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Первичные источники питания и термоядерная энергия

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?aoa?ao ii oaia : “Ia?ae/iua enoi/ieee ieoaiey”.

OA?IIssAeA?IAss YIA?AEss

I?aaeeneiaea:

Iu i?eau/ii aiai?ei i oa?iiyaea?iii neioaca, eae i ia?niaeoeaiii
enoi/ieea yia?aee. Ii aio aii?in: ia neeoeii ee aeieai ii inoaiaony
anaai eeoue “ia?niaeoeaiui”? Aaaeue neiaeeeanue ia?aaeienaeueiay
neooaoeey: ia yia?aee aeaeaiey yaea? o?aia oaea aeaaii ?aaioatho aoiiiua
yeaeo?inoaioeee, oiaaea eae oi?aaeyaiue neioac e?aeeo yaea? ia aea?o
iieiaeeoaeueiiai aaeaina yia?aee. Iaaeaeo oai iineaaeiee i?ioeann
ioe?uee ia /aou?a aiaea ?aiueoa, /ai ia?aue: a 1934 aiaeo a eaai?aoi?ee
Y. ?aca?oi?aea aue i?iaaae?i neioac yaea? aeaeoa?ey n iieo/aieai o?eoey.
A oaea /a?ac ianeieueei eao oai?aoeee iaoee iiaeoiaeyuea yaea?iua
i?ioeannu, iauyniythuea iaoaieci “ai?aiey” ca?cae, eioi?ue oae aeieai
aue ia?ac?aoeiie caaaaeeie. Cia/eo, ?ieue oa?iiyaea?iie ?aaeoeee, eae
aiciiaeiiai enoi/ieea ia?iiiuo eiee/anoa yia?aee, auea iniciaia aeaaii.
Eaeea aea o?oaeiinoe noiyee e noiyo ia iooe e iaeaaeaieth yoei
enoi/ieeii?

Iiyaeaiea iiaie yia?aee.

Aeaaiay i?e/eia onoie/eainoe ca?caeiuo oa?iiyaea?iuo ?aaeoeee —
a?iiaaeiua ?acia?u ?aaeoi?ia, aea e a?aiaia oeeeeia ?aaeoeee
en/eneythony ieeeeiiaie eao. Eae aea a iaoeo ia?aie/aiiuo ianooaaao
nioai?eoue iiaeiaiia?

A 1945 aiaeo ia aeae?eii Naoaeeia o o/auaainy aa/a?iae n?aaeiae oeieu
Ieaaa Eaa?aioueaaa aeanioea aea?ciiaaiiay eaeay, eioi?ay noeeea
nicaeaiea eneonnoaaiiiai caiiiai nieioea. Eae ienae nai Ieaa
Aeaenaiae?iae/, ii “noi?ioee?iaae i?eioeei oaieiaie ecieyoeee
yeaeo?e/aneei iieai iieiinoueth eiiece?iaaiiiai aaca n oeaeueth
i?iiuoeaiiie ooeeecaoeee oa?iiyaea?iuo ?aaeoeee” e ia aeieai aeoiay
iai?aaee i?aaeeiaeaiea i?yii a aae?an E.A.Noaeeia. Ienueii inoaeinue aac
ioaaoa, ii iiaoi?iia i?aaeeiaeaiea a OeE AEI(a) n?aaioaei iaiiaaiii. A
1954 aiaeo yoa eaeay, ieacaaoayny aanueia ieiaeioai?iie, auea aiieiuaia
a Einoeoooa aoiiiie yia?aee (EYA). Iiyaeeanue ia?aay enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
oa?iiyaea?iay onoaiiaea oieiiae. Aiineaaenoaee A.Ae.Naoa?ia, oaea
aeaaeaiee, canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaae: “Iiaeoaa?aeaeath, /oi a ethia eee ethea
1950 a. y ?aoeaice?iaae ?aaioo I.A.Eaa?aioueaaa… Iciaeiieaiea n
?aaioie Eaa?aioueaaa iineoaeeei oie/eii, niinianoaothuei onei?aieth iiae
niaianoiie n E.A.Oaiiii ?aaiou ii iaaieoiie oa?iiecieyoeee
aunieioaiia?aoo?iie ieaciu”.

Ii aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue ieacaeanue neiaeiaa. Auynieeinue, /oi a
oi?ieaeaeueiii iiea /anoeoeu ca eaaeaeue iai?io aoaeoo niauaoueny ec
iaeanoe aieaa neeueiie iai?yae?iiinoe (aioo?aiiee ia?eiao? oi?ieaea) a
iaeanoue neaaie iai?yae?iiinoe (aiaoiee ia?eiao?) e any ieacia
“auaaeeony” ia aiaoithth noaieo, ia oniaa ?acia?aoueny aei oa?iiyaea?iuo
oaiia?aoo?.

I?aaaea, auoiae auno?i iaoee: aeey oaea?aeaiey ieaciu a ?aaiiaanee
neeiaua eeiee a? iaaieoiiai iiey iaaei caaeoue ii nie?aee. Aeaaaeoeaoue
eao nionoy yoa ?aaioa nua?aea enoi?e/aneoth ?ieue e noaea iiie ec iniia
oai?ee oieaiaeia.

A 1969 aiaeo ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee a Aeoaia auei iauyaeaii,
/oi a ieacia oieaiaea O-3 aeinoeaiooa oaioanoe/aneay aeey oiai a?aiaie
oaiia?aoo?a- 7-10 iei. a?aaeonia. Ia/aeinue anaie?iia “ia?auaiea a
oieaiaee”.

Nae/an ia oieaiaeao, e?iia ?innee, ?aaioatho a NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiee,
O?aioeee, O?A, Eoaeee, ssiiiee, Eeoaa, Aano?aeee, Eeaee, Aaia?ee e
ae?oaeo no?aiao.

Ieacaeinue, /oi a caieioouo iaaieoiuo nenoaiao iieiaeaiey eeanne/aneie
oai?ee ia?iuo noieeiiaaiee /anoeoe ieaciu, ia eioi?oth oiaaea iie?aeenue
o/?iua, ia auiieiythony. A a 1965 aiaeo ecaanoiua niaaoneea oeceee
?.C.Naaeaaa, A.A.Aaeaaa e E.I.Eia?eaeiuo nicaeaee iiaoth oai?eth, ca /oi
aiineaaenoaee auee oaeinoiaiu Eaieineie i?aiee.

Oneiaey oi?aaeyaiiai yaea?iiai neioaca.

A yia?aaoe/anee auaiaeiuo oa?iiyaea?iuo ?aaeoeeyo o/anoaotho i?aaeaea
anaai ecioiiu aiaei?iaea-aeaeoa?ee (Ae) e o?eoee (O). I?e yoii ec aeaoo
?aaeoeee Ae+Ae e Ae+O iineaaeiyy a noi ?ac yooaeoeaiaa, e ai anao
nia?aiaiiuo onoaiiaeao iuoathony inouanoaeoue eiaiii a?. I?e neeyiee
yaea? aeaeoa?ey e o?eoey ia?acoaony ianoaaeeueiia yae?i, eioi?ia auno?i
?aniaaeaaony ia aeueoa-/anoeoeo (yae?i aaeey-4) n yia?aeae 3,5 IyA e
iae?ii n yia?aeae 14,1 IyA (oi anoue 20( e 80( iauae yia?aee
niioaaonoaaiii):

Ae+O( 4Ia++ (3,5 IyA)+n(14,1 IyA).

Aeaei ineiaeiyaony oai, /oi “aioiaiai” o?eoey a i?e?iaea ii/oe iao. Ii
auoiae iaeaeai: yoio ecioii i?iecaiaeeony a naiii ?aaeoi?a ec eeoey.

Oaeei ia?acii, a oa?iiyaea?iuo ?aaeoeeyo, a oii /enea a oieaiaeao,
aoaeao, ii nouanoao, “naeeaaoueny” eeoee, iaeei a?aii eioi?iai a yoii
neo/aa niioaaonoaoao oiiia oneiaiiai oiieeaa. A aeinooiiua caianu eeoey
ia Caiea ia o?e ii?yaeea i?aainoiaeyo caianu i?aaie/aneiai oiieeaa,
i?e/?i aeiauaaoue eeoee n?aaieoaeueii ianeiaeii.

Aeey iieo/aiey iieaciie yia?aee a ?aaeoeeyo yaea?iiai neioaca iaaei
iineaaeiaaoaeueii aeinoe/ue aeaoo ii?iaiauo oneiaee: “caaeeaaiey”
?aaeoeee, oi anoue iieiaeeoaeueiiai yia?aiaaeaina, e naiinoiyoaeueiiai,
naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuaainy neioaca, oaea ia o?aaothuaai aiaoiaai
“iiaeia?aaa”. E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeia ii?aaeae?iiay ieioiinoue e a?aiy
nouanoaiaaiey ieaciu i?e aeaiiie oaiia?aoo?a. A 1957 aiaeo aiaeeeneee
oecee Aeae.Eionii auaae niioaaonoaothuee e?eoa?ee: i?iecaaaeaiea
ieioiinoe ieaciu n (/enei /anoeoe a eoae/aneii iao?a a? iau?ia) ia a?aiy
nouanoaiaaiey ( (ecia?yaiia a naeoiaeao) i?e oaiia?aoo?a O=108 E
aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa 2*1020 n/i3. A yoeo oneiaeyo yia?aiaaeain
oa?iiyaea?iie ?aaeoeee aoaeao iieiaeeoaeueiui, oi anoue iauee auoiae
yia?aee i?aauneo yia?aicao?aou ia iaa?aa.

Ii aeinoeaeaiea ia?aiai ii?iaiaiai oneiaey -caaeeaaiey- au? ia
iaania/eaaao aoi?iai, oi anoue naiiiiaeaea?aeaiey ?aaeoeee. Any
iaaeaaeaea eeoue ia ca?yaeaiiua yae?a aaeey. *oiau iie oaea?aeaeenue a
ciia ?aaeoeee, a eo yia?aee oaaoeei ia a? naiiiiaeaea?aeaiea, iaaieoiia
iiea aeieaeii eiaoue ii?aaeae?iioth iai?yaeaiiinoue A, a ieacia-
ii?aaeae?iiue iau?i V. I?iecaaaeaiea yoeo aeaoo aaee/ei BV iacuaaaony
oaeoi?ii oaea?aeaiey, eioi?ue e oa?aeoa?ecoao noaiaiue
naiiiaania/aiiinoe ?aaeoeee.

Oieaiaee: /oi aeinoeaiooi?

A oaaeeoea aeaiu iniiaiua ia?aiao?u oieiiaeia: R e r – aieueoie e iaeua
?aaeeonu ieaciu, V – a? iau?i, B – iai?yae?iiinoue iaaieoiiai iiey, BV –
oaeoi? oaea?aeaiey ieaciu e W – iauay iiuiinoue aeiiieieoaeueiuo
enoi/ieeia a? iaa?aaa (eioi?ue iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue o?aiy niiniaaie:
aaeeaaaoe/aneei naeaoeai ieaciu, eiaeaeoeeae auno?uo (“ai?y/eo”)
iaeo?aeueiuo aoiiia e auniei/anoioiuie aieiaie).

IACAAIEA R , I r , I V , I3 B , Oe VB,I3Oe W, IAO

O – 3 ?inney 1 0,15 0,5 3,5 1,8 iao

O – 4 ?inney 0,9 0,17 0,5 4,5 2,3 iao

O – 7 ?inney 1,2 0,35 3 2,5 7,5 1

O – 10 ?inney 1,5 0,37 4 4,5 19 4

O – 15 ?inney 2,4 0,7 24 3,5 85 14

ONI ?inney 1,06 0,29 1,8 2 3,6 2

PLT NOA 1,3 0,4 4 4,5 19 4

Doublett NOA 2,75 0,9 44 2,6 120 8

JT – 60 ssiiiey 3 0,95 54 4,5 240 40

TFTR NOA 2,65 1,1 64 5,2 330 30

JET AA?AOII 2,95 1,7 170 3,4 580 52

O – 4 — ii nooe, oaaee/aiiay iiaeaeue O-3.

O – 7 — oieeaeueiay onoaiiaea, a eioi?ie aia?aua a ie?a ?aaeeciaaia
ioiineoaeueii e?oiiay iaaieoiay nenoaia ni naa?oi?iaiaeyuei nieaiieaeii
ia aaca ieiaaoa ieiaa, ioeaaeaeaaiiai aeeaeeei aaeeai. Aeaaiay caaea/a O
– 7 auea auiieiaia: iiaeaioiaeaia ia?niaeoeaa aeey neaaeothuaai
iieieaiey naa?oi?iaiaeyueo nieaiieaeia oa?iiyaea?iie yia?aaoeee. *oiau
iiae/a?eiooue anth neiaeiinoue yoie caaea/e, ioiaoei, /oi iiiuoea iaoeo
eieeaa ec O?A nii?oaeeoue ieaciaiioth onoaiiaeo W – 7 ni
naa?oi?iaiaeyuae nenoaiie ia oaeaeanue.

O – 10 e PLT— neaaeothuee oaa a ie?iauo oa?iiyaea?iuo enneaaeiaaieyo,
iie ii/oe iaeeiaeiaiai ?acia?a, ?aaiie iiuiinoe, n iaeeiaeiaui oaeoi?ii
oaea?aeaiey. E iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou eaeaioe/iu: ia iaieo ?aaeoi?ao
aeinoeaiooa caaaoiay oaiia?aoo?a oa?iiyaea?iiai neioaca, a ionoaaaiea ii
e?eoa?eth Eioniia — anaai a aeaanoe ?ac. Ia iaaei oaeeaeyoueny yoiio eae
aoaeoi eaaeiiuneaiiiio “anaai”: ia naiii aeaea a oa aiaeu e oaeie
?acoeueoao aue oniaoii.

JET (Joint Europeus Tor) — naiue e?oiiue a ie?a oieiiae, nicaeaiiue
i?aaiecaoeeae Aa?aoii a Aaeeeia?eoaiee. A i?i eniieueciaai
eiiaeie?iaaiiue iaa?aa: 20 IAo — iaeo?aeueiay eiaeaeoeey, 32 IAo —
eiiii-oeeeeio?iiiue ?aciiain. A eoiaa e?eoa?ee Eioniia eeoue a 4-5 ?ac
ieaea o?iaiy caaeeaaiey.

O – 15 — ?aaeoi? naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy ni naa?oi?iaiaeyuei nieaiieaeii,
aeathuei iiea iai?yae?iiinoueth 3,5 Oe. E niaeaeaieth, noieue aaaeiue
aeey ?acaeoey iaoeo ?aaio ii oa?iiyaeo ?aaeoi? yaeyaony naiui “ieaaeoei”
a nai?i iieieaiee, yaii ionoaaay io iineaaeieo ca?oaaaeiuo. Oaeia
ionoaaaiea — ?anieaoa ca iaaeaeinoue iaoae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?iaeoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, io/aai eaaeaeay iiaay onoaiiaea noaiiaeoueny
“aeieaino?iai”.

TFTR (Test Fusion Tokamak Reactor) — e?oiiaeoee oieaiae NOA (a
I?einoiineii oieaa?neoaoa) n aeiiieieoaeueiui iaa?aaii auno?uie
iaeo?aeueiuie /anoeoeaie. Aeinoeaioo aunieee ?acoeueoao: e?eoa?ee
Eioniia i?e enoeiii oa?iiyaea?iie oaiia?aoo?a anaai a 5,5 ?aca ieaea
ii?iaa caaeeaaiey.

Eae aeaeii ec e?aoeiai iaci?a, iao niiiaiee, /oi a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy
iiaeii iaeeaeaoue “caaeeaaiey” oa?iiyaea?iie ?aaeoeee a caiiuo oneiaeyo
ia niane aacia aeaeoa?ey e o?eoey.

ssaea?iue neioac caao?a.

“Ia caao?a” ieaie?oaony i?aaeaea anaai nicaeaiea neaaeothuaai iieieaiey
oieaiaeia, a eioi?uo iiaeii aeinoe/ue naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuaainy neioaca.
N yoie oeaeueth a EAY eiaie E.A.Eo?/aoiaa e IEE yeaeo?ioece/aneie
aiia?aoo?u eiaie Ae.A.Ao?aiiaa ?ac?aaaouaaaony Iiuoiue oa?iiyaea?iue
?aaeoi? (IO?).

A IO? noaaeony oeaeueth naiiiiaeaea?aeaiea ?aaeoeee ia oaeii o?iaia,
/oiau ioiioaiea iieaciiai auoiaea yia?aee e cao?a/aiiie (iaicia/aaony Q
) auei aieueoa eee ii e?aeiae ia?a ?aaii aaeeieoea: Q=1. Yoi oneiaea —
na?ue?ciue yoai io?aaioee anao yeaiaioia nenoaiu ia iooe nicaeaiey
eiiia?/aneiai ?aaeoi?a n Q=5. Ii eiathueiny ioeaieai, eeoue i?e yoii
cia/aiee Q aeinoeaaaony naiiieoiaaiinoue oa?iiyaea?iiai yia?aienoi/ieea,
eiaaea ieoiathony cao?aou ia ana ianeoaeeaathuea i?ioeannu, aeeth/ay e
nioeeaeueii-auoiaua cao?aou. A iiea /oi ia aia?eeaineii TFTR aeinoeaiooi
cia/aiea Q=0,2-0,4.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea e ae?oaea i?iaeaiu. Iai?eia?, ia?aay noaiea — oi
anoue iaiei/ea oi?ieaeaeueiie aaeooiiie eaia?u — naiay iai?yae?iiay,
aoeaaeueii iiiaino?aaeaeueiay /anoue anae eiino?oeoeee. A IO? a? iau?i
i?eia?ii 300 i3, a ieiuaaeue iiaa?oiinoe ieiei 400 i2. Noaiea aeieaeia
auoue aeinoaoi/ii i?i/iie, /oiau i?ioeainoiyoue aoiinoa?iiio aeaaeaieth
e iaoaie/aneei neeai, aicieeathuei io iaaieoiiai iiey, e aeinoaoi/ii
oiieie, /oiau aac iiia?iiai ia?aiaaea oaiia?aoo? ioaiaeeoue oaieiaua
iioiee io ieaciu e aiaea, oee?eoee?othuae ia aiaoiae noi?iia oi?ieaea.
A? iioeiaeueiay oieueia 2 ii. A ea/anoaa iaoa?eaeia aua?aiu aonoaieoiua
noaee eeai ieeaeaaua e oeoaiiaua nieaau.

Ieaie?oaony onoaiiaea Aa?aoiiii NET (Next Europeus Tor), ai iiiaii
noiaeei n IO?, yoi neaaeothuaa iieieaiea oieiiaeia iinea JET e O-15.

NET i?aaeiieaaaaony nii?oaeeoue a oa/aiee 1994-1999 aiaeia. Ia?aue yoai
enneaaeiaaiee ieaie?oaony i?iaanoe ca 3-4 aiaea.

Aiai?yo e i neaaeothuai iieieaiee iinea NET — yoi oaea “ianoiyuee”
oa?iiyaea?iue ?aaeoi?, oneiaii iacaaiiue DEMO. Ai?i/ai, ia an? iiea ynii
aeaaea e n NET, iineieueeo anoue ieaiu nii?oaeaiey ianeieueeeo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo onoaiiaie.

Iu i?ineaaeeee oa?iiyae “caao?a” aei eiioea XX e aeaaea aei ia/aea XXI
aaea. Caeanue oaea iiiaia caieaie?iaaii e i?aaeii?aaeaeaii. Oaeia
i?aaeneacoaiia “caao?a”, aeaeeii, eii/eony n ioneii “ianoiyuaai”
?aaeoi?a. A /oi aeaeueoa — yoi oaea ai iiiaii ec iaeanoe oaioanoeee…

Auaiae.

AEeciue eae?o aia??ae, ioe?uaathony an? iiaua ai?eciiou. Ianiiiaiii
eeoue iaeii: oa?iiyaea?iue neioac — ?aaeueiinoue XXI aaea, ii ia aai
iooe a aieueooth yia?aaoeeo au? iiiai ia?aiooee.

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