecia?aaeaii naiaenoai oaci/anoioiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iiiai
iiceoeeiiiiai oacia?auaoaey. Ec iaai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi naeaea
oacu caaeneo io /anoiou.

4. CAEETH*AIEA

?aaeeieieaoeey eae iaoea ieii/aoaeueii noi?ie?iaaeanue ai a?aiy Aoi?ie
Ie?iaie aieiu. A oi a?aiy eniieueciaaiea ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiuo noaioeee
aeaaaei ia?iiiia i?aeiouanoai ia?aae i?ioeaieeii. E ca n/ao yoiai
?aaeeieieaoeey iieo/eea ia?iiiue oie/ie aeey auno?iai ?acaeoey.

Naaiaeiy iu eiaai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eeanne/aneoth o/aaii-iao/ioth
aeenoeeieeio, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeeaeoaeueiua ii naiei aiciiaeiinoyi
iiiai/eneaiiua ?acee/iua ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiua noaioeee e ono?ienoaa,
aeaenoaeoaeueii niiniaiua niaa?oeoue iaaiciiaeiia e oaeaeaoue oi, /oi a
aeeoaeneii ieaia a i?eioeeia iaaiciiaeii oaeaeaoue.

Ia ?aaeeieieaoeee iniiaaii aeaenoaea iiiaeo i?eai?ia, oe?iei i?eiaiyaiuo
eae a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie, a oaeaea a aiaiiie iaeanoe. Io?aaeaiea
?aaeeiaiei — ia?aay iniiaa, ia?aue i?eioeei ?aaeeieieaoeee. Ia aoaeue
io?aaeaiey ?aaeeiaiei, ia auei au e ?aaeeieieaoeee. Iai?aaeaiiinoue
ninoaaeyao oaeaea iniiao ?aaeeieieaoeee, oi anoue aoi?ie aa i?eioeei.

A ?aaeeieieaoeee any iieo/aaiay eioi?iaoeey i iaaethaeaaiie oeaee iiaeao
auoue iieo/aia oieueei ec n?aaiaiey eceo/aiiiai e i?eiyoiai neaiaeia.
Aoaeo/e ecaea/aiiie, yoa eioi?iaoeey aoaeao au?aaeaoueny ia ycuea
yeaeo?e/aneeo neaiaeia, a ia ia ycuea eaeeo-eeai oece/aneeo eee
aaiiao?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee oeaee. Ia?aaiae n iaeiiai ycuea ia ae?oaie
yoi ae?oaay naiinoiyoaeueiay caaea/a. A ?aaeeieieaoeee eniieuecothony
?aaeeiaieiu n aeeeiie aieiu, i?eoiaeyuaeny ia naioeiao?iaue (?aaea
aeaoeeiao?iaue) e ieeeeiao?iaue aeeaiaciiu.

?aaeeiaieia ?ani?ino?aiyaony a aicaeooa ni nei?inoueth, aeeceie e
nei?inoe naaoa. Iiyoiio a?aiy, eioi?ia i?eoiaeeony ecia?youe, i/aiue
iaei. Iaaei oiaoue ecia?youe i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie ii?yaeea nioai
iee?inaeoiae n oi/iinoueth aei aeanyoie aeiee iee?inaeoiaeu.

Iniiaiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiuo i?eai?ia yaeythony: a)
?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue; a) i?eai io?aaeaiiuo ?aaeeiaiei aioaiiie a
iniiaiii inouanoaeyaony a i?aaeaeao iaeioi?iai oaeaniiai oaea.

Nouanoaotho caaea/e, n eioi?uie iaueiiaaiiay aioaiia ni?aaeoueny ia a
ninoiyiee. Yoi e i?ioeai?aeaoiay iai?iia, e ioneaaeeaaiea e naeaeoeey
aieueoiai /enea oeaeae, e auno?ia eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiea aeeaa?aiiu
iai?aaeaiiinoe a aeaoo ieineinoyo iaeiia?aiaiii.

?aoeoue yoe e iiiaea ae?oaea caaea/e iicaieyao oace?iaaiiay aioaiiay
?aoaoea. A aa iniiaa caeiaeaia eaeay yeaeo?iiiiai neaie?iaaiey.
Iai?aaeaiea aeeaa?aiiu iai?aaeaiiinoe caaeaaony oaciaui o?iioii, eioi?ue
a naith i/a?aaeue nicaeaaony oacia?auaoaeyie.

Iniiaiuie iaaeinoaoeaie oaeie aioaiiu yaeyaony aa aieueoay noieiinoue, e
/?acau/aeiay neiaeiinoue no?oeoo?u e ianeoaeeaaiey. Oioy noieiinoue,
cao?a/aiiay ia oaeoth aioaiio, iieiinoueth ieoiaao naay, oae eae noa?a
caaea/, ?aoaaiuo ath, i/aiue neiaeia.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae iiaeii neacaoue, /oi eeoei nia?aiaiiie ?aaeeieieaoeee e
?aaeeieieaoeee aoaeouaai ninoaaeytho ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiua noaioeee n
oace?iaaiiuie aioaiiuie ?aoaoeaie.

AEAEEIA?AOEss:

· “*oi oaeia ?aaeeieieaoeey” N. A. Aiaeaiia 1948 a.

· ae-e “Iiaia a aeecie iaoee e oaoieea” na?ey “?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea e
naycue” ? 2, 1972 a. A. A. Nie?iia, A. E. Iaiia, “Nia?aiaiiay
?aaeeieieaoeey”

· ae-e “Iiaia a aeecie iaoee e oaoieea” na?ey “Oeceea” ? 4, 1980 a. I.
N. Eeaoeoe “?aaeeieieaoeey e yoi eieaoeey”

· “Aeaeueiaainoi/iue oece/aneee nai?iee”, oii 5. Oaaa?iane 1972 a.
noaouey “Aeene?aoiue iiiaiiiceoeeiiiue oacia?auaoaeue ia
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo aeeiaeao naioeiao?iaiai aeeaiaciia” A. A. Aeiaaeei,
A.I. E?oiei, ss. E. Ieeeoeae, I. E. Oeueoi.

· “Ni?inianeee ia?aciaaoaeueiue aeo?iae”

– ? 6, 1996 a. noaouey “?aaeeieieaoeey. Oece/aneea iniiau e i?iaeaiu” A.
E. Eiceia.

– ? 2, 1997 a. noaouey “Oace?iaaiiay aioaiiay ?aoaoea – aeaca
?aaeeioaoie/aneie nenoaiu” I. A. Aaiaaeeeo.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019