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Aieiaiaeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ii oaia:

IAOIAeU ECIA?AIEss EIYOOEOeEAIOA IIAA?OIINOIIAI IAOssAEAIEss.

Auiieiee: I?aoia I.A.

Aieiaaea 1998

Eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey.

Iiaa?oiinoue aeeaeeinoe, nii?eeanathuaeny n ae?oaie n?aaeie, iai?eia? n
aa nianoaaiiui ia?ii, n eaeie-eeai ae?oaie aeeaeeinoueth eee n oaa?aeui
oaeii (a /anoiinoe, ni noaieaie ninoaea, a eioi?ii iia niaea?aeeony),
iaoiaeeony a iniauo oneiaeyo ii n?aaiaieth n inoaeueiie iannie
aeeaeeinoe.

Aicieeatho yoe iniaua oneiaey iioiio, /oi iieaeoeu iia?aie/iiai neiy
aeeaeeinoe, a ioee/ea io iieaeoe a aa aeoaeia, ie?oaeaiu iieaeoeaie oie
aea aeeaeeinoe ia ni anao noi?ii. *anoue «ninaaeae» iiaa?oiinoiuo
iieaeoe – yoi /anoeoeu aoi?ie n?aaeu, n eioi?ie aeeaeeinoue a?aie/eo.
Iia, yoa n?aaea, iiaeao ioee/aoueny io aeeaeeinoe eae i?e?iaeie, oae e
ieioiinoueth /anoeoe. Eiay aea ?aciuo ninaaeae, iieaeoeu iiaa?oiinoiiai
neiy e acaeiiaeaenoaotho n ieie ?acee/iui ia?acii. Iiyoiio neeu,
aeaenoaothuea ia eaaeaeoth iieaeoeo a yoii neia, ieacuaathony
iao?aaiiaaoaiiuie: nouanoaoao iaeioi?ay ?aaiiaeaenoaothuay neea,
iai?aaeaiiay eeai a noi?iio iauaia aeeaeeinoe, eeai a noi?iio iauaia
a?aie/auae n iae n?aaeu. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ia?aiauaiea iieaeoeu ec
iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy a aeoaue aeeaeeinoe eee a aeoaue n?aaeu, n eioi?ie
iia a?aie/eo, nii?iaiaeaeaaony niaa?oaieai ?aaiou (aioo?e aeeaeeinoe
iieaeoeu, ni anao noi?ii ie?oaeaiiua oi/ii oaeeie aea /anoeoeaie,
iaoiaeyony a ?aaiiaanee, e eo ia?aiauaiea eno?aaoao cao?aou ?aaiou
Aaee/eia e ciae yoie ?aaiou caaenyo io niioiioaiey iaaeaeo neeaie
acaeiiaeaenoaey iieaeoe iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy ni «naieie» aea iieaeoeaie e
n iieaeoeaie aoi?ie n?aaeu.

A neo/aa, anee aeeaeeinoue a?aie/eo ni naiei nianoaaiiui ia?ii
(ianuuaiiui), o. a. a neo/aa, eiaaea iu eiaai aeaei n iaeiei aauanoaii,
neea, eniuouaaaiay iieaeoeaie iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy, iai?aaeaia aioo?ue
aeeaeeinoe. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi ieioiinoue iieaeoe a aeeaeeinoe
iiiai aieueoa, /ai a ianuuaiiii ia?a iaae ‘aeeaeeinoueth (aaeaee io
e?eoe/aneie oaiia?aoo?u), e iiyoiio neea i?eoyaeaiey, eniuouaaaiay
iieaeoeie iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy ni noi?iiu iieaeoe aeeaeeinoe, aieueoa,
/ai ni noi?iiu iieaeoe ia?a.

Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi, ia?aiauaynue ec iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy aioo?ue
aeeaeeinoe, iieaeoea niaa?oaao iieiaeeoaeueioth ?aaioo. Iaiai?io,
ia?aoiae iieaeoe ec iauaia aeeaeeinoe e iiaa?oiinoe nii?iaiaeaeaaony
io?eoeaoaeueiie ?aaioie, o. a. o?aaoao cao?aou aiaoiae ?aaiou.

I?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai iiaa?oiinoue aeeaeeinoe
oaaee/eaaaony (?anoyaeaaaony). Yoi cia/eo, /oi iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai
iieaeoe ia?aoiaeeo ec iauaia aeeaeeinoe a iiaa?oiinoiue neie. Aeey
yoiai, eae iu oieueei /oi aeaeaee, iaaei cao?aoeoue aiaoithth ?aaioo.
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, oaaee/aiea iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe nii?iaiaeaeaaony
io?eoeaoaeueiie ?aaioie. Iaiai?io, i?e nie?auaiee iiaa?oiinoe
niaa?oaaony iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aaioa.

Anee i?e iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?a ia?aoeiui iooai eciaieoue iiaa?oiinoue
aeeaeeinoe ia aaneiia/ii iaeoth aaee/eio dS, oi iaiaoiaeeiay aeey yoiai
?aaioa

(1)

Ciae ieion oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi oaaee/aiea iiaa?oiinoe (dS > 0)
nii?iaiaeaeaaony io?eoeaoaeueiie ?aaioie.

> 0). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey
ecia?yaony ?aaioie, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey oaaee/aiey ieiuaaee iiaa?oiinoe
aeeaeeinoe i?e iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?a ia aaeeieoeo.

.

. Yoa yia?aey, eae anaaaea, ecia?yaony ?aaioie, eioi?oth iiaoo
niaa?oeoue iieaeoeu iiaa?oiinoe, ia?aiauaynue aioo?ue aeeaeeinoe iiae
aeaenoaeai nee i?eoyaeaiey ni noi?iiu iieaeoe a iauaia aeeaeeinoe.

iaycaia naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai iaee/eth iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe, oi iia
aeieaeia auoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueia ieiuaaee S iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe:

(2)

Oiaaea eciaiaiea ieiuaaee iiaa?oiinoe dS iiaea/ao ca. niaie eciaiaiea
iioaioeeaeueiie yia?aee

,

eioi?ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?aaioie

a iieiii niioaaonoaee n (1).

Anee, eae auei oeacaii, eciaiaiea iiaa?oiinoe S inouanoaeyaony i?e
iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?a, o. a. ecioa?ie/anee (e ia?aoeii), oi, eae
ecaanoii, iio?aaiay aeey yoiai ?aaioa ?aaia eciaiaieth naiaiaeiie
yia?aee F iiaa?oiinoe:

.

(Anee eciaiaiea iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe i?iecaanoe aaeeaaaoii, oi aa
oaiia?aoo?a eciaieony. Iai?eia?, oaaee/aiea iiaa?oiinoe i?eaaaeao e aa
ioeaaeaeaieth.) Cia/eo, ecauoi/iay iioaioeeaeueiay yia?aey iiaa?oiinoe
aeeaeeinoe, i eioi?ie aiai?eeinue auoa, yaeyaony naiaiaeiie yia?aeae
iiaa?oiinoe e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,

(3)

o. a. eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae naiaiaeioth yia?aeth aaeeieoeu ieiuaaee yoie
iiaa?oiinoe.

Oaia?ue ynii, a /ai caeeth/athony oeacaiiua auoa iniaua oneiaey, a
eioi?uo iaoiaeeony iiaa?oiinoue aeeaeeinoe. Iie caeeth/athony a oii, /oi
iiaa?oiinoue aeeaeeinoe iaeaaeaao ecauoi/iie ii n?aaiaieth n inoaeueiie
iannie aeeaeeinoe iioaioeeaeueiie (naiaiaeiie) yia?aeae. Iiniio?ei, e
/aio yoi i?eaiaeeo.

Ecaanoii, /oi anyeay nenoaia i?e ?aaiiaanee iaoiaeeony a oii ec
aiciiaeiuo aeey iaa ninoiyiee, i?e eioi?ii aa yia?aey eiaao ieieiaeueiia
cia/aiea. I?eiaieoaeueii e ?anniao?eaaaiiio neo/ath yoi icia/aao, /oi
aeeaeeinoue a ?aaiiaanee aeieaeia eiaoue ieieiaeueii aiciiaeioth
iiaa?oiinoue. Yoi a naith i/a?aaeue icia/aao, /oi aeieaeiu nouanoaiaaoue
neeu, i?aiyonoaothuea oaaee/aieth iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe, o. a.
no?aiyueany nie?aoeoue yoo iiaa?oiinoue.

I/aaeaeii, /oi yoe neeu aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu aaeieue naiie
iiaa?oiinoe, ii eanaoaeueiie e iae. AEeaeeinoue aaaeao naay oae, eae
aoaeoi ii eanaoaeueiie e aa iiaa?oiinoe aeaenoaotho neeu, nie?auathuea
(noyaeaathuea) yoo iiaa?oiinoue. Yoe neeu iacuaathony neeaie
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey.

Ioaeii, iaeiaei, iiiieoue, /oi ia?aii?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey nee
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey yaeythony neeu, eniuouaaaiua iieaeoeaie
iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy, iai?aaeaiiua aioo?ue aeeaeeinoe, a a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo aioo?ue oie n?aaeu, n eioi?ie iia a?aie/eo, o. a.
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e iiaa?oiinoe.

Aeey ?ac?uaa, eee, eae aiai?yo, aeey ?acaeaea iiaa?oiinoe iaiaoiaeeii
i?eeiaeeoue aiaoiea neeu, ia?aeeaeueiua e iiaa?oiinoe e
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iua e oie eeiee, aaeieue eioi?ie i?aaeiieaaaaony ?ac?ua
(?acaeae).

?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 1

Yoi iniaaiii ynii aeaeii ec iiuoia n oiieeie ieaieaie aeeaeeinoe.
Iaeioi?ua AEeaeeinoe, eae, iai?eia?, iueueiay aiaea, naiiiei e ae?.,
iaeaaeatho naienoaii ia?aciauaaoue oiieea ieaiee. Anee, iai?eia?,
iionoeoue i?iaiei/ioth ?aieo, iaeia ec noi?ii eioi?ie iiaeaeaeia (?en.
1), a iueueiue ?anoai?, oi any iia caoyiaony ieaieie aeeaeeinoe. Neeu
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey i?eioaeaeatho ieaieo nie?auaoueny, e
iiaeaeaeiay ia?aeeaaeeia AA aneaae ca ieaieie ia?aiauaaony aaa?o. *oiau
nio?aieoue aa a ?aaiiaanee, e ia?aeeaaeeia ioaeii i?eeiaeeoue neeo ? a
aeaea a?oca (nthaea aoiaeeo e aan naiie ia?aeeaaeeiu).

Oaeei ia?acii, neea iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, aeaenoaothuay a ieaiea,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia e eeiee AA, eioi?ay a aeaiiii neo/aa e yaeyaony eeieae
?acaeaea. Oaeea aea neeu aeaenoaotho, eiia/ii, e ia ae?oaea noi?iiu
?aiee. Ii caeanue iie o?aaiiaaoeaathony neeaie i?eoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe e
.aauanoao aeanoeie ?aiee.

Iienaiiue iiuo iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey /eneaiiiai
cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe, ia?acothuae
ieaieo. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiaa?oiinoiay neea f, n o/aoii oiai, /oi ieaiea
eiaao aeaa iiaa?oiinoe (aaaeue ieaiea ia naiii aeaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oiieee neie aeeaeeinoe), ?aaia i?e ?aaiiaanee aano a?oca ?:

.

Anee iiae aeaenoaeai yoie neeu ia?aeeaaeeia, oaeaeaaiay ieaieie,
ia?aianoeeanue ia ?annoiyiea dh ec iieiaeaiey AA, oa ?aaioa, niaa?oaiiay
neeie, ?aaia:

, aaea l – aeeeia ?aiee. Ionthaea:

e

(4)

Ec (4) neaaeoao, /oi eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey iiaeao auoue
ii?aaeaeai eae aaee/eia, ?aaiay neea, aeaenoaothuae ii eanaoaeueiie e.
iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe, i?eoiaeyuaeny ia aaeeieoeo aeeeiu eeiee
?acaeaea.

Ii?aaeaeaiiue oaeei ia?acii eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey
ecia?yaony a nenoaia NE a aaeeieoeao I/i, a a nenoaia NAN a aeei/ni.

Neaaeothuea i?inoua iiuou aeiiieieoaeueii iiyniytho nouiinoue nee
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey.

?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 2

Eieueoei ec i?iaieiee n i?ee?aieaiiie e iaio a aeaoo oi/eao naiaiaeii
iiaeaaoaiiie (ia iaoyiooie) ieoueth (?en. 2) iia?oaeaaony a iueueiue
?anoai?. I?e yoii eieueoei caoyaeaaaony oiieie ieaieie aeeaeeinoe, a
ieoue iaoiaeeony a ?aaiiaanee, i?eiya neo/aeioth oi?io. Anee oaia?ue
?ac?ooeoue ieaieo ii iaeio noi?iio io ieoe, i?eeinioaoenue e ieaiea
iaa?aoie eaeie, oi ieoue iaoyiaony, i?eiya oi?io aeoae ie?oaeiinoe.
Iaoyaeaiea ieoe i?iecioei iiae aeaenoaeai neeu iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey
ni noi?iiu nie?auathuaeny ieaiee, neeu, i?eeiaeaiiie e ieoe, eioi?ay a
aeaiiii neo/aa yaeyaony eeieae ?acaeaea. Neea yoa, ?acoiaaony, ai anao
oi/eao ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia e ieoe. Yoa neea aeaenoaiaaea ia ieoue e. aei
?ac?ooaiey ieaiee, ii i?e yoii ia iaa aeaenoaiaaee iaeeiaeiaua n iaaeo
noi?ii neeu. Iinea aea i?i?uaa iaeiie /anoe ieaiee ae?oaay iieo/eea
aiciiaeiinoue oiaiueoeoue naith ieiuaaeue e, eae iieacuaaao oi?ia
iaoyioaoaeny ieoe, ieiuaaeue yoa noaea ieieiaeueiie.

?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 3

Yoio iiuo iiaeii i?iaanoe e a neaaeothuai, ianeieueei eciaiaiiii aeaea
(?en. 3). Ia iueueioth ieaieo a oaeii aea eieueoea iiiauaaony caieiooay
iaoey ec aeaeie ieoe, .eioi?ay i?eieiaao neo/aeioth oi?io. ?ac?ooei
oaia?ue ieaieo aioo?e iaoee. Oiaaea inoaaoayny /anoue ieaiee,
nie?auaynue, ?anoyaeaaao ieoue a ie?oaeiinoue, /oi iiyoue ynii
iieacuaaao, /oi neeu iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey ia?iaiaeeeoey?iu e eeiee
?acaeaea. Iienaiiua iiuou iieacuaatho, /oi neeu iiaa?oiinoiiai
iaoyaeaiey aicieeatho eae ?acoeueoao no?aieaiey aeeaeeinoe oiaiueoeoue
naith iiaa?oiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iiaa?oiinoioth yia?aeth.

Oaeiai ?iaea iiuou i?iaiaeyony n aeeaeeinoyie, eioi?ua a neeo
niaoeeoe/aneiai no?iaiey naieo iieaeoe eaaei ia?acotho oiieea ieaiee.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi niiniaiinoue e ia?aciaaieth oaeeo ieaiie naycaia
ia n aaee/eiie eiyooeoeeaioa iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, a n oi?iie
iieaeoe. O iueueiiai ?anoai?a, iai?eia?, eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai
iaoyaeaiey i?eia?ii a o?e ?aca iaiueoa, /ai o /enoie aiaeu, eioi?ay,
iaeiaei, onoie/eauo ieaiie ia ia?acoao.

Ii iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea i?iyaeyaony ia oieueei a iiuoao n oiieeie
ieaieaie. Iii i?iyaeyaony a oeaeii ?yaea ae?oaeo yaeaiee, iaeioi?ua ec
eioi?uo iu caeanue ?anniio?ei.

Iiuo Ieaoi. No?aieaiea e oiaiueoaieth ieiuaaee iiaa?oiinoe oa?aeoa?ii,
?acoiaaony, ia oieueei aeey oiieeo ieaiie, ii e aeey ethauo iauaiia
aeeaeeinoe. E anee au iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey auea aaeeinoaaiiui aeaeii
yia?aee, ii?aaeaeythuei iiaaaeaiea aeeaeeinoe, oi ethaay ianna
aeeaeeinoe anaaaea aeieaeia auea au i?eieiaoue oaeoth oi?io, i?e eioi?ie
aa iiaa?oiinoue iaeiaiueoay. Oaeie oi?iie, i/aaeaeii, yaeyaony oa?, oae
eae eiaiii oa? iaeaaeaao ieieiaeueiie iiaa?oiinoueth i?e aeaiiii iauaia.

Iaeiaei e?iia aioo?aiieo nee acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie, ec-ca
eioi?uo e aicieeatho neeu iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, ia aeeaeeinoue
iau/ii aeaenoaotho aua e aiaoiea neeu. Yoi, ai-ia?auo, neea oyaeanoe e,
ai-aoi?uo, neeu acaeiiaeaenoaey /anoeoe aeeaeeinoe n /anoeoeaie oaa?aeuo
noaiie ninoaea, a eioi?ii iia niaea?aeeony. Iiyoiio aeaenoaeoaeueiay
oi?ia, eioi?oth i?eieiaao aeeaeeinoue, ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai yoeo
o?ao nee.

?anniio?ei nia/aea ?ieue neeu oyaeanoe. Yoi neea iauaiiay, aeaenoaothuay
ia aanue iauai aeeaeeinoe. Oae eae n eciaiaieai iannu aeeaeeinoe aa
iauai eciaiyaony auno?aa, /ai aa iiaa?oiinoue, oi i?e aeinoaoi/ii
aieueoie ianna ?ieue iiaa?oiinoiuo nee i/aiue iaea ii n?aaiaieth n
neeaie iauaiiuie; iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey a yoii neo/aa ii/oe ia ea?aao
?iee e oi?ia aeeaeeinoe ii?aaeaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii iioaioeeaeueiie
yia?aeae, iaoneiaeaiiie neeie oyaeanoe. Iiae aeaenoaeai neeu oyaeanoe
aeeaeeinoue no?aieony ?aceeoueny e i?eiyoue oi?io oiieiai neiy – yoi
niioaaonoaoao ieieiaeueiie iioaioeeaeueiie yia?aee a iiea nee oyaeanoe.

?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 4

Ii anee oai eee eiui iooai eneeth/eoue eee nouanoaaiii oiaiueoeoue
aeaenoaea neeu oyaeanoe, oi ii?aaeaeythueie ieaaeoony oaea neeu
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, aeaaea anee iie iaeu. A ecaanoiii iiuoa Ieaoi
aeaenoaea neeu oyaeanoe eneeth/aaony oai, /oi aeeaeeinoue iiiauaaony a
ae?oaoth, ia niaoeaathuothny n iath aeeaeeinoue n oaeie aea

ieioiinoueth. Oiaaea aan aeeaeeinoe o?aaiiaaoeaaaony iiaeuaiiie neeie
A?oeiaaea e iiaa?oiinoiua neeu ieacuaathony aaeeinoaaiiuie
ii?aaeaeythueie aaiiao?e/aneoth oi?io, eioi?oth i?eiao aeeaeeinoue. A
oaeeo neo/ayo aeeaeeinoue i?eieiaao oi?io oa?a.

Iiuo Ieaoi i?iaiaeeony neaaeothuei ia?acii: a ninoae, niaea?aeauee
?anoai? iiaa?aiiie niee a aiaea, aeeaatho iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai aieeeia,
eioi?ue ia ?anoai?yaony a ?anoai?a NaCI (?en.4). Eiioeaio?aoeeth
?anoai?a iiaeae?atho oae, /oiau aai ieioiinoue auea ?aaia ieioiinoe
aieeeia. Oiaaea aieeei niae?aaony a oa?, ieaaathuee a ?anoai?a.

I/aiue yooaeoii iaaethaeathony iiaa?oiinoiua a einiina, eiaaea
iaaaniiinoue iaania/eaaao oa?iaoth oi?io aeeaeeinoe aia ninoaea.

Aeeyiea aoi?ie n?aaeu.

Iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey aeeaeeinoe caaeneo ia oieueei io naienoa naiie
aeeaeeinoe, ii e io naienoa n?aaeu, n eioi?ie aeeaeeinoue a?aie/eo. E
anee iu, oai ia iaiaa, aaaee iiiyoea i eiyooeoeeaioa iiaa?oiinoiiai
iaoyaeaiey, ioiiny aai oieueei e aeeaeeinoe, oi i?e yoii eiaeinue a
aeaeo, /oi aeeaeeinoue nii?eeanaaony n nianoaaiiui ia?ii. Ai?i/ai,
iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey i?aeoe/anee ia eciaieony, anee n aeeaeeinoueth
a?aie/eo ethaie aac iaeiai aeaaeaiey. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi
acaeiiaeaenoaea iieaeoe aeeaeeinoe n iieaeoeaie aaca ec-ca iaeie aai
ieioiinoe cia/eoaeueii neaaaa acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo iieaeoeaie naiie
aeeaeeinoe.

Eiia aeaei, eiaaea aeeaeeinoue a?aie/eo n ae?oaie aeeaeeinoueth eee n
oaa?aeui oaeii eee n aacii iiae aieueoei (ianeieueei nio aoiinoa?)
aeaaeaieai. A yoii neo/aa ieioiinoe aauanoa n?aaieiu iaaeaeo niaie e
i?aiaa?aaaoue acaeiiaeaenoaeai /anoeoe aeeaeeinoe n /anoeoeaie
nii?eeanathuaeny n?aaeu oaea iaeuecy.

Ec-ca yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioia iiaa?oiinoiiai
iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe, a?aie/auae ni naiei ia?ii e n ae?oaei aieaa
ieioiui aauanoaii, cia/eoaeueii ?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie. Iiyoiio,
ii?aaeaeyy eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue naienoaa aauanoa ii iaa noi?iiu io iiaa?oiinoe.

Eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey ia a?aieoea aeaoo aeeaeeinoae
anaaaea iaiueoa, /ai a neo/aa naiaiaeiie iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe. Yoi
aiieia anoanoaaiii, oae eae neeu acaeiiaeaenoaey iieaeoe iiaa?oiinoiiai
neiy n iieaeoeaie a?aie/auae n?aaeu e ni «naieie» iieaeoeaie iai?aaeaiu
a i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noi?iiu.

Aeeyiea i?eianae.

I?y ecia?aiee iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey ioaeii neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau
aeeaeeinoue auea oeie/anee /enoie, eai i?eianue ?anoai?eiuo a aeeaeeinoe
aauanoa iiaeao caiaoii eciaieoue iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea. Eciaiaiea
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe i?e ?anoai?aiee a iae i?eianae
iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue i?e iiiiue neaaeothuaai iiuoa Ianuieai ia
iiaa?oiinoue aiaeu eaeie-ieaoaeue ieaaathuee ia aa iiaa?oiinoe ii?ioie
(iai?eia?, oaeuee). Oaeei niiniaii iu naeaeaai caiaoiuie ia?aiauaiey
iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy aiaeu. Oaia?ue ionoei ia iiaa?oiinoue aiaeu
iaeaiueeoth eaieth iueueiiai ?anoai?a eee yoe?a. Iu oaeaeei, /oi ii?ioie
no?aieoaeueii iiaaaeeo io eaiaeueee ai ana noi?iiu. Yoi iieacuaaao, /oi
iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea ?anoai?a iuea eee yoe?a iaiueoa, /ai
iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea /enoie aiaeu.

Oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ia iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu ia?acoaony ieaiea ?anoai?a
iuea eee yoe?a, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iieaeoeu aiaeu ooiaeyo aaeoaue,
icia/aao, /oi neeu, aoyaeaathuea iieaeoeu aiaeu aioo?ue, aieueoa, /ai
neeu, aoyaeaathuea iieaeoeu iuea eee yoe?a; ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi
?aaioa ii auoyaeaaieth iieaeoe aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoue aieueoa, o. a.
iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea /enoie aiaeu aieueoa iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey
?anoai?a iuea- eee yoe?a.

Iaoiae eaiaeue.

AEeaeeinoue i?eieiaao noa?e/aneoth oi?io ia oieueei i?e .eneonnoaaiiie
eiiiainaoeee neeu oyaeanoe (eae yoi aeaeaaony a iiuoa Ieaoi). Iaeue
iauai aeeaeeinoe nai ii naaa i?eieiaao oi?io, aeeceoth e oa?o, oae eae
aeaaiaea?y iaeie ianna aeeaeeinoe iaea e neea oyaeanoe, aeaenoaothuay ia
iaa. Iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey e a yoii neo/aa i?aauoaao iioaioeeaeueioth
yia?aeth neeu oyaeanoe e oi?ia aeeaeeinoe ii?aaeaeyaony eiaiii ath.

Yoei iauyniyaony oa?iia?aciay oi?ia iaaieueoeo eaiaeue aeeaeeinoe.
Oi?ioi ecaanoia, iai?eia?, oa?iaeaeiay oi?ia eaiaeue ?oooe, o eioi?ie
eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, eae e o iiiaeo ae?oaeo
?anieaaeaiiuo iaoaeeia, aeiaieueii aaeee – ieiei 500 aeei/ni. Yoei aea
iauyniyaony ii/oe no?iai oa?iaeaeiay oi?ia eaiaeue aeeaeeinoe,
auoaeathueo ec oceie o?oaee.

I?e auoiaea ec o?oaee ?acia? eaiee iinoaiaiii ia?anoaao, ii io?uaaaony
iia oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aeinoeaaao aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acia?a. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi iiea eaiey iaaeinoaoi/ii aaeeea, neeu
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeinoaoi/iu aeey oiai, /oiau i?ioeainoiyoue
neea oyaeanoe e i?aaeioa?aoeoue io?ua.

Io?ua aea i?iecieaeao oiaaea, eiaaea aan eaiee noaiao ?aaiui neea
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, oaea?aeeaathuae aa. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi ec
iaaethaeaiee iaae io?uaii eaiaeue iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue /eneaiiia cia/aiea
eiyooeoeeaioa iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey.

Ia ?en. 5 iieacai i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey eaiee. Ia?aae io?uaii ia?acoaony
oaeea, ?aaeeon eioi?ie ianeieueei iaiueoa ?aaeeona o?oaee. Aaeieue
ie?oaeiinoe yoie oaeee e aeaenoaoao neea iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey (?en.
6), eioi?ay a iiiaio io?uaa aeieaeia auoue ?aaia neea oyaeanoe.

. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, io?ua eaiee i?ienoiaeeo i?e oneiaee:

(5)

                              ?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 5
                                                                        
 ?en. 6

Ecia?ea aan ? ioi?aaaoaeny eaiee e ?aaeeon oaeee a iiiaio io?uaa, iiaeii
au/eneeoue eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe. Aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiie oi/iinoe a ii?aaeaeaiee ?aaeeona oaeee
io?uaathuothny eaieth i?iaeoe?otho n ecaanoiui oaaee/aieai ia ye?ai,
aaea e i?iecaiaeeony ecia?aiea aeeaiao?a. I?e a?oauo ecia?aieyo aeeaiao?
oaeee i?eieiatho i?eia?ii ?aaiui aeeaiao?o ioaa?noey. Aan ?
io?uaathuaeny eaiee ecia?yaony ia aiaeeoe/aneeo aanao. Iau/ii a oeaeyo
iiauoaiey oi/iinoe ecia?aiey ion/eouaatho ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei eaiaeue e
ecia?ytho eo iauee aan.

Iienaiiue niinia yenia?eiaioaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey eiyooeoeeaioa
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeaao oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe io?ua eaiee i?ienoiaeeo ia nianai oae, eae iienaii
auoa. Ia naiii aeaea eaiey ia io?uaaaony ii eeiee ie?oaeiinoe oaeee. A
iiiaio, eiaaea ?acia? eaiee aeinoeaaao cia/aiey, ii?aaeaeyaiiai
?aaainoaii (5), oaeea ia/eiaao auno?i noaeaoueny, eae yoi iieacaii ia
?en. 5,a, i?e/ai ae niioonoaoao aua iaeia iaeaiueeay eaiey, eae yoi
iieacaii ia ?en. 5,ae.

Iaoiae i?iaiei/iie ?aiee.

?en. 7

I?inoie i?eai? aeey a?oauo ecia?aiee oaeiai ?iaea iieacai ia ?en. 7.
Iionoei a aiaeo iaaeioth i?iaiei/eo, eciaioooth, eae iieacaii ia
?enoiea, caoeaieo i?iaiei/eo /oanoaeoaeueiui i?oaeeiiui aeeiaiiiao?ii e
aoaeai i/aiue iaaeeaiii, aac oie/eia iiaeieiaoue aa aaa?o. Iieacaiea
aeeiaiiiao?a aoaeao iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaaoueny e aeinoeaiao
iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiey, eiaaea ec aiaeu iieaaeaony aiaeyiay ieaiea,
iiaenoay ia i?iaiei/ea. Ion/eoaa iieacaiea aeeiaiiiao?a e i?eiya ai
aieiaiea aan i?iaiei/ee, iu iaeaeai neeo, eioi?ay ?anoyaeaaao ieaieo.
I?e aeeeia i?iaiei/ee 5 ni yoa neea ninoaaeyao ieiei 0,0070 I; ionthaea

Aeey oiaiueoaiey aeeyiey i?eianae ioaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae iiuoii
ia?aaioaoue ?aieo nie?oii. Aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acoeueoaou ieacuaaao oae
aea oi, ianeieueei ?aaiiia?ii iiaeieiaaony aeeiaiiiao?. Yoo
?aaiiia?iinoue iau/ii aeinoeaatho oai, /oi aeeiaiiiao? inoaaeytho
iaiiaeaeaeiui, a o?iaaiue aeeaeeinoe iinoaiaiii oiaiueoatho.
Auiieiythony na?ee iiuoia n i?iaiei/iuie ?aieaie ?aciie aeeeiu.

Iaoiae eieueoea.

?en. 8

Yoio iaoiae iiaeiaai iaoiaeo i?iaiei/iie ?aiee aaeeinoaaiiui ioee/eai
yaeyaony oi, /oi aianoi ?aiee a iai eniieuecoaony iaoaeee/aneia eieueoei
?en.8. A yoii neo/aa aeeeia ieaiee ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia aeeei
ie?oaeiinoae aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae noi?ii eieueoea.

E?iia yeaiaioa?iuo iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey eiyooeoeeaioa iiaa?oiinoiiai
iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoae, eioi?ua auee i?eaaaeaiu auoa nouanoaotho iiiaea
ae?oaea, aieaa oi/iua iaoiaeu. iaeioi?ua ec ieo iienuaathony ieaea.

Iaoiae eaieeey?iuo aiei.

?en. 9

), /ai aeaaeaiea a ninaaeieo neiyo, aaea iiaa?oiinoue inoaeanue
ieineie. Aicieeoay oaeei ia?acii ?aciinoue aeaaeaiee canoaaeyao
aeeaeeinoue ec ninaaeieo neiaa i?eeeaaoue iiae aiaioooth iiaa?oiinoue, e
aeeaeeinoue niiaa iiaeieiaaony e ia/aeueiiio o?iaith, ii i?ioiaeeo aai
ii eia?oeee ca n/ao iaeiieaiiie eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee. Iiaa?oiinoue
iiyoiio noaiao auioeeie, e aeaaeaiea, iaoneiaeaiiia e?eaeciie aa
iiaa?oiinoe, aoaeao oaia?ue iai?aaeaii aiec (?en. 9, a).

ssnii, /oi oaeiai ?iaea eieaaaiey aeeaeeinoe a iaeiii ianoa canoaaeo e
ninaaeiea oi/ee niaa?oaoue oaeea aea eieaaaiey. Yoi e cia/eo – /oi
yaeaiea eiaao aieiiaie oa?aeoa?. Eaieeey?iua aieiu ioee/athony iaeie
aiieeooaeie e iaeie aeeeiie aieiu. Ec-ca iaeinoe aiieeooaeu iiaeii
i?aiaa?a/ue aeeyieai neeu oyaeanoe, eioi?ay iiaeao aucuaaoue oaeia aea
aeaenoaea (neea oyaeanoe iaycaiu e i?ienoiaeaeaieai e?ooua ii?neea
aieiu). Aieiu oieueei a oao neo/ayo e iacuaathony eaieeey?iuie, eiaaea a
eo ia?aciaaiee o/anoaotho oieueei neeu iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey e iie
ia?acothony ca n/ao cia/eoaeueiie e?eaeciu ia a?aaia e aiaaeeia aieiu.

?an/ao iieacuaaao, /oi ia?aiao?u eaieeey?iuo aiei naycaiu n
eiyooeoeeaioii iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey neaaeothuei o?aaiaieai:

(6)

-ieioiinoue aeeaeeinoe. Oi?ioea (6) e iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey eiyooeoeeaioa iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe,
ieioiinoue eioi?ie ecaanoia. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii ecia?eoue /anoioo
eieaaaiee e aeeeio aieiu. Iau/ii ecia?ytho nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey
aiei, n eioi?ie /anoioa eieaaaiee naycaia i?inoui niioiioaieai.

Iaoiae eaiee e iocu?ueea.

Yoio iaoiae iniiaai ia iaaethaeaiee e?oiiie eaiee aeeaeeinoe ia ieineie
iiaa?oiinoe e aicaeooiiai iocu?ueea (oiaea aieueoiai ?acia?a) a oie aea
aeeaeeinoe.

?en. 10

e?aaaie oaie o a?aieoeu eaiee. Oneiaeai ?aaiiaaney eaiee yaeyaony
?aaainoai aaniethoiuo cia/aiee nee, no?aiyueony i?aa?aoeoue aa a oiieoth
ieaieo, e nee, no?aiyueony i?eaeaoue ae noa?e/aneoth oi?io. ?anoyiooue
eaieth a oiieoth ieaieo no?aieony, ai-ia?auo, neea oyaeanoe e,
ai-aoi?uo, neea iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey ia a?aieoea iaaeaeo
aeeaeeinoueth e oaa?aeie iiaeeiaeeie. Noa?e/aneoth aea oi?io eaiea
no?aieony i?eaeaoue neea iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey ia iiaa?oiinoe
aeeaeeinoe.

(ieiuaaeue auaeaeaiiie ieiuaaeee ?aaia h!). Iai?aaeaiea yoie neeu
iieacaii ia ?en. 10, a.

(ia aaeeieoeo aeeeiu). Oaeei ia?acii, oneiaea ?aaiiaaney eaiee iiaeii
caienaoue a aeaea

eee

(7)

?anniio?ei oaia?ue aicaeooiue iocu?ae a oie aea aeeaeeinoe (?en. 10,6).
Anee iocu?ae aeinoaoi/ii aaeee, /oiau aai «aeii» auei ieineei, oi
?annoaeaeaiey, iiaeiaiua oieueei /oi i?eaaaeaiiui, iieacuaatho, /oi
oneiaeai ?aaiiaaney iocu?ueea aoaeao ?aaainoai

(8)

aaea d – aunioa iocu?ueea. Neeaaeuaay (7) e (8), iieo/ei:

(9)

aeinoaoi/ii ecia?eoue auniou eaiee e iocu?ueea.

. A naiii aeaea, anee au/anoue (7) ec (8), oi iieo/ei:

iieo/aaony ?aaainoai

?en. 11

oiaea o?aaoaony ecia?eoue oieueei d e h. Yenia?eiaioaeueii d e h
ii?aaeaeythony n iiiiuueth iaiiiao?a iniaii oi?iu, iieacaiiie ia ?en.
11. Iinea ouaoaeueiie i/enoee iaiiiao? iaiieiyaony enneaaeoaiie
aeeaeeinoueth, iinea /aai /anoue aeeaeeinoe ionanuaaaony oae, /oiau
ia?aciaaeny iocu?ae aeinoaoi/iiai ?acia?a. Caoai aeaeaaony ion/ao ii
iaiiiao?o e yoei ii?aaeaeyaony iieiaeaiea «aeia» iocu?ueea. Iinea yoiai
a i?eai? aeiaaaeytho aeeaeeinoue, /oiau ia iiaa?oiinoe noaeea,
iie?uaathuaai oe?ieia eieaii iaiiiao?a, ia?aciaaeanue aieueoay eaiey
aeeaeeinoe (ia ?en. 11 iieacaia ioieoe?ii). Iiaue ion/ao ii iaiiiao?o
aeano iieiaeaiea iniiaaiey eaiee. Iaeiiaoe, n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai
i?eai?a (noa?iiao?a) ii?aaeaeytho aunioo eaiee h. Ciay oieueio noaeea,
iiaeii oaia?ue ec aeaoo ion/aoia ii iaiiiao?o ii?aaeaeeoue d e
au/eneeoue eae eiyooeoeeaio iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, oae e e?aaaie
oaie.

Eiyooeoeeaiou iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey iaeioi?uo aeeaeeinoae:

AEeaeeinoue oaiia?aoo?a Iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea I/I

Aiaea

?anoai? iuea a aiaea

Nie?o

Yoe?

?oooue

Cieioi

AEeaeeee aiaei?iae

AEeaeeee aaeee 20

20

20

25

20

1130

-253

-269 0,0725

0,040

0,022

0,017

0,470

1,102

0,0021

0,00012

PAGE

PAGE 18

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