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Нейроподобный элемент (нейрон)

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1. Iae?iiiaeiaiue yeaiaio (iae?ii).

Ia iae?iiiaeiaiue yeaiaio iinooiaao iaai? aoiaeiuo neaiaeia x1, x2,
…, xM (eee aoiaeiie aaeoi? X), i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie auoiaeiua
neaiaeu ae?oaeo iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia. Eaaeaeue aoiaeiie neaiae
oiiiaeaaony ia niioaaonoaothuee aan nayce w1, w2, …, wM – aiaeia
yooaeoeaiinoe neiaina. Aan nayce yaeyaony neaey?iie aaee/eiie,
iieiaeeoaeueiie aeey aicaoaeaeathueo e io?eoeaoaeueiie aeey oi?iicyueo
naycae. Acaaoaiiua aanaie naycae aoiaeiua neaiaeu iinooiatho ia aeie
noiiaoeee, niioaaonoaothuee oaeo eeaoee, aaea inouanoaeyaony eo
aeaaa?ae/aneay noiiaoeey e ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaaiue aicaoaeaeaiey
iae?iiiaeiaiiai yeaiaioa S:

?en. 1.1.

(1.1)

Auoiaeiie neaiae iae?iia y ii?aaeaeyaony iooai i?iioneaiey o?iaiy
aicaoaeaeaiey S /a?ac iaeeiaeioth ooieoeeth f:

(1.2)

aaea ( – iaeioi?ia iinoiyiiia niauaiea (aiaeia ii?iaa iae?iia). Iau/ii
eniieuecothony i?inoaeoea iaeeiaeiua ooieoeee: aeia?iay (?en. 1.2, a)

?en. 1.2.

(1.3)

eee neaiieaeiay (?en. 1.2, a)

(1.4)

A oaeie iiaeaee iae?iia i?aiaa?aaatho iiiaeie ecaanoiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeieiae/aneiai i?ioioeia, eioi?ua iaeioi?ua
enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho e?eoe/aneeie. Iai?eia?, a iae ia o/eouaatho
iaeeiaeiinoue i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie noiiaoeee, eioi?ay iniaaiii
i?iyaeyaony aeey neaiaeia, i?eoiaeyueo ii aicaoaeaeathuei e oi?iicyuei
neiainai, ?acee/iiai ?iaea a?aiaiiua caaea?aeee, yooaeou neio?iiecaoeee
e /anoioiie iiaeoeyoeee, ?ao?aeoa?iinoue e o.i. Ianiio?y ia yoi
iae?iiiaeiaiua naoe, iino?iaiiua ia iniiaa oaeeo i?inouo iae?iiiaeiaiuo
yeaiaioia, aeaiiino?e?otho annioeeaoeaiua naienoa, iaiiieiathuea
naienoaa aeieiae/aneeo nenoai.

2. Iae?iiiaeiaiay naoue.

Iae?iiiaeiaiay naoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue iae?iiiaeiaiuo
yeaiaioia, ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii niaaeeiaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii e n
aiaoiae n?aaeie. Aoiaeiie aaeoi? (eii?aeeie?othuee aoiaeiia aicaeaenoaea
eee ia?ac aiaoiae n?aaeu) iiaeaaony ia naoue iooai aeoeaaoeee aoiaeiuo
iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia. Iiiaeanoai auoiaeiuo neaiaeia iae?iiia naoe
y1, y2, …,yN iacuaatho aaeoi?ii auoiaeiie aeoeaiinoe, eee iaooa?iii
aeoeaiinoe iae?iiiie naoe. Aana naycae iae?iiia naoe oaeiaii
i?aaenoaaeyoue a aeaea iao?eoeu W, aaea (ij – aan nayce iaaeaeo i- e j-i
iae?iiaie. A i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey (yaiethoeee ninoiyiey) naoe
inouanoaeyaony i?aia?aciaaiea aoiaeiiai aaeoi?a a auoiaeiie, o.a.
iaeioi?ay ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth iiaeii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue,
iai?eia?, eae ooieoeeth aaoa?i- eee aaoiannioeeaoeaiie iaiyoe.
Eiie?aoiue aeae auiieiyaiiai naoueth i?aia?aciaaiey eioi?iaoeee
iaoneiaeeaaaony ia oieueei oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia, ii
e iniaaiiinoyie aa a?oeoaeoo?u, o.a. oie eee eiie oiiieiaeae
iaaeiae?iiiuo naycae, auai?ii ii?aaeaeaiiuo iiaeiiiaeanoa
iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia aeey aaiaea e auaiaea eioi?iaoeee eee
ionoonoaeai eiieo?aioeee, iai?aaeaieai e niiniaaie oi?aaeaiey e
neio?iiecaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia iaaeaeo iae?iiaie e o.ae.

2.1. Iiaeaee iae?iiiuo naoae.

?anniao?eaaaiua iaie iiaeaee iae?iiiuo naoae iauaaeeiaiu a o?e a?oiiu.
A i. 2.1.1. ?anniao?eaathony naoe ia?naio?iiiiai oeia, aeey eioi?uo
oa?aeoa?ii ionoonoaea ia?aoiuo naycae iaaeaeo iae?iiiaeiaiuie
yeaiaioaie, i?aaieciaaiiuie a neie. Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth naoae,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a i. 2.1.2, yaeythony neiiao?e/iua (?aaiua ii aaee/eia e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua ii iai?aaeaieth) nayce iaaeaeo ethauie aeaoiy
niaaeeiaiiuie iae?iiaie. A iae?inaoaauo a?oeoaeoo?ao, iienaiiuo a i.
2.1.3, iaaeaeo iae?iiaie iaeiiai neiy eiathony iinoiyiiua oi?iicyuea
nayce (eaoa?aeueiia oi?iiaeaiea).

2.1.1. Naoe n i?yiuie naycyie.

I?yiie ia?naio?ii. A na?aaeeia 50-o aiaeia auea i?aaeeiaeaia iaeia ec
ia?auo iiaeaeae iae?iiiuo naoae, eioi?ay aucaaea aieueoie eioa?an ec-ca
naiae niiniaiinoe iao/aoueny ?aniiciaaaieth i?inouo ia?acia. Yoa
iiaeaeue – ia?naio?ii – ninoieo ec aeia?iuo iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia e
eiaao i?inooth oiiieiaeth, /oi iicaieeei aeinoaoi/ii iieii
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aa ?aaioo e nicaeaoue iiiai/eneaiiua oece/aneea
?aaeecaoeee. Oeie/iue ia?naio?ii ninoieo ec o?ao iniiaiuo eiiiiiaio:

iao?eoeu aeia?iuo aoiaeia r1, r2, …, rn (naini?iuo iae?iiia eee
«nao/aoee», eoaea iiaeathony aoiaeiua ia?acu);

iaai?a aeia?iuo iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia x1, x2, …, xm (eee
i?aaeeeaoia a iaeaieaa iauai neo/aa) n oeene?iaaiiuie naycyie e
iiaeiiiaeanoaai nao/aoee («aeaoaeoi?u i?eciaeia»);

aeia?iiai iae?iiiaeiaiiai yeaiaioa n iiaeeoeoee?oaiuie naycyie e yoei
i?aaeeeaoai («?aoathuee yeaiaio»).

Ia naiii aeaea /enei ?aoathueo yeaiaioia auae?atho ?aaiui eiee/anoao
eeannia, ia eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeoue i?aaeuyaeyaiua ia?naio?iio
ia?acu.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeaeue ia?naio?iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaee/eai oieueei
i?yiuo naycae, iaeei ec neiaa eioi?uo yaeyaony iiaeeoeoee?oaiui. A
iinoaeoai neo/aa, eiaaea n = m e xi = ri, aeaoaeoi?u i?eciaeia iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny eae aoiaeiie neie. Oiaaea ia?naio?ii noaiiaeony iaeiei
aeia?iui iae?iiiaeiaiui yeaiaioii. Yoi eeanne/aneay iiaeaeue
I-aoiaeiaiai iae?iia, i?eaaaeaiiay ia ?en. 1.1, eee i?inoie ia?naio?ii
?icaiaeaooa. A iauai neo/aa eaaeaeue yeaiaio xi iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny
eae aoeaaa ooieoeey, caaenyuay io iaeioi?iai iiaeiiiaeanoaa nao/aoee.
Oiaaea aaee/eia auoiaeiuo neaiaeia yoeo ia?aaaouaathueo yeaiaioia
yaeyaony cia/aieai ooieoeee xi, eioi?ia ?aaii 0 eee 1.

Ono?ienoai ?aaae?oao ia aoiaeiie aaeoi? aaia?aoeeae auoiaeiiai neaiaea
y ?aoathuaai yeaiaioa ii oi?ioea (1.3). Oaeei ia?acii, ia?naio?ii
oi?ie?oao aeia?ieineinoue, eioi?ay aeaeeo iiiaiia?iia i?ino?ainoai x1,
x2, …, xm ia aeaa /anoe e ii?aaeaeyao, a eaeie ec ieo iaoiaeeony
aoiaeiie ia?ac, auiieiyy oaeei ia?acii, aai eeanneoeeaoeeth. Aicieeaao
aii?in, eae ii?aaeaeeoue cia/aiey aania, /oiau iaania/eoue ?aoaiea
ia?naio?iiii eiie?aoiie caaea/e. Yoi aeinoeaaaony a i?ioeanna iao/aiey.

Iaeei ec aeai?eoiia iao/aiey i?eaaaeai a ia?aa?aoa 2.2.

Iiiaineieiue ia?naio?ii. Eae ioia/aeinue auoa, i?inoie ia?naio?ii n
iaeiei neiai iao/aaiuo naycae oi?ie?oao a?aieoeu iaeanoae ?aoaiee a
aeaea aeia?ieineioae. Aeaooneieiue ia?naio?ii iiaeao auiieiyoue iiaeao
auiieiyoue iia?aoeeth eiae/aneiai «E» iaae iieoi?ino?ainoaaie,
ia?aciaaiiuie aeia?ieineinoyie ia?aiai neiy aania. Yoi iicaieyao
oi?ie?iaaoue ethaua, aiciiaeii iaia?aie/aiiua, auioeeua iaeanoe a
i?ino?ainoaa aoiaeiuo neaiaeia. N iiiiuueth o?aoneieiiai ia?naio?iia,
eiiaeie?oy eiae/aneeie «EEE» ioaeiua auioeeua iaeanoe, iiaeii iieo/eoue
oaea iaeanoe ?aoaiee i?iecaieueiie oi?iu e neiaeiinoe, a oii /enea
iaauioeeua e ianayciua. Oi, /oi iiiaineieiua ia?naio?iiu n aeinoaoi/iui
iiiaeanoaii aioo?aiieo iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia e niioaaonoaothuae
iao?eoeae nayca a i?eioeeia niiniaiu inouanoaeyoue ethaia ioia?aaeaiea
aoiae – auoiae, ioia/aee aua Ieineee e Iaeia?o, iaeiaei iie niiiaaaeenue
a oii, /oi iiaeii ioe?uoue aeey ieo iiuiue aiaeia i?ioeaaeo?u iao/aiey
i?inoiai ia?naio?iia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?acoeueoaoa aic?iaeaeaiey
eioa?ana e iiiaineieiui naoyi i?aaeeiaeaii ianeieueei oaeeo i?ioeaaeo?.
*anoue ec ieo i?eaaaeaia a ia?aa?aoa 2.2.

2.1.2. Naoe n neiiao?e/iuie naycyie.

Ainaiaeaaua iae?iiiua naoe. Ieineee e Iaeia?o ioia/aee, /oi iaaeinoaoee
i?inouo ia?naio?iiia iiaeii i?aiaeieaoue eae n iiiiuueth iiiaineieiuo
naoae (ni. auoa), oae e aaaaeaieai a naoue ia?aoiuo naycae,
aeiioneathueo oee?eoeyoeeth neaiaeia ii caieiooui eiioo?ai.
Eniieueciaaoue naienoaa oaeiai ?iaea naoae aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey ooieoeee
iicaa aua a 1949 a. i?aaeeiaeee Oaaa.

Niaeanii acaeyaeai Oaaaa ia?aiua eeaoee iicaa niaaeeiaiu ae?oa n
ae?oaii aieueoei eiee/anoaii i?yiuo e ia?aoiuo aicaoaeaeathueo naycae e
ia?acotho iae?iiioth naoue. Eaaeaeue iae?ii inouanoaeyao
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiioth noiiaoeeth i?eoiaeyueo e iaio neaiaeia io
aicaoaeaeathueo, ii?aaeaeyy iioaioeeae ia naiae iaia?aia. Eiaaea
iioaioeeae ia iaia?aia i?aauoaao ii?iaiaia cia/aiea, iae?ii
aicaoaeaeaaony. Iae?ii iaeaaeaao ?ao?aeoa?iinoueth e onoaeinoueth.
Yooaeoeaiinoue naycae iiaeao eciaiyoueny a i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
naoe, iiauoaynue iaaeaeo iaeiia?aiaiii aicaoaeaeaiiuie iae?iiaie. Yoi
i?eaiaeeo e iauaaeeiaieth iae?iiia a eeaoi/iua ainaiaee – a?oiiu eeaoie,
eioi?ua /aua anaai aicaoaeaeaeenue aianoa, e e iainiaeaieth ainaiaeae
ae?oa io ae?oaa. I?e aicaoaeaeaiee aeinoaoi/iie /anoe ainaiaey ii
aicaoaeaeaaony oeaeeeii. ?acee/iua ainaiaee iiaoo ia?anaeaoueny: iaeei e
oio aea iae?ii iiaeao aoiaeeoue a ?aciua ainaiaee. Yeaeo?e/aneay
aeoeaiinoue iicaa iaoneiaeaia iineaaeiaaoaeueiui aicaoaeaeaieai
ioaeaeueiuo ainaiaeae.

Eaeae Oaaaa ieacaee aieueoia aicaeaenoaea ia i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?aaioa
iicaa e iineoaeeee iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey iae?iiiuo iiaeaeae
aeieaia?aiaiiie iaiyoe. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ainaiaeaaoth iae?iiioth naoue
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae no?oeoo?o, ?aaeecothuoth ooieoeee
?ani?aaeaeaiiie annioeeaoeaiie iaiyoe. Oi?ie?iaaiea ainaiaeae a oaeie
naoe niioaaonoaoao caiiieiaieth ia?acia (i?eciaeia, iauaeoia, niauoee,
iiiyoee), caeiaee?iaaiiuo iaooa?iii aeoeaiinoe iae?iiia, a
noi?ie?iaaiiua ainaiaee yaeythony eo aioo?aiiei i?aaenoaaeaieai.
I?ioeann aicaoaeaeaiey anaai ainaiaey i?e aeoeaaoeee /anoe aai iae?iiia
iiaeii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue eae ecaea/aiea caiiiiaiiie eioi?iaoeee ii aa
/anoe – eeth/o iaiyoe.

Iiaeaeue iaiyoe ia iniiaa ainaiaeaaie iae?iiiie naoe iaeaaeaao
iaeioi?uie naienoaaie, i?enoueie aeieiae/aneie iaiyoe, oaeei, eae
annioeeaoeaiinoue, ?ani?aaeaeaiiinoue, ia?aeeaeueiinoue, onoie/eainoue e
ooio e naiyi, iaaeaaeiinoue. I?iaiaeyony oaeaea no?oeoo?iua aiaeiae
iaaeaeo ainaiaeaauie iiaeaeyie iae?iiiuo naoae e no?iaieai ei?u
aieiaiiai iicaa. Eiathony yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua i neiaioe/aneie
ieanoe/iinoe, iinooee?iaaiiie Oaaaii.

Iiaeaeue ainaiaeeaaie naoe ninoieo ec aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iae?iiia,
eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iau/ii niaaeeiai ni anaie ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie naoe.
Aoiaeiie ia?ac iiaeaaony ia naoue iooai aeoeaaoeee ioaeiuo
iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia. Iao/aiea ainaiaeeaaie naoe iienaii a ia?aa?aoa
.

Naoue Oiioeeaea. Oioy iiiai/eneaiiua ?acoeueoaou iiaeaee?iaaiey
aeaiiino?e?iaaee noaaeeueiinoue ainaiaeaauo naoae n ia?aoiuie naycyie e
oaaaianeei i?aaeeii iao/aiey (yaiethoeeth naoe e onoie/eaiio
ninoiyieth), ionoonoaea iaoaiaoe/aneiai iainiaaaiey oaeiai iiaaaeaiey
i?aiyonoaiaaei eo iiioey?iinoe.

A 1982 a. aia?eeaineee aeioecee Aeaeii Oiiaeeae iioaeeeiaae noaoueth,
aaea iiaaaeaiea iiaeaee iieiinayciie naoe aeia?iuo iae?iiiaeiaiuo
yeaiaioia n neiiao?e/iuie naycyie ((ij = (ji). yeaiaiou ooieoeeiie?iaaee
a aneio?iiiii ?aaeeia, o.a. eaaeaeue iae?ii a neo/aeiua iiiaiou a?aiaie
n iaeioi?ie n?aaeiae /anoioie ii?aaeaeye naia ninoiyiea n i?aaeeii
(1.3). Yoi iicaieeei iienaoue iiaaaeaiea naoe ea ?aeaenaoeeiiiue
i?ioeann, i?e eioi?ii ieieiece?oaony ooieoeey (aaieeueoiieai) iiaeaee.

Iaoeia Aieueoeiaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noioanoe/aneee aa?eaio naoe
Oiioeeaea. Aeia?iua iae?iiiaeiaiua yeaiaiou (aeiee) o?aeoothony caeanue
i?aaenoaaeoaee yeaiaioa?iuo aeiioac, a aana – eae neaaua ia?iua
acaeiiia?aie/aiey iaaeaeo ieie. Iieiaeeoaeueiue aan nayce oeacuaaao, /oi
aeaa aeiioacu no?aiyony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa, a io?eoeaoaeueiue
– ia eo ianiaianoeiinoue. Neiiao?ey naycae iicaieyao i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
iiaaaeaiea naoe n eniieueciaaieai yia?aaoe/aneie ooieoeee
(aaieeueoiieaia). Yia?aeth ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaooa?ia aeoeaiinoe iiaeii
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue eae noaiaiue ia?ooaiey ia?aie/aiee, i?enoonoaothueo a
i?iaeaiiie iaeanoe, ni noi?iiu eiie?aoiie eiiaeiaoeee aeiioac eee eae
noieiinoioth ooieoeeth, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue ieieiece?iaaia aeey
?aoaiey iioeiecaoeeiiiie caaea/e. Nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue, iaeiaei,
iiiaaeaiey naoe a eieaeueiue ieiieioi, /oi e?aeia ia aeaeaoaeueii aeey
iioeiecaoeeiiiuo caaea/. *oiau naoue iiaea aua?aoueny ec eieaeueiiai
yia?aaoe/aneiai ieieioia, a iaoeia Aieueoeiaia i?eiaiyaony aa?iyoiinoiia
i?aaeei n?aaaouaaiey aeieia:

, (2.1)

aaea pi – aa?iyoiinoue iaoiaeaeaiey i-ai aeiea a aaeeie/iii ninoiyiee;

P (x) – neaiieaeiay ooieoeey (?en. 1.2. a);

T – ia?aiao?, aiaeiae/iue oaiia?aoo?a. I?e T(0 yoi i?aaeei ia?aoiaeeo a
i?aaeei n?aaaouaaiey aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo yeaiaioia (1.3), a i?e iiauoaiee
oaiia?aoo?u oaaee/eaaaony aa?iyoiinoue ia?aoiaea nenoaiu a ninoiyiea n
aieueoae yia?aeae.

Iao/aiea iaoeiu Aieueoeiaia iienaii a ia?aa?aoa 2.2.

2.1.3. Naoe n eaoa?aeueiui oi?iiaeaieai.

Ea?ou i?eciaeia Eioiiaia. Iau/ii a ea/anoaa aoiaeiuo ia?acia a iiaeaeyo
annioeeaoeaiie iaiyoe eniieuecothony iaeioi?ua aioo?aiiea i?aaenoaaeaiey
naini?iie eioi?iaoeee, i?ioaaeoae, eae n/eoaaony, iaiaoiaeeioth
i?aaeia?aaioeo. Iaeei ec iae?inaoaauo aa?eaioia oaeie ia?a?aaioee
i?aaeeiaeai Eioiiaiii. Aai aeai?eoi oi?ie?oao iaeii- eee aeaoia?ioth
ea?oo «ea?oo» i?eciaeia iooai iaeeiaeiiai «niethueaaiey» iiiaiia?iiai
neaiaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa. I?e yoii i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi oaeia
ioia?aaeaiea aeieaeii nio?aiyoue oiiieiae/aneea ioiioaiey, nouanoaothuea
iaaeaeo aoiaeiuie neaiaeaie.

No?oeoo?a iae?iiiie naoe, a eioi?ie ?aaeecoaony oi?ie?iaaiea ea?o
i?eciaeia, i?eaaaeaia ia ?en. 2.1. Iae?iiu, eiathuea neaiieaeioth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo, ?aniieiaeaiu a aeaea iaeii- e aeaoia?iiai neiy neiy ii
aiaeiaee ni neienoui no?iaieai ei?u. Ia eaaeaeue iae?ii iinooiatho aeaa
aeaea naycae: mij, eioi?ua eioa?i?aoe?othony eae nayce io naini?iuo
aoiaeia eee ec ae?oaeo iaeanoae, e (jk – eaoa?aeueiua nayce io iae?iiia
iaeiiai neiy, oa?aeoa? eioi?uo caaeneo io ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo iae?iiaie.
Ooieoeey acaeiiaeaenoaey iae?iiia iaeiiai neiy eiaao aeae «iaeneeaineie
oeyiu» (?en. 2.2.), /oi niioaaonoaoao iaeioi?ui iae?iaeieiae/aneei
aeaiiui. Aeecei ?aniieiaeaiiua iae?iiu aicaoaeaeatho ae?oa ae?oaa, n
oaaee/aieai ?annoiyiey aicaoaeaeaiea niaiyaony oi?iiaeaieai, a caoai
iiyoue iiyaeythony neaaua aicaoaeaeathuea nayce, eioi?ua ii-aeaeeiiio,
auiieiytho annioeeaoeaiua ooieoeee e a aeaiiie iiaeaee ia
eniieuecothony.

Yooaeo iaee/ey eaoa?aeueiuo naycae n ?aaeeonii aeaenoaey ii?yaeea
?acia?ia naoe i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothuai. Anee ia eaaeaeue iae?ii
iiaeaoue (iai?eia?, /a?ac nayce io naini?iuo aoiaeia mij) eiathuee
iaaieueoie iaeneioi neo/aeiue neaiae Si, oi a i?ioeanna ?aeaenaoeee naoe
inouanoaeyaony iiauoaiea aai eiio?aniinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa aie?oa
ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeneioia ia?acoaony «iocu?ae» auoiaeiie aeoeaiinoe
iae?iiia (?en. 2.3.).

?en. 2.3.

Aoiaeiua neaiaeu iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeytho i?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee
naoe, o.a. a iae ?aaeeciaai aeai?eoi iao/aiey aac o/eoaey. Eaoa?aeueiua
nayce (jk a iiaeaee n/eoathony iinoiyiiuie, e ana aaeaioeaiua yooaeou
i?ienoiaeyo oieueei a iao?eoea aoiaeiuo naycae I. Iiae?iaiaa i?ioeann
iao/aiey ?anniio?ai a ia?aa?aoa 2.2.

Oai?ey aaeaioeaiiai ?aciiaina. Iiaeaeoe, iaeia ec naiuo ?acaeouo e
i?iaeoiaiiuo n aeieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey eiioeaioeee iae?inaoaaie
ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee i?aaeeiaeaia a ?aaioao A?innaa?aa. Aa noa?aeiai
yaeyaony iiaeaeue iae?iiiie naoe e aeai?eoiu oai?ee aaeaioeaiiai
?aciiaina, eioi?ay auea ?ac?aaioaia a ia/aea 70-o aiaeia e
aeaoaeece?iaaia a 80-o.

Iae?iiiay nenoaia oai?ee aaeaioeaiiai ?aciiaina niiniaia iao/aoueny
?aniiciaaaieth ia?acia ?acee/iie noaiaie neiaeiinoe. Iia ioiineo
aoiaeiie ia?ac e iaeiiio ec eeannia a caaeneiinoe io oiai, ia eaeie
ia?ac ec caiiiiaiiuo ia?acia ii aieueoa anaai iioiae. Anee aoiaeiie
ia?ac ia niioaaonoaoao ie iaeiiio ec caiiiiaiiuo, nicaeaaony iiaue eeann
iooai aai caiiieiaiey. Anee iaeaeai ia?ac, n ii?aaeaeaiiui «aeiioneii»
niioaaonoaothuee aoiaeiiio, oi ii iiaeeoeoee?oaony oae, /oiau noaoue aua
aieueoa iioiaeei ia aoiaeiie.

2.2. Iao/aiea iae?iiiie naoe.

Iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo naienoa iae?iiiaeiaiie naoe – niiniaiinoue e
naiii?aaiecaoeee, naiiaaeaioaoeee n oeaeueth oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Yoi aeinoeaaaony iao/aieai naoe, aeai?eoi eioi?iai
caaeaaony iaai?ii iao/athueo i?aaee. Iao/athuea i?aaeea ii?aaeaeytho,
eaeei ia?acii eciaiythony nayce a ioaao ia aoiaeiia aicaeaenoaea.
Iao/aiea iniiaaii ia oaaee/aiee neeu nayce (aana neiiina) iaaeaeo
iaeiia?aiaiii aeoeaiuie iae?iiaie. Oaeei ia?acii, /anoi eniieuecoaiua
nayce oneeeaathony, /oi iauyniyao oaiiiai iao/aiey iooai iiaoi?aiey e
i?eaueaiey. Iaoaiaoe/anee yoi i?aaeei iiaeii caienaoue oae:

(1.5)

aaea (ij(t) e (ij(t+1) – cia/aiea nayce io i-ai e j-io iae?iio
niioaaonoaaiii aei e iinea aai eciaiaiey, ( – nei?inoue iao/aiey. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ?aciiia?aciuo iao/athueo i?aaee
(aeai?eoiia iao/aiey). Iaeioi?ua ec ieo i?eaaaeaiu ieaea.

2.2.1. «Back propagation» (aeai?eoi ia?aoiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ioeaee).

Yoio aeai?eoi yaeyaony iaiauaieai iaeiie ec i?ioeaaeo? iao/aiey
i?inoiai ia?naio?iia, ecaanoiie eae i?aaeei Oeae?io – Oiooa (eee
aeaeueoa-i?aaeei), e o?aaoao i?aaenoaaeaiey iao/athuae auai?ee. Auai?ea
ninoieo ec iaai?a ia? ia?acia, iaaeaeo eioi?uie iaaei onoaiiaeoue
niioaaonoaea, e iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iaoe?iia caaeaiea aaeoi?iie
ooieoeee, iaeanoue ii?aaeaeaiey eioi?ie – iaai? aoiaeiuo ia?acia, a
iiiaeanoai cia/aiee – iaai? auoiaeia.

Ia?aae ia/aeii iao/aiey naycyi i?enaaeaathony iaaieueoea neo/aeiua
cia/aiey. Eaaeaeay eoa?aoeey i?ioeaaeo?u ninoieo ec aeaoo oac. Ai a?aiy
ia?aie oacu ia naoue iiaeaaony aoiaeiie aaeoi? (ia?ac) iooai onoaiiaee a
ioaeiia ninoiyiea aoiaeiuo yeaiaioia. Caoai aoiaeiua neaiaeu
?ani?ino?aiythony ii naoe, ii?iaeaeay iaeioi?ue auoiaeiie aaeoi?. Aeey
?aaiou aeai?eoia o?aaoaony, /oiau oa?aeoa?enoeea aoiae – auoiae
iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia auea iaoauaathuae e eiaea ia?aie/aiioth
i?iecaiaeioth. Iau/ii aeey yoiai eniieuecotho neaiieaeioth iaeeiaeiinoue
aeaea (1.4).

Iieo/aiiue auoiaeiie aaeoi? n?aaieaaaony n o?aaoaiui. Anee iie
niaiaaeatho, iao/aiey ia i?ienoiaeeo. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa au/eneyaony
?acieoea iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneeie e o?aaoaiuie auoiaeiuie cia/aieyie,
eioi?ay ia?aaeaaony iineaaeiaaoaeueii io auoiaeiiai neiy e aoiaeiiio. Ia
iniiaaiee yoie eioi?iaoeee ia ioeaea i?iecaiaeeony iiaeeoeeaoeey naycae
n iaiauaiiui aeaeueoa-i?aaeeii.

2.2.2. Iao/aiea aac «ainieoaoaey».

Iao/aiea aac «ainieoaoaey» aiciiaeii iai?eia? a naoyo aaeaioeaiiai
?aciiaina (ia?aa?ao 2.1.3.). I?ienoiaeeo n?aaiaiea aoiaeiiai ia?aca n
eiathueieny a iaiyoe naoe oaaeiiaie. Anee iao iiaeoiaeyuaai oaaeiia, n
eioi?ui iiaeii auei au ioiaeaeanoaeoue enneaaeoaiue ia?ac, oi nicaeaaony
iiaue oaaeii, niaea?aeauee a naaa yoio aoiaeiie ia?ac. A aeaeueiaeoai
iiaue oaaeii eniieuecoaony ia?aaia n ae?oaeie.

3. Iae?ieiiiuethoa?u.

Oa?iei «iae?ieiiiuethoa?» oiio?aaeyaony aeey iaicia/aiey anaai niaeo?a
?aaio a ?aieao iiaeoiaea e iino?iaieth nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa,
iniiaaiiiai ia iiaeaee?iaaiee yeaiaioia, no?oeoo?, acaeiiaeaenoaee e
ooieoeee ?acee/iuo ia?aiie nenoaiu. Oae eae a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iaeanoe aaaeoony a iniiaiii ia o?iaia iiaeaeae
iae?iiiuo naoae, oi iiieiaiea oa?ieia «iae?ieiiiuethoa?u» noaeatho,
noaay ciae ?aaainoaa iaaeaeo iei e iae?iiiuie naoyie.

A caaeneiinoe io niiniaa ?aaeecaoeee iiaeaeae iae?iiiuo naoae
auaeaeytho 4 o?iaiy iae?ieiiiuethoa?ia.

Oai?aoe/aneee. ?aaiou, a eioi?uo a oie eee eiie oi?ia (iaoaiaoe/aneie,
aeai?eoie/aneie, neiaaniie e o.ae.) i?aaenoaaeaii iienaiea iiaeaeae
iae?iiiuo naoae.

I?ia?aiiiue. Iiaeaee iae?iiiuo naoae, i?ia?aiiii ?aaeeciaaiiua ia
iau/iuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao.

I?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiue. Nii?ioeanni?u aeey onei?aiey iiaeaee?iaaiey
iae?iiiuo naoae.

Aiia?aoiue. Oece/anee ?aaeeciaaiiua iiaeaee iae?iiiuo naoae.

Niaoeeoe/iinoue iae?inaoaauo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea naa?oia?aeeaeueiinoue
no?oeoo?u e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiaeaeae iae?iiiuo naoae /?acau/aeii
caiaaeeytho eo ?aaeecaoeeth ia iau/iuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao.
Iio?aaiinoue a auiieiaiee aieueoiai iauaia enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio e
auno?ii ooieoeeiie?iaaiee iiyaeaoeony i?eeeaaeiuo nenoai i?eaaee e
iiyaeaieth niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo ono?ienoa aeey
yooaeoeaiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey iae?iiiuo naoae – iae?ieiiiuethoa?ia a oceii
niunea neiaa. Oaeay o?aeoiaea, niioaaonoaothuay o?iaiyi 2 e 3 ii
i?eaaaeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee, iieo/eea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

Caeeth/aiea.

?anniio?aiiua iaie iae?iiiaeiaiua naoe iiaoo auiieiyoue aieueoie e?oa
caaea/.

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