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Применение лазеров в военной технике

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IINEIANEEE I?AeAIA EAIEIA

AAEAOeEIIIUE EINOEOOO

eiaie NA?AI I?AeAEIIEEEAeCA

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

I?EIAIAIEA EACA?IA

A AIAIIIE OAOIEEA

nooaeaio a?. 04-314

Aieaoae Eaiieae

IAE 1995a.

I?EIAIAIEA EACA?IA A AIAIIII AeAEA

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie neiaeeeenue iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey, ii eioi?ui

eaeao aiaae?aiea eaca?iie oaoieee a aiaiiia aeaei. Yoeie iai?aaeaieyie

yaeythony:

1. Eaca?iay eieaoeey (iacaiiay, ai?oiaay, iiaeaiaeiay).

2. Eaca?iay naycue.

3. Eaca?iua iaaeaaoeeiiiua nenoaiu.

4. Eaca?iia i?oaeea.

5. Eaca?iua nenoaiu I?I e IEI.

Onei?aiiuie oaiiaie eaeao aiaae?aiea eaca?ia a aiaiioth oaoieeo

NOA, O?aioeee, Aiaeee, ssiiiee, Aa?iaiee, Oaaeoea?ee. Ainoaea?noaaiiua

o/?aaeaeaiey yoeo no?ai anaia?ii iiaeaea?aeeaatho e oeiaine?otho ?aaiou

a aeaiiie iaeanoe.

1. EACA?IAss EIEAOeEss

Eaca?iie eieaoeeae a ca?oaaaeiie ia/aoe iacuaatho iaeanoue

iioeeiyeaeo?iieee, caieiathuothny iaia?oaeaieai e ii?aaeaeaieai

ianoiiieiaeaiey ?acee/iuo iauaeoia i?e iiiiue yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei

iioe/aneiai aeeaiaciia, eceo/aaiuo eaca?aie. Iauaeoaie eaca?iie

eieaoeee iiaoo noaoue oaiee, ei?aaee, ?aeaou, niooieee, i?iiuoeaiiua

e aii?oaeaiiua nii?oaeaiey. I?eioeeieaeueii eaca?iay eieaoeey
inouanoaeyaony

aeoeaiui iaoiaeii.

A iniiaa eaca?iie eieaoeee, oae aea eae e a ?aaeeieieaoeee eaaeao

o?e iniiaiuo naienoaa yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei:

1. Niiniaiinoue io?aaeaoueny io iauaeoia. Oeaeue e oii, ia eioi?ii

iia ?aniieiaeaia, ii-?aciiio io?aaeatho oiaaoaa ia ieo eceo/aiea.

Eaca?iia eceo/aiea io?aaeaaony io anao i?aaeiaoia: iaoaeee/aneeo e

iaiaoaeee/aneeo, io eana, iaoie, aiaeu. Aieaa oiai, iii io?aaeaaony io

ethauo iauaeoia, ?acia?u eioi?uo iaiueoa aeeeiu aieiu, eo/oa, /ai

?aaeeiaieiu. Yoi oi?ioi ecaanoii ec iniiaiie caeiiiia?iinoe io?aaeaiey,

ii eioi?ie neaaeoao, /oi /ai ei?i/a aeeeia aieiu, oai eo/oa iia

io?aaeaaony. Iiuiinoue io?aaeaiiiiai a yoii neo/aa eceo/aiey ia?aoii

i?iii?oeeiiaeueia aeeeia aieiu a /aoaa?oie noaiaie. Eaca?iiio eieaoi?o

i?eioeeieaeueii i?enoua e aieueoay iaia?oaeeoaeueiay niiniaiinoue, /ai

?aaeeieieaoi?o – /ai ei?i/a aieia, oai iia auoa. Iiyoiio-oi e
i?iyaeyeanue

ii ia?a ?acaeoey ?aaeeieieaoeee oaiaeaioeey e ia?aoiaea io aeeeiiuo aiei
e

aieaa ei?ioeei. Iaeiaei ecaioiaeaiea aaia?aoi?ia ?aaeeiaeeaiaciia,

eceo/athueo naa?o ei?ioeea ?aaeeiaieiu noaiiaeeinue ana o?oaeiaa e
o?oaeiaa,

a caoai aiana e caoei a ooiee. Nicaeaiea eaca?ia ioe?uei iiaua
ia?niaeoeau

a oaoieea eieaoeee.

2. Niiniaiinoue ?ani?ino?aiyoueny i?yiieeiaeii. Eniieueciaaiea

oceiiai?aaeaiiiai eaca?iiai eo/a, eioi?ui i?iaiaeeony i?iniio?

i?ino?ainoaa, iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue iai?aaeaiea ia iauaeo(iaeaia oeaee)

Yoi iai?aaeaiea iaoiaeyo ii ?aniieiaeaieth ine iioe/aneie nenoaiu,

oi?ie?othuae eaca?iia eceo/aiea. *ai oaea eo/, oai n aieueoae
oi/iinoueth

iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai iaeaia.

I?inoua ?an/aou iieacuaatho – /oiau iieo/eoue eiyooeoeeaio

iai?aaeaiiinoe ieiei 1.5, i?e eniieueciaaiee ?aaeeiaiei naioeiao?iaiai

aeeaiaciia, ioaeii eiaoue aioaiio aeeaiao?ii ieiei 10i. Oaeoth aioaiio

o?oaeii iinoaaeoue ia oaie, a oai aieaa ia eaoaoaeueiue aiia?ao. Iia

a?iiicaeea e iao?ainii?oaaaeueia. Ioaeii eniieueciaaoue aieaa ei?ioeea

aieiu.

Oaeiaie ?anoai? eo/a eaca?a, ecaioiaeaiiiai n iiiiuueth

oaa?aeioaeueiiai aeoeaiiai aauanoaa, eae ecaanoii ninoaaeyao anaai

1.0 … 1.5 a?aaeona e i?e yoii aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo iioe/aneeo nenoai.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii aaaa?eou eaca?iiai eieaoi?a iiaoo auoue cia/eoaeueii

iaiueoa, /ai aiaeiae/iiai ?aaeeieieaoi?a. Eniieueciaaiea aea

iacia/eoaeueiuo ii aaaa?eoai iioe/aneeo nenoai iicaieeo noceoue eo/

eaca?a aei ianeieueeeo oaeiauo ieioo, anee a yoii aicieeiao

iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

3. Niiniaiinoue eaca?iiai eceo/aiey ?ani?ino?aiyoueny n iinoiyiiie

nei?inoueth aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeyoue aeaeueiinoue aei iauaeoa.
Oae, i?e

eiioeueniii iaoiaea aeaeueiiiao?e?iaaiey eniieuecoaony neaaeothuaa
niioiioaiea:

L = ct/2

aaea L – ?annoiyiea aei iaueeoa, n – nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eceo/aiey,

t – a?aiy i?ioiaeaeaiey eiioeuena aei oeaee e ia?aoii.

?anniio?aiea yoiai niioiioaiey iieacuaaao, /oi iioaioeeaeueiay

oi/iinoue ecia?aiey aeaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony oi/iinoueth ecia?aiey

a?aiaie i?ioiaeaeaiey eiioeuena yia?aee aei iauaeoa e ia?aoii.
Niaa?oaiii

ynii, /oi /ai ei?i/a eiioeuen, oai eo/oa.

Eaeeie aea ia?aiao?aie i?eiyoi oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eieaoi?? Eaeiau

aai ianii?oiua aeaiiua? ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua ec ieo.

I?aaeaea anaai ciia aeaenoaey. Iiae iae iiieiatho iaeanoue
i?ino?ainoaa,

a eioi?ie aaaeaony iaaethaeaiea. Aa a?aieoeu iaoneiaeaiu iaeneiaeueiie e

ieieiaeueiie aeaeueiinoyie aeaenoaey e i?aaeaeaie iaci?a ii oaeo ianoa e

aceiooo. Yoe ?acia?u ii?aaeaeythony iacia/aieai aiaiiiai eaca?iiai

eieaoi?a.

Ae?oaei ia?aiao?ii yaeyaony a?aiy iaci?a. Iiae iei iiieiaaony

a?aiy, a oa/aiee eioi?iai eaca?iue eo/ i?iecaiaeeo iaeiie?aoiue

iaci? caaeaiiiai iauaia i?ino?ainoaa.

Neaaeothuei ia?aiao?ii eieaoi?a yaeyaony ii?aaeaeyaiua eii?aeeiaou.

Iie caaenyo io iacia/aiey eieaoi?a. Anee ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey

ii?aaeaeaiey ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey iacaiiuo e iiaeaiaeiuo iauaeoia, oi

aeinoaoi/ii ecia?youe aeaa eii?aeeiaou: aeaeueiinoue e aceioo. I?e
iaaethaeaiee

ca aicaeooiuie iauaeoaie ioaeiu o?e eii?aeeiaou. Yoe eii?aeeiaou
neaaeoao

ii?aaeaeyoue n caaeaiiie oi/iinoueth, eioi?ay caaeneo io nenoaiaoe/aneeo

e neo/aeiuo ioeaie. Aoaeai iieueciaaoueny oaeei iiiyoeai eae

?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue. Iiae ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoueth iiieiaaony

aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey eii?aeeiao aeecei
?aniieiaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Eaaeaeie eii?aeeiaoa niioaaonoaoao naiy ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue. E?iia

oiai, eniieuecoaony oaeay oa?aeoa?enoeea, eae iiiaoicaueuaiiinoue. Yoi

niiniaiinoue eaca?iiai eieaoi?a ?aaioaoue a oneiaeyo anoanoaaiiuo

e eneonnoaaiiuo iiiao. E aanueia aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie eieaoi?a

yaeyaony iaaeaaeiinoue. Yoi naienoai eieaoi?a nio?aiyoue naie
oa?aeoa?enoeee

a onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao a caaeaiiuo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee.

1.1 IACAIIUA EACA?IUA AeAEUeIIIA?U

Eaca?iay aeaeueiiiao?ey yaeyaony iaeiie ec ia?auo iaeanoae

i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey eaca?ia a ca?oaaaeiie aiaiiie oaoieea. Ia?aua

iiuou ioiinyony e 1961a., a nae/an eaca?iua aeaeueiiia?u eniieuecothony
a

iacaiiie aiaiiie oaoieee(a?oeeea?enoneea, oaieiaua), e a aaeaoeee

(aeaeueiiia?u, aunioiia?u, oeaeaoeacaoaee), e ia oeioa. Yoa oaoieea
i?ioea

aiaaua eniuoaiey ai Aueaoiaia e ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
?yae

aeaeueiiia?ia i?eiyo a a?ieyo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai.

Caaea/a ii?aaeaeaiey ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo aeaeueiiia?ii e oeaeueth
naiaeeony

e ecia?aieth niioaaonoaothuaai eioa?aaea a?aiaie iaaeaeo ciiaee?othuei
neaiaeii

e neaiaeii, io?aaeaiiui io oeaee. ?acee/atho o?e iaoiaea ecia?aiey
aeaeueiinoe

a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeie oa?aeoa? iiaeoeyoeee eaca?iiai eceo/aiey

eniieuecoaony a aeaeueiiia?a: eiioeueniue oaciaue eee oaci-eiioeueniue.

Nouiinoue eiioeueniiai iaoiaea aeaeueiiiao?e?iaaiey ninoieo a oii, /oi e

iauaeoo iinueatho ciiaee?othuee eiioeuen, ii aea caioneaao a?aiaiiie
n/ao/ee

a aeaeueiiia?a. Eiaaea io?aaeaiiue iauaeoii eiioeuen i?eoiaeeo e
aeaeueiiia?o,

oi ii inoaiaaeeaaao ?aaioo n/ao/eea. Ii a?aiaiiiio eioa?aaeo
aaoiiaoe/anee

aunaa/eaaaony ia?aae iia?aoi?ii ?annoiyiea aei iauaeoa. Iia?aoiinoue
oaeiai

iaoiaea ecia?aiey 30ni. Ca?oaaaeiua niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi aeey
?aoaiey

?yaea i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/ yoi aiieia aeinoaoi/ii.

I?e oaciaii iaoiaea aeaeueiiiao?e?iaaiey eaca?iia eceo/aiea
iiaeoee?oaony

ii neionieaeaeueiiio caeiio. I?e yoii eioaineaiinoue eceo/aiey iaiyaony
a

cia/eoaeueiuo i?aaeaeao. A caaeneiinoe io aeaeueiinoe aei iauaeoa
eciaiyaony

oaca neaiaea, oiaaoaai ia iauaeo. Io?aaeaiiue io iauaeoa neaiae i?eaeao

ia i?eaiiia ono?ienoai oaeaea n ii?aaeaeaiiie oacie, caaenyuae io
?annoiyiey.

Ioeaiei iia?aoiinoue oaciaiai aeaeueiiia?a, i?eaiaeiiai ?aaioaoue a
iieaauo

oneiaeyo. Niaoeeaeenou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iia?aoi?o(ia i/aiue
eaaeeoeoee?iaai-

iiio nieaeaoo) ia neiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue oaco n ioeaeie ia aieaa iaeiiai
a?aaeona,

neaaeiaaoaeueii iia?aoiinoue aoaeao ninoaaeyoue i?eia?ii 5ni.

Ia?aue eaca?iue aeaeueiiia? XM-23 i?ioae eniuoaiea ai Aueaoiaia e aue

i?eiyo ia aii?oaeaiea a a?iee NOA. Ii ?ann/eoai ia eniieueciaaiea
ia?aaeiauo

iaaethaeaoaeueiuo ioieoao nooiiooiuo aiene. Enoi/ieeii eceo/aiey a iai

yaeyaony eaca? n auoiaeiie iiuiinoueth 2.5Ao e aeeeoaeueiinoueth
eiioeuena 30in.

A eiino?oeoeee aeaeueiiia?a oe?iei eniieuecothony eioaa?aeueiua noaiu.

Eceo/aoaeue, i?eaiiee e iioe/aneea yeaiaiou niiioe?iaaiu a iiiiaeiea,

eioi?ue eiaao oeaeu oi/iiai ion/aoa aceiooa e oaea ianoa oeaee. Ieoaiea

aeaeueiiia?a i?iecaiaeeony io aaoa?ae ieeaeaai-eaaeieaauo aeeoioeyoi?ia

iai?yaeaieai 24A, iaania/eaathuee 100 ecia?aiee aeaeueiinoe aac
iiaeca?yaeee.

Oaeaea eioa?anai oaaaeneee aeaeueiiia?. Ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
eniieueciaaiey

a nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey ai?oiaie ei?aaaeueiie e aa?aaiaie a?oeeea?ee.

Eiino?oeoeey aeaeueiiia?a ioee/aaony iniaie i?i/iinoueth, /oi iicaieyao

i?eiaiyoue aai a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo. Aeaeueiiia? iiaeii nii?yaaoue i?e

iaiaoiaeeiinoe n oneeeoaeai ecia?aaeaiey eee oaeaaeceiiiui aece?ii.
?aaeei

?aaiou aeaeueiiia?a i?aaeoniao?eaaao eeai ecia?aiey /a?ac eaaeaeua 2n a

oa/aiea 20n, eeai /a?ac eaaeaeua 4n a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie.
Oeeo?iaua

eiaeeeaoi?u aeaeueiinoe ?aaioatho oaeei ia?acii, /oi eiaaea iaeei ec
eiaeeeaoi?ia

auaeaao iineaaeithth ecia?aiioth aeaeueiinoue, a iaiyoe ae?oaiai
o?aiyony /aou?a

i?aaeuaeouea ecia?aiiua aeenoaioeee.

Eae ooaa?aeaeaao ca?oaaaeiay ia/aoue, aanueia oaea/iui ieacaeny
ii?aaaeneee

eaca?iue aeaeueiiia? LP-4. Ii eiaao a ea/anoaa iiaeoeyoi?a aeia?ioiinoe
iioeei-

iaoaie/aneee caoai?. I?eaiiay /anoue aeaeueiiia?a yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii

aece?ii iia?aoi?a. Aeeaiao? iioe/aneie nenoaiu ninoaaeyao 70ii.
I?eaiieeii

neoaeeo ii?oaoeaiue oioiaeeiae. N/ao/ee niaaaeai noaiie no?iae?iaaiey ii

aeaeueiinoe, aeaenoaothuee ii onoaiiaea iia?aoi?a io 200 aei 3000i. A
noaia

iioe/aneiai aece?a ia?aae ieoey?ii iiiauai caueoiue oeeueo? aeey
i?aaeio?aiaiey

aeaca io aicaeaenoaey naiaai eaca?a i?e i?eaia io?aaeaiiiai eiioeuena.

Eceo/aoaeue e i?eaiiee niiioe?iaaiu a iaeiii ei?iona. Oaie ianoa oeaee

ii?aaeaeyaony a a?aaeonao ~25 a?aaeonia. Aeeoioeyoi? iaania/eaaao 150

ecia?aiee aeaeueiinoe aac iiaeca?yaeee, aai ianna anaai 1ea. Aeaeueiiia?
i?ioae

eniuoaiey e aue caeoieai Eaiaaeie, Oaaoeeae, Aeaieae, Eoaeeae,
Aano?aeeae.

Ii?oaoeaiua eaca?iua aeaeueiiia?u ?ac?aaioaiu ca ?oaaaeii aeey

iaoioiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e ia?aaeiauo a?oeeea?eeneeo iaaethaeaoaeae.
Iaeei ec

oaeeo aeaeueiiia?ia auiieiai a aeaea aeiieey. Enoi/iee eceo/aiey e
i?eaiiee

niiioe?iaaiu a iauai ei?iona n iiiieoey?iui iioe/aneei aece?ii

oanoee?aoiiai oaaee/aiey, a iiea c?aiey eioi?iai eiaaony naaoiaia oaaei

ec naaoiaeeiaeia, oi?ioi ?acee/eiuo eae ii/ueth, oae e aeiai. A eaca?a a

ea/anoaa enoi/ieea eceo/aiey eniieuecoaony aeethieieaai-eooe?eaaue
a?aiao,

n iiaeoeyoi?ii aeia?ioiinoe ia ieiaaoa eeoey. Yoi iaania/eaaao ieeiaoth

iiuiinoue a 1.5 IAo. A i?eaiiie /anoe eniieuecoaony naeaiaiiue eaaeiiue

oioiaeaoaeoi? n oe?ieiiieiniui iaeiooiyuei oneeeoaeai, /oi iicaieyao

aeaoaeoe?iaaoue ei?ioeea eiioeuenu n iaeie iiuiinoueth. Eiaeiua neaiaeu,

io?aaeaiiua io aeeceaaeaueo i?aaeiaoia eneeth/athony n iiiiuueth noaiu

no?iae?iaaiey ii aeaeueiinoe. Enoi/ieeii ieoaiey yaeyaony iaeiaaaa?eoiay

aeeoioeyoi?iay aaoa?ay, iaania/eaathuay 250 ecia?aiee aac iiaeca?yaeee.

Yeaeo?iiiua aeiee aeaeueiiiao?a auiieiaiu ia eioaa?aeueiuo noaiao, /oi

iicaieeei aeiaanoe ianno aeaeueiiia?a aianoa n enoi/ieeii ieoaiey aei
2ea.

Onoaiiaea eaca?iuo aeaeueiiia?ia ia oaiee n?aco caeioa?aniaaea

ca?oaaaeiuo ?ac?aaio/eeia aiiaiiiai aii?oaeaiey. Yoi iauyniyaony oai,
/oi

ia oaiea iiaeii aaanoe aeaeueiiia? a nenoaio oi?aaeaiey iaiai oaiea, /ai

iiauneoue aai aiaaua ea/anoaa. Aeey yoiai a NOA aue ?ac?aaioai
aeaeueiiia?

AN/VVS-1 aeey oaiea I60A. Ii ia ioee/aeny ii noaia io eaca?iiai

a?oeeea?eeneiai aeaeueiiia?a ia ?oaeia, iaeiaei iiieii auaea/e aeaiiuo i

aeaeueiinoe ia oeeo?iaia oaaei eiae ono?ienoai, iaania/eaathuaa aaiae

aeaeueiinoe a n/aoii-?aoathuaa ono?ienoai nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey iaiai
oaiea.

I?e yoii ecia?aiea aeaeueiinoe iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny eae iaaiae/eeii
iooee oae

e eiiaiaee?ii oaiea. ?aaeei ?aaiou aeaeueiiia?a – 15 ecia?aiee a ieiooo
a

oa/aiea iaeiiai /ana.

1.2 IACAIIUA EIEAOI?U

Eae niiauaao ia/aoue, ca ?oaaaeii ?ac?aaaouaaaony ?yae noaoeeiia?iuo

eaca?iuo eieaoi?ia. Yoe eieaoi?u i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey neaaeaiey ca
?aeaoaie

ia ia/aeueiii yoaia iieaoa, a oaeaea aeey neaaeaiey ca naiieaoaie e
niooieeaie.

Aieueoia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony eaca?iiio eieaoi?o, aeeth/aiiiio a nenoaio

I?I e IEI. Ii i?iaeoo aia?eeaineie nenoaiu eiaiii iioe/aneee eieaoi?

iaania/eaaao auaea/o oi/iuo eii?aeeiao aieiaiie /anoe eee niooieea a
nenoaio

eaca?iiai ii?aaeaiey oeaee. Eieaoi? oeia “IIAeA?” i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
neaaeaiey ca

?aeaoaie ia aeoeaiii o/anoea eo iieaoa. Oaeoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey
ii?aaeaeytho

iacia/eoaeueioth aeaeueiinoue aeaenoaey eieaoi?a, iiyoiio ia iai
onoaiiaeai

aaciaue eaca?, ?aaioathuee ia aaeee-iaiiiaie niane, eceo/athuee

yeaeo?iiaaieoioth yia?aeth ia aieia 0.6328iei i?e aoiaeiie iiuiinoe
anaai

0.01Ao. Eaca? ?aaioaao a iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia, ii aai eceo/aiea
iiaeoee?oaony

n /anoioie 100IAoe. Ia?aaeathuay iioe/aneay nenoaia nia?aia ec
iioe/aneeo

yeaiaioia ii noaia Eannaa?aia, /oi iaania/eaaao i/aiue iacia/eoaeueioth

oe?eio ?anoiaeeiinoe eo/a. Eieaoi? iiioe?oaony ia iniiaaiee,
ioiineoaeueii

eioi?iai ii iiaeao n iiiiuueth neaaeyuae nenoaiu onoaiaaeeaaoueny a
ioaeiii

iai?aaeaiee n aunieie oi/iinoueth. Yoa neaaeyuay nenoaia oi?aaeyaony

neaiaeaie, eioi?ua iinooiatho /a?ac eiaee?othuaa ono?ienoai.
?ac?yaeiinoue eiaea

ninoaaeyao 21 aaeeieoeo aeaie/iie eioi?iaoeee, /oi iicaieyao
onoaiaaeeaaoue

eieaoi? a ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee n oi/iinoueth ieiei iaeiie oaeiaie
naeoiaeu.

I?eaiiay iioe/aneay nenoaia eiaao aeeaiao? aoiaeiie eeicu 300ii. A iae

onoaiiaeai eioa?oa?aioeeiiiue oeeueo?, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey iiaeaaeaiey

oiiiauo iiiao, a oaeaea ono?ienoai, iaania/eaathuaa oaciaia
aeaoaeoe?iaaiea

io?aaeaiiie ?aeaoie neaiaeia. A nayce n oai, /oi eieaoi? ?aaioaao ii

naiei iauaeoai, oi n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey io?aaeaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe
?aeaou

ia iaa onoaiaaeeaaaony ca?eaeueiue oaieeiaue io?aaeaoaeue, eioi?ue
i?aaenoaaeyao

niaie nenoaio ec iyoe ?aoeaeoi?ia, iaania/eaathueo ?ani?aaeaeaiea
oiaaoae

ia ieo naaoiaie yia?aee oaeei ia?acii, /oi iniiaiay aa /anoue eaeao a

noi?iio eaca?iiai eieaoi?a. Yoi iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue io?aaeathuae

niiniaiinoe ?aeaou a ouny/e ?ac.

Eieaoi? eiaao o?e ono?ienoaa neaaeaiey ii oaeai: oi/iue e a?oaue

aeao/eee ii oaeai e aua eio?ae?anioth neaaeyuoth nenoaio. Oaoie/aneea

aeaiiua ia?aiai aeao/eea ii?aaeaeythony a iniiaiii iioe/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie

i?eaii-ia?aaeathuae nenoaiu. A oae eae aeeaiao? aoiaeiie iioe/aneie
nenoaiu

?aaai 300ii e oieoniia ?annoiyiea ?aaii 2000i, oi yoi iaania/eaaao

oaeiaoth ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue 80 oaeiauo naeoiae. Neaie?othuaa
ono?ienoai

eiaao iieino i?iioneaiey 100Aoe. Aoi?ie aeao/ee eiaao iioe/aneoth
nenoaio n

aeeaiao?ii 150ii e iaiueoaa oieoniia ?annoiyiea. Yoi aeaao ?ac?aoathuoth

niiniaiinoue ii oaeo anaai 200 oaeiauo naeoiae, o.a. iaania/eaaao
iaiueooth

oi/iinoue, /ai ia?aue. A ea/anoaa i?eaiieeia eceo/aiey iaa eaiaea
iniauaiu

oioioiiiaeeoaeyie, o.a. iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiuie yeaiaioaie ec
eiathueony.

Ia?aae i?eaiieeii eceo/aiey ?aniieaaaaony eioa?oa?aioeeiiiue oeeueo? n

iieinie i?iioneaiey anaai a 1.5 aiano?aia. Yoi ?acei nieaeaao aeieth

i?eoiaeyuaai eceo/aiey io oiia. Iieina i?iioneaiey niaeaniaaia n aeeeiie

aieiu eceo/aiey eaca?a, /ai iaania/eaaaony i?ioiaeaeaiea ia i?eaiiee
oieueei

naiaai eaca?iiai eceo/aiey.

Eieaoi? iicaieyao ?aaioaoue a i?aaeaeao io 30 aei 30000i. I?aaeaeueiay

aunioa iieaoa ?aeaou 18000i. Niiauaaony, /oi yoio eieaoi? iau/ii

?aniieaaaaony io ?aeaou ia ?annoiyiee ieiei 1000i e ia eeiee,

ninoaaeythuae n ieineinoueth iieaoa ?aeaou 45 a?aaeonia. Ecia?aiea
ia?aiao?ia

aeaeaeaiey ?aeaou n oaeie aunieie oi/iinoueth ia aeoeaiii o/anoea iieaoa

aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oi/ii ?ann/eoaoue oi/eo aa iaaeaiey.

Eieaoi? aeey neaaeaiey. ?anniio?ei eieaoi? nicaeaiiue ii caeaco

IANA e i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey neaaeaiey ca niooieeaie. Ii i?aaeiacia/aeny
aeey

neaaeaiey ca nianoaaiiuie niooieeaie e ?aaioae niaianoii n
?aaeeieieaoi?ii,

eioi?ue auaeaaae eii?aeeiaou niooieea n ieceie oi/iinoueth. Yoe
eii?aeeiaou

eniieueciaaeenue aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iaaaaeaiey eaca?iiai eieaoi?a,

eioi?ue auaeaaae eii?aeeiaou n aunieie oi/iinoueth. Oeaeueth
yenia?eiaioa auei

ii?aaeaeaiea oiai, ianeieueei ioeeiiyaony enoeiiay o?aaeoi?ey niooieea
io

?an/aoiie, – /oiau ociaoue ?ani?aaeaeaiea iiey oyaioaiey Caiee ii anae
aa

noa?a. Aeey yoiai ia iiey?ioth i?aeoo aue caiouai niooiee
“Yeniei?a?-22”.

Aai i?aeoa auea ?ann/eoaia n aunieie oi/iinoueth, ii a ea/anoaa
enoiaeiuo

aeaiiuo aeiaeeee eioi?iaoeeth, /oi iiea oyaioaiey ii?aaeaeyaony oi?iie
Caiee,

o.a. eniieueciaaee oi?iuaiioth iiaeaeue. Anee aea oaia?ue a i?ioeanna
iieaoa

niooieea iaaethaeaeinue oiaiueoaiea auniou aai ioiineoaeueii ?an/aoiie

o?aaeoi?ee, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi ia yoii o/anoea eiathony aiiiaeee a iiea

oyaioaiey.

Ii niooieeo “Yeniei?a?-22” auea, ii niiauaieth IANA, i?iaaaeaia

na?ey yenia?eiaioia e /anoue yoeo aeaiiuo auea iioaeeeiaaia. A iaeiii ec

niiauaiee aiai?eony, /oi ia ?annoiyiee 960 ei. ioeaea a aeaeueiinoe

ninoaaeyea 3i. Ieieiaeueiue oaie, n/eouaaaiue n eiaee?oaiiai ono?ienoaa,

aue ?aaai anaai iyoe oaeiaui naeoiaeai.

Eioa?anii, /oi a yoi a?aiy iiyaeeinue niiauaiea, /oi aia?eeaioeaa

iia?aaeeee a eo ?aaioa o?aioeocneea eiaeaia?u e o/aiua. Nio?oaeieee
eaai?aoi?ee

Nai-Ieoaeue aea I?iaain i?iaaee na?eth yenia?eiaioia ii iaaethaeaieth ca
oai aea

niooieeii, eniieuecoy eaca?iue eieaoi? naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa.

1.3 AI?OIAUA EACA?IUA NENOAIU

Ca?oaaaeiay ia/aoue niiauaao, /oi a aiaiiie aaeaoeee no?ai NOA e

IAOI noaee oe?iei eniieueciaaoueny eaca?iua aeaeueiiia?u e aunioiia?u,
iie aeatho

aunieoth oi/iinoue ecia?aiey aeaeueiinoe eee auniou, eiatho iaaieueoea
aaaa?eou e

eaaei ano?aeaathony a nenoaio oi?aaeaiey iaiai. Iiieii yoeo caaea/ ia

eaca?iua nenoaiu nae/an aiceiaeai ?yae ae?oaeo caaea/. E iei ioiinyony
iaaaaeaiea

e oeaeaoeacaiea. Eaca?iua nenoaiu iaaaaeaiey e oeaeaoeacaiey
eniieuecothony

a aa?oieaoao, naiieaoao e aanieeioiuo eaoaoaeueiuo aiia?aoao. Eo
?acaeaeytho

ia iieoaeoeaiua e aeoeaiua. I?eioeei iino?iaiey iieoaeoeaiie nenoaiu

neaaeothuee:

oeaeue iaeo/aaony eceo/aieai eaca?a eee iai?a?uaii eee eiioeuenii,

ii oae, /oi-au eneeth/eoue iioa?th oeaee eaca?iie nenoaiu
naiiiaaaaeaiey,

aeey /aai iiaeae?aaony niioaaonoaothuay /anoioa iinueie. Inaauaiea oeaee

i?iecaiaeeony eeai n iacaiiiai, eeai n aicaeooiiai iaaethaeaoaeueiiai
ioieoa;

io?aaeaiiia io oeaee eceo/aiea eaca?a aini?eieiaaony aieiaeie

naiiiaaaaeaiey, onoaiiaeaiiie ia ?aeaoa eee aiiaa, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao

ioeaeo a ?anniaeaniaaiee iieiaeaiey iioe/aneie ine aieiaee n o?aaeoi?eae

iieaoa. Yoe aeaiiua aaiaeyony a nenoaio oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ay e
iaania/eaaao

oi/iia iaaaaeaiea ?aeaou eee aiiau ia inaauaaioth eaca?ii oeaeue.

Eaca?iua nenoaiu ioaaouaatho neaaeothuea aeaeu aiai?eiania:

aiiau, ?aeaou eeanna “aicaeoo-caiey”, ii?neea oi?iaaeu. Aiaaia
i?eiaiaiea

eaca?iuo nenoai naiiiaaaaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony oeiii nenoaiu, oa?aeoa?ii
oeaee e

oneiaeyie aiaauo aeaenoaee. Iai?eia?, aeey oi?aaeyaiuo aiia
oeaeaoeacaoaeue

e aiiaa n aieiaeie naiiiaaaaeaiey iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny ia iaeiii iineoaea.

Aeey ai?ueau n oaeoe/aneeie iacaiiuie oeaeyie a ca?oaaaeiuo eaca?iuo

nenoaiao oeaeaoeacaiea iiaeao auoue i?iecaiaeeoueny n aa?oieaoia eee n
iiiiuueth

iacaiiuo ia?aiiniuo oeaeaoeacaoaeae, a ii?aaeaiea auiieiyoueny n
aa?oieaoia

eee naiieaoia. Ii ioia/aaony e neiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
oeaeaoeacaoaeae n

aicaeooiuo iineoaeae. Aeey yoiai o?aaoaony niaa?oaiiay nenoaia
noaaeeecaoeee

aeey oaea?aeaiey eaca?iiai iyoia ia oeaee.

1.4 EACA?IUA NENOAIU ?ACAAAeEE

Aeey ?acaaaeee n aicaeooiuo a ca?oaaaeiuo a?ieyo eniieuecothony naiua

?acee/iua n?aaenoaa: oioia?aoe/aneea, oaeaaeceiiiua, eio?ae?aniua,

?aaeeioaoie/aneea e ae?. Niiauaaony, /oi iaeaieueooth aieinoue iieaciie

eioi?iaoeee aeatho n?aaenoaa oioi?acaaaeee. Ii ei i?enoue oaeea
iaaeinoaoee, eae

iaaiciiaeiinoue aaaeaiey ne?uoiie ?acaaaeee a ii/iuo oneiaeyo, a oaeaea

aeeeoaeueiua n?iee ia?aaioee ia?aaea/e e i?aaeinoaaeaiey iaoa?eaeia,
ianoueo

eioi?iaoeeth. Ia?aaeaaaoue iia?aoeaii eioi?iaoeeth iicaieytho
oaeaaeceiiiua

nenoaiu, ii iie ia iicaieytho ?aaioaoue ii/ueth e a neiaeiuo
iaoaioneiaeyo.

?aaeeinenoaiu iicaieytho ?aaioaoue ii/ueth e a ieioeo iaoaioneiaeyo, ii
iie

eiatho ioiineoaeueii iaaunieoth ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue.

I?eioeei aeaenoaey eaca?iie nenoaiu aicaeooiie ?acaaaeee caeeth/aaony

a neaaeothuai. Eceo/aiea n ai?oiaiai iineoaey iaeo/aao ?acaaaeoaiue
o/anoie

ianoiinoe e ?aniieiaeaiiua ia iai iauaeou ii-?aciiio io?aaeatho oiaaoaa
ia

iaai eceo/aiea. Iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi iaeei e oio aea iauaeo, a
caaeneiinoe

io oiai, ia eaeii oiia ii ?aniieiaeai eiaao ?acee/iue eiyooeoeeaio
y?einoe,

neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii eiaao aeaianee?othuea i?eciaee. Aai eaaei auaeaeeoue
ia

ie?oaeathuai oiia. Io?aaeaiiue iiaenoeeathuae iiaa?oiinoueth e
iauaeoaie, ia

iae ?aniieiaeaiiuie, eaca?iia eceo/aiea niae?aaony i?eaiiie iioe/aneie

nenoaiie e iai?aaeyaony ia /oanoaeoaeueiue yeaiaio. I?eaiiee i?aia?acoao

io?aaeaiiia io iiaa?oiinoe eceo/aiea e yeaeo?e/aneee neaiae, eioi?ue

aoaeao i?iiiaeoee?iaai ii aiieeooaea a caaeneiinoe io ?ani?aaeaeaiey
y?einoe.

Iineieueeo a eaca?iuo nenoaiao ?acaaaeee ?aaeecoaony, eae i?aaeei,
no?i/ii-

eaae?iaay ?acaa?oea, oi oaeay nenoaia aeecea e oaeaaeceiiiie.
Oceiiai?aaeaiiue

eo/ eaca?a ?acaa?ouaaaony ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii iai?aaeaieth iieaoa naiieaoa.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei neaie?oao e aeeaa?aiia iai?aaeaiiinoe i?eaiiie

nenoaiu. Yoi iaania/eaaao oi?ie?iaaiea no?iee ecia?aaeaiey. ?acaa?oea ii

eaae?o iaania/eaaaony aeaeaeaieai naiieaoa. Ecia?aaeaiea ?aaeno?e?oaony
eeai

ia oioiieaieo, eeai iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny ia ye?aia yeaeo?iiii-eo/aaie

o?oaee.

1.5 AIEIA?AOE*ANEEA EIAeEEAOI?U IA EIAIAII NOAEEA

Aeey eniieueciaaiey a i?eoeaeueii-iaaeaaoeeiiiie nenoaia ii/iiai

aeaeaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey eno?aaeoaey F-16 e ooo?iiaeea A-10 aue

?ac?aaioai aieia?aoe/aneee eiaeeeaoi? ia eiaiaii noaeea. A nayce n oai,
/oi

aaaa?eou eaaeiu naiieaoia iaaaeeee, oi n oai, /oi-au iieo/eoue aieueoia

iaiiaaiiia iiea c?aiey eiaeeeaoi?a ?ac?aaio/eeaie auei ?aoaii
?acianoeoue

eieeeie?othuee yeaiaio iiae i?eai?iie aeineie. Iioe/aneay nenoaia
aeeth/aao

o?e ?acaeaeueiuo yeaiaioa, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iaeaaeaao naienoaaie

aeeo?aeoeeiiiuo iioe/aneeo nenoai: oeaio?aeueiue eciaiooue yeaiaio
auiieiyao

ooieoeee eieeeiaoi?a, aeaa ae?oaeo yeaiaioa neoaeao aeey eciaiaiey
iieiaeaiey

eo/ae. ?ac?aaioai iaoiae ioia?aaeaiey ia iaeiii ye?aia iauaaeeiaiiie

eioi?iaoeee: a oi?ia ?ano?a e a oo?eoiaie oi?ia, /oi aeinoeaaaony
aeaaiaea?y

eniieueciaaieth ia?aoiiai oiaea eo/a i?e oi?ie?iaaiee ?ano?a n
eioa?aaeii

a?aiaie 1.3in, a oa/aiee eioi?iai ia OA-ye?aia aini?iecaiaeeony
eioi?iaoeey a

aoeaaiii-oeeo?iaie oi?ia e a aeaea a?aoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, oi?ie?oaiuo
oo?eoiaui

niiniaii. Aeey ye?aia OA-o?oaee eiaeeeaoi?a eniieuecoaony oceiiieiniue

ethieiioi?, aeaaiaea?y /aio iaania/eaaaony oi?ioay naeaeoeaiinoue
aieia?aoe/aneie

nenoaiu i?e aini?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aaeaiee e i?iioneaiea naaoa aac
?iciaiai

iooaiea io aiaoiae ianoaiiaee. A i?ioeanna yoie ?aaiou ?aoaeanue
i?iaeaia

i?eaaaeaiey iaaethaeaaiiai ecia?aaeaiey a niioaaonoaea n ecia?aaeaieai
ia

eiaeeeaoi?a i?e iieaoao ia iaeuo aunioao a ii/iia a?aiy (nenoaia ii/iiai

aeaeaiey aeaaaea ianeieueei oaaee/aiiia ecia?aaeaiea), eioi?ui eao/ee ia
iia

iieueciaaoueny, iineieueeo i?e yoii ianeieueei eneaaeaeanue ea?oeia,
eioi?oth

iiaeii au auei iieo/eoue i?e aecoaeueiii iaci?a. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee,
/oi

a yoeo neo/ayo eao/ee oa?yao oaa?aiiinoue, no?aieony eaoaoue n iaiueoae

nei?inoueth e ia aieueoie aunioa. Iaiaoiaeeii auei nicaeaoue nenoaio,

iaania/eaathuoth iieo/aiea aeaenoaeoaeueiiai ecia?aaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii
aieueoiai

?acia?a, /oiau eao/ee iia ieeioe?iaaoue naiieao aecoaeueii ii/ueth e a
neiaeiuo

iaoaioneiaeyo, eeoue ec?aaeea naa?yynue n i?eai?aie. Aeey yoiai
iio?aaiaaeinue

oe?ieia iiea eiaeeeaoi?a, i?e eioi?ii ?anoe?ythony aiciiaeiinoe eao/eea
ii

ieeioe?iaaieth naiieaoa, iaia?oaeaieth oeaeae a noi?iia io ia?o?ooa e

i?iecaiaenoao i?ioeaicaieoiiai ia?o?ooa e iaiaa?a aoaee oeaeae. Aeey

iaania/aiey yoeo iaiaa?ia iaiaoiaeeii aieueoia iiea c?aiey ii oaeo ianoa
e

aceiooo. N oaaee/aieai oaea e?aia naiieaoa eao/ee aeieaeai eiaoue
oe?ieia

iiea c?aiey ai aa?oeeaee. Onoaiiaea eieeeie?othuaai yeaiaioa eae iiaeii

auoa e aeeaea e aeacai eao/eea auea aeinoeaiooa ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey

aieia?aoe/aneeo yeaiaioia a ea/anoaa ca?eae aeey eciaiaiey iai?aaeaiey

io/ea eo/ae. Yoi oioy e oneiaeieei eiino?oeoeeth, iaeiaei aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue

eniieueciaaoue i?inoua e aeaoaaua aieia?aoe/aneea yeaiaiou n aunieie

ioaea/ae.

A NOA ?ac?aaaouaaaony aieia?aoe/aneee eii?aeeiaoi? aeey ?aniiciaaaiey

e nii?iaiaeaeaiey oeaeae. Iniiaiui iacia/aieai oaeiai ei??aeyoi?a
yaeyaony

au?aaioea e eiio?ieue neaiaeia oi?aaeaiey iaaaaeaiey ?aeaou ia n?aaeiai

e caeeth/eoaeueiii o/anoeao o?aaeoi?ee iieaoa. Yoi aeinoeaaaony iooai
iaiiaaiiiai

n?aaiaiey ecia?aaeaiee caiiie iiaa?oiinoe, iaoiaeyuaeny a iiea c?aiey

nenoaiu a ieaeiae e ia?aaeiae iieonoa?a, n ecia?aaeaieai ?acee/iuo
o/anoeia

caiiie iiaa?oiinoe ii caaeaiiie o?aaeoi?ee, o?aieiui a caiiieiathuai
ono?ienoaa

nenoaiu. Oaeei ia?acii iaania/eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue iai?a?uaiiai
ii?aaeaeaiey

ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey ?aeaou ia o?aaeoi?ee n eniieueciaaieai aeecei eaaeaueo

o/anoeia iiaa?oiinoe, /oi iicaieyao i?iaiaeeoue ei??aeoeeth eo?na a

oneiaeyo /anoe/iiai caoaiiaiey ianoiinoe iaeaeaie. Aunieay oi/iinoue ia

caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia iieaoa aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth neaiaeia
ei??aeoeee n

/anoioie iaiueoa 1 Aoe. Aeey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ?aeaoie ia o?aaoaony

eia?oeeaeueiay nenoaia eii?aeeiao e eii?aeeiaou oi/iiai iieiaeaiey
oeaee.

Eae niiauaaony, enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey aeaiiie nenoaiu aeieaeiu
iaania/eaaoueny

i?aaa?eoaeueiie ay?i- eee einie/aneie ?acaaaeeie e ninoiyoue ec na?ee

iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eaae?ia, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie Oo?uea-niaeo?
ecia?aaeaiey

eee iaii?aiiua oioia?aoee ianoiinoe, eae yoi aeaeaaony i?e
eniieueciaaiee

nouanoaothuaai ieiuaaeiiai ei??aeyoi?a ianoiinoe. I?eiaiaiea yoie noaiu,

eae ooaa?aeaeatho niaoeeaeenou, iicaieeo i?iecaiaeeoue ionee ?aeao n
iineoaey,

iaoiaeyuuaainy aia ciiu IAI i?ioeaieea, n ethaie auniou e oi/ee
o?aaeoi?ee,

i?e ethaii ?aeo?na, iaania/eo aunieoth iiiaoionoie/eainoue, iaaaaeaiey

oi?aaeyaiiai i?oaeey iinea ionea ii caaeaiiaa aua?aiiui e oi?ioi

caiinee?iaaiiui noaoeeiia?iui oeaeyi. Ia?acaoe aiia?aoo?u aeeth/aao a
naay

aoiaeiie iauaeoea, ono?ienoai i?aia?aciaaiey oaeouaai ecia?aaeaiey,

?aaioathuaai a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa a?aiaie, aieia?aoe/aneie eeiciaie
iao?eoeu,

niaeaniaaiiie n aieia?aoe/aneei caiiieiathuei
ono?ienoaii,eaca?a,aoiaeiiai

oioiaeaoaeoi?a e yeaeo?iiiuo aeieia. Iniaaiiinoueth aeaiiie noaiu
yaeyaony

eniieueciaaiea eeiciaie iao?eoeu ec 100 yeaiaioia, eiathueo oi?iao
10×10.

Eaaeaeay yeaiaioa?iay eeica iaania/eaaao iaci? anae aoiaeiie aiia?aoo?u
e,

neaaeiaaoaeueii, anaai neaiaea io iinooiathuaai ia aoiae ecia?aaeaiey

ianoiinoe eee oeaee. Ia caaeaiiie oieaeueiie ieineinoe ia?acoaony
niioaaonoaaiii

100 Oo?uea niaeo?ia yoiai aoeaeiiai neaiaea. Oaeei ia?acii iaiiaaiiue
aoiaeiie

neaiae aae?anoaony iaeiia?aiaiii e 100 iiceoeeyi iaiyoe. A niioaaonoaee

a eeiciaie iao?eoea ecaioaaeeaaaony aieia?aoe/aneay iaiyoue aieueoie

aieinoe n eniieueciaaieai niaeaniaaiiuo oeeueo?ia e o/aoii iaiaoiaeeiuo

oneiaee i?eiaiaiey. Niiauaaony, /oi ia yoaia eniuoaiey nenoaiu aue

auyaeai ?yae aa aaaeiuo oa?aeoa?enoee.

1. Aunieay iaia?oaeeoaeueiay niiniaiinoue eae i?e ieceie, oae e i?e
aunieie

eiio?anoiinoe ecia?aaeaiey, niiniaiinoue i?aaeeueii iiiciaoue aoiaeioth

eioi?iaoeeth, anee aeaaea eiaaony oieueei /anoue aa.

2. Aiciiaeiinoue ieaaiiai aaoiiaoe/aneiai ia?aoiaea neaiaeia
nii?iaiaeaeaiey

i?e niaia iaeiiai ecia?aaeaiey ianoiinoe ae?oaei, niaea?aeaueiny a
caiiieiathuai

ono?ienoaa.

3. Aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?aiey ciiu ionea ?aeaou iooai caiiieiaiey
ianeieueei aeecei ?aniieiaeaiiuo o/anoeia ianoiinoe, ec eioi?uo eaaeaeay
eiaao niioaaonoaothuoth

i?eaioaoeeth ia oeaeue. A i?ioeanna iieaoa ?aeaoa iiaeao auno?i
ia?aaaaeaia ia caaeaiioth o?aaeoi?eth, caaenyoeoth io aeeiaieee ?aeaou.

Iaeaaeaiea:

Aaaaeaiea
………………………………………………………………
…… 1

1 Eaca?iay eieaoeey
…………………………………………………….. 1

1.1 Iacaiiua eaca?iua aeaeueiiia?u ………………………………
2

1.2 Iacaiiua eieaoi?u
………………………………………………. 4

1.3 Ai?oiaua eaca?iua nenoaiu ……………………………………
5

1.4 Eaca?iua nenoaiu ?acaaaeee
……………………………………. 6

1.5 Aieia?aoe/aneea eiaeeeaoi?u ia eiaiaii noaeea………. 7

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