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Оптическая спектроскопия кристаллов галита с природной синей окраской

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?O

NUEOUAEA?NEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

Oece/aneee oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a oeceee oaa?aeiai oaea

Aeiionoeoue e caueoa

caa. eaoaae?ie OOO,

ae. o. -i. i., i?ioanni?

_________Ioiaaia A.E.

« » _________1998a.

AeEIEIIIAss ?AAIOA

Iioe/aneay niaeo?ineiiey e?enoaeeia aaeeoa n

i?e?iaeiie neiae ie?aneie

Ioeaiea “Ioee/ii” Naeaaaeny 11 ethiy 1998 aiaea.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

e. a.-i. i., no.i.n.

EA Eiie IOe O?I ?AI ____________Ethoiaa A.I.

«
» _________ 1998a.

Eniieieoaeue:

nooaeaio 151 “A” a?. _____________Enaaiei N.E.

« »
_________ 1998a.

Nueouaea?, 1998

NO?.

Aaaaeaiea 3

Aeaaa 1 I?e?iaea neiae ie?anee eaiaiiie niee 4

1.1. I?e?iaea ie?anee ieia?aeia 4

1.2. No?oeoo?a e naienoaa eaiaiiie niee 5

1.3. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey neiae niee 6

1.4. Oeiecaoeey ie?anee eaiaiiie niee 7

1.5. Ia?aciaaiea eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe a i?e?iaeiii neiai aaeeoa 9

Aeaaa 2 Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey 11

2.1. Niaeo?ineiiey iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey 11

2.1.1. ssaeaiey iiaeiuaiey naaoa e?enoaeeii 11

2.1.2. Ia?aiao?u niaeo?ia iiaeiuaiey 11

2.2. Ethieianoeaioeey 13

2.3. Iniaaiiinoe naa/aiey ieia?aeia i?e ?aioaaiianeii aicaoaeaeaiee 14

Aeaaa 3 Yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?acoeueoaou 16

3.1. Ia?acoeu aeey enneaaeiaaiey 16

3.2. Aeaiiua ?aioaaii-no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca 16

3.3. I?eianiie ninoaa aaeeoa 18

3.4. Niaeo?ineiiey iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey 19

3.4.1. Aiia?aoo?a, eniieuecoaiay aeey iieo/aiey niaeo?ia iiaeiuaiey 19

3.4.2. Niaeo?u iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey e oeaio?u

ie?anee a i?e?iaeiii aaeeoa 20

3.5. ?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeey aaeeoa 26

3.5.1. Aiia?aoo?a aeey eco/aiey ?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeee 26

3.5.2. Niaeo?u ?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeee aaeeoa 27

3.6. Eeiaoeea ia?aciaaiey F-oeaio?ia a aaeeoa

iiae aeaenoaeai ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey 28

3.6.1. Aeeyiea ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey ia

iioe/aneia iiaeiuaiea aaeeoa 28

3.6.2. Yooaeou ?acai?aiey ?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeee aaeeoa 29

3.6.3. Eeiaoeea iaeiieaiey F-oeaio?ia 30

3.6.4. Eiioeaio?aoeee F-oeaio?ia a iaeo/aiiuo e?enoaeea 33

AEaAA 4 Iiaeaeue ?inoa ie?aoaiiuo e?enoaeeia aaeeoa 36

Caeeth/aiea 38

Eeoa?aoo?a 39

i?eeiaeaiea 40

AAAAeAIEA

Iiiaea iniiaiua i?aaenoaaeaiey, eanathueany i?e?iaeu ie?anee ieia?aeia,
yaeaiey ethieianoeaioeee, iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey a oeueo?aoeieaoiaie e
aeaeeiie iaeanoyo niaeo?aeueiiai aeeaiaciia, acaeiinaycaiiua i?ioeannu,
i?ioaeathuea a aeeyeaeo?eeao e iieoi?iaiaeieeao, noi?ie?iaaeenue i?e
eco/aiee uaei/iuo aaeieaeia. Ie?anea aaeeoa, NaCl, oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiiai a i?e?iaea uaei/iiai aaeieaea, yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei
oeiiii?oiui naienoaii. Ia?yaeo n ninoaaii e ii?oieiaeae yoeo ieia?aeia
eco/aiea ie?anee aeaao oeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth ia oneiaeyo, nouanoaiaaaoeo
a aannaeiao nieaiaeiieaiey e i?ioeannao aeeaaaiaoe/aneie
ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee. Ie?anea yaeyaony aaaeiui aeeaaiinoe/aneei naienoaii
e iiaeao neoaeeoue a oeaeyo ei??aeyoeee ?ac?acia e i?e eco/aiee
oaoeeaeueiuo eciaiaiee eaeeeiuo ieanoia. Iia ia oo?aoeea naiaai cia/aiey
eae iaeaieaa yeni?anniue iieneiaue i?eciae ia eaeeeiua niee.

Neiee aaeeo ?ani?ino?aiai a nieyiuo ioeiaeaieyo ?aciiai aic?anoa e
iaiaeiie?aoii iienuaaeny iiiaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie (Ioea?ai, 1959;
*e?aeineee, 1943; Ionoueueieeia, 1973; Aiiieiiia, Eiuoa 1986 e ae?.). A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iaeaiaie oeaio?ia ie?anee a uaei/iuo aaeieaeao
caieiathony niaoeeaeenou Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?oiiu OOO e Eaca?iie oeceee a
Aioaa?iaia. Iaeiaei aeey oiai, /oiau iiiyoue iaoaieci i?e?iaeiiai neiaai
ie?aoeaaiey e eniieueciaaoue eiaeeeaoi?iua naienoaa neiaai aaeeoa aeey
?aoaiey iaeioi?uo i?iaeai aaieiaee nieyiuo ioeiaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiu
nenoaiaoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey eiiieaenii oece/aneeo iaoiaeia
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ie?aoeaaiey a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa.

Oeaeueth aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyeinue eco/aiea ciaeo?ineiie/aneeo
naienoa e?enoaeeia eaiaiiie niee Nieeeaineiai e Iieueneiai
ianoi?iaeaeaiee e onoaiiaeaiea i?e?iaeu neiaai ie?aoeaaiey.

E?enoaeeu aaeeoa auee enneaaeiaaiu iaoiaeaie niaeo?ineiiee iioe/aneiai
iiaeiuaiey e ?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeee. Iie ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu oaeaea
?aioaaii-no?oeoo?iui, iieoeiee/anoaaiiui niaeo?aeueiui yienneiiiui
aiaeecaie e iaoiaeii aoiiii-neeiaie iee?ineiiee. Aeey iainiiaaiey e
iiaeaee?iaaiey neiaai ie?aoeaaiey aaeeoia a i?e?iaea eco/aii aeeyiea
eiiece?othuaai eceo/aiey ia iioe/aneea naienoaa ie?aoaiiuo e
iaie?aoaiiuo ia?acoeia.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee iieo/aiu niaeo?ineiie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee
e?enoaeeia aaeeoa ?acee/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eeiaoe/aneea ia?aiao?u
iaeiieaiey ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo aeaoaeoia e i?aaeeiaeaia noaia oi?ie?iaaiey
neiae iyoienoie ie?anee.

1 I?e?iaea neiae ie?anee eaiaiiie niee

1.1. I?e?iaea ie?anee ieia?aeia

Nia?aiaiiia iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu ie?anee ieia?aeia aiiaua e ie?anee
eiie?aoiuo ieia?aeueiuo aeaeia a /anoiinoe enoiaeeo i?aaeaea anaai ec
oiai iieiaeaiey, /oi iiieiaiea oeaaoa – yoi eioa?i?aoaoeey niaeo?a
iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey eee io?aaeaiey. Onoaiiaeaiea eiioeaio?aoeeiiiuo
caaeneiinoae, i?eaioaoeeiiiuo, caaeneiinoae io aaeaioiinoe,
eii?aeeiaoeee, no?oeoo?u e ninoiyiey oeie/aneie nayce e o.ae. iaoiaeeo
anoanoaaiiia iauyniaiea a ?acoeueoaoa eioa?i?aoaoeee niaeo?ia a ?aieao
oai?ee e?enoaeee/aneiai iiey, iieaeoey?iuo i?aeoaeae e ciiiie oai?ee.

Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea oeiu ie?anee ieia?aeia [1].

1.Ie?anea, naycaiiay n nianoaaiiui iiaeiuaieai, o.a. n iaaeciiiuie
ia?aoiaeaie, eiaaea niaeo? nianoaaiiiai iiaeiuaiey ia?ae?uaaao aeaeeioth
iaeanoue (yoi ie?anea iai?ic?a/iuo aauanoa, ie?anea ca?eaeueiiai
io?aaeaiey).

2.Ie?anea, naycaiiay n iiiaaeaieai e?ay nianoaaiiiai iiaeiuaiey a
aeaeeioth iaeanoue, o.a. ie?anea aauanoa n oe?eiie cai?auaiiie ciiu,
yia?aee eioi?ie niioaaonoaotho yia?aeyi iioe/aneeo ia?aoiaeia aeaeeiie
iaeanoe niaeo?a (3 – 1,6yA).

3.Ie?anea, naycaiiay n ia?aoiaeaie iaaeaeo o?iaiyie d- eee f-yeaeo?iiia.
Yoi ie?anea eiiaie yeaiaioia ia?aoiaeiuo a?oii a i?eianiii eee a
aeaeiia?acothuai niaea?aeaiee (eiiia-“o?iiioi?ia”). ?aciua
oa?aeoa?enoeee yoiai oeia ie?anee naienoaaiiu o?ai aa iiaeoeiai:

a). ie?anea, naycaiiay ni niaeo?aie ia?aiina yia?aee, o.a. n ia?aoiaeaie
ni naycuaathueo iieaeoey?iuo i?aeoaeae ia aioenaycuaathuea iacaiieiaiiua
i?aeoaee, ninoiyuea i?aeiouanoaaiii ec aoiiiuo i?aeoaeae iaoaeea.

a). ie?anea, naycaiiay ni niaeo?aie e?enoaeee/aneiai iiey, o.a. n
ia?aoiaeaie iaaeaeo o?iaiyie d- eee f-yeaeo?iiia, a oaeaea eo niaoaiiuie
fd-eiioeao?aoeeyie ?anuaieaiiuie e?enoaeee/aneei iieai. Yoi iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiay i?e/eia ie?anee ii?iaeiia?acothueo ieia?aeia.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie o?iiioi?aie a ieia?aeao yaeythony eiiu Fe2+ e
Fe3+. Ieia?aeu V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu ninoaaeytho aieaa “eieaeeciaaiiua”
a?oiiu. A ?aaeeeo neo/ayo ie?anea iaoneaaeeaaaony ?aaeeicaiaeueiuie
eiiaie, a oaeeo ieia?aeao eae oethi?eo, aiaoeo, iaeioi?ua iieaaua oiaou
e ae?. N oi/ee c?aiey oai?ee e?enoaeee/aneiai iiey anoanoaaiii, /oi
eaaeaeia aaeaioiia ninoiyiea ia?aoiaeiuo iaoaeeia a eaaeaeie
eii?aeeiaoeee aeaao ea/anoaaiii ?aciua niaeo?u, a n ?aciuie eeaaiaeaie
(F-Cl-H2O, O, S, Se, Te) e i?e ?aciii eneaaeaiee no?oeoo?iiai iieiaeaiey
iieinu a yoeo niaeo?ao iiaoo auoue niauaiu e ?anuaieaiu. Ana yoi
iaoneaaeeaaao ?acee/iua ie?anee niaaeeiaiee iaeiiai e oiai aea
ia?aoiaeiiai yeaiaioa.

a). eciaiaiea e oneeaiea ie?anee, naycaiiua n eioa?aaeaioiuie
acaeiiaeaenoaeyie, iaaethaeathony i?e iaee/ee ia? eiiia Fe2+- Fa3+,
Fe2+- Ti4+ e ae?. a no?oeoo?iuo iieiaeaieyo, iaoneaaeeaathueo
aiciiaeiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ieie.

4.Ie?anea, naycaiiay n yeaeo?iiii-aeu?i/iuie oeaio?aie, iieaeoey?iuie
eiiaie, naiaiaeiuie ?aaeeeaeaie:

a) ie?anee, naycaiiua n i?eianiuie eaoeiiaie: 1) n d1-eiioeao?aoeeae
(Ti3+, V4+, Nb4+ e ae?., a oaeaea oeoaiee, aaiaaeee, ieiaee e ae?.) n
dn- e fn-eiioeao?aoeeyie, 2) n s1-, p1-,p5- eiioeao?aoeeyie (Pb+ a
caeaiii aiaciieoa, Pb3+ a ?iciaii eaeueoeeoa e ae?.);

a) ie?anee, naycaiiua n I- e iieaeoey?iuie eiiaie I2-, S2- e ae?.;

a) ie?anee, naycaiiua ni naiaiaeiuie ?aaeeeaeaie SO4-, SO3- e ae?.;

a) ie?anee, naycaiiua c F- e V-oeaio?aie e F-aa?aaaoiuie oeaio?aie,
iniaaiii ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie ai ooi?eaeao e uaei/iuo aaeiaaieaeao.

Eiaiii iineaaeiee, yeaeo?iiii-aeu?i/iue oei ie?anee aoaeao a
aeaeueiaeoai i?aaenoaaeyoue iniaue eioa?an, o.e. oeaio?u ie?anee yoiai
oeia i?enoonoaotho a e?enoaeeao aaeeoa ethaiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e iiaoo
auoue eaaei iieo/aiu iooai iaeo/aiey e?enoaeeia eiiece?othuae
?aaeeaoeeae.

1.2. No?oeoo?a e naienoaa eaiaiiie niee

Eaiaiiay nieue, eee aaeeo, eiaao oeie/aneee ninoaa NaCl e aai e?enoaeeu
i?eiaaeeaaeao eoae/aneie neiaiiee n i?ino?ainoaaiiie a?oiiie Fm3m, n
ia?aiao?aie yeaiaioa?iie y/aeee a0 = 0,5640 ii; eii?aeeiaoeeiiiia /enei
Z = 4. ?annoiyiea Na – Cl ninoaaeyao 0,2814 ii. Oece/aneea naienoaa
e?enoaeeia eaiaiiie niee iienuaathony oi/a/iie a?oiiie neiiao?ee
aaenieoayae?e/aneiai eeanna Oh – m3m(3L44L36L29PC). E?enoaeeu ia?aciaaiu
aeaaiuie oi?iaie: (100), (111), ec?aaeea ano?a/athony oi?iu: (110),
(430), (530), (310), (510), (332), (321), (540), (320), (210), (410),
(211), (221), (543).

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eoae/aneea e?enoaeeu NaCl ia?acothony ec iaeo?aeueiuo
?anoai?ia, ieoayae?e/aneea – ec aeoeaiuo, eeneuo eee uaei/iuo
?anoai?ia [2]. I/aiue oa?aeoa?iu neaeaoiua ia?aciaaiey [3, 4] – o?oieea
iooii-aaeua iieua ie?aieaeee – “eiaei/ee”, ieaaathuea ia iiaa?oiinoe
?aiu aa?oeieie aiec; noaiee eiaei/ae iau/ii nooiai/aou, /anoi ianoo
?oaaoe eee “oia”, ia?acothueeny aneaaenoaea ?inoa io ?aaa? ii noaieai
iaano?a/o ae?oa ae?oao. Ecaanoiu eoae/aneea e?enoaeeu n
ai?iieiia?acii-aiaiooeie a?aiyie. Eiiaaea e?enoaeeu ene?eaeaiu eee
eiatho eneaaeaiioth (?iiaiyae?iaeaeioth eee ieanoei/aooth) oi?io
aneaaenoaea ?inoa a oneiaeyo iai?aaeaiiiai aeaaeaiey. A?aie e?enoaeeia
ia?aaeei ?iaiua e aeanoyuea, eiiaaea nooiai/aoua eee yi/aoua. Oeao?u
o?aaeaiey, niioaaonoaothuea aaenieoayae?e/aneiio eeanno, ia?acothony
aeaaea i?e aicaeaenoaee aeaaeiiai aicaeooa. Oeao?u o?aaeaiey ia
eneonnoaaiiuo e?enoaeeao, iieo/aiiua i?e aeaenoaee oenoniie eeneiou,
eciaiytho naith oi?io a caaeneiinoe io i?eianae, aeiaaaeyaiuo a
oenonioth eeneioo [5].

Aaeeo /anoi niaea?aeeo iaeeueiua aeeth/aiey iaoi/iiai ?anoai?a, eiiaaea
ni acaaoaiiuie a iai eaiei/eaie aiaeae?eoa; aeeth/aiey eiatho
iai?aaeeueioth oi?io eee oi?io io?eoeaoaeueiuo e?enoaeeia. Ia?aaeee
aeeth/aiey oaa?aeuo /anoeoe – ca?ia neeueaeia, eaiei/ee aiaeae?eoa,
e?enoaeeeee, oa?iaeaeiua e io/ienoua neiieaiey ea?aiiaoia, aeeienouo
/anoe/ae, aaiaoeoa e aaoeoa [4,6]; ?aaea niaea?aeeo ea?iaeeeo a aeaea
aeaeaa/eia e ii o?aueiai niaeiinoe [7], ec?aaeea – ieia?aeu ai?a,
eiiaaea – i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa, iaooue, aacu (oaeaaiaei?iaeu,
na?iaiaei?iae, oaeaeeneioo, aaeee).

Niaeiinoue ii (100) niaa?oaiiay, ii (110) ianiaa?oaiiay [8]. Aaeeo
aeiaieueii o?oiie, ii i?e iaa?aaaiee ieanoe/iinoue cia/eoaeueii
aic?anoaao (a ai?y/ai ianuuaiiii ?anoai?a eaaei aiaony ?oeaie);
aeaeaaony ieanoe/iui oaeaea i?e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiii iaeiinoi?iiiai
aeaaeaiee [9]. Oaa?aeinoue 2, ianeieueei ?acee/iay i?e oea?aiaiee
aaeieue ?aa?a e aaeieue aeeaaiiaee eoaa. N?aaeiyy oaa?aeinoue a?aie eoaa
iaiueoa, /ai ia a?aie ieoayae?a. Neiee aaeeo ii n?aaiaieth n aanoeaaoiui
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aieueoae oaa?aeinoueth e nei?inoueth ?anoai?aiey a aiaea
e ianeieueei iaiueoei iieacaoaeai i?aeiieaiey [10]. Iee?ioaa?aeinoue 18
– 22 ea/ii2. Iai?iaiaeiee yeaeo?e/anoaa. Aeeyeaeo?e/aneay iinoiyiiay
5,85.

Oaeaeueiue aan 2,173, /anoi eieaaeaony ec-ca iaee/ey aeeth/aiee,
iai?eia?, o niee ec Eaeooa io 1,9732 aei 2,2100; ioia/aeinue oaaee/aiea
oaeaeueiiai aana n oaaee/aieai eioaineaiinoe neiae ie?anee. Aaeeo auaaao
aanoeaaoiui e i?ic?a/iui, /anoi aaeui, na?ui aei /a?iiai, e?aniui,
ei?e/iaaui, aeaeoui, neiei (iaaanii-aieoaie aei oaiiiai eiaeeai),
oeieaoiaui, ?iciai-eeeiaui aei oaiii-io?io?iiai [11,12]; ec?aaeea
caeaiui.

1.3. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey neiae niee

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie yaeythony ianoi?iaeaeaiey neiae niee a Aa?iaiee, a
/anoiinoe ianoi?iaeaeaiea a No?anoo?oa. Iniaaiii e?aneaay oeieaoiaay
nieue auea iaeaeaia a ?oaeieea A?eiaa?a, ?aniieiaeaiiui aeec Oa?eiaaia
(iaeanoue Aa??a). Ai anao aano?eeneeo nieyiuo ?oaeieeao iiaeii iaeoe
neithth nieue (Cornu, 1908), e?iia ?oaeieea aeec Aoncaa, aaea iia
ano?a/aaony e?aeia ?aaeei. Iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ia oeieaoiaay aieieienoay
eee i?eciaoe/aneay nieue ec Oaeeaeia e Oaeueooaooa e nieue, ie?aoaiiay a
aeaea neieo oi/ae ec Oaeueooaooa. N?aaee ea?iaoneeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee –
iaeaieaa aaaeiia ianoi?iaeaeaiea a Eaeoca. Aeaeueoa? (Doelter,1929)
iienuaaao neithth nieue ec ianoi?iaeaeaiee O?aioeee e Eniaiee.
Oeieaoiaay nieue ano?a/aaony a Neoeeeee, a a Aiaeee neiyy nieue auea
iaeaeaia ai a?aiy ao?iauo ?aaio a Ei?eoe?a (Stewart, 1949). Ai?iaeia
iienuaaao ?onneea ianoi?iaeaeaiey neiae niee a Nieeeainea. Ia?acaoe
neiae niee ec ianoi?iaeaeaiey Eeaoeeay Caueoa I?aiao?aneie iaeanoe
iaoiaeeony a A?eoaineii iocaa, THaeiue Eainenoii. Neiyy nieue a
iaaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao ano?a/aaony ?aaeei. Iia caeaaaao a nieyiie iaeanoe
Iaiaeaeaaa, aeec Iaei (Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo ?aaeey a Aaia
eiaao iaaieueoie ia?acaoe n oeacaieai yoie ianoiinoe). A iaeiii
aeieeaaea i ao?iauo ?aaioao a Iueth-Iaeneei oiiieiaaony i ca?iao neiae
niee, iaeaeaiiie a ea?iao (Schaller, Henderson, 1932). *eeeeneay
naii?iaeiay naeeo?a (eaee/a) iaycaia naiae neiae ie?anea niaea?aeaieth a
iae iaeeie ?aniueaiiie neiae eaiaiiie niee.

Yoio iaci? ianoi?iaeaeaiee aeaeaei ia iieiue, iaeiaei ii iieacuaaao, /oi
neiyy nieue oioy ano?a/aaony ia oae oaea /anoi, ii ana aea iia i/aiue
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia [11].

Oeiecaoeey ie?anee eaiaiiie niee

Ie?anea aaeeoa yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei oeiiii?oiui naienoaii. Eco/aiea
ie?anee ia?yaeo n eco/aieai ninoaaa e ii?oieiaee yoeo ieia?aeia aeaao
iauaiiua naaaeaiey ia oneiaeyo, nouanoaiaaaoeo a aannaeiao
nieaiaeiieaiey e i?ioeannao aeeaaaiaoe/aneie ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee.
Ie?anea yaeyaony aaaeiui aeeaaiinoe/aneei naienoaii e iiaeao neoaeeoue a
oeaeyo ei??aeyoeee ?ac?acia e i?e eco/aiee oaoeeaeueiuo eciaiaiee
eaeeeiuo ieanoia. Iia ia oo?aoeea naiaai cia/aiey eae iaeaieaa
yeni?anniue iieneiaue i?eciae ia eaeeeiua niee [13].

Na?ay ie?anea /anoi iaoneaaeeaaaony aeeth/aieyie aeeiu; /a?iay e ao?ay,
en/acathuea i?e iaa?aaaiee, – i?eianueth i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa.
Ei?e/iaaua e aeaeoua oiia eiiaaea naycaiu n i?eianueth niaaeeiaiee
aeaeaca, a /anoiinoe iaeue/aeoeo eae aaiaoeoa; a iineaaeiai neo/aa
ie?anea iau/ii ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia?aaiiia?ii eee no?oe/aoi. Caeaiay
ie?anea iiaeao aucuaaoueny aeeth/aieyie aeoaeaneoa, a yoii neo/aa ia
aicaeooa aaeeo ao?aao.

Neiyy, oeieaoiaay e en/acathuay ia naaoo aeaeoay ie?anee aucuaathony
aicaeaenoaeai ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eceo/aiey. Enoi/ieeii b-eceo/aiey a
nieyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo neoaeeo 40E e nii?iaiaeaeathuee aai
?aaeeiaeoeaiue Rb, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/aaoeiny
oaeoii ie?aoeaaiey aaeeoa a neiee oeaao a ninaaenoaa n neeueaeiii e
ae?oaeie eaeeeiuie nieyie, a oaeaea eaai?aoi?iuie enneaaeiaaieyie.

I?ino?ainoaaiiay naycue neiaai aaeeoa oieueei n eaeeeiuie ieia?aeaie,
iae?i – e iee?iii?oieiaey ie?aoaiiuo iaeanoae aaeeoa iicaieytho i?eiyoue
a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo eceo/aiee ?ani?aaeaeaiiue a ?aoaoea
eaeeeiuo ieia?aeia ecioii 40K. E oaeiio aea caeeth/aieth ian i?eaiaeeo
i?iaaaeaiiue TH. A. Ai?uaaneei aiaeec yia?aee, auaeaeythuaeny b- e
g-eceo/aieyie yoiai ecioiia a aaieiae/aneia a?aiy. Ii aai ?an/aoai
iiuiinoue aeicu naiiiaeo/aiey aeey enoi/ieea, aeeceiai e noa?e/aneiio, n
?acia?aie 0,3 – 1,0 ni (/oi ioaa/aao iau/iui ?acia?ai eaeeeiuo ieia?aeia
a nieyiuo ioeiaeaieyo) aeey b-eceo/aiey – 2,72*1014yA*aiae/a, aeey
g-eceo/aiey – 0,82*1014yA*aiae/a. N?aaeiyy aeoaeia i?iieeiiaaiey
b-eceo/aiey a e?enoaeeu ninoaaeyao 1,5 ii, oae /oi i?e n?aaeieo ?acia?ao
e?enoaeeia neeueaeia 0,5 – 2 ni b-eceo/aiea ii/oe iieiinoueth
iiaeiuaaony naiei eaeeeiui ieia?aeii: aeica iiaeiuaiiiai b-eceo/aiey
2,45*1014yA*aiae/a, g-eceo/aiey – 0,02*1014yA*aiae/a. Ionthaea ia
iaeo/aiea aiauathuaai neeueaei aaeeoa ?anoiaeoaony aeica
1,07*1014yA*aiae/a, e noiia?iay aeica iaeo/aiey aaeeoa neeueaeiii iiaeao
aeinoeaaoue i/aiue cia/eoaeueiie aaee/eiu (anee i?eiyoue a?aiy iaeo/aiey
450 – 500 iei. eao) – (4,8 – 5,35) *1022yA*aiae/a. Oaeiai eiee/anoaa
yia?aee aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/ii aeey aicieeiiaaiey neiaai
ie?aoeaaiey [11].

Oeieaoiaue aaeeo eiaao a aeaeeiie /anoe iieino iiaeiuaiey 17320 ni-1
(538 ii), aieoaie – eioaineaioth iieino iiaeiuaiey 16500 ni-1 (606 ii),
aonoi-neiea aaeeou iiaeiuatho i?e 15600 ni-1 (640 ii), 18720 ni-1 (534
ii), 22400-23080 ni-1 (450-433 ii), 25800-26900 ni-1 (388-372 ii) [13].
Aeaaiue iaeneioi ia niaeo?ao iiaeiuaiey neieo e?enoaeeia aaeeoa
iaoiaeeony a eioa?aaea 610-650 ii. Yoio iaeneioi iaoneiaeai iiaeiuaieai
naaoa eieeieaeiuie /anoeoeaie iaoaeee/aneiai iao?ey, ?acia?u eioi?iai
eieaaethony io 50 aei 80 ii. Ia eieeieaeioth i?e?iaeo neiaai ie?aoeaaiey
oeacuaaao, e?iia oiai, eioaineaiinoue ie?anee, a oaeaea iaee/ea a neieo
nieyo ieaio?iecia [10]. E?iia yoeo einaaiiuo aeaiiuo, iieo/aii i?yiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai i?enoonoaey a ?aoaoea neiaai aaeeoa eieeieaeiuo
iaoaeee/aneeo /anoeoe: a niaeo?a YI? aaeeoa iaia?oaeaia eeiey,
i?eiaaeeaaeauay iaoaeee/aneiio iao?eth [13].

Aaaeioth ?ieue a i?ioeanna ie?aoeaaiey e oi?ie?iaaiey ii?oieiaee
ie?aoaiiuo iaeanoae nua?aee aeaoi?iaoeee nieyiuo ii?iae. A nieyiuo
ii?iaeao oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu ieanoe/iua aeaoi?iaoeee, eioi?ua
i?iyaeytho naay a aeaea iee?ineeaaeie, aanii?yaei/ii i?eaioe?iaaiiuo e
?acaeaaeaiiuo aeeth/aiee, neaaeia neieueaeaiey ia?aeeaeueii a?aiyi
?iiaiaeiaeaeayae?a – aaeieue ieo i?eaioe?othony aoi?e/iua
aaciai-aeeaeeea aeeth/aiey. I?e aeaoi?iaoeeyo iaaethaeaaony
o?aineyoeeiiiia neieueaeaiea, e eioi?iio i?eniaaeeiyaony a?auaiea
iaeiieia e?enoaeeia. Neiea e?enoaeeu ia?aaeei eiatho ?aeiaenoue eceii, a
ieo ?ani?ino?aiaia ioaeaeueiinoue (111), eioi?ay a iaaeaoi?ie?iaaiiii
aaeeoa iau/ii ionoonoaoao. Eco/aiea niioiioaiey aeaoi?iaoeee e ie?anee
aaeeoa iicaieyao naeaeaoue caeeth/aiea, /oi ie?aoaiu iaeaieaa
aeaoi?ie?iaaiiua /anoe e?enoaeeia, a ii?oieiaee ie?aoaiiuo e
aeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo iaeanoae noiaeiu.

Oa?aeoa? e eioaineaiinoue ie?aoeaaiey iaoneiaeeaathony eiee/anoaii
b-?aaeeaoeee, iieo/aiiie ia?acoeii, e aai /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e
iaeo/aieth. Iineaaeiyy caaeneo io iiiaeo i?e/ei, aeaaiaeoeie ec eioi?uo
yaeythony neaaeothuea:1)noaiaiue aeaoi?ie?iaaiiinoe ?aoaoee e iaee/ea a
iae oao eee eiuo iai?yaeaiee; 2)eiee/anoai e oa?aeoa? yeaiaioia-i?eianae
a iaeo/aaiii iaoa?eaea, iai?eia? a aieoaie niee ioia/aeinue iiauoaiiia
niaea?aeaiea Ca, a oeieaoiaie – Cu; iauaa eiee/anoai i?eianae a
oeieaoiaie e aieoaie niee i?aauoaao eiee/anoai eo a aeaeoie; a neiae
niee ec Nieeeainea onoaiiaeaiu iaeo?aeueiua aoiiu Na; 3)nei?inoue ?inoa
ie?aoeaaaiuo e?enoaeeia. I/aiue /anoi neiyy ie?anea ?ani?aaeaeyaony a
e?enoaeeao ia?aaiiia?ii aeaaiaea?y eieaeueiinoe iaeo/aiey eee
aini?eei/eainoe e iaio e?enoaeeia: a aeaea cii, ia?aeeaeueiuo a?aiyi
eoaa, iai?aaeeueiuo, eciee?iaaiiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa o/anoeia, eaaiie,
iyoai, ecaeeenouo iiein e o.ae. Naie ie?aoaiiua o/anoee ioee/athony
ae?oa io ae?oaa no?oeoo?ie, ?acee/eiie iiae eoiie nao/aoie,
oi/a/ii-nao/aoie, oo?eoiaie, iyoienoie, ciiaeueiie, nie?aeueiie e o.ae.
Eiiaaea yoi yaeaiea iaoneiaeaii ia?anoaieai ie?aoaiiuo neaeaoiuo
e?enoaeeia aanoeaaoiie nieueth [14].

Aeieiaa? (Wieninger, 1950) enneaaeiaae aieueoia eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo
ia?acoeia i?e?iaeiie neiae niee, eioi?ua aiaeece?iaaeenue neaaeothuei
ia?acii: ii iaeaieaa auaeaeythueiny iaeneioiai e?eaie ii?aaeaeyeinue
iieiaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo iiein iiaeiuaiey; niioaaonoaothuea ?aciiainiua
e?eaua au/eneyeenue oai?aoe/anee e caoai au/eoaeenue ec iaaethaeaaoaeny
e?eaie iiaeiuaiey. A ?aciinoiie e?eaie iiaeii auei iaia?oaeeoue
iineaaeothuea iaeneioiu. Iaeneioiu iiaeii naycaoue /anoe/ii n oeaio?aie,
/anoe/ii n eieeieaeiuie /anoeoeaie. Naycue n eieeieaeiuie /anoeoeaie
iiaee?aieyaony yenia?eiaioaie, i?iaaaeaiiuie iiae oeueo?aiee?ineiiii. Ia
iniiaaiee yoiai enneaaeiaaiey Aeieiaa? aeaeeo neithth nieue ia o?e eee
/aou?a a?oiiu [11]:

1) Ie?aoeaaiea iin?aaenoaii oieueei oeaio?ia. Oeieaoiaay nieue ec oaoou
A?eiaa?a (eneeth/ay oaiiua iieinu) e ec Noanoo?oa n R-oeaio?aie i?e 580
ii. Nieue ec Neoeeeee n F-oeaio?aie i?e 460 ii, n R-oeaio?aie i?e 570 ii
e n M-oeaio?aie i?e 720 ii. Iaee/ea eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe i?iyaeyaony ii
neaaiio eiiono Oeiaeaey, ii iie iaei niinianoaotho ie?aoeaaieth.

2) Ie?aoeaaiea i?e iiiiue oieueei eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
?aaeeee neo/ae; neiyy nieue ec Oaeueooaooa n iaoneiaeaiiui eieeieaeiuie
/anoeoeaie iaeneioiii i?e 600 ii.

Ie?aoeaaiea iin?aaenoaii oeaio?ia e eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe. Iineaaeiea
aeaeyony ia aeaa iiaea?oiiu: ie?aoeaaiea n i?aiaeaaeaieai oeaio?ia,
ie?aoeaaiea n i?aiaeaaeaieai eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe. I?eia?ii ie?aoeaaiey n
i?aiaeaaeaieai oeaio?ia yaeyaony neiaaaoi-oeieaoiaay nieue ec oaoou
A?eiaa?a e Aaee/ea n R-oeaio?aie i?e 580 ii e eieeieaeiui iaeneioiii i?e
680 ii. Ie?aoeaaiea n i?aiaeaaeaieai eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe oa?aeoa?ii aeey
neiae niee ec Noanoo?oa.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea oeaio?ia ie?anee ianiiiaiii naycaii n iaeo/aieai aaeeoa
a i?e?iaea. Eae auei ioia/aii auoa, iniiaiui enoi/ieeii ?aaeeaoeee a
nieyiuo ieanoao yaeyaony 40E, aoiaeyuee a ninoaa ia?aaaiaoe/iiai aaeeoo
ieia?aea neeueaeia – KCl. Oi?ie?iaaiea eieeieaeiuo oeaio?ia ie?anee a
i?e?iaea ia noieue i/aaeaeii e o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey.

1.5. Ia?aciaaiea eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe a i?e?iaeiii neiai aaeeoa

F-oeaio?u e R-oeaio?u, eiiaaea oaeaea e I-oeaio?u eiathony a
aieueoeinoaa neieo nieae, e, oaeei ia?acii, eae i?aaeiieiaaao E.
Ioea?ai, a i?e?iaea i?iecioae ia?aoiae io F-oeaio?ia /a?ac R- e
M-oeaio?u e eieeieaeiui /anoeoeai. Oio oaeo, /oi ie?aoeaaiea a neiee
oeaao a i?e?iaea i?ienoiaeeo aac iaa?aaaiey eee iaeo/aiey naaoii,
iauyniyaony aieueoie aeeeoaeueiinoueth i?ioeanna ie?aoeaaiey eee
aic?anoii ia?acoeia – oneiaeyie, eioi?ua iaaiciiaeii aini?iecaanoe a
eaai?aoi?ee. Ia?aciaaiea oeaio?ia, ie?aoeaathueo a neiee e oeieaoiaue
oeaaoa, onoaiiaeaii oaea ai a?aiy iaeo/aiey i?e eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?a a
oaiiioa (I- e R-oeaio?u, iineaaeiea o ni?anniaaiiie niee). Anee aeaeaoue
aeinoaoi/ii aeieai, oi onoie/eaua oeaio?u, ie?aoeaathuea a neiee oeaao,
iiaoo, aa?iyoii, oaaee/eoueny ca n/ao F-oeaio?ia, eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo
i?e iaa?aaaiee e iaeo/aiee naaoii. Iaeaieaa onoie/eauie, anee iie
ia?aciauaathony, inoaeenue au a eiioea eiioeia eieeieaeiua /anoeoeu.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaeo/aiea ia i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth neiae ie?anee.
Iiyoiio i/aaeaeii, /oi a i?e?iaea aeieaeii eae aoaeoi eiaoueny aua iaeii
oneiaea, niinianoaothuaa ia?aciaaieth eieeieaeia; yoei oneiaeai,
aiciiaeii, yaeythony i?eiane. Iaeiaei neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi i?e?iaeiay
eieeieaeii-ie?aoaiiay eaiaiiay nieue iinea iaanoeaa/eaaiey aa iooai
iaa?aaaiey i?e iiaii iaeo/aiee ia iaia?oaeeaaao oaiaeaioeee e
ia?aciaaieth eieeieaeia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, aieueoay aeeeoaeueiinoue
i?ioeannia a i?e?iaea yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie aeey
ia?aciaaiey eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, ie?anea eaiaiiie niee iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaia eae
?aaeeaoeeiiiuie e i?eianiuie oi/a/iuie aeaoaeoaie, oae e iauaiiuie
aeaoaeoaie eieoeee?othueie niaoeeoe/aneia ?annayiea iioe/aneiai
eceo/aiey. Aii?in i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe i?e?iaeii-ie?aoaiiie niee oiio eee
eiiio oeio iiaeao auoue ?aoai ia iniiaa aeaoaeueiuo niaeo?ineiie/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee.

2 Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey

Niaeo?ineiiey iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey

ssaeaiea iiaeiuaiey naaoa e?enoaeeii

I?e i?ioiaeaeaiee iiiio?iiaoe/aneiai naaoa /a?ac e?enoaee a oio iiiaio,
eiaaea aeeeia aai aieiu (aai yia?aey) aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue ?aciinoe
yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae eiia a e?enoaeea, i?ienoiaeeo iiaeiuaiea yia?aee
naaoa, nii?iaiaeaeathuaany ineaaeaieai aai eioaineaiinoe, /oi i?eaiaeeo
e iiyaeaieth iieinu iiaeiuaiey a iioe/aneii niaeo?a e?enoaeea. Yoe
yia?aaoe/aneea o?iaie – yoi o?iaie eiia eee ae?oaiai aeaoaeoiiai
oeaio?a, ?anuaieaiiua e?enoaeee/aneei iieai. ?aciinoue yia?aee – yoi
?aciinoue iaaeaeo o?iaiai iniiaiiai ninoiyiey, i?eieiaaiui ca ioeue, e
iaeiei ec aicaoaeaeaiiuo o?iaiae. Oneiaea iiaeiuaiey – ?aaainoai yia?aee
iiiio?iiaoe/aneiai naaoa E=hn e ?aciinoe Aaica – Aini:

hn=Aaica – Aini (2.1)

Iieinu iiaeiuaiey niioaaonoaotho yia?aeyi o?iaiae eiia a e?enoaeea, a
niaeo?u iiaeiuaiey aeatho iniiaiie yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaoa?eae ia
o?iaiyo eiia a eiie?aoiuo e?enoaeeao. ?aciinoue yia?aee iaaeaeo o?iaiyie
eiiia n caiieiaiiuie iaiei/eaie, ia ?anuaieythueieny a e?enoaeeao, a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i/aiue aaeeea e niioaaonoaoao ia?aoiaeai a
aeaeueiae oeueo?aoeieaoiaie iaeanoe eee iaeanoe oeueo?aiyaeeo
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae. Oieueei o?iaie eiiia n iacaiieiaiiuie d- e f-
iaiei/eaie ?anuaieythony e?enoaeee/aneeie iieyie, e neea
e?enoaeee/aneiai iiey oaeiaa, /oi ?aciinoue yia?aee ?anuaieaiiuo o?iaiae
niioaaonoaoao yia?aeyi aeaeeiie iaeanoe niaeo?a. Aiaeiae/iie nenoaiie
o?iaiae yia?aee iaeaaeatho yeaeo?iiii-aeu?i/iua oeaio?u, ia eioi?uo
oaeaea aiciiaeii iiaeiuaiea naaoa a iioe/aneii aeeaiaciia. Iaeiaei o.e.
a oaeea oeaio?u ie?anee aiaeaeathony ianeieueei aeeaeaeoeo aoiiia,
ia?acothueo ii nooe aeaea iieaeoey?iue eii, aeey eioa?i?aoaoeee eo
o?iaiae yia?aee eniieuecothony iiaeaee iieaeoey?iuo i?aeoaeae.

Iieiaeaiea o?iaiae yia?aee eiia a e?enoaeea ?ann/eouaaaony ii
iieiaeaieth iieinu iiaeiuaiey a iioe/aneii niaeo?a, iiyoiio yia?aey
o?iaiae iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia a /anoioao iiein iiaeiuaiey, a iineaaeiea
– a aaeeieoeao yia?aee. Iioe/aneie iaeanoe niaeo?a ioaa/atho yia?aee
ii?yaeea 10-11 – 10-12 y?a, iiyoiio yia?aee iioe/aneeo ia?aoiaeia iau/ii
ecia?ytho a yeaeo?ii-aieueoao (1yA = 1,602*10-12 y?a). Aeaeeiay /anoue
niaeo?a ioaaouaaao cia/aiey ii?yaeea 1,5 – 3yA.

Ia?aiao?u niaeo?ia iiaeiuaiey

Anee iieiaeaiea iieinu iiaeiuaiey naycaii n ?aciinoueth yia?aaoe/aneeo
o?iaiae, oi aa eioaineaiinoue (I) ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiie eioaa?aea
i?iecaaaeaiey aieiiauo ooieoeee iniiaiiai e aicaoaeaeaiiuo ninoiyiee e
iiiaioa ia?aoiaea iaaeaeo ieie:

(2.2)

Aaea Y1 – aieiiaay ooieoeey iniiaiiai ninoiyiey; Y2 – aieiiaay ooieoeey
aicaoaeaeaiiiai ninoiyiey; I – yeaeo?e/aneee aeeiieueiue ia?aoiae
iaaeaeo yoeie ninoiyieyie (iaaieoiue aeeiieueiue e yeaeo?e/aneee
eaaae?oiieueiue ia?aoiaeu eiatho ia ianeieueei ii?yaeeia iaiueooth
eioaineaiinoue).

I?e ?aaainoaa ioeth i?iecaaaeaiey yoeo ninoiyiee e iiiaioa ia?aoiaea
eioaineaiinoue ?aaia ioeth – ia?aoiae cai?auai; i?e ioee/ee io ioey –
ia?aoiae ?ac?aoai. ?aaainoai eee ia?aaainoai ioeth neaaeoao oaea ec
i?inouo niia?aaeaiee neiiao?ee, i?eaiaeyueo e i?aaeeai ioai?a.
Eioaineaiinoue aea ?ac?aoaiiuo ia?aoiaeia ii?aaeaeyaony n iiiiuueth neeu
inoeeeeyoi?a f, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue au/eneaia ec neaaeothuaai
au?aaeaiey:

(2.3)

aaea aaee/eia ia?aae eioaa?aeii – aoiiiua iinoiyiiua (m e e – ianna e
ca?yae yeaeo?iia, n – nei?inoue naaoa), a eioaa?ae – aaee/eia,
ii?aaeaeyaiay iniaaiiinoyie iniiaiiai e aicaoaeaeaiiiai ninoiyiee.
Iacaaiea “neea inoeeeeyoi?a” i?ienoiaeeo ec eeanne/aneie iiaeaee
ia?aoiaea iaaeaeo ninoiyieyie, i?aaenoaaeyaiuie eae eieaaethuayny
(inoeeeee?othuay) nenoaia.

Neea inoeeeeyoi?a iau/ii ecia?yaony ec niaeo?ia iiaeiuaiey:

, (2.4)

, i?aaenoaaeyao yenia?eiaioaeueii ii?aaeaeyaioth ieiuaaeue iiae eeieae
iiaeiuaiey; e – iiey?iue eiyooeoeeaio iiaeiuaiey; n- /anoioa.

Caaeneiinoue eioaineaiinoe iiaeiuaiey io oieueiu e?enoaeea au?aaeaaony
caeiiii Aoaa?a – Eaiaa?oa, eioi?ue naiaeeony i?inoi e ii?aaeaeaieth, /oi
eaaeaeue iineaaeothuee neie aauanoaa iiaeiuaao iaeeiaeiai, ii yoi
niioaaonoaoao iieacaoaeueiie (yeniiiaioeeaeueiie) caaeneiinoe iiaeiuaiey
io oieueiu. Yoa caaeneiinoue iieo/aaony neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Iaicia/ei eioaineaiinoue ia?aiia/aeueiiai iioiea naaoa, aoiaeyuaai a
e?enoaee, /a?ac I0, a eioaineaiinoue naaoa, i?ioaaeoaai /a?ac ia?aue
neie aauanoaa, /a?ac I1. Oiaaea I1/I0 = T, eee I1 = I0T, aaea T –
i?iioneaiea – iieiaeeoaeueiay ae?iaue, iieacuaathuay, ai neieueei ?ac I1
iaiueoa I0. I?e aoiaeaeaiee oaea ineaaeaiiiai iioiea naaoa I1 a
neaaeothuee neie neooaoeey iiaoi?yaony: I2 = I1T, eee I2 = I0T2, /oi e
i?eaiaeeo e iauaio caeiio: I = I0Tt, eee Ln I/I0 = t LnT, aaea t –
oieueia e?enoaeea; O – iaoo?aeueiue eiaa?eoi ae?iae, iiyoiio T = e-a,
aaea a – eiyooeoeeaio iiaeiuaiey. Ionthaea e iieo/aaony caeii Aoaa?a –
Eaiaa?oa:

I = I0e-at, eee Ln I/I0 = Ln T = -at, eee Ln I/I0 = Ln 1/T = at (2.5).

Ethieianoeaioeey

Ethieianoeaioeey – ia?aaiiaaniia eceo/aiea, i?aaenoaaeythuaa niaie
ecauoie iaae oaieiaui eceo/aieai i?e aeaiiie oaiia?aoo?a e
oa?aeoa?ecothuaany aeeeoaeueiinoueth, nouanoaaiii i?aauoathuae ia?eiae
naaoiauo eieaaaiee (10-10 n e aieueoa) [15]. Aieueoay aeeeoaeueiinoue
ethieianoeaioiuo i?ioeannia iieacuaaao, /oi iaaeaeo aeoaie iiaeiuaiey e
eceo/aiey i?ioaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, niioaaonoaothuaa a?aiaie
ia?aiina yia?aee io iano iiaeiuaiey e ianoai eceo/aiey [16].

Aeey oiai, /oiau e?enoaee noae ethieianoee?othuei, iaiaoiaeeia
aeinoaoi/iay eiioeaio?aoeey oae iacuaaaiuo oeaio?ia naa/aiey a aai
?aoaoea, ?ieue eioi?uo auiieiytho a iniiaiii aeaoaeou no?oeoo?u. E oaeei
aeaoaeoai ioiinyony anyeea ia?ooaiey ia?eiaee/iinoe a no?iaiee
e?enoaeea, aeeth/ay naiaiaeiua yeaeo?iiu e aeu?ee [17,18]. Yoi, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, oi/a/iua aeaoaeou e?enoaeea, eiathuea aoiiiua ?acia?u
(aaeainee, iaaeaeoocaeueiua aoiiu e aoiiu ?anoai?aiiuo a e?enoaeea
i?eianae e o.ae.). Oeaio?u naa/aiey /aua anaai naycaiu n i?eianiuie
aeaoaeoaie – aeoeaaoi?iua oeaio?u [17,19,11]. Nianoaaiiua aeaoaeou
oaeaea aoiaeyo a ninoaa iaeioi?uo oeaio?ia naa/aiey [17,19,20].

A caaeneiinoe io aeaea yia?aee, eniieuecoaiie aeey aicaoaeaeaiey,
?acee/atho oioiethieianoeaioeeth (aicaoaeaeaiea naaoiauie oioiiaie),
?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeeth (aicaoaeaeaiea ?aioaaiianeeie eo/aie),
eaoiaeiethieianoeaioeeth (aicaoaeaeaiea iioieaie yeaeo?iiia),
yeaeo?iethieianoeaioeeth (aicaoaeaeaiea yeaeo?e/aneei iieai) e o.ae.

Ethieianoeaioeey ai anao neo/ayo aicieeaao i?e ia?aoiaea
ethieianoee?othuaai aauanoaa ec aicaoaeaeaiiiai ninoiyiea a
iaaicaoaeaeaiiia (iniiaiia). Aicaoaeaeaiiia ninoiyiea iiaeao auoue
e?aoeia?aiaiiui eee oaea?aeeaaoueny aeeeoaeueiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, ii
ai anao neo/ayo iii ianoaaeeueii. Ia?aoiue ia?aoiae niaa?oaaony
aacuceo/aoaeueii eee n eceo/aieai ?aciie aeeeoaeueiinoe. Ii
aeeeoaeueiinoe ethieianoeaioeee ?acee/atho oethi?anoeaioeeth
(e?aoeia?aiaiiia naa/aiea) e oinoi?anoeaioeeth (aeeeoaeueiia naa/aiea).

Ii oa?aeoa?o eeiaoeee ?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu ethieianoeaioeee
(?en.1):

a) ?aciiainiay ethieianoeaioeey. Iaaethaeaaony a oii neo/aa, anee aoii
(eii) aica?auaaony a iniiaiia ninoiyiea, enioneay oioii hv oie aea
/anoiou, /oi e iiaeiuaiiue. A e?enoaeeao ?aciiainiay ethieianoeaioeey
i?aeoe/anee ia ioia/aaony.

?en.1. Noaiu yia?aaoe/aneeo ia?aoiaeia i?e ?acee/iuo i?ioeannao
ethieianoeaioeee: a – ?aciiainiay ethieianoeaioeey, a – niiioaiiay
ethieianoeaioeey n iaeiei i?iiaaeooi/iui ia?aoiaeii, a – auioaeaeaiiay
ethieianoeaioeey n iaeiei iaoanoaaeeueiui o?iaiai

?en.2. Ciiiay noaia ?aeiiaeiaoeeiiiiai naa/aiey: A – o?iaie aeoeaaoi?a,
E – eiaooee. a – aicaoaeaeaiea /a?ac oeaio? naa/aiey n iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
?aeiiaeiaoeeae iinea aicaoaeaeaiey; a – aicaoaeaeaiea /a?ac oeaio?
naa/aiey n ?aeiiaeiaoeeae iinea inaiaiaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiia ec eiaooae; a
– aicaoaeaeaiea /a?ac aaeaioioth ciio n iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ?aeiiaeiaoeeae
iinea aicaoaeaeaiey; a – aicaoaeaeaiea /a?ac aaeaioioth ciio n
?aeiiaeiaoeeae iinea inaiaiaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiia ec eiaooae.

a) Niiioaiiay ethieianoeaioeey. Aeeth/aao ia?aoiaeu n aunoeo
aicaoaeaeaiiuo ninoiyiee ia yia?aaoe/aneee o?iaaiue, n eioi?iai
i?ienoiaeeo eceo/aiea. Yoio aeae ethieianoeaioeee oa?aeoa?ai aeey
i?eianiuo oeaio?ia a eiiiuo e?enoaeeao e iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai a
i?e?iaeiuo ieia?aeao.

a) Auioaeaeaiiay, eee iaoanoaaeeueiay, ethieianoeaioeey. Naycaia n
i?aauaaieai aicaoaeaeaiiuo yeaeo?iiia ia oae iacuaaaiuo iaoanoaaeeueiuo
o?iaiyo, ?aniieaaathueony ianeieueei ieaea iau/iiai eceo/aoaeueiiai
o?iaiy. Iineaaeothuee ia?aoiae ia o?iaaiue eceo/aiey inouanoaeyaony
aneaaenoaea iiaeiuaiey yia?aee oaieiauo eieaaaiee eee aeiiieieoaeueiiai
eaaioa naaoa, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai eceo/aiea i?ienoiaeeo n aieueoei
caiacaeuaaieai.

a) ?aeiiaeiaoeeiiiay ethieianoeaioeey (?en.2) iaaethaeaaony, anee i?e
aicaoaeaeaiee eiiece?othony oeaio?u, a i?ioeanna /aai ia?acothony aeaa
?aciieiaiii ca?yaeaiiua e iacaaeneiua ae?oa io ae?oaa eiiiiiaiou. A
e?enoaeea – yoi ia?aaiiaaniua iineoaee ca?yaea (naiaiaeiua yeaeo?iiu eee
aeu?ee), i?eaiaeyuea e iiyaeaieth yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe. Eceo/aiea
i?ienoiaeeo i?e ?aeiiaeiaoeee i?ioeaiiieiaeii ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe ia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaio?ao (aeoeaaoi?ao), iiyoiio iaoaieci oaeiai
aicaoaeaeaiey ethieianoeaioeee iacuaatho ?aeiiaeiaoeeiiiui.

Iniaaiiinoe naa/aiey ieia?aeia i?e ?aioaaiianeii aicaoaeaeaiee

I?e ia?ae/iii aeoa acaeiiaeaenoaey eiiece?othuae ?aaeeaoeee n e?enoaeeii
a iai ca a?aiy ii?yaeea 10-11n aicieeatho yeaeo?iiu aieueoie yia?aee,
nicaeathuea a e?enoaeea eaneaaeu aoi?e/iuo yeaeo?iiia [16]. Yoe
yeaeo?iiu nicaeatho ianoaaeeueiua aicaoaeaeaiey ?aoaoee, eioi?ua ca
10-10~10-14n ?aniaaeathony ia coaaeeueiua yeaiaioa?iua aicaoaeaeaiey –
yeaeo?iiii-aeu?i/iua ia?u e yeneoiiu.

A aieueoeinoaa oeie/iuo e?enoaeeioinoi?ia aa?iyoiinoue i?yiie
?aeiiaeiaoeee yeaeo?iiia e aeu?ie (ia?aoiae ciia – ciia) iaea. Iea?e?oy
ii ?aoaoea, iie ia?aaeatho naith yia?aeth oeaio?o naa/aiey, nicaeaaay
eieaeeciaaiiua aicaoaeaeaiiua ninoiyiey, eioi?ua ?ac?ooathony n
enioneaieai eaaioia naaoa ethieianoeaioeee eee oiiiiia. ?acee/atho aeaa
iniiaiuo iaoaiecia ia?aaea/e yia?aee io iniiaiiai aauanoaa e oeaio?ai
naa/aiey: yeaeo?iiii-aeu?i/iue e yeneoiiiue.

Auaeaeytho /aou?a ?aciiaeaeiinoe yeaeo?iiii-aeu?i/iiai iaoaiecia
ia?aaea/e yia?aee, i?aaenoaaeyaiua neaaeothueie oneiaiuie ?aaeoeeyie:

A+e++e- -> Ae++e- -> Ae+e- -> A* -> A+ hv (2.6)

A+e-+e+ -> Ae-+e+ -> Ae-e+ -> A* -> A+ hv; (2.7)

A+R+e++e- -> A+Re++e- -> A+Re+e- -> A+R* -> A*+R ->A+R+ hv; (2.8)

A+R+e-+e+ -> A+Re-+e+ -> A+Re-e+ -> A+R* -> A*+R ->A+R+ hv; (2.9)

Caeanue A – oeaio? ethieianoeaioeee a iniiaiii ninoiyiee, R – oeaio?
?aeiiaeiaoeee, e+ – aeu?ea, e- – yeaeo?ii, A* – oeaio? ethieianoeaioeee
a aicaoaeaeaiiii ninoiyiee, hv – eaaio ethieianoeaioeee. Iaoaieciu
(2.6), (2.7) inouanoaeythony /aua, (2.8), (2.9) – ?aaea.

I?ioeann yeneoiiiie ia?aaea/e yia?aee iiaeao auoue noaiaoe/anee
i?aaenoaaeai a aeaea neaaeothuae ?aaeoeee

A+e0 -> Ae0 -> A* -> A+ hv. (2.10)

Caeanue A e A* – oeaio? ethieianoeaioeee a iniiaiii e aicaoaeaeaiiii
ninoiyieyo, e0 – yeneoii, hv – eaaio eceo/aaiiai naaoa.

3. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?acoeueoaou

3.1. Ia?acoeu aeey enneaaeiaaiey

Enneaaeiaaii iyoue ia?acoeia eaiaiiie niee ec eioi?uo auei i?eaioiaeaii
ieiei nioie i?aia?aoia. Ia?acaoe ec Iieueoe aue i?aaeinoaaeai aeey
enneaaeiaaiee I.I.THoeeiui ec ee/iie eieeaeoeee, a Nieeeaineea ia?acoeu
– iocaai Einoeoooa aaieiaee. Eco/aaiua ia?acoeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
aanoeaaoiua iiiie?enoaeeu i?e?iaeiiai aaeeoa, n iaeanoyie neiaai
ie?aoeaaiey. E?enoaeeu e?oiiua, iai?eia? iieueneee ia?acaoe eiaao
?acia?u i?eaeeceoaeueii 5?7?10 ni. Iaeanoe ie?aoeaaiey eiatho /aoeea
i/a?oaiey aanoi?iaiiuo cae?oaeaiiuo iaeaeiaeaeiuo iyoai. A?aieoea
iaaeaeo neiae e i?ic?a/iie ?aciinoyie io/aoeeaay ia?aciuoay. A
ie?aoaiiuo o/anoeao iaaethaeaaony /aoeay ia?inoiaay ciiaeueiinoue. Eeiee
ciiaeueiinoe ia?aeeaeueiu ieineinoyi (100) e (110) e?enoaeeia,
ia?anaeathony, ia?acoy ?enoiie a aeaea naoee. Oioia?aoee iaeioi?uo ec
enneaaeiaaiiuo e?enoaeeia e niaeiuo aueieie ec ieo iiiauaiu a
I?eeiaeaiea.

Oeaao ie?aoeaaiey e?enoaeeia a i?ioiaeyuai naaoa aa?uee?oao io
naaoei-neiaai aei oaiii-oeieaoiaiai. A io?aaeaiiii naaoa, ia?acoeu n
iaeaieaa eioaineaiie ie?aneie, auaeyaeyo ao?uie, o.a. aeaeai eiion
Oeiaeaey, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuee i ?annayiee naaoa ia eieeieaeiuo
/anoeoeao.

Aeey eco/aiey niaeo?ineiie/aneeie iaoiaeaie eiathuaainy a e?enoaeeao
ie?aoeaaiey io ia?acoeia auee ioaeaeaiu neiea e aanoeaaoiua o/anoee.
Aeaeaa ii niaeiinoe iie ?aneaeuaaeenue ia neiea e aanoeaaoiua ieanoeiee
oieueiie i?eia?ii 0,5 – 3 ii.

Aeaiiua ?aioaaii-no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca

?aioaaii-no?oeoo?iue aiaeec aue i?eiaiai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia
yeaiaioa?iuo y/aae a enneaaeoaiuo ia i?e?iaeo ie?anee e?enoaeeao aaeeoa.
Aue iinoaaeai aii?in – anoue ee ?acieoea a ia?aiao?ao yeaiaioa?iuo y/aae
niee ie?aoaiiie a neiee oeaao e niee iaie?aoaiiie. Aeey aiaeeca auee
i?eaioiaeaiu 10 ia?acoeia ii?ioeia (ii iyoue eaaeaeie ?aciinoe).
Ia?acoeu aaeeoa ae?iaeeenue e eciaeue/aeenue a yoiiaie nooiea oae, eae
yoi aeaeaeinue aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ia?acoeia aeey iieoeiee/anoaaiiiai
niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca. ?aioaaiianeea aeeoo?aeoia?aiiu iieo/aiu a
eaai?aoi?ee no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca A.Eaaeenii.

I?e iiiiue ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey CuKa (1,54ii) auee iieo/aiu iaci?iua
?aioaaiia?aiiu e aeaoaeueiay oi?ia ?aoeaena (200). Ia iaci?iuo

?aioaaiia?aiiao ?acee/ea iaaethaeaaony iaaeaeo neiae e aanoeaaoiie
nieueth oieueei a eioaineaiinoe ieeia (o neiae niee aeaaiue iaeneioi ia
3,5 % aieueoa /ai o aanoeaaoiie i?e oii aea iieiaeaiee). Ia ?en.3
i?eaiaeeony iaci?iay ?aioaaiia?aiia aanoeaaoiiai ia?acoea aaeeoa (o
ae?oaeo ia?acoeia ?aioaaiia?aiiu noiaeiu n i?eaaaeaiiie).

Ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aiao?a yeaiaioa?iie y/aeee i?iecaaaeaii ii ?aoeaeno
(200). Oneiaey i?e eioi?uo iaaethaeathony aeeo?aeoeeiiiua ?aoeaenu,
caaeaaony caeiiii Aoeueoa-A?aaaa:

(3.1)

aaea d – iaaeieineinoiia ?annoiyiea, Q – oaie aeeo?aeoeeiiiiai
iaeneioia, l – aeeeia aieiu ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey, n – ii?yaeie
aeeo?aeoeee. Aeey e?enoaeeia eoae/aneie neiaiiee iiaeii caienaoue
neaaeothuaa niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ia?aiao?ii yeaiaioa?iie y/aeee e
eiaeaenaie Itheea?a e aaee/eiie iaaeieineinoiiai ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo
naoeaie, iaoneaaeeaathueie aeaiiue ?aoeaen:

(3.2)

?en.4. ?aioaaiia?aiia ?aoeaena (200) aeey aanoeaaoiiai e neiaai
ia?acoeia e niioaaonoaothuea ei aii?ieneie?iaaiiua ooieoeeae Aaonna
eiioo?u.

?en.3.Iaci?iay ?aioaaiia?aiia aaeeoa

Eiiaeie?oy aeaiiia au?aaeaiea n oneiaeai aicieeiiaaiey ?aoeaena i?e n=1
iieo/aai:

(3.3)

Aeey aieaa oi/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey oaea aeeo?aeoeee eiioo? ?aoeaena (200)
aii?ieneie?iaaeny ooieoeeae Aaonna (?en.4):

(3.4)

aaea A – ieiuaaeue iiae eiioo?ii, W – aai iieooe?eia, Xc – iieiaeaiea
oeaio?a, X – oaeouaa cia/aiea oaea 2Q. A i?aaeaeao iia?aoiinoe ecia?aiee
neiyy e aanoeaaoiay ?aciinoe ia ?acee/athony ii iacaaiiui ia?aiao?ai.
Iieiaeaiea ?aoeaena (200) e ia?aiao?u yeaiaioa?iie y/aeee a ia?acoeao
i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 1.

Oaaeeoea 1

Cia/aiey oaeia e ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioa?iuo y/aae a enneaaeoaiuo
ia?acoeao.

Neiee

i?ic?

ia?acaoe 2q, a?. d(2q) a, ii d(a) 2q, a?. d(2q) a, ii d(a)

Iieueoa 31,697 0,003 0,564 0,003 31,700 0,003 0,564 0,003

Nie.1 31,675 0,006 0,564 0,004 31,794 0,006 0,562 0,004

Nie.2 31,713 0,006 0,564 0,004 31,694 0,006 0,564 0,004

Nie.3 31,688 0,006 0,564 0,004 31,713 0,006 0,564 0,004

Nie.4 31,694 0,006 0,564 0,004 31,813 0,006 0,562 0,004

Iieo/aiiua cia/aiey ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioa?iuo y/aae ai anao ia?acoeao
niaiaaeatho n eeoa?aoo?iui cia/aieai a=0,564 ii. Iaee/ea no?oeoo?iuo
aeaoaeoia a ia?acoeao neiae niee, yaeythueony ioaaonoaaiiuie ca
ie?aoeaaiea, ia neacuaaaony ia ia?aiao?ao yeaiaioa?iuo y/aae.

3.3. I?eianiie ninoaa aaeeoa

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?eianiuo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia a ia?acoeao (neiai e
i?ic?a/iii) aaeeoa ec Nieeeainea e Iieueoe eniieueciaaeny
iieoeiee/anoaaiiue niaeo?aeueiue yienneiiiue aiaeec. Ieanoeiee neiae e
i?ic?a/iie ?aciinoe iinea iaiaauaiey ae?iaeeenue, a caoai eciaeue/aeenue
a yoiiaie nooiea aei ninoiyiey neeiathuaeny ioae?u. Neeiathuayny ioae?a
?anoe?aeanue aeiiieieoaeueii ieiei 15 ieioo aeey iaeaieaa iieiiai e
ouaoaeueiiai eciaeue/aiey. Iieoeiee/anoaaiiue niaeo?aeueiue aiaeec
i?iaiaeeeny a eaai?aoi?ee niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca.

?acoeueoaou aiaeeca i?ieeethno?e?iaaiu a oaaeeoea 2. Nieue ec Iieueoe
eiaao cia/eoaeueii iaiueoaa eiee/anoai i?eianae a n?aaiaiee n nieueth
Nieeeainea. A neiae ?aciinoe Iieueneiai ia?acoea i?eianae a ianeieueei
?ac iaiueoa /ai a i?ic?a/iie. Iaeiaei a ia?acoeao ec Nieeeainea
iiaeiaiia iaaethaeaaony ia anaaaea. A iniiaiii neiyy nieue /eua, /ai
i?ic?a/iay.

Ec i?eianiuo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, iaia?oaeaiiuo a enneaaeoaiuo
ia?acoeao, iaeaieueoee aeeaae a noiia?ioth eiioeaio?aoeeth ianoo oaeea
yeaiaiou eae: Si-0,25 a/o a ia?acoea Nieeeaine1, Mg-0,15 a/o a
Nieeeainea4, Ti-0,025 a/o e La-0,02 a/o a Nieeeainea2. Ae?oaeo
yeaiaioia, eiioeaio?aoeee eioi?uo aiciiaeii aianee au aieaa aaniiue
aeeaae a noiio eiioeaio?aoeee i?eiane, i?iaaaeaiiui iaoiaeii iaia?oaeaii
ia auei. A caiaoea I.I.*e?aeineiai i neiae eaiaiiie niee Nieeeaineiai
ianoi?iaeaeaiey [14], iiaeii iaeoe ?acoeueoao aiaeeca neiae niee: NaCl –
98.17, KCl+RbCl – 0.54, MgCl2 0.07. Ec yoiai ?acoeueoaoa iiaeii
ii/a?iiooue iaee/ea ?oaeaeey e eaeey, ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aeieaiaeeaouea
ecioiiu eioi?uo iiaee auoue oaie yeaiaioaie, eceo/aiea eioi?uo a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, i?eaaei e ia?aciaaieth oeaio?ia ie?anee –
F-aa?aaaoiuo oeaio?ia.

Oaaeeoea 2

Eiioeaio?aoeey i?eianiuo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia a a/o a ia?acoeao niee ec
Nieeeainea e Iieueoe.

Neiyy nieue Aanoeaaoiay nieue

Iieueoa Nie-ne1 Nie-ne2 Nie-ne3 Nie-ne4 Iieueoa Nie-ne1 Nie-ne2 Nie-ne3
Nie-ce4

Mn —– —– —– >1, (R4. Iiaeaeue ?inoa ie?aoaiiuo e?enoaeeia aaeeoa Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiuo yenia?eiaioia e niioaaonoaothueo auaiaeia i?aaeeaaaaony neaaeothuay iiaeaeue ia?aciaaiey i?ic?a/iuo aanoeaaoiuo aaeeoia n iaeanoyie neiaai ie?aoeaaiey. A niaeo?ao iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey i?ic?a/iuo ia?acoeia eaeeo-eeai /aoeeo iiein iiaeiuaiey ia iaia?oaeaii. A neiai aaeeoa i?enoonoaotho iieinu iiaeiuaiey aa?aaaoiuo F-oeaio?ia e eioaineaiay iieina, ioiaeaeanoaeyaiay n eieeieaeiuie /anoeoeaie. Iaee/ea eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe neaaeoao oaeaea ec iaaethaeaiee eiiona ?annayiey Oeiaeaey e ?aaeno?aoeee aoiiii-neeiaui iee?ineiiii iaiaeii?iaeiinoae oa?aeoa?iuo ?acia?ia a neiae niee. ?en.20. Niaeo?u iiaeiuaiey i?ic?a/iiai ia?acoea Nieeeaine3 (1 - aei iaeo/aiey, 2 - iinea iaeo/aiey ?aioaaiii, 3 - /a?ac 3 ianyoea iinea iaeo/aiey). ?en.21. Niaeo?u iiaeiuaiey neiaai ia?acoea Nieeaine3 (1- aei iaeo/aiey, 2 - iinea iaeo/aiey ?aioaaiii, 3 - /a?ac 3 ianyoea iinea iaeo/aiey). Oaaeeoea 6 Eciaiaiea eioaa?aeueiie eioaineaiinoe iiein iiaeiuaiey a iioe/aneeo niaeo?ao Nieeeaineiai aaeeoa Oeaio?u Aanoeaaoiue Neiee ie?anee, ?annayiey Enoiaeiue Iinea iaeo/aiey Nionoy 3 ianyoea Enoiaeiue Iinea iaeo/aiey Nionoy 3 ianyoea F-oeaio? 0 0.481 0.113 0.042 0.443 0.374 I-oeaio? 0 0.009 0.050 0 0.019 0.039 Eiee. /anoeoeu 0 0 0 0.118 0.094 0.276 A ?acoeueoaoa ?aioaaiianeiai iaeo/aiey aanoeaaoiua e?enoaeeu i?eia?aoatho aeaeoi-ei?e/iaaoth ie?aneo, a ieo iiyaeythony aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee F-oeaio?ia e n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoea niaea?aeaiey I-oeaio?ia. Iinea 3-o iany/iie auaea?aeee e?enoaeeia a eiiiaoiuo oneiaeyo i?ienoiaeeo neeueiia nieaeaiea iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey a F-oeaio?ao e iaeiia?aiaiiia aic?anoaiea iiaeiuaiey I-oeaio?ia - aa?aaaoece?iaaiiie ia?u F-oeaio?ia (?en.20.). Aiaeiae/iua yooaeou iaaethaeathony e a neiae niee. E?iia oiai a ieo ?anoao e iieina iiaeiuaiey eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe (?en.21). *eneaiiua cia/aiey eioaineaiinoae iniiaiuo iiein iiaeiuaiey a enoiaeiuo, iaeo/aiiuo e auaea?aeaiiuo a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa ia?acoeia aanoeaaoiie e neiae niee i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 6. Ia iniiaa yoeo aeaiiuo iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iaaethaeaaiay neiyy ie?anea a enneaaeoaiuo ia?acoeao aicieeea a ?acoeueoaoa i?e?iaeiiai iaeo/aiey. *aoeay iae?enoaeeia?aoe/aneay a?aieoea iaaeaeo neiae e i?ic?a/iie ?aciinoyie aaeeoa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?ioeannao ?anoai?aiey, oae aea eae e aiaeec i?ic?a/iie niee, eioi?ay ia ii?yaeie aiaa/a niaea?aeaieai i?eianae (?en. 22). ?en.22. O?aaiaio e?enoaeea neiae niee ni neaaeaie auiieiaiey o?auei aaeeoii iiaie aaia?aoeee. ?en.23. Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey aanoeaaoiiai aaeeoa n iaeanoyie neiaai ie?aoeaaiey: a - enoiaeiue aaeeo-neeueaeieoiaue n?inoie: a - neeueaeieo ?anoai?ai, aaeeo ?acae?iaeai: a - caea/eaaiea neiaai ?ac?ooaiiiai e?enoaeea i?ic?a/iui aaeeoii iiaie aaia?aoeee. Iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue neaaeothuoth iiaeaeue ia?aciaaiey aaeeoa n iyoienoie neiae ie?aneie. I?ic?a/iue aanoeaaoiue aaeeo ia eiioaeoe n eaeeeiui ieia?aeia neeueaeiii (KCl) (?en.23) iiaeaa?aaeny aicaeaenoaeth a oa/aiee aeeeoaeueiiai aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie eiiece?othuaai eceo/aiey, enoi/ieeii eioi?iai aue ecioii eaeey ?aaeeiaeoeaiue 40E. A ?acoeueoaoa iaeo/aiey i?iecioei ia?aciaaiea F-oeaio?ia. Iineaaeiea, a naith i/a?aaeue a?oiie?oynue ia?aciauaaee F-aa?aaaoiua oeaio?u (M, R, N), a caoai e eieeieaeiua /anoeoeu iaoaeee/aneiai iao?ey - i?ienoiaeeei ie?aoeaaiea a neiee oeaao. Caoai a ?acoeueoaoa i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia, oaeeo eae ?ac?yaeea oaeoiie/aneeo iai?yaeaiee e auuaea/eaaiea, i?iecioei ?anoai?aiea neeueaeieoiaie eiiiiiaiou aa?aaaoa e ?ano?aneeaaiea inoaaoaeny neiae niee. A aeaeueiaeoai i?iecioei caea/eaaiea ia?aciaaaoeony ionoio aieaa iicaeiei aaeeoii. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaeny i?ic?a/iue aaeeo n ?aeeeoiauie aeeth/aieyie neiaai aaeeoa. CAEETH*AIEA Oeaeueth i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyeinue eiiieaeniia niaeo?ineiie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea eaiaiiie niee Nieeeaineiai e Iieueneiai ianoi?iaeaeaiee e ?ac?aaioea iiaeaee i?e?iaeiiai neiaai ie?aoeaaiey. E?enoaeeu aaeeoa auee enneaaeiaaiu iaoiaeaie niaeo?ineiiee iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey e ?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeee. Iie ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu oaeaea ?aioaaii-no?oeoo?iui, iieoeiee/anoaaiiui niaeo?aeueiui yienneiiiui aiaeecaie e iaoiaeii aoiiii-neeiaie iee?ineiiee. A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee iieo/aiu niaeo?ineiie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee e?enoaeeia aaeeoa ?acee/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. A niaeo?ao iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey ie?aoaiiuo ia?acoeia iaia?oaeaiu e eaeaioeoeoee?iaaiu neaaeothuea iieinu iiaeiuaiey: 1.84-2.04yA (654-606ii) - eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe; 2.37-2.48yA (522-498ii) - R-oeaio?ia; 2.79-2.90yA (443-426ii). - F-oeaio?ia; 3.20-3.42yA (386-361ii) e 3.49-3.70yA (354-334ii) - Vk-oeaio?ia. Ioeaiaiu ?acia?u e eiioeaio?aoeey eieeieaeiiai iao?ey. ?acia?u eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe aa?uee?otho a aeeaiaciia 45-80 ii, eiioeaio?aoeey -(0.2 - 3.3)*10-4%. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ioeaiee aeeaaeia eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe e yeaeo?iiii-aeu?i/iuo oeaio?ia a iioe/aneia iiaeiuaiea aaeeoa, iicaieythuay ?acaeaeeoue a ia?acoeao eaiaiiie niee eieeieaeiue, yeaeo?iiii-aeu?i/iue e niaoaiiue oeiu ie?aoeaaiey. Aeey iainiiaaiey e iiaeaee?iaaiey neiaai ie?aoeaaiey aanoeaaoiuo aaeeoia a i?e?iaea eco/aii aeeyiea eiiece?othuaai eceo/aiey ia iioe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ie?aoaiiuo e iaie?aoaiiuo ia?acoeia. Iieacaii, /oi i?e iaeo/aiee aaeeoa ?aioaaiii i?ienoiaeeo i?aeiouanoaaiiia i?e?auaiea iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey a iieina F-oeaio?ia. Iieo/aiu eeiaoe/aneea o?aaiaiey, iienuaathuea i?ioeannu iaeiieaiey F-oeaio?ia a aaeeoa iiae aeaenoaeai ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey. I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea ioeaiee no?oeoo?iie aeaoaeoiinoe e?enoaeeia eaiaiiie niee ii aiaeeco iniaaiiinoae eeiaoeee ?E F-oeaio?ia. ?ac?aaioaia iiaeaeue ia?aciaaiey a i?e?iaea iiiie?enoaeeia aanoeaaoiiai aaeeoa n iyoienoie neiae ie?aneie. A ?aieao yoie iiaeaee auaeaeaiu neaaeothuea iniiaiua yoaiu: Ie?aoeaaiea e?enoaeeia aaeeoa ia eiioaeoe n neeueaeiii Oece/aneia e oeie/aneia ?ac?ooaiea neeueaeieoiaie eiiiiiaiou aa?aaaoa e ?ano?aneeaaiea neiae niee. Caea/eaaiea ia?aciaaaoeony ionoio aieaa iicaeiei aaeeoii o.a. ia?aciaaiea i?ic?a/iiai iiiie?enoaeea aaeeoa n iaeanoyie neiaai ie?aoeaaiey. Eeoa?aoo?a 1. Ia?ooiei A.N. Aaaaeaiea a oeceeo ieia?aeia. I.,“Iaae?a”, 1974, 328 n. 2. Oao?aiianeee E.E. Cai. Anan. iei. ia-aa, 1960, 89, aui.1,5. 3. Aaeyoei I.A. O?. I.-e. ei-oa aaeo?aee, 1952, aui.23,25. 4. Aeoaeieia A.E. O?. I.-e ei-oa aaeo?aee, 1954, aui. 29, 3. 5. ?iaeaineee A.I., Ia?aiaa A.A., Noaiaiiaa A.I., I?aaeaiaeeoaeaa A.A. E?enoaeeia?aoey, 1961, 6, aui.5, 737. 6. Aeoaeieia A.I. AeAI NNN?, 1951, 79, N5, 859. 7. ss?aeaineee ss.ss. Cai. Anan. iei. ia-aa, 1958, 87 aui.5, 607. 8. Eocueiei A.I. Aaieiaey e aaioeceea, 1960, N6, 60. 9. Aa?aa? ?.E., Ee?eeeia A.N. E?enoaeeia?aoey, 1962, 7, aui.1, 142. 10. Ionoueueieeia A.I. I i?ienoiaeaeaiee neiae ie?anee aaeeoa eaia?eeneeo nieyiuo ioeiaeaiee Neae?neie ieaooi?iu. Eeoieiaey e iieaciua eneiiaaiua, 1975-3. N 152-157. 11.Ioea?ai E. Ie?anea e ethieianoeaioeey ieia?aeia. I., “Eiino?aiiay eeoa?aoo?a”, 1959. A?aneee N.A. Aiaiaa?eaeca Ae.A., Oea?iaa I.I. Na.: “E?enoaeeia?aoey” I?aecaeao, 1951, aui.1, 171. Aiiieiiia A.I., Eiuoa Ae.A., Enneaaeiaaiea ie?anee aaeeoa e neeueaeia eaeeeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee//Oeceei-oeie/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe inaaeeiiaeiieaiey a niea?iaeiuo aannaeiao. I., Iaoea, 1986. N.44-52. 14. *e?aeineee I.I. Cai. Iei. ia-aa, Caiaoea i neiae eaiaiiie niee Nieeeaineiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey// 1943, 72, aui. 1, 51. Aaaeeia N.E. Iee?ino?oeoo?a naaoa. I., Ecae-ai AINNN?, 1950. 198 n. Oa?auai A.I. Ethieianoeaioeey ieia?aeia. E., “Iaoeiaa .aeoiea”, 1978. 296 n. Ao?ae/ A.I. ?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeaiee i oeie/aneie i?e?iaea oeaio?ia naa/aiey oeeie-noeueoeaeiuo ethieiioi?ia.- Oniaoe oeiee, 1966, 35, aui.8, n.1495-1526. 18. Eth?e Ae. Ethieianoeaioeey e?enoaeeia. I., Ecae-ai eiino?. eeo., 1961. 199 n. 19. Eaaoei A.E. Oioiethieianoeaioeey aeeaeeeo e oaa?aeuo aauanoa. I., Ainoaoecaeao. ?aoo ?. Oioiethieianoeaioeey oeaio?ia ie?anee a e?enoaeeao uaei/iicaiaeueiuo ooi?eaeia.- Eca. AI NNN?, 1973, 37. Na?. oec., N3, n.394-395. Noioioyi A. I. Oai?ey aeaoaeoia a oaa?aeuo oaeao. O. 2. I., ecaeaoaeuenoai “Ie?”, 1978 Aoe?ioo I., Ia?iei I. Oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea. O. 2, I.,"Ie?". 23. ?iaiaeei A.A, Ai?iaaoe A.N., ?yaaiei N.A. “I i?e?iaea ethieianoeaioeee aaeieaeiuo e aaeieaeiniaea?aeaueo ieia?aeia”.Iei. AEo?iae 1982 a. 3-2, no?. 48 24. Ii?oeaiiae/ E.A., Naeiiaoia A.I. Ethieianoeaioeey e?enoaeee/aneeo aauanoa (O/aaiia iiniaea). EAO eiaie AEaeaiiaa A.A. E?eoone, 1977. I?eeiaeaiea ?en.1. Niaeo?u iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey ia?acoeia neiae e i?ic?a/iie niee ec Nieeeainea e Iieueoe. ?en.2. Aeaeiiiiceoeey niaeo?ia iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey eaiaiiie niee. ?en.2. I?iaeieaeaiea... Oaaeeoea 1 Ia?aiao?u ei?aioeaauo ninoaaeythueo a niaeo?ao iiaeiuaiey enneaaeoaiuo ia?acoeia. Ia?acaoe Ieiuaaeue Iieiaeaiea yA ii Oe?eia, yA Aunioa, ii-1 Nieeeaine1 0,142 1,95 634 0,33 0,27 Nieeeaine2 0,206 2,00 618 0,35 0,37 Eieeieaeiua Nieeeaine3 0,111 2,03 609 0,46 0,15 /anoeoeu Nieeeaine4o 0,583 1,99 621 0,56 0,66 Nieeeaine4n 0,205 2,04 606 0,42 0,31 Iieueoa 0,828 1,89 654 0,33 1,60 Nieeeaine1 0,048 2,43 509 0,31 0,10 Nieeeaine2 0,050 2,42 511 0,28 0,11 R - oeaio? Nieeeaine3 0,024 2,44 507 0,45 0,03 Nieeeaine4o 0,150 2,42 511 0,33 0,29 Nieeeaine4n 0,021 2,48 498 0,21 0,06 Iieueoa 0,315 2,37 522 0,34 0,59 Nieeeaine1 0,020 2,88 429 0,39 0,03 Nieeeaine2 - - - - - F - oeaio? Nieeeaine3 - - - - - Nieeeaine4o 0,123 2,84 435 0,37 0,21 Nieeeaine4n 0,017 2,90 426 0,40 0,03 Iieueoa 0,101 2,79 443 0,29 0,22 Nieeeaine1 0,043 3,37 367 0,49 0,06 Nieeeaine2 0,076 3,39 365 0,64 0,08 V1 - oeaio? Nieeeaine3 0,056 3,42 361 0,85 0,04 Nieeeaine4o 0,109 3,20 386 0,43 0,16 Nieeeaine4n 0,047 3,39 365 0,51 0,06 Iieueoa 0,256 3,22 384 0,62 0,26 Nieeeaine1 0,031 3,70 334 0,33 0,06 Nieeeaine2 0,043 3,67 337 0,32 0,09 V2 - oeaio? Nieeeaine3 - - - - - Nieeeaine4o 0,299 3,49 354 0,61 0,31 Nieeeaine4n 0,027 3,64 340 0,31 0,06 Iieueoa 0,283 3,57 346 0,59 0,30 ?en.3. Yaiethoeey niaeo?ia iioe/aneiai iiaeiuaiey eaiaiiie niee i?e iaeo/aiee ?aioaaiianeei eceo/aieai. ?en.3. I?iaeieaeaiea... ?en.3. I?iaeieaeaiea... ?en.4. Niaeo?u iiaeiuaiey ia?acoea Nieeeaine3 iinea iaeo/aiey ?aioaaiianeei eceo/aieai a oa/aiea 4,5/ana (neiaai) e 5,6/ana (i?ic?a/iiai), ?aceiaeaiiua ia ioaeaeueiua. ?en.5. ?acai?aiea ?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeee a ia?acoeao neiae e i?ic?a/iie ?aciinoe aaeeoa a iieinao (naa?oo - aiec): 390 - 460 - 250 ii. ?en.6. Caaeneiinoue eiyooeoeeaioa iiaeiuaiey io a?aiaie iaeo/aiey ?aioaaiianeei eceo/aieai a iieina F-oeaio?a. PAGE PAGE 2 t, iei Y Nieeeaine2 - i?ic?a/iue 0 100 200 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 A, yA k, ii-1 Nieeeaine3 - i?ic?a/iue 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Nieeeaine3, neiee A, yA k, ii-1 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 6 5 4 3 2 NaCl a a a KCl NaCl K, ii-1 3 1 2 A, yA Nieeeaine3 - neiee 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.1 3.6 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.6 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 k, ii-1 2 3 1 A, yA Nieeeaine3 - i?ic?a/iue 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.1 3.6 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.6 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 7.4 6 3.2 0 A, yA Iiaeiuaiea Ethieianoeaioeey bn aN g F , ii l Y, o.a. 200 300 400 500 600 700 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 AI 2eA mA IO OIO O?N-2.0 OAe I ENII4 NON 2I AI +5A +15A OYO O OYO 106 aeiiieieoaeueiue eaiae ?aaeno?aoeee eaiae oioiaicaoaeaeaiey Iieueoa, neiee K, ii-1 0,0 0,4 0,8 1,2 1,6 A, yA 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 V C a a a a E A a a a V a b T 1 C S V N 1 2 N M C C V 1

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