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IIAeAEA EAAIA IIECOIIAA

Anoue ecia?aoaiey, eioi?ua noiyo ia ?oaaaea aeaoo yiio ?acaeoey oaoieee.
E /a?ac aeanyoeeaoey, a ca /anooth aeaaea /a?ac noieaoey, au? ino?aa
iuouaaony any cia/eiinoue yoeo ecia?aoaiee.

Ia?aae iaie anoa?o aaee/anoaaiiue ia?ac aeoaeneiai iaoaieea Eaaia
Iiecoiiaa.

I?aaenoaaueoa naaa ie?, a eioi?ii iaoeiu i?eaiaeyony a aeaenoaea
ioneoeueiie neeie eee neeie aiaeyiuo eie?n e aao?yiuo iaeueieoe,
iiei?iuo ethaui eai?ecai i?e?iaeu.

Oaeei aue ie? oaoieee aei nicaeaiey ia?iaiai aeaeaaoaey.

E i?aaenoaaueoa naaa caaiaeu n aeuiyueieny o?oaaie, ia?iaua iaoeiu e
oo?aeiu, ia?iaicu e ia?ioiaeu – aanue neiaeiue e iiao/ee ie?
ia?ioaoieee.

Oieaa?naeueiue oaieiaie ii?oiaaie aeaeaaoaeue nicaeae ?onneee
ecia?aoaoaeue Iiecoiia.

Nui nieaeaoa, Eaai Eaaiiae/ Iiecoiia ?iaeeeny, eae i?aaeiieaaatho a
Aeaoa?eiao?aa a 1729 aiaeo. O/eeny ii a caaiaeneie oeiea, a iioii
?aaioae a caaiee «iaoaie/aneiai o/aieea» n aeaeiaaieai ?oaeue a ianyoe.
A 1747 aiaeo Iiecoiiaa iai?aaeee ia Eieuaaii – Aine?anaineea caaiaeu ia
Aeoae, /oiau ii «ai?aaeue i?e ai?iuo, ieaaeeueiuo e i?iae?iuo aeaeao iia
auoue…».

Iiecoiia aeieai ?aaioae ia Eieuaaii – Aine?anaineeo caaiaeao, aaea
?acaa?ioeanue aai iiiainoi?iiiyy aeayoaeueiinoue.

Iiieiay ioaeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, Iiecoiia caaeoiae «i?ana/ue aiaeyiia
?oeiaiaenoai». *oiau inouanoaeoue naie iiaaoi?neee caiunae, ii ?aoee
nicaeaoue «iaiaiioth iaoeio», eioi?ay auea au, eae ienae Iiecoiia,
«niiniaiie ii aiea iaoae, /oi aoaeao iio?aaii eni?aaeyoue».

Iaoeia yoa, a ioee/ee io anyeiai ?iaea ia?iauo ianinia, iaoiaeeaoeo
naaa i?eiaiaiea oieueei i?e ioea/ee aiaeu, aeieaeia auea iaania/eoue
iai?a?uaiia aeaenoaea e iiaea auoue eniieueciaaia aeey ethauo ?aaio.

Ianyoeu e?iiioeeaaeoeo ?an/?oia, aanniiiue ii/e, i?iaaaeaiiua iaae
/a?oaaeaie, iiiai/eneaiiua noaiu e iiuou – e, iaeiiaoe, a?aiaeeiciay
caaea/a ?aoaia! A 1763 aiaeo iiaeae ia/aeueieeo Eieuaaii – Aine?anaineeo
caaiaeia i?iaeo ia?iaie iaoeiu. Naeaeaiiay ii yoiio i?iaeoo iiaeaeue
iaoeia o?aieony nae/an a Aa?iaoeueneii ai?iii iocaa.

A Iaoa?ao?aa noaoneee niaaoiee Oeaooa?a, eioi?iio auei ii?o/aii
?anniio?aoue i?iaeo Iiecoiiaa, ia iia ia i?eciaoue, /oi «…nae aai
auiune ca iiaia ecia?aoaiea ii/anoue aeieaeii».

Iieo/ea ?yae caia/aiee Oeaooa?a, eae iu oaia?ue ciaai, a iniiaiii
oooaeoaaoeo ia?iaith iaoeio, Iiecoiia i?enooiee e a? iino?ieea.

Iiaue aeaeaaoaeue, a i?ioeaiaan a?iiicaeeei aea?aayiiui aiaeyiui
eie?nai, aeieaeai oeaeeeii ninoiyoue ec iaoaeea. Ciay anth neiaeiinoue
i?aaenoiyuae ?aaiou, Iiecoiia ia/oae iino?ieoue iaoeio nia/aea «iaeui
ei?ionii», oi anoue iaeiai ianooaaa. Iaeiaei ia/aeuenoai i?eeacaei,
/oiau ii n?aco aea aicaiaeee e?oiioth caaiaeneoth onoaiiaeo.

E aio aac anyeie iiiiue, eeoue n aeaoiy thiioaie – o/aieeaie aea
ianeieueeeie /a?ii?aai/eie, Iiecoiia ia/ae iino?ieeo ia?iiiie, aunioie n
o??oyoaaeiue aeii, ?aai/ee iaoeiu aeey ianeoaeeaaiey aicaeooiaeoaee ia
aeanyoue ieaaeeueiuo ia/ae.

Iiae?iaiua ?aai/ea /a?oaaee e enoi?e/aneea aeieoiaiou aiai?yo iai ia
ono?ienoaa e ?aaioa yoie ia?iaie iaoeiu.

Aiaea ?acia?aaaeanue a eioea, nee?iaiiii ec iaaeiuo eenoia. Ia? iinooiae
/a?ac niaoeeaeueiua ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua ono?ienoaa a aeaa aa?oeeaeueiuo
o??oiao?iauo oeeeeiae?a, ii?oie eioi?uo aeaenoaiaaee ia ei?iiunea. Yoe
ei?iiunea auee naycaiu n iaoaie aeey iiaeaeoaa ?oaeiieaaeeueiuo ia/ae, a
oae aea n aiaeyiuie ianinaie – ?ani?aaeaeeoaeyie e ae?oaei
aeiiieieoaeueiui iai?oaeiaaieai, iaiaoiaeeiii aeey ieoaiey eioea e aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey iaoeiu.

Aaeeeee iaoaiee aeiaeeny oiai, ana aeaoaee aai iaoeiu iinoiyiii «naie
naay a aeaeaeaiee aea?aeaee».

I?e iino?ieea iaoeiu Iiecoiiaa i?iyaee naay oaeaea e auaeathueiny
oaieioaoieeii. Ia yoii aiai?eo eneonii i?eaeoiaiiia aaoiiaoe/aneia
niaaaeaiea eioea iiaeia?aoie aiaeie.

E iath 1766 aiaea no?ieoaeuenoai a iniiaiii auei caeii/aii. Ii 27 iay,
ca ianeieueei aei ionea iaoeiu, eioi?ue ninoiyeny a aaaonoa, a?
aaieaeueiue nicaeaoaeue oia?, iaaei?aaiiue iaiineeueiui o?oaeii e
ioaeaeith.

Iaoeia ia/aea ?aaioaoue oaea aac iaai. A oa/aiee 43 aeiae iia eni?aaii
ianeoaeeaaea aeooue?i ?oaeiieaaeeueiua ia/e e ia oieueei iieiinoueth
ii?aaaeaea naith noieiinoue (7200 ?oaeae), ii e aeaea nauoa 12000 ?oaeae
i?eauee.

Iaeiaei ionoonoaea iiuoa o i?aaiieeia aaieaeueiiai ecia?aoaoaey ia
caiaaeeeei neacaoueny. Iieoa?aiioiia ia/aeuenoai i?e ono?aiaiee
aicieeaaoeo, anoanoaaiii, iaeni?aaiinoae iiaie iaoeiu aaiaeeei naie
eonoa?iua «iiaoanoaa». Oae, /oiau oiaiueoeoue caci?u iaaeaeo ii?oiyie e
oeeeeiae?aie, ii?oie iaa?ioee aa?anoie, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai «aa?anoi
aanueia iaeanoi/eeinue, a eiaiaaoua ianoa aiaea i?ioiaeeoue /?acau/aeii
ia/aea». Iaoeia i?i?aaioaea, iiea ia noaea ec – ca oa/e eioea.
?aaiiaeooiia e oaoie/aneie iunee ia/aeuenoai ia iicaaioeeinue i ii/eiea
iaoeiu. A? caa?ineee!..

ii i?aaeienaieth oi?aaeoaeae aeoaeneeo caaiaeia E?iaia e Ieeea?a,
iiecoiianeay iaoeia auea oie/oiaeaia. Yoi iie ecaeaee a 1779 aiaeo
/oaeiaeuiue oeac: «…iaiaaeaenoaothuoth iaoeio… ?acia?aoue;
iaoiaeyuothny i?e iiie oaa?eeo ?aceiiaoue e ean oiio?aaeoue ia /oi
aiaeai aoaeao». Yoi iie ?anoeoeee iiecoiianeee aeaeaaoaeue, inoaaea ia
ianoa aai ?acaaeeiu, nio?aieaoea ia?iaeiia iacaaiea «Iiecoiianeia
iaiaeeua».

Ii iaiyoue i Iiecoiiaa ia iiaea auoue auo?aaeaia ec na?aeoea ?onneeo
ethaeae. Eiy aai aeieaeii auoue iinoaaeaii ?yaeii n eiaiai ecaanoiiai
aiaeeeneiai ecia?aoaoaey ia?iaie iaoeiu Aeaeaina Oaooa, ioe?uaoaai
oe?ieoth aei?iao a? i?iiuoeaiiiio i?eiaiaieth.

Nionoy aeanyoee eao iinea nia?oe Iiecoiiaa noa?iaeeeu – aeoaeoeu
ia?aaeaaaee i?aaeaiea i /aeiaaea, iinoeaoai oaeio iaiaiiie neeu e
no?aieaoainy n iiiiuueth iiao/ae iaoeiu iaeaa/eoue o?oae naieo
niioa/anoaaiieeia.

Niaaoneea enneaaeiaaoaee ainnoaiiaeee eoi?e/aneoth i?aaaeo i Iiecoiiaa.

***

A iaoe aeie ia?iaua iaoeiu oe?iei i?eiaiythony ia
ia?iaicao e a ioaeaeueiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo onoaiiaeao. Iaeiaei ia
e?oiiaeoeo oaa?eeao yia?aee – ia oaieiauo yeaeo?e/aneeo
noaioeeyo, iiuiinoue eioi?uo ninoaaeyao iiiaea ouny/e eeeiaaoo,
– a ea/anoaa aeaeaaoaeae i?eiaiythony ia ii?oiaaua ia?iaua iaoeiu, a
ia?iaua oo?aeiu.

A ia?iaie oo?aeia eniieuecoaony yia?aey no?oe ia?a, eioi?ue
aeaenoaoao ia ia ii?oaiue, canoaaeyy aai aeaeaaoueny acaae e aia?aae,
a ia eiiaoee, a?auathuea aae aeaeaaoaey.

Au?uaaynue n ia?iiiie nei?inoueth, aeinoeaathuae nei?inoe
?ani?ino?aiaiey caoea (nauoa 300 iao?ia a naeoiaeo), no?oy ia?a
i?ioiaeeo iaaeaeo /a?aaeothueieny ?yaeaie a?auathueony e
iaiiaeaeaeiuo eiiaoie oa-

eie oo?aeiu.

Iiaeaeaeiua eiiaoee oe?aieaiu ia aeeneao, ianaaeaiiuo ia aae oo?aeiu.

Iaoaeaiea eiiaoie no?aieoaeueiie no?oae ia?a canoaaeyao
a?auaoueny aeene e niioaaonoaaiii aae oo?aeiu.

Iaiiaeaeaeiua eiiaoee, oe?aieaiiua ia eiaeooa oo?aeiu,
iai?aaeytho no?oth ia?a io iaeiiai ?yaea iiaeaeaeiuo aeeneiauo
eiiaoie e ae?oaiio. Oaeei ia?acii, ia?, i?ioiaey /a?ac oo?aeio,
ioaeaao naith yia?aeth ia a?auaiea aaea oo?aeiu. A nia?aiaiiuo
ia?iauo oo?aeiao, niaa?oay iiiai ouny/ iai?ioia a ieiooo, aae
a?auaaony n eneeth/eoaeueiie ieaaiinoueth. Yoiai ia iiaeao
iaania/eoue ieeaeay iau/iay ia?iaay iaoeia, a eioi?ie
aica?aoii-iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea ii?oiae i?aia?acoaony ai
a?auaiea iaoiaeea.

Ecia?aoaiea ia?iaie oo?aeiu yaeeinue niauoeai eneeth/eoaeueiie
aaaeiinoe. Iii aeaei iiaia, /?acau/aeii ieiaeioai?iia iai?aaeaiea
?acaeoeth oaoieee eniieueciaaiey ia?a.

E aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee o?aaiaaeinue oaaee/eoue iiuiinoue ia?iaie
iaoeiu, oaaee/eaaee aa ?acia?u.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ia?iaua iaoeiu aeinoeaaee iaiiia?iie
aaee/eiu. A ia?iaay oo?aeia oie aea iiuiinoe auea ai iiiai
?ac iaiueoa.

Auno?ioiaeiinoue ia?iaie oo?aeiu iicaieyea ni/aoaoue aa n
yeaeo?e/aneeie aaia?aoi?aie, eioi?ua i?e aunieeo nei?inoyo a?auaiey
iiaeii auei no?ieoue ioiineoaeueii ia aieueoeo ?acia?ia.

Eaeay nicaeaiey ia?iaie oo?aeiu oaeaeea iiiaeo ?onneeo
ecia?aoaoaeae.

Ia Aeoaa, yaeaoainy eieuaaeueth iiecoiianeiai ia?iaiai
aeaeaaoaey, ia Nocoineii caaiaea a ia/aea i?ioeiai aaea ?aaioae
caia/aoaeueiue «iaiaauo aeae» ianoa? Iieeea?i Ieoaeeiae/ Caeania.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ?yaea eao ii, caieiaynue ia?iauie iaoeiaie e enneaaeoy
?aaioo ia?a, i?eoae e iunee iino?ieoue ia?iaie aeaeaaoaeue eiiai oeia.

N 1806 ii 1813 aiae Caeania nii?oaeee ia iaeio iiaeaeue ia?iaie
oo?aeiu ia caaiaea, aaea ii ?aaioae.

Iaoa?eaeu, o?aiyueany a aeoaeneeo a?oeaao, oaaaeeoaeueii
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho oniao oaeaioeeaiai ?onneiai ianoa?a, eiy eioi?iai,
eae e aeanyoee eiai ae?oaeo oaeaioeeaaeoeo ?onneeo
ecia?aoaoaeae, auei aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy i?aaeaii caaaaieth. No?ieoaeai
oo?aei aue e ae?oaie ecia?aoaoaeue, Iaaae Aeieo?eaae/
Eocueieineee (1849 – 1900). ?aaioay a iaeanoe noaeino?iaiey e
aicaeooiieaaaiey, I. Ae. Eocueieineee i?eoae e auaiaeo i
iaoeaeaniia?aciinoe eniieueciaaiey ia?iaie iaoeiu ii?oiaaiai oeia a
ea/anoaa noaeiaiai aeaeaaoaey. Ii ienae: «Nouanoaothuee oei
ia?iauo iaoei, i?e eioi?uo iao aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aoue oaeea
ia?iiiua nei?inoe a?auaiey aeaeaeeoaey…aeieaeai ioieoe… Ia
ianoi iaai yaeony oei auno?i a?auathueony oo?aeiiuo aeaeaaoaeae». A
ia/aea aeaayiinouo aiaeia Eocueieineee iino?iee e ii?iaiaae
noaeiaoth ia?iaoth oo?aeio naiae eiino?oeoeee. Iia eiaea
eneeth/eoaeueii iaeue oaeaeueiue aan – anaai eeoue 15
eeeia?aiiia ia eioaaeeioth neeo iiuiinoe. Eocueieineee i?ae?anii
iiieiae anth o?oaeiinoue oaoie/aneiai oai?/anoaa a oneiaeyo,
eiaaea ioa/anoaaiiua ioe?uoey i?aaeaaaeenue caaaaieth. N aieiaieai
ienae ii i iiauo a?aiaiao, eioi?ua aeieaeiu ianooieoue, i a?aiaiao
«…eiaaea ioe?uoey e ecia?aoaiey ?onneiai oai?/aneiai oia e
ianoie/eaiai o?oaea» aoaeoo iaoiaeeoue aeinoieiia i?eiaiaiea.
Iniiaiua caaea/e oo?aino?iaiee a ?aiiai ia?eiaea ?acaeoey yoie
oaoieee oniaoii ?aoaee oaaaeneee eiaeaia? Eaaaeue e aiaeeeneee
ecia?aoaoaeue Ia?niin; n eo eiaiaie naycuaaaony nicaeaiea
ia?iaie oo?aeiu.

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