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Нильс Бор в физике 19-20 вв.

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Ieeuen Ai?

a oeceea 19-20 aa.

Ca/aoiia caaeaiea ii Enoi?ee oeceee nooaeaioa V-ai eo?na oece/aneiai
oaeoeueoaoa Eaeeoeeiai TH?ey.

A?iaeii 1996a.

Eiiaiaaaai – ae?aaiee e e?aneaue aeaoneee ai?iae. Aia?aua oiiieiaieaony
a enoi?ee n 1043 aiaea iiae iacaaieai Half – aaaaiue. Ia yoaia n XIX ii
XX aaea ii noae aaaaiueth iii?aao aeey naiie a?aiaeeiciie e iaea/eeaie
ee/iinoe a oeceea – Ieeuena Ai?a.

Any aeeciue Ieeuena Ai?a ia?ac?uaii naycaia n Eiiaiaaaaiii. A
Eiiaiaaaaia Ai? ?iaeeeny e au?in. Caeanue ii o/eeny, iaienae iniiaiua
naie ?aaiou, nicaeae anaie?ii-ecaanoiue einoeooo oai?aoe/aneie oeceee.
Ana a aai aeecie naycaii n yoei ai?iaeii.

1. Naiuey Ai?ia.

A

i? ?iaeeeny a i/aiue eioaeeeaaioiie e ia?aciaaiiie naiuea. Ia?aui
i?aaenoaaeoaeai naiuee Ai?ia a aunoai o/aiii naaoa aue aeaae Ieeuena
Ai?a. Ioaoe naiaenoaa – O?enoeai Ai? ia/eiae naith ea?uea?o eae
a?a/-oa?aiaao e aiineaaenoaee i?ineaaeeny eae oeceieia. O?enoeai Ai?
eiae aeieoi?neoth noaiaiue . Aeey iaai, eae aeey enneaaeiaaoaey , auee
niaoeeoe/iu aeaa /a?ou oa?aeoa?a:

– o?enoeai aue i/aiue ne?oioeacai e iaaeaioe/ai a ?aaioa;

– ii anaaaea no?aieeny e oeeinioneiio oieeiaaieth oeceieiaee . O?enoeai
ienae , /oi ii iinoiyiii /oanoaiaae a naaa no?anoue , no?anoue e
anoanoaaiiui iaoeai e enneaaeiaaieth i?e?iaeu. Ioaoe Ieeuena ia
ioai?aaeeaae naay io iieeoeee. O iaai auee i/aiue i?ia?anneaiua acaeyaeu
ii iiaiaeo oiaeienoe/aneie e ieeeoa?enoneie iieeoeee , aeoo eioi?ie
ia/eiae ca?iaeaeaoueny a no?aiao aa?iaineie a?oiiu , e acaeyaeu yoe ii
ia aiyeny auneacuaaoue a ioe?uooth . A 70 aiaeu 19 aaea a Aeaiee
?acaa?ioeanue ai?ueaa ca aeaineoth yiaineiaoeeth e O?enoeai Ai? i?eiye a
iae aeoeaiia o/anoea a ea/anoaa ?aiaoeoi?a aeaineeo eeannia ia nieneaiea
aooanoaoa c?aeinoe. Iaeiie ec aai o/aieoe auea Yeeai Aaeea?, eioi?ay
ieaieea iieiaeiai O?enoeaia e anei?a iie iaaai/aeenue . Ia?aui ?aaaieii
Ai?ia auea Aeaeaieoa? . Iioii 7 ieoya?y 1885 aiaea ?iaeeeny Ieeuen
Oai?ee Aeaaeae – aoaeouee aaeeeee oecee , a /a?ac iieoi?a aiaea 24
ai?aey 1887 aiaea ?iaeeeny aoi?ie nui Oa?aeueae Ai? – noaaoee
aiineaaenoaee ciaiaieoui iaoaiaoeeii . Naiuey Ai?ia aeeea a oeaio?a
Eiiaiaaaaia , a oae iacuaaaiii noa?ii ai?iaea . Iniiaiie /a?oie ,
eioi?ay auaeaeyea yoo naiueth auea aieueoay aeia?ioa e aeooaaiinoue
?iaeeoaeae ii ioiioaieth e naiei aeaoyi . Neooaoeey , eiaaea ioaoe
naiaenoaa iinoiyiii caiyo naiae ?aaioie , eae yoi /anoi auaaao a
aunieieioaeeaeooaeueiuo naiueyo aeey naiuee Ai?ia auea /oaeaea. O?enoeai
Ai? i/aiue iiiai iooaoanoaiaae n naiueae , iie niaa?oaee i?iaoeee ni
naieie aeaoueie a ianoa , aaea auei iiiai oaoie/aneeo aeeeiaeiie: yoi
auee iayee, noaeiaa?oe, aaoie n /aniauie iaoaieciaie. Ai?u naeaeaee
i/aiue iiiai aeey oiai, /oiau eo aeaoe noaee eo/oeie ethaeueie ia
ieaiaoa. O O?enoeaia auea aieueoay no?anoue – oooaie. Ii oae neeueii
i?eaee naith no?anoue o aeaoae , /oi a nooaeai/aneea aiaeu Oa?aeueae e
Ieeuen ea?aee ca nai?ioth no?aiu. O Oa?aeueaea ea?a a oooaie iieo/aeanue
iniaaiii oniaoii : ii ea?ae i?aaui iieocaueoieeii ca nai?ioth , a caoi
Ieeuen oae e ia iiaeiyeny auoa aoi?iai caianiiai a?aoa?y.

A aeaonoaa aeaa iaeaiueeeo a?aoa Ieeuen e Oa?aeueae auee i/aiue
ae?oaeiu iaaeaeo niaie. *oanoai acaeiiiiieiaiey e iiaeaea?aeee iie
nio?aieee ia anth aeeciue . Iie iinoiyiii ae?oa n ae?oaii
ia?aienuaaeenue , ianoaeaeaee iiaua eaeae , ?aaioaee o/eeenue aianoa :
oaeoth niei/aiiinoue ia /anoi ano?a/aaoue n?aaee aeaoo a?aoueaa –
?iaanieeia. Oai aieaa iiiaia , i/aiue iiiaia ioee/aei eo ae?oa io
ae?oaa. Ieeuen aieaa noa?oee , aue niieieiui e o?aaiiaaoaiiui , ioe?uoui
e i?inoiaeooiui. A iaoea ii aue i?aeoeeii, yenia?eiaioaoi?ii . Ii i/aiue
/anoi iiiiaae iooeo a aeiiaoiae eaai?aoi?ee e iieo/aiiua oai
neana?ii-oaoie/aneea iaauee iioii i/aiue i?eaiaeeeenue aio i?e
noaaee?iaea a Eaaaiaeeoneie eaai?aoi?ee. I?yiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth
aio aue Oa?aeueae . Ii aue no?aoiui oai?aoeeii . Iaae iei oooeee /oi ii
aoaeao auaiaeeoue oai?eth aeaaea oai , aaea iaaei i?inoi aaeoue
aaicaeue. Oa?aeueae aue i/aiue ino?ioiai , ii ethaee iaae anaie
iiaeoo/eaaoue , iniaaiii inoaaaeinue Ieeueno . ?iaeiua aniiieiaee /oi
iaeiaaeaeu iaeue/eee iinii?eee i oii eoi eiai eo/oa iiaeaeaiao . Ieeuen
aeieai ooaeeeny , iuoaeny iaeoe oioue /oi-ieaoaeue ino?ioiiia . ii
ie/aai ia iieo/aeinue . Iaeiaei Oa?aeueae ia ionooiae , nii? caoyaeaaeny
e a ?acoeueoaoa aeieaeo ioe Ieeuen oieueei e niia neacaoue “A ou
iinaaeee iyoiuoei ia iaeueoi “….

Eae ana-aea iaeei , oae e ae?oaie aua?aee ianoiyuee iooue a aeecie –
iooue iiciaiey i?e?iaeu. Ioaoe Ai?ia niia ia?aaeaoue naiei iaeue/eeai
oyao , eioi?oth ii eniuouaae e iiciaieth i?e?iaeu, a oaeaea o?oaeiethaea
, eioi?ia e noaei caeiaii oniaoiie ea?uea?u aeaoae Ai?a.

2. O/aaa iaeue/eeia Ai?.

A

oeiea iaeue/eee o/eeenue oi?ioi , oioy naa?noieee /anoi iiaeoo/eaaee
iaae ieie . Iie auee i/aiue iioiaee aiaoia, iaeeiaeiai iaeaaaeenue e
aaeaiai oyioeenue ei anaio iiaiio e iaecaanoiiio. Aaeeinoaaiiie
i?iaeaiie aeey Ieeuena auei ni/eiaiea ia naiaiaeioth oaio . Ni/eiaiey
iieo/aeenue i/aiue ei?ioeea , a i?aaeeiaeaiey aeeeiiuie e oyaeaeuie aeey
iiieiaiey.

A 1903 a. Ieeuen oniaoii ieii/ee oeieo e iinooiee a Eiiaiaaaaineee
oieaa?neoao, iaeei ec noa?aeoeo oieaa?neoaoia Aa?iiu. A oieaa?neoaoa
Ieeuen o/eeny aeiaieueii ?iaii, e caiiiieeny anai eae iia?oaeaiiue a
naay iaaeeeoaeueiue thiioa n aieueoie aieiaie, e?oiiuie /a?oaie eeoea,
oaneaaoee n niaie ia/oi a?iaea oeieueiie noiee. A?oiia iaeiieo?nieeia
Ai?a i?aaieciaaea e?oaeie “Yeeeioeea”. A aai ninoaa aoiaeeee a?aouey Ai?
. Ia e?oaeea nooaeaiou ianoaeaeaee i?iaeaiu oeeinioee e oeceee , e ana
i/aiue auno?i caiaoeee, /oi Ai?u eo/oa anaai auaeyaeyo oiaaea, eiaaea
aunooiatho aeoyoii.

Oaea a Oieaa?neoaoa Ieeuen Ai? iaia?oaeee a naaa oyao e enneaaeiaaieth
caaaaeie aoiia?iie no?oeoo?u aauanoai , a Oa?aeueae Ai? i?iyaee a naaa
iaeeiiiinoe e iaoaiaoeea. A 1907 aiaeo Ieeuen ieii/ee oieaa?neoao e
ia/ae ?aaioaoue iaae iaaenoa?neie aeenna?oaoeeae . Eioa?anai oaeo , /oi
?aaioa iaae iae caoyioeanue i/aiue iaaeieai , iioiio /oi ii ieeae ia iia
iieii/eoue n yenia?eiaioaeueiie /anoueth , oae eae iinoiyiii noaaee ana
iiaua e iiaua iiuou. Ioaoe Ai?a , aeaey /oi aai nui caeiiaeny neeoeii
aeoaiei aeey iaaenoa?neie ii?aaee nuia e oaoooea , aaea oio niia
niieieii aeiienaoue oai?aoe/aneoth /anoue. Iia auea iinayuaia aii?inai
oaiei- e yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe iaoaeeia , eo iaaieoiui e
oa?iiyeaeo?e/aneei naienoaai ia iniiaa yeaeo?iiiie oai?ee iaoaeeia ,
?ac?aaioaiiie Ei?aioeai. Caueoa i?ioea i/aiue oniaoii e , oioy Ieeuen
inoaeny ia i/aiue aeiaieai ianooaaaie iaaenoa?neie , iieo/aiea noaiaie
iaaeno?a ie?ueeei aai e ii n?aco aea nae ca aeieoi?neoth . *a?ac aeaiue
iinea caueou a aeecie Ieeuena neo/eeinue aua iaeii ciaiaiaoaeueiia
niauoea. Ia aa/a?a o Ia?eoiaea(n Ia?eoiaeii iie nae?oaeeeenue a e?oaeea
“Yeeeioeea”) ii iiciaeiieeny n aai nano?ie Ia?aa?aoo. Ieeuen e Ia?aa?aoo
iioyioeenue ae?oa e ae?oao e noaeueaa Ai?a eae naiueyieia auea ?aoaia a
yoe aeie . E a ?aaioa iaae aeieoi?neie o Ieeuena iiyaeeny aua iaeei
noeioe aeey ?aaiou – /enoi aeooaaiue iiaeuai . Ii icaaeaaee aa “Aiaeec
yeaeo?iiiie oai?ee iaoaeeia “ . Ii ?yaeo aii?inia ?aaioa auea auiieiaia
iieiinoueth, ii a ioiioaiee iaaieoiuo naienoa iaoaeeia aicieeee
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe . Ii ia?a/eoae anth eeoa?aoo?o , eioi?ay auea
iaienaia e oiio a?aiaie e i?eoae e auaiaeo , /oi i?e nouanoaothuai
o?iaia ?acaeoey yeaeo?iiiie oai?ee eiae/iiai iauyniaiey iaaieoiuo
naienoa ia nouanoaoao . Caueoa Ieeuena i?ioea aeanoyua 13 iay 1911 aiaea
, iaeiaei aa ia oaeaeae ioaoe Ai?a , eioi?ue oia? 3 oaa?aey 1911 aiaea.
A naioya?a yoiai aea aiaea iieiaeie aeieoi? ioauaaao ia aiaee/ioth
noaaee?iaeo a Aiaeeth. Aa iacia/aiea – ?aaioa a Eaaaiaeeoneie
eaai?aoi?ee a Eaia?eaeaea.

3. Ia?aua oaae a iaoeo.

N

Eaia?eaeaeai Ieeuen Ai? naycuaae i/aiue iiiai iaaeaaeae, aaaeue oai
?aaioaee oaeea naaoeea eae Aeae.Aeae.Oiiinii, Ea?ii?, Aeaeein. Oiiinii a
oi a?aiy iaoiaeeeny a ?anoeaaoa oai?/aneeo nee e ia aa?oeia neaau. A
1897 aiaeo ii onoaiiaee ioiioaiea e/m , a 1903 – iiaeaeue aoiia Oiiiniia
(ecthieiee a ioaeeiaa ), 1906 aiae Iiaaeaaneay i?aiey ca ?aaiou ii
enneaaeiaaieth yeaeo?iiia. A naiae aeieoi?neie Ai? cao?iioe i?iaeaiu
naycaiiua n yeaeo?iiiie oai?eae , iiyoiio aio iniaaiii oioaeinue
iiaiai?eoue ia yoii ee/ii n Aeaee-Aeaee (oae oooeeai iacuaaee aai
nio?oaeieee) . Iaeiaei acaeiiioiioaiey Oiiiniia e Ai?a ia neiaeeeenue .
Oiiinii aue i?eaa?aeaioeai eeanne/aneie oai?ee e ii eae-oi
iiaeniciaoaeueii /oanoaiaae a Ai?a eiaeiiuneea , /oaeaeio. Ieeuen
aniiieiae , /oi ?aaioa a Eaaaiaeeoneie eaai?aoi?ee i?eianea aieueoa
o?oaeiinoae , /ai aeinoeaeaiee . Neaaia ciaiea aiaeeeneiai + aieueoia
eiee/anoai eaeoeee ia a?aiy i?einoaiiaeee enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth ?aaioo
Ai?a . E aaeeinoaaiiia , /oi auian Ai? ec noaaee?iaee a Eaia?eaeae yoi
oi, /oi a aai iicao ana ianoie/eaaa ia/eiaao noo/aoue iuneue i
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe eeanne/aneie oai?ee aeey iienaiey ana iiauo e iiauo
oaeoia , iieo/aiiuo ec eaai?aoi?ee.

Noaaee?iaea iiaeoiaeeea e caaa?oaieth eiaaea Ai? nianai iaiaeeaeaiii
iiano?a/aeny n ?aca?oi?aeii , eioi?ue i?aaeeiaeee aio i?eniaaeeieony e
aai a?oiia a Iai/anoa?a. Aeaee-aeaee eaaei niaeaneeny n ooiaeii Ai?a e
?aca?oi?aeo , /oi auei ia oa?aeoa?ii aeey iaai. Oioy aai anaaaea e
ioee/aei oiieia /oouea ia iieiaeuo oaeaioia n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ii
niae?ae aie?oa naay eo/oeo o/aiuo, a yoio ?ac ii ioeany. Eoae Ai?
ia?aacaeaao a Iai/anoa? a a?oiio ?aca?oi?aea. Aianoa n ?aca?oi?aeii
oiaaea ?aaioaee: Aaeaa?, Iaeiaa?, Oaaaoe, *aaeaee, Aea?aei (aioe
ciaiaieoiai Aea?aeia). Iie a aieueoeo ianooaaao i?iaiaeeee enneaaeiaaiey
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe e no?iaiey aoiia. Aoiinoa?a a eaai?aoi?ee auea i/aiue
ae?oaeanoaaiiay , Ai? i/aiue auno?i inaieeny a iiaii e?oao a /ai aio
i/aiue iiiia aaiaa?neee oeiee Oaaaoe. ?aca?oi?ae e aai ni?aoieee auee
aaeeeeie yenia?eiaioaoi?aie , e a iiaii ?aneeaaea Ai? ni naiei
aiaeeoe/aneei oiii acye ia naay ?ieue oai?aoeea. Ec anao oeceeia ii
na?ueaciaa anao ioianny e ?aca?oi?aeianeie ieaiaoa?iie iiaeaee aoiia .
A ?acoeueoaoa iieo/eeanue neaaeothuay noaia no?iaiey aoiia:

– any ianna aoiia nin?aaeioi/aia a yae?a , eioi?ia ianao
iieiaeeoaeueiue ca?yae . Aeaeaeaiea yeaeo?iiia niaa?oaaony ii i?aeoai
?aciiai ?aaeeona. Ia i?aeoa iiaeao auoue ia aieaa naie yeaeo?iiia.
Aeiaaaeaiea iiaiai yeaeo?iia ?aaiineeueii ia?aciaaieth iiaie iaiei/ee,
o.a. a?oiiu yeaiaioia. Ianiio?y ia oaaaeeoaeueiinoue oai?ee ?aca?oi?ae
iiniaaoiaae Ai?o ia niaoeoue n auaiaeaie e aue i?aa. Iineaaeiee eceiaeee
naie iunee ia aoiaaa e n/anoeeaue io ?aaiou oacaeae ec Iai/anoa?a
aeiiie.

4. Ia iooe e aoiiiie oai?ee.

A

a neaaeothuai ianyoea auea naaaeueaa Ieeuena e Ia?aa?aoo. Ai? niaa?oee
iiiai aeceoia e naiei ae?ocueyi a Eaaaiaeeoneoth eaai?aoi?eth, e
?aca?oi?aeo aeiiie, a Oioeaiaeeth e ana , eoi aeaeae Ieeuena e Ia?aa?aoo
auee i/a?iaaiu yoie /oaeaniie ia?ie. Iieiaeay /aoa iaoea eaa?oe?o a
Eiiaiaaaaia e Ai? i?enooiee e /oaieth eaeoeee ii oa?iiaeeiaieea a
Eiiaiaaaaineii oieaa?neoaoa. Iunee Ai?a ia ia?anoaaaea caieiaoue
iiaeaeue aoiia. Ii i?eoae e oaaaeaeaieth , /oi eaaio aeaenoaey
aaaaeaiiue Iaenii Ieaieii iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa aaee/eiu,
ia?aie/eaathuee ii?aaeaeaiea eii?aeeiao e nei?inoe yeaeo?iiia. Ai? ?aoee
au?aceoue naie iunee a noaouea “I no?iaiee aoiiia e iieaeoe ”. Ii i/aiue
niaoee iaienaoue aa , iioiio /oi aeaeae , /oi o/aiua ana aeeaea e aeeaea
iiaeoiaeyo e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu ia?aie/aiey eeanne/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee a
iee?iie?a. Eiaaea noaouey auea caeii/aia , ?aca?oi?ae , i?i/eoaa aa ,
oeacae Ai?o ia ecauoie aii?inia e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoae, iaeiaei niaeaneeny
n oai , /oi aa iaaei ecaeaoue a aeo?iaea. Iniiaiua auaiaeu , eioi?ua Ai?
niia naeaeaoue a iae aioee a oeceeo iiae iacaaieai “Iinooeaoia Ai?a”.
Iie n?aco acaoaei?aaeeee ie? oeceeia , e oioy ie Oiiinii, ie ?aeae , ie
Caaiai ia i?eiyee iiaua iinooeaou , /aoa aania , ia eioi?oth auea
iieiaeaia noaeueaa aoiiiiai ie?a iaoeeiiii neeiiyeanue ia noi?iio
Ai?ianeie o?aeoiaee ie?a aoiia.

Aeey oiai , /oiau iiiyoue , ii/aio oae iaiaeiicia/ii auee ano?a/aiu
iinooeaou Ai?a iaiaoiaeeii aniiiieoue iieiaeaiea oeceee a ia/aea OO
aaea. Anai ecaanoia ?a/ue ei?aea Eaeueaeia i aaciaea/iinoe iaaa oeceee ,
i?iecianaiiay a 1900 aiaeo a Ei?ieaaneii einoeoooa. Oi?ioi iiiieony e
oiiiyiooia ei iaeaiueeia iaea/ei , naycaiiia n i?iaeaiie eceo/aiey , ec
eioi?iai iioii a?yioe a?ii ia?aai?ioa a oeceea. Ana auei ynii a
eeanne/aneie oai?ee oeceee , eioi?oth iino?ieee Aaeeeae e Iuethoii,
Iaenaaee e Ei?aioe. A iae i?e?iaea ia aeaeaao nea/eia , iia ?aaiiia?ia e
i?aaeneacoaia. E aae?oa iaaa?iyoiay aeiioaca Ieaiea , eioi?ay aeieacaea,
/oi nea/eiia?aciua i?ioeannu eaaioiaaiey oaeaea naienoaaiiu i?e?iaea ,
eae e iai?a?uaiinoue. Yeiooaei oae?aao ec oeceee yoe? , en/acee caeiiu
nio?aiaiey iannu e ?acia?ia. Io noa?ie oeceee inoaeenue ?acaaeeiu . a
acaiai ie/aai iiaiai i?aaeeiaeaii ia auei .

A 1916 aiaeo iinea iaeioi?ie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe n ?aaioie Ai?o
i?aaeeiaeeee aeieaeiinoue i?ioanni?a oai?aoe/aneie oeceee a
Eiiaiaaaaineii oieaa?neoaoa, ia /oi ii ioioii niaeaneeny. A naioya?a
1916 aiaea Ai?a auae?atho i?aaenaaeaoaeai aeaoneiai oece/aneiai iauanoaa
. Ii /eoaao eaeoeee ii iaoaieea, oai?ee oi?oainoe, oa?iiaeeiaieea,
yeaeo?iiiie aoiiiie oai?ee. Neaaa i Ai?a a o/aiii ie?a ia/eiaao
?ac?anoaoueny. Noaa /eaiii Aeaoneiai ei?ieaaneiai iauanoaa , iieiaeie
Ieeuen ia/eiaao auiaoeaaoue i/aiue niaeoth eaeath : “I?aaieciaaoue i?e
oieaa?neoaoa Einoeooo oai?aoe/aneie oeceee “. O Ai?a iiieii iao/iuo
niiniaiinoae ?ane?uaathony i?ae?aniua i?aaiecaoi?neea niiniaiinoe. Aio
oaeaaony iauaaeeieoue aie?oa naay iiiai noi?iiieeia, ii iaoiaeeo
iiaeaea?aeeo e a Ei?ieaaneii iauanoaa , e a Ioieoeeiaeeoaoa, e n?aaee
aeaeiauo e?oaia Aeaiee. E anei?a i?enooiatho e no?ieoaeuenoao aeaoeua
Ai?a – 1-ai Einoeoooa oeceee a Aeaiee.

5. Einoeooo oai?aoe/aneie oeceee.

A

i? aeee a iinoiyiiie niaoea , ii aacaea aue auno?aa anao . Iieoi?a aiaea
ia?iiiiai yiooceacia n eioi?ui ?aaioae nai Ai? e eaeei ii ca?aaeae
ae?oaeo aeaee naie ?acoeueoaou. Ianiio?y ia ?ino oeai , ianiio?y ia
I-oth ie?iaoth aieio e ia?iiiie /enei ae?oaeo i?aiyonoaee einoeooo aue
naeai a iacia/aiiue n?ie . 15 naioya?y 1920 aiaea ninoiyeinue
ioeoeeaeueiia ioe?uoea einoeoooa , eioi?ue a iineaaeothuea 20 eao aoaeao
aaeaa ee ie aaeeinoaaiiui iaaeaeoia?iaeiui oeaio?ii ii eco/aieth
eaaioiaie oai?ee.

A einoeoooa n?aco aea ia?aciaaeinue yae?i iieiaeuo e oaeaioeeauo o/aiuo
, eioi?ia iioii iacaaee “eiiaiaaaaineie a?oiiie” . Ai? aue i?ae?aniui
i?aaiecaoi?ii , oiae iiaeae?aoue eo/oeo ethaeae. A?oiia Ai?a caieiaeanue
i?iaeaiie Oai?ee aoiia . I?iaeaia yoa a oi a?aiy naeaeaeanue aaaeiaeoae
a ie?a e e Ai?o noaeaeinue i/aiue iiiai oaeaioeeaie iieiaeaaee . Aue
aeaaea caaaaeai niaoeeaeueiue aeo?iae , a eioi?ii ?aaeno?e?iaaee anao ,
eoi i?eacaeae e oacaeae e ii eioi?iio iioii auei i/aiue eioa?anii
noaeeoue i iea?aoeee o/aiuo e Ai?o. E iaio oaeaea iinooiaei iiiai cayaie
ia /oaiea eaeoeee a ?acee/iuo Aocao ie?a. Ii noa?aeny ia ana
i?aaeeiaeaiey ioaaoeoue niaeaneai , aneaaenoaea /aai aieueoay
caa?oaeaiiinoue + aaeieieno?aoeaiua iaycaiiinoe i?eaaee e aieacie Ai?a.
Iinoaaeaiiue aeeaaiic aeanee : “Ino?ia ia?aooiieaiea”. I?ioei ii/oe
iieaiaea , iiea Ai? niia i?enooieoue e naiei iau/iui iaycaiiinoyi .

Ii ia?a ?aaiou eiiaiaaaaineie a?oiiu noaiiaeeenue i/aaeaeiuie iiiaea
iayniua aii?inu aoiia , e a 1922 aiaeo Ai?o i?enoaeeee Iiaaeaaneoth
i?aieth a iaeanoe oeceee “Ca caneoae a enneaaeiaaiee no?iaiey aoiiia e
aoiiiiai eceo/aiey”. Aai iiaaeaaneay ?a/ue auea iaci?ii anaai
nouanoaothuaai , anaai , /oi auei aeinoeaiooi eaaioiaie oai?eae no?iaiey
aoiia, ii i?e yoii ii /aoei aeaaae iiiyoue , /oi oai?ey iaoiaeeony a
ia/aeueiie noaaeee naiaai ?acaeoey e /oi iniiaiua i?iaeaiu aua aia?aaee.
Aeanoyuei iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai i?aaeeueiinoe iiaie oai?ee yaeeinue ecaanoea
i iieo/aiea iiaiai 72 – ai yeaiaioa Ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu yeaiaioia
Ae.E.Iaiaeaeaaaa, nouanoaiaaiea eioi?iai i?aaeneacuaaea eaaioiaay
oai?ey. Yoio yeaiaio iacaaee Aaoiee , a /anoue ae?aaiaai iacaaiey
Eiiaiaaaaia – Hafn.

6. Nicaeaiea eaaioiaie iaoaieee.

I

ieiaeoee ?acaae oeceee OO aaea eacaeinue aue iaiiiai i?eaaaeai a
ii?yaeie . Iaeiaei yoio ii?yaeie aeinoea ?oaaaea ca eioi?ui iiyaeyeinue
ana aieueoa ?acee/iuo “ii” eioi?ua ia aienuaaeenue a ?aiee nouanoaothuae
oai?ee aoiia. A oai?ee eniieueciaaeenue iaeiia?aiaiii eae eeanne/aneea
, oae e eaaioiaua iiiyoey , /oi i?eaiaeeei e yaiie iacaaa?oaiiinoe
o/aiey. Ana aeaeaee ?ac?aoaiey i?iaeai. Oai?ey Ai?a auea eeoue
i?iiaaeooi/iui caaiii iaaeaeo eeanneeie e /ai-oi niaa?oaiii iiaui.
Iieiaeaiea , a eioi?ii iaoiaeeeanue oai?aoe/aneay oeceea aucuaaei
/oanoai a?onoe e aaciaaeaaeiinoe. O/aiua caiiai ia/aee i?iaa?youe ana,
/oi oieueei iiaeii auei iiaeaa?aiooue niiiaieth . Ia eii aue aeaaea
iinoaaeai caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee . Ai? naycuaae aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu a
?aoaiee yoie i?iaeaiu ni naieie iieiaeuie nio?oaeieeaie : Iaoee,
Aaecaiaa?aii, Aee?aeii, O?aaeeiaa?ii. Eae o/aiue , ii ia oaeeaeaiea
i?ae?anii /oanoaiaae naay a ie?oaeaiee aieueoiai eiee/anoaa o/aiuo , ii
?aaioae , ?oeiaiaeee a?oiiie i/aiue ino?ioiiuo ethaeae , eioi?ua a
naiaiaeiie , .ii?ie aeaaea a oooeeaie ianoaiiaea iuoaeenue ?acaaaeaoue
caaaaeee i?e?iaeu aoiia. Oaeie noeeue ?aaiou aiineaaenoaee aue iacaai
“Eiiaiaaaaineei noeeai”.

Ia?aui ?acoeueoaoii iai?yaeaiiie ?aaiou noae i?eioeei “Cai?aoa Iaoee”
eioi?ue ooaa?aeaeae , /oi a ii?aaeaeaiiii eaaioiaii ninoiyiee iiaeao
iaoiaeeoueny ia aieaa 1-ai yeaeo?iia. Yoio i?eioeei n?aco i?ieee naao ia
oai?eth no?iaiey aoiia e ia ia?eiaee/iinoue oeie/aneeo e oece/aneeo
naienoa yeaiaioia. Ca yoio i?eioeei Iaoee auea i?enoaeaeaia Iiaaeaaneay
i?aiey ie?a, i?aaaea a iineaaenoaee – ca 1946 aiae. Iineaaeothuea aeaa
aiaea 1922-1924 aiaea aeeeeenue a io/eoaeueiuo iieneao ?aoaiey i?iaeai
eaaioiaaiey , a oa/aiea eioi?uo o Ai?a auei aeaa i?eyoiuo niauoey:

1-ia o iaai ?iaeeeny /aoaa?oue nui (anaai eo auei 5)

2-ia : Eaia?eaeaeneia oeeinioneia iauanoai i?eiyei aai a naie /eaiu.

Inaiueth 1924 aiaea ia/aeinue oi, /aai o/aiue ie? aeaeae n iaaeaaeaeie
e o?aaiaie. Neiaeiinoue eaaioiaie oai?ee aeinoeaea i?aaeaea, aa
aoeaaeueii ?ac?uaaee aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey. E aio a einoeoooa Ai?a
iiyaeyaony /aeiaae , eioi?ue ?aiueoa ia caieiaeny i?iaeaiaie aoiia , ii
eeoue anooiea a noaiu Einoeoooa n?aco aea acyeny ca ?aaioo. Yoi aue
Aaecaiaa?a. Aai aaieaeueiinoue i?iyaeeanue a oii , /oi ii i?aaeeiaeee
caiaieoue ana iaiaaethaeaaiua aaee/eiu aeey yeaeo?iia (eii?aeeiaou,
nei?inoue, /anoioo ia?auaiey) iaaethaeaaiuie , eioi?ua iiaeii ecia?youe
a iaiin?aaenoaaiiii yenia?eiaioa (/anoioa niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee,
eioaineaiinoue) – o. iac. “Aaecaiaa?aianeee oi?iaeeci”. Eaeath
Aaecaiaa?aa iiaeoaaoee Ai?i e i?eoae e auaiaeo , /oi “Aaecaiaa?aianeee
oi?iaeeci eaeaioe/ai iao?e/iiio en/eneaieth , oi?ioi ecaanoiiio a
iaoaiaoeea. A ?acoeueoaoa niaianoiuo aeaenoaee Aacaiaa?aa , Ai?ia e
Ei?aeaia auea nicaeaia iao?e/iay iaoaieea. Iineaaeiee oaa a ?aoaiee
i?iaeai eaaioiaaiey naeaeae O?aaeeiaa? . Aaaaeaiiua ei nianoaaiiua
cia/aiey , a oaeaea ?anniio?aiea yeaeo?iia ia eae /anoeoeu , a eae
?ani?aaeaeaiea ieioiinoe aa?iyoiinoe i?eaaee Ai?a a aeoaieia aieiaiea.
Acaieiiaaeny ii iioiio, /oi iiia/aeo eacaeinue , /oi aieiiaay iaoaieea
O?aaeeiaa?a e iao?e/iay Aaecaiaa?aa ianiaianoeiu. Iaeiaei ana
caeii/eeinue aeaaiiieo/ii . Aaecaiaa?a noi?ioee?iaae naia niioiioaiea
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoae , a O?aaeeiaa? caienaa aia?aua naia aieiiaia
o?aaiaiea caeiaeee iniiau aeey nicaeaiey niaa?oaiii iiaie iaoee –
eaaioiaie iaoaieee. Eae oieueei auee iienaiu ana iniiau iiaiai
iai?aaeaiey ana noaei ia naie ianoa. Oaia?ue eaaei iauyniyeenue i?aaeea
eaaioiaaiey, i?eioeei cai?aoa Iaoee, ia?eiaee/aneay nenoaia yeaiaioia
Ae.E.Iaiaeaeaaaa.

A 1927 aiaeo a Eoaeee a a.Eiii ninoiyeny Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oece/aneee
eiia?ann . Ia eiia?anna aeaaiui aue aeieeaae Ai?a ia oaio “Eaaioiaue
iinooeao e iiaaeoaa ?acaeoea aoiiiie oai?ee”. A naiae aeieeaaea Ai?
noi?ioee?iaae i?eioeei , eioi?ue niia ioaaoeoue ia ana aii?inu , eioi?ua
a oi a?aiy noiyee ia?aae oai?eae aoiia. Yoi aue i?eioeei
aeiiieieoaeueiinoe , eioi?ue aeanee , /oi ethaie i?aaeiao iiaeao
i?iyaeyoue naay eae /anoeoea , oae e eae aieia. Yoio i?eioeei n?aco
aioae a iaeoiae oece/aneeo iiiyoee , e i?eiaiyeny ia oieueei a oeceea ,
ii e a ae?oaeo iaoeao.

Nae/an iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue , /oi iaoea eioi?ay auea
nicaeaia anaai ca aeaa n iieiaeiie aiaea a ei?ia eciaieea iaoa
ie?iiiieiaiea. Ieacaeinue , /oi enoiaey ec i?eioeeia iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe
iaaiciiaeii iaeiicia/ii i?aaeneacaoue enoiae iiuoa, a eeoue iiaeii
noaeeoue i aa?iyoiinoe oiai eee eiiai ?acoeueoaoa. Iiaay oai?ey aucuaaea
iiiai aic?aaeaiee . Iiiaea o/aiua oae e ia i?eiyee aa: yoi auee Eoe aea
A?ieeue , O?aaeeiaa?, Ieaie , Eaoy, Yeiooaei. Ioeoeeaeueiua oai?oeu
eaaioiaie iaoaieee : Aaecaiaa?a, Aee?ae, Ai?i, O?aaeeiaa?. E, oioy eiy
Ai?a ia oiiieiaaony , ana i?eciatho , /oi eiaiii a “eiiaiaaaaineii
eioea” , eioi?ui oi?aaeye Ai? auea naa?aia iiaay iaoea. E eiaiii Ai?a
neaaeoao n/eoaoue oai?oeii eaaioiaiai ie?iaicc?aiey.

7. Ai? e naiuey.

C

aneoaa Ai?a a iaoea ianiiiaiii auea a?aiaeeiciay. Iaeiaei ?ane?ueny ii
ia oieueei eae oaeaioeeaue o/aiie , i?aaiecaoi? , ii e eae i?ae?aniue
naiueyiei e ioaoe. E ethaeyi e e aeecie Ai? aue ia iaiaa ethaiciaoaeai ,
/ai e i?iaeaiai iaoee. N aeaoueie ii aue eaneia e aeia? e iinoiyiii ,
eae e aai ioaoe , O?enoeai Ai? , i?eo/ae eo e o?oaeo. Naiuey o iaai auea
ia iaeaiueeay: iyoue nuiiaae e iaeia aei/ue . Aeaoe naie aniiieiaee
iioii , /oi aeey ieo ioaoe a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yaeyeny eo/oei ae?oaii ,
eioi?ue ioe?uaae ia?aae ieie aieueoie e eioa?aniue ie? . “Aieueoa anaai,
– ieoao Oain Ai? , – a iiae iaiyoe inoaeenue aa/a?a , eiaaea ioaoe /eoae
aneoo eee iu , aeaoe, niae?aeenue aie?oa iaai e canuiaee eo/ae aii?inia
, ia eioi?ua ii n oaeiaieuenoaeai ioaa/ae.

Ai? ieeiaaea ia ?aaioae ii a?aoeeo. Ii iia aeoiaoue i ?aaioa e a
i?acaeieee , e ai a?aiy euaeiuo i?iaoeie e aeaaea ii/ueth. Iaeaaeay
ia?iiiie ?aaioiniiniaiinoueth , ii oai naiui auioaeaeae naieo
annenoaioia auaea?aeeaaoue aieueoea iaa?ocee , aeey iaania/aiey
ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou oaoa. Oyaeaei auei oaeaea iioiio , /oi o Ai?a ia
iieo/aeinue iaeiia?aiaiii aeoiaoue e ienaoue , ionthaea aai iiiiuieee
ienaee iiae aeeeoiaeo aai noaouee , eioi?ua ii iiiai ?ac ia?aienuaaeenue
e ei??aeoe?iaaee. Eioa?anii oaeaea iiieiaiea Ai?ii i?iaeai ineoieiaee.
Aee?ae aniiieiae : “Eae-oi ?ac ia i?iaoeea Ai? ia?aoee aieiaiea ia oi ,
/oi eiaaea ii oaea?yao naiae o?inoueth ii caiea , oi eaaeaony /oi
/oanoai inycaiey iaoiaeeony ia a ?oea , a ia eiioea iaeee. Ooo aea ii
i?iaae aiaeiaeth n iicaii /aeiaaea , eioi?ue iiaeiaii ?oea iano?aeaaaony
n iiiiuueth oaeoia e i?aaiia /oanoa ia aiaeec aini?eieiaaiie
eioi?iaoeee. ”

7. A aeoaue yae?a.

*

oi aea i?ienoiaeeei a eaaioiaie iaoea a i?aaeaiaiiua aiaeu?. A 1930
aiaeo Ai? i?i/eoaao eaeoeeth a Eiiaeiineii oeie/aneii iauanoaa , a
eioi?ie aiai?eo aanueia i?i?i/aneea neiaa : “…a aoiiiie oai?ee ,
ianiio?y ia aeinoeaiooua oniaoe , iu aeieaeiu auoue aioiau e iiaui
nth?i?ecai ”. E nth?i?ec ia canoaaee naay aeaeaoue. Ia/aeinue
eioaineaiia enneaaeiaaiey aoiiiiai yae?a, eioi?ia i?eaaei e ?iaeaeaieth
yaea?iie oeceee. Oaea a 1930 aiaeo auea i?aaeeiaeaia i?ioiiii-iaeo?iiiay
iiaeaeue yae?a , iicaea Oa?ie iaia?oaeeaaao iaeo?eii , a aeaeueoa
aoeaaeueii ia?ooeaaaony iioie iiauo ioe?uoee. 1934 aiae Eth?e ioe?uaatho
eneonnoaaiioth ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue, THeaaa aaiaeeo eaeath i iaciiao, Oa?ie
?aaeno?e?oao eneonnoaaiioth ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue i?e aiiaa?aee?iaea
oyaeaeuo yeaiaioia iaeo?iiaie. Eiiaiaaaaineee einoeooo aieueoa ia iia
inoaaaoueny a noi?iia io i?iaeai yae?a. Aeao/aiaie auei nia?aii 100
ouny/ e?ii ia eioi?ua eoieee 0.6 a?aiia ?aaeey e iiaea?eee Einoeoooo
oai?aoe/aneie oeceee ia 50 -eaoea Ai?a. A 1938 aiaeo a einoeoooa aue
iino?iai I-ue oeeeeio?ii a Aa?iia. Eae oieueei ia/aeenue iiuou ii
aiiaa?aee?iaea oyaeaeuo yaea?, eae oieueei noaee iinooiaoue ?acoeueoaou
iiuoia io Oa?ie, AEieei-Eth?e, O?eoa a aoiinoa?o oeceee aue caiouai aeoo
i?aae/oanoaey ioe?uoey. Ai? ienae: “Ana auee iieiu i?aae/oanoaey , /oi
oeceea noieo ia ii?iaa iiaie y?u”. A 1939 aiaeo o Ai?a nia?aeenue Iaoia?
, O?eo, Iea/ae e ?icaioaeueae. A ?acoeueoaoa ianoaeaeaiey aeaiiuo
i?iaaaeaiiuo yenia?eiaioia iie aeaeatho auaiae: “Noieeiiaaiea iaeo?iia e
yae?a iiaeao i?eaanoe e ac?uao anaai yae?a n aieueoei auaeaeaieai
yia?aee .Iaeiaei eniieueciaaiea yoie yia?aee a i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeyo noieo
iiae aieueoei aii?inii”. Eo i?iaiic ieacaeny ioeai/iui . Oaea a ia?oa
yoiai aea aiaea Yi?eei Oa?ie aeieeaaeuaae i?aaeoaeuenoao NOA i oii, /oi
nicaeaiea aoiiiiai i?oaeey yaeyaony caaea/ae inouanoaeiie , i?e oneiaee
anee U235 , eioi?iai a U238 1% aoaeao ioaeaeai io iineaaeiaai.
Aeinoeaeaiey yaea?iie oeceee auee i/aiue iianiuie e n?aco ia?aoee a
?ac?yae naa?onae?aoiuo.

Ei anaio i?i/aio ianoaiiaea a Aa?iia iaino?eeanue aei i?aaeaea.
Aa?iaieae auea caoaa/aia aieueoay /anoue no?ai Aa?iiu , a eioi?uo aue
onoaiiaeai oaoenoneee ?aaeei. I?iaiaeeoue enneaaeiaaiey ia
ieeoie?iaaiiuo oa??eoi?eyo auei oyaeaei e iaaaciianii. 28 naioya?y 1940
aiaea i?eoei ecaanoea i oii , /oi ec Aa?eeia aeaeoo i?eeaca ia a?anoa
Ieeuena e Oa?ieueaea Ai?ia . Aeaey oaeoth neooaoeeth Ai?u iieeaeatho
?iaeeio e ia?aacaeatho a Aiaeeth , aei eioi?ie Aeoea? ia aeia?aeny. A
Aiaeee Ai? yeno?aiii ano?a/aaony n aiaeeeneeie eieeaaaie . Iinea aiaeeca
aeaiiuo aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo o/aiuo noaiiaeony ynii: I?e oaeouai
o?iaia iiieiaiey no?oeoo?u yae?a , nicaeaiea yaea?iiai i?oaeey
noaiiaeony eeoue aeaeii eeoue oaoie/aneie e eiino?oeoi?neie ?aaeecaoeee.
Aoeaaeueii n?aco aia?eeaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai, i?eaeaoaao Ieeuena Ai?a e
aai nuia Iaa Ai?a e naaa a eaai?aoi?eth. Iianaiey oiai, /oi iaioeu
?aaeecotho nia?oaeueiue i?iaeo ?aiueoa ae?oaeo auee i/aiue neeueiu, eai
a oaeii neo/aa enoiae aieiu a Aa?iia aue au iai?aaeneacoai aeey anae
ieaiaou, iinaio Ai?o a oneiaeyo naa?onae?aoiinoe auee ia?ai?aaeaiu a
ooaou.

Eaai?aoi?ee ii nicaeaieth aoiiiie aiiau auee ?aciauaiu a Ein-Aeaiina.
Aia?eeaioeu nia?aee eo/oea iao/iua neeu: Oa?ie, Aaoa, *aaeaeea, O?eoa,
Eiiioiia, Noeeei?aea. ?ieue ?oeiaiaeeoaey, aeaaiiai aiaeeoeea eniieiye
Ieeiean Aaeea? – oae oaia?ue caaee Ai?a . ?aaiou i?iaiaeeeenue a
oneiaeyo no?iaeaeoae nae?aoiinoe , o?aoeeenue ia?iiiua n?aaenoaa e 16
ethey 1945 aiaea a ooaoa Iueth-Iaoeei auea aci?aaia ia?aay a ie?a
aoiiiay aiiaa. ?acoeueoaou eniuoaiey auee oaeanathueie , eioi?ua
aia?eeaioeu ia caiaaeeeee i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue a Oe?ineia e Iaaanaea.
“Ana o/aiua Ein-Aeaiina eniuouaaee /oanoai aeiu. Iu naeaeaee ?aaioo ca
aeueyaiea” – aniiieiaao aiineaaenoaee Yi?eei Oa?ie. Aua a 43 aiaeo Ai?o
e Yeiooaei i?eeaaaee ia/aeiaa/aneea oneeey ii i?aaeioa?auaieth
aiiaa?aee?iaie, ii ie ?ocaaeueo ie O?oiyi ia caoioaee oneuoaoue aiein
aeaai?acoiey. 11 aaaonoa 1945 aiaea Ai? aunooiaao a aacaoa “Oaein” ,
aaea ii iaaeiyao ooaou a iaoeaeaniia?aciinoe eniieueciaaiey yaea?iuo
aiiaa?aee?iaie a ssiiiee e i?ecuaaao anao e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio eiio?ieth
iaae iiaui aeaeii aii?oaeaiey. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu ii i/aiue iiiai
aieiaiey oaeaeye yoie i?iaeaia, ianiio?y ia ?ino oieiaeiie aieiu e aiiee
aii?oaeaiey.

Aei eiioea naieo aeiae Ai? oniae naeaeaoue iiiai iieaciuo aeae aeey
?acaeoey iaoee n?aaee eioi?uo auee :

– no?ieoaeuenoai eaai?aoi?ee i?e einoeoooa oai?aoe/aneie oeceee;

– nicaeaiea OeA?Ia – Aa?iiaeneiai Niaaoa ii yaea?iui enneaaeiaaieyi;

– iino?ieea aeaoneiai aoiiiiai ?aaeoi?a.

18 iiya?y 1962 Ieeuen Ai? neii/aeny , inoaaea iinea naay oaeia
eiee/anoai i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou , eioi?ui iiaea au ai?aeeoueny aeaaea
oeaeay a?oiia ethaeae.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. A.I.Eeyon, O.E.O?aieoo?o, A.I.O?aie. “Ieeuen Ai?”//Iaoea .I.-1977.

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