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IAOA?Ess E AA INIIAIUA NAIENOAA

Auiieiee: Eiiae?aoeei N.A.

a?. CA -201

TOC \o “1-3”

IAOA?Ess E AA INIIAIUA NAIENOAA GOTOBUTTON _Toc409618837 PAGEREF
_Toc409618837 1

Auiieiee: Eiiae?aoeei N.A. GOTOBUTTON _Toc409618838 PAGEREF
_Toc409618838 1

Oeeinioey i iiiyoee iaoa?ey GOTOBUTTON _Toc409618839 PAGEREF
_Toc409618839 2

Iaoa?ey e aa ao?eaoou: i?ino?ainoai, a?aiy, aeaeaeaiea, nenoaiiinoue
GOTOBUTTON _Toc409618840 PAGEREF _Toc409618840 10

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc409618841 PAGEREF _Toc409618841 21

Eeoa?aoo?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc409618842 PAGEREF _Toc409618842 22

Oeeinioey i iiiyoee iaoa?ey

“Iaoa?ey” – iaeii ec ooiaeaiaioaeueiaeoeo iiiyoee oeeinioee. Iaeiaei a
?acee/iuo oeeinioneeo nenoaiao aai niaea?aeaiea iiieiaaony ii-?aciiio.
Aeey eaeaaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee, iai?eia?, oa?aeoa?ii oi, /oi iia eee
nianai ioaa?aaao nouanoaiaaiea iaoa?ee eee io?eoeaao aa iauaeoeaiinoue.
Oae, auaeathueeny ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio Ieaoii ?anniao?eaaao iaoa?eth
eae i?iaeoeeth ie?a eaeae. Naia ii naaa iaoa?ey o Ieaoiia ie/oi. Aeey
oiai, /oiau i?aa?aoeoueny a ?aaeueiinoue, a iae aeieaeia aiieioeoueny
eaeay-ieaoaeue eaeay.

O iineaaeiaaoaey Ieaoiia, A?enoioaey, iaoa?ey oiaea nouanoaoao eeoue eae
aiciiaeiinoue, eioi?ay i?aa?auaaony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oieueei a
?acoeueoaoa niaaeeiaiey aa n oi?iie. Oi?iu aea a eiia/iii eoiaa aa?oo
naia ia/aei io Aiaa.

O A. Aaaaey iaoa?ey i?iyaeyaony a ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe aaniethoiie
eaeae, aaniethoiiai aeooa, Eiaiii aaniethoiue aeoo, eaeay ii?iaeaeatho
iaoa?eth.

A noauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee Aeae. Aa?eee ioe?uoi cayaeyaony
i oii, /oi iaoa?ee iao, e aa ieeoi ieeiaaea ia aeaeae, /oi, anee
ecaiaoue yoi iiiyoea ec iaoee, oi yoi ieeoi e ia caiaoeo, eai iii ie/aai
ia icia/aao. Ii ienae, /oi iiaeii oiio?aaeyoue iiiyoea “iaoa?ey”, anee
oae i/aiue oi/aony, ii oieueei eae neiiiei neiaa “ie/oi”. Aeey Aa?eee
nouanoaiaaoue – yoi auoue iioaioeeaeueii aini?eieiaaiui. Ia aii?in i
oii, nouanoaiaaea ee i?e?iaea aei /aeiaaea, Aa?eee ioaaoee au – aea, a
niciaiee Aiaa. Ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeoaee noauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia ( Y. Iao,
?. Aaaia?eon e ae?.) ioe?uoi ia io?eoeatho nouanoaiaaiea iaoa?ee, ii
naiaeyo aa e “niaieoiiinoe (eiiieaenai) iuouaiee”. Iaoa?ey, aauue,
i?aaeiao, ii; eo iiaieth, – yoi eiiieaen iuouaiee /aeiaaea. Eiaiii
iuouaiey /aeiaaea nicaeatho, eiino?oe?otho eo.

A iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee oaeaea nouanoaotho ?aciua i?aaenoaaeaiey
i iaoa?ee. I?aaaea, aeey anao oeeinioia-iaoa?eaeenoia oa?aeoa?ii
i?eciaiea ca iaoa?eae aa iauaeoeaiiai, iacaaeneiiai io niciaiey
(iuouaiee) nouanoaiaaiey.

Oaea ae?aaiea oeeiniou (eeoaeneea, eiaeeeneea, a?a/aneea) a ea/anoaa
iaoa?ee ?anniao?eaaee eaeia-eeai iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiia
/oanoaaiii-eiie?aoiia aauanoai, eioi?ia iie n/eoaee ia?aiiniiaie anaai
nouanoaothuaai a ie?a. Oaeie iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth iaoa?ee iiaeao
auoue iacaai noanoaioeeaeueiui, eai aai nooue ninoaaeyea iiene iniiau
(noanoaioeee) ie?a. Oae, iai?eia?, ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio Oaeaea ec
Ieeaoa (ia/aei e na?aaeeia VI a. aei i. y.) n/eoae, /oi ana i?iecioei ec
aiaeu. Aeaaea caiey, ii aai iiaieth ieaaaao ia aiaea, iiaeiaii eoneo
aea?aaa. I?aaenoaaeoaeue oie aea Ieeaoneie oeieu – oeeinio Aaaeneiai
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ana aaue i?ienoiaeyo ec aicaeooa, ca n/ao aai
?ac?yaeaiey, eee naouaiey (aicaeooiua enia?aiey, iiaeuiaynue aaa?o e
?ac?yaeaynue, i?aa?auathony a iaiaiiua iaaaniua naaoeea e, iaiai?io,
oaa?aeua aauanoaa – caiey, eaiie e o. ae. – anoue ia /oi eiia, eae
naonoeaoeeny e canouaoee aicaeoo). Aicaeoo iaoiaeeony a iai?anoaiiii
aeaeaeaiee. Anee au ii aue iaaeaeaeei, iu aai au ieeae ia aini?eieiaee,
eiaaea ii aeaeaeaony, ii aeaao i naaa ciaoue a aeaea aao?a, iaeaeia,
ieaiaie. Yoi cia/eo, – o/eo Aiaeneiai, /oi ana aaue nooue iiaeeoeeaoeee
aicaeooa, e neaaeiaaoaeueii, aicaeoo anoue anaiauee noano?ao aauae.

Aa?aeeeo ec Yoana ia?aiiniiaie anaai nouaai n/eoae iaiiue. Enoaoe,
iaiiue o Aa?aeeeoa – yoi e ia?ac aa/iiai aeaeaeaiey. “Yoio einiin, –
aeieacuaae ii, – iaeei e oio aea aeey anao, ia nicaeae ieeoi ec aiaia e
ieeoi ec ethaeae, ii ii anaaaea aue, anoue e aoaeao aa/ii aeeaui iaiai,
ia?ii aicai?athueiny e ia?ii oaanathuei”.

Eiia/ii, o?oaeii auei i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi a iniiaa ?aciiia?acey aauae e
i?ioeannia iaoiaeeony /oi-oi iaeii. Iiyoiio aiineaaenoaee oeeiniou noaee
?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa ia?aiiniiau ie?a (iaoa?ee) ianeieueei aauanoa
n?aco. Oae, iai?eia?, Yiiaaeiee (O a. aei i. y.) aiai?ee i 4-o
yeaiaioao, eae i ei?iyo anao aauae: iaia, aicaeooa (yoe?a), aiaea e
caiea. Yoe ei?ie aa/iu, iaeciaiiu, ia iiaoo ie aicieeaoue ec /aai-eeai
ae?oaiai, ie ia?aoiaeeoue ae?oa a ae?oaa. Ana i?i/ea aaue iieo/athony a
?acoeueoaoa niaaeeiaiey yoeo yeaiaioia a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iii?oeeyo.
Ae?oaie ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio Aiaenaai? o/ee, /oi ie? ninoieo ec
aaneiia/iiai /enea “naiyi” – aeaeeiuo aei aaneiia/iinoe /anoeoe. A
eaaeaeie aaue anoue /anoeoea eaaeaeie ae?oaie, a aaeii caeeth/aii
/a?iia, a /a?iii – aaeia, a oyaeaeii – eaaeia e o. ae. AEeciue ie?a, –
iiae/a?eeaae Aiaenaai?, – anoue i?ioeann. Ioeaieaay yoe acaeyaeu
Aiaenaai?a, iaeuecy ia aeaeaoue, /oi aai oeeinioey i?aeoe/anee
iiaeaioiaeea aoiienoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci.

Aoiienoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci naycai n eiaiaie ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo oeeinioia
Eaaeeiia e Aeaiie?eoa (IV a. aei i. y.). Iaoa?ey ioiaeaeanoaeyeanue eie
n aanno?oeoo?iuie aoiiaie (aoii a ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai icia/aao
“iaaeaeeiue”). Ii Aeaiie?eoo, auoea neeaaeuaaaony ec aeaeaeoueony a
i?ino?ainoaa aoiiia e ionoiou. Aoiiu aaiiao?e/iu (iai?eia?, aeooa
ninoieo ec e?oaeuo aoiiia), ia iiaeaa?aathony ieeaeiio aicaeaenoaeth
ecaia, ianiiniaiu ie e eaeiio eciaiaieth, iie aa/iu e iaoie/oiaeeiu. Iie
iaeaaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiui ?acia?ii, iannie, iiaoo noaeeeaaoueny,
oaea?yynue ae?oa i ae?oaa. Aeaco aoiiu niaa?oaiii ia aeaeeiu, – caia/ae
Aeaiie?eo, ii, iaeiaei, iie iiaoo auoue aiieia aeaeeiuie a oinoaaiiii
niunea. AEeciue, n oi/ee c?aiey Aeaiie?eoa, – yoi niaaeeiaiea aoiiia,
nia?oue – eo ?aceiaeaiea. Aeooa oiaea nia?oia, eai aa aoiiu iiaoo
?aceaaaoueny, -o/ee Aeaiie?eo.

Acaeyae ia iaoa?eth eae ia aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai aoiiia, aac
eaeeo-eeai caiaoiuo eciaiaiee, nio?aiyeny a ?acee/iuo oeieao
oeeinioneiai iaoa?eaeecia aieioue aei ia/aea OO aaea. Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea
iaoa?ee n aauanoaii (e n iaaeaeeiuie aoiiaie a aai iniiaa) aue
oa?aeoa?ai e aeey o?aioeocneeo iaoa?eaeenoia XVIII aaea, e aeey E.
Oaea?aaoa. Eioa?anii, /oi e O. Yiaaeuen, iniiauaaynue ia iiceoeeyo
aoiienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia, aianoa n oai a ioaaoa ia aii?in:
nouanoaoao ee iaoa?ey eae oaeiaay, ienae, /oi ?aaeueii nouanoaoao
iaoa?ey eeoue a aeaea eiie?aoiuo oi?i, iauaeoia e ia nouanoaoao iaoa?ee
eae aanno?oeoo?iie ia?aiiaoa?ee, ia eciaiyaiie oi?iu anao oi?i.

Iaeaieaa aeoaieea ?aaiethoeeiiiua eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeeee a eiioea XIX e
ia/aea XX aaea a anoanoaiciaiee, iniaaiii a oeceea. Iie auee noieue
ooiaeaiaioaeueiu, /oi ii?iaeeee ia oieueei e?ecen oeceee, ii i/aiue
na?ueacii cao?iioee e aa oeeinioneea iniiaaiey. E /eneo aaaeiaeoeo
ioe?uoee, iiaei?aaaoeo iniiau iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a, ioiineeenue, a
/anoiinoe, iaia?oaeaiea ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae (1895 a.),
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe o?aia (1896 a., A. Aaeea?aeue, E. Eth?e, I.
Neeaaeianeay- Eth?e), yeaeo?iia (1897 a., Ae. Oiinii). E 1903 a.,
ioiaoei, auee aeinoeaioou cia/eoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou a enneaaeiaaiee
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe: iieo/eei ii?aaeaeaiiia iainiiaaiea aa iauyniaiea eae
niiioaiiiai ?aniaaea aoiiia, auea aeieacaia i?aa?auaaiinoue oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia. I. Ieaieii auea nicaeaia oai?ey eaaioia, yia?aee
iee?iiauaeoia, A. Yeiooaei ?ane?ue eiee/anoaaiioth naycue iaaeaeo iannie
oae e yia?aeae nayce eo aoiiia.

Iauynieoue oeacaiiua (e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea) ioe?uoey a ?aieao
iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a ia oaeaaaeinue; ana aieaa yaiie noaiiaeeanue
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue eeanneei-iaoaie/aneiai iiieiaiey oece/aneie
?aaeueiinoe. Yoi aucaaei ii?aaeaeaiiia caiaoaoaeuenoai o ?yaea e?oiiuo
oeceeia.

Ana yoi i?eaaei e ei?aiiiio ia?aniio?o i?aaeieo onoiyaoeony
i?aaenoaaeaiee i no?iaiee iaoa?ee. ?ooioei iniiaiia iieiaeaiea
aoiienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia i iaaeaeeiinoe, iaeciaiiinoe e i
iaoie/oiaeeiinoe aoiia, /oi iineoaeeei iiaiaeii aeey ii?iaa?aeaiey
iaoa?eaeecia a naaoa iiaaeoeo auaiaeia anoanoaiciaiey. Oae, iai?eia?,
ecaanoiue o?aioeocneee oecee Ai?e Ioaiea?a ienae i “i?eciaeao
na?ueaciiai e?ecena oeceee”, i oii, /oi ia?aae iaie – “?oeiu” aa
i?eioeeiia, eo “anaiauee ?aca?ii”, /oi “aaeeeee ?aaiethoeeiia? ?aaeee”
iiaei?aae i?eioeei nio?aiaiey yia?aee, a yeaeo?iiiay oai?ey naaea ia iao
i?eioeei nio?aiaiey iannu. A ?acoeueoaoa ii i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi ana
noa?ua i?eioeeiu oeceee ?aca?iieaiu, iiyoiio aa iieiaeaiey ia
niioaaonoaotho aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a yaeythony eeoue i?iaeoeoaie
/aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey.

Oacen i oii, /oi a nayce n iiauie ioe?uoeyie oeceee iaoa?ey en/acea, aue
i?aaiia?ii inii?ai A. E. Eaieiui, caueuaaoei oeeinioneee iaoa?eaeeci.
Oa?aeoa?ecoy iiaeeeiiue niune au?aaeaiey “iaoa?ey en/acea”, A. E. Eaiei
iieacuaaao, /oi en/acaao ia iaoa?ey, a oio i?aaeae, aei eioi?iai iu
ciaee iaoa?eth, /oi oi en/aciiaaiea iaoa?ee, i eioi?ii aiai?yo iaeioi?ua
o/aiua e oeeiniou, ia eiaao ioiioaiey e oeeinioneiio i?aaenoaaeaieth i
iaoa?ee, eai iaeuecy niaoeaaoue oeeinioneia iiiyoea (oa?iei) iaoa?ey n
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a. N ?acaeoeai
anoanoaiciaiey i?ienoiaeeo niaia iaeiiai iao/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a
(iaoa?ee) ae?oaei, aieaa aeoaieei e iniiaaoaeueiui. Iaeiaei oaeay niaia
eiie?aoiuo iao/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia iiaeao ii?iaa?aiooue niune e
cia/aiea oeeinioneiai iiiyoey (eaoaai?ee) “iaoa?ey”, eioi?ay neoaeeo
aeey iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, aeaiiie /aeiaaeo a aai
iuouaieyo e nouanoaothuae iacaaeneii io ieo.

I?aiaeieaiea o?oaeiinoae, n eioi?uie noieeioeanue oeceea, iio?aaiaaei
(eae anaaaea auaaao a ia?eiae ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a iaoea)
aiaeeca i?iaeai ia oieueei oece/aneeo, ii e aiinaieiae/aneeo. A eoiaa
iai?yaeaiiuo aeeneonnee a oeceea neiaeeeinue ianeieueei oeie,
ea?aeeiaeueii ?anoiaeeaoeony a iiieiaiee iooae auoiaea ec e?eceniie
neooaoeee. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo noaee i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia eaeaaeenoe/aneia
ie?iaicc?aiea (oioy aieueoeinoai oeceeia, /oi anoanoaaiii, noiyei ia
iiceoeeyo noeoeeiiai iaoa?eaeecia), /ai iiiuoaeenue ainiieueciaaoueny
i?aaenoaaeoaee nie?eooaeecia e oeaeaecia. Yoi e i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
?aaiethoeey a oeceea ia?a?inea a aa e?ecen. ” Nooue e?ecena nia?aiaiiie
oeceee,- ienae A.E.Eaiei,- ninoieo a eiiea noa?uo caeiiia e iniiaiuo
i?eioeeiia, a ioa?anuaaiee iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe aia niciaiey, o.a. a
caiaia iaoa?eaeecia eaeaaeeciii e aaiinoeoeeciii. “Iaoa?ey en/acea” –
oae iiaeii au?aceoue iniiaiia e oeie/iia ii ioiioaieth ei iiiaei
/anoiui aii?inai cao?oaeiaiea, nicaeaaoaa yoio e?ecen”.

*oiau iiiyoue, eaeie niune aeeaaeuaaee iaeioi?ua oeceee a neiaa
“iaoa?ey en/acea”, ioaeii o/anoue neaaeothuaa. Aoiienoe/aneia
ie?iaicc?aiea ooaa?aeaeaeinue a anoanoaiciaiee aeieai e o?oaeii. I?e
yoii iiae aoiiii (a aeooa Aeaiie?eoa) iiieiaeanue aaniethoii
iaaeaeeiay (ia eiathoay /anoae) yeaiaioa?iay /anoeoea. Oi/ea c?aiey,
niaeanii eioi?ie iaoa?ey ninoieo ec aoiiia, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaaeenue a
ea/anoaa iaeiae “iaeciaiiie nouiinoe aauae”, e eiioeo XIX aaea
?acaeaeyeanue aieueoeinoaii anoanoaieniuoaoaeae, a oii /enea e oeceeia.
Iiyoiio ioe?uoey, naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaaoea i neiaeiinoe aoiiia (a
/anoiinoe, ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe eae eo niiioaiiiai ?aniaaea), auee
enoieeiaaiu iaeioi?uie o/aiuie eae “?aniaae”, “en/aciiaaiea” iaoa?ee.
Ia yoie iniiaa e aeaeaeenue auaiaeu i e?aoa iaoa?eaeecia e
i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia iaai iaoee.

A.E.Eaiei iieacae, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe caeanue eiaei ianoi ia
e?ooaiea iaoa?eaeecia eae oaeiaiai, ii e?ao eeoue aai eiie?aoiie,
ia?aiia/aeueiie oi?iu . Aaaeue iaoa?ey, iiieiaaiay eae iaeay iaeciaiiay
nouiinoue aauae – yoi iaoa?ey aac aeaeaeaiey , eaoaai?ey iaoa?eaeecia
iaaeeaeaeoe/aneiai. A yoie nayce A.E.Eaiei ioia/ae: “I?eciaiea
eaeeo-eeai iaeciaiiuo yeaiaioia, “iaeciaiiie nouiinoe aauae” e o.i. ia
anoue iaoa?eaeeci, a anoue iaoaoece/aneee , o.a. iaaeeaeaeoe/aneee
iaoa?eaeeci”. Iaoa?eaeeci aea aeeaeaeoe/aneee ?anniao?eaaao iaoa?eth
eae iaoa?eth aeaeaeouothny e iiyoiio “ianoaeaaao ia i?eaeeceoaeueiii,
ioiineoaeueiii oa?aeoa?a anyeiai iao/iiai iieiaeaiey i no?iaiee iaoa?ee
e naienoaao aa”. Niioaaonoaaiii yoio oei iaoa?eaeecia ia naycai n
eiie?aoiui niaea?aeaieai oece/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee. Nouanoaaiii aeey
iaai eeoue oi, /oi aeaeaeouayny iaoa?ey – yoi noanoaioeeaeueiay
iniiaa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, io?aaeaaiay /aeiaa/aneei niciaieai.
“I?eciaiea oai?ee,- iiae/a?eeaae A.E.Eaiei,- nieieii, i?eaeeceoaeueiie
eiieae n iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe,- a yoii e ninoieo iaoa?eaeeci”.

Iiyoiio iaia?oaeaiea oiai, /oi no?iaiea iaoa?ee yaeyaony ai?acaei
aieaa neiaeiui, /ai yoi eacaeinue ?aiaa, – yoi ioithaeue ia
naeaeaoaeuenoai ianinoiyoaeueiinoe iaoa?eaeecia. A.E.Eaiei a nayce n
yoei ?acuyniye: “> – yoi cia/eo en/acaao oio i?aaeae,
aei eioi?iai iu ciaee iaoa?eth aei neo ii?… en/acatho oaeea naienoaa
iaoa?ee, eioi?ua eacaeenue ?aiueoa aaniethoiuie, iaeciaiiuie,
ia?aiia/aeueiuie… e eioi?ua oaia?ue iaia?oaeeaathony eae
ioiineoaeueiua, i?enouea oieueei iaeioi?ui ninoiyieyi iaoa?ee. Eai
aaeeinoaaiiia “naienoai” iaoa?ee, n i?eciaieai eioi?iai naycai
oeeinioneee iaoa?eaeeci, anoue naienoai auoue iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoueth , nouanoaiaaoue aia iaoaai niciaiey”.

Aeeaeaeoeea i?ioeanna iiciaiey, ioiaoei, auea aeoaiei iiiyoa aua
Aaaaeai. Ii au?aaioae, a /anoiinoe, iiiyoea ioiineoaeueiie enoeiu
eae enoeiu ia?aie/aiiie, o.a. yaeythuaeny enoeiie eeoue a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay aeeaeaeoeea ?acaeea yoe
eaeae a o/aiea ia iauaeoeaiie enoeia , iiieiay iiae iae i?ioeann
i?eaeeaeaiey ciaiey e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a oiaea eioi?iai
inouanoaeyaony neioac oiai iieiaeeoaeueiiai, /oi eiaaony a ioaeaeueiuo
ioiineoaeueiuo enoeiao. Iauaeoeaiay enoeia – yoi aaeeinoai
iineaaeieo, aaea iie i?enoonoaotho a niyoii aeaea , aeiiieiyy e
ia?aie/eaay ae?oa ae?oaa. Eeanne/aneay iaoaieea, iai?eia?, enoeiia,
anee iia i?eiaiyaony e iae?iiauaeoai n ia?aeyoeaenoneeie nei?inoyie.
Oai?aiu aaiiao?ee Yaeeeaea aa?iu, anee ?a/ue eaeao i i?ino?ainoaa n
ioeaaie e?eaeciie. E nia?aiaiiay oeceea aeeth/aao eeanne/aneoth
iaoaieeo, ii, /oi aaaeii, – n oeacaieai a?aieoe aa i?eiaieiinoe .
Nia?aiaiiay aaiiao?ey oaeei aea ia?acii aeeth/aao aaiiao?eth Yaeeeaea.
E oae aeaeaa.

Eia/a aiai?y, iaeia ec i?e/ei, ii?iaeeaoeo e?ecen oeceee – iiieiaiea
iaeioi?uie o/aiuie ioiineoaeueiie enoeiu eae oieueei ioiineoaeueiie
(yoi aiinaieiae/aneee ?aeyoeaeci , ca?iaeeaoeeny e ai iiiaii
i?aiaeieaiiue aua a aioe/iie oeeinioee). Iaeiaei, /oi nouanoaaiii
aaaeii, “a eaaeaeie iao/iie enoeia, ianiio?y ia aa ioiineoaeueiinoue,
anoue yeaiaio aaniethoiie enoeiu”.

Caeai/eaay ?anniio?aiea aiaeeca A.E.Eaieiui e?ecena oeceee, ia?aoei
aieiaiea ia neaaeothuaa. Aai iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi ” aaeeinoaaiiia
“naienoai” iaoa?ee, n i?eciaieai eioi?iai naycai oeeinioneee
iaoa?eaeeci, anoue naienoai auoue iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoueth ” eiiaaea
aini?eieiaaony eae oeacaiea ia oi, /oi, niaeanii iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie
aeeaeaeoeea, iaoa?ey iaeaaeaao eeoue oeacaiiui aaeeinoaaiiui
naienoaii. Ii yoi ia oae: ?a/ue caeanue eaeao eeoue i oii, /oi
aaeeinoaaiiia “naienoai” iaoa?ee, n iai?eciaieai eioi?iai naycai
oeeinioneee eaeaaeeci,- yoi iauaeoeaiinoue. Iiyoiio caeanue oianoii aua
?ac iiae/a?eiooue iaaeiionoeiinoue ioiaeaeanoaeaiey
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie eaoaai?ee “iaoa?ey” n
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i aa no?iaiee e naienoaao.
Iaiiieiaiea yoiai aieueoeinoaii o/aiuo (noiyaoeo a iniiaiii ia iiceoeeyo
noeoeeiiai iaoa?eaeecia) ia ?oaaaea XIX-XX aaeia e auei iaeiie ec
iniiaiuo i?e/ei e?ecena anoanoaiciaiey.

?anniao?eaay i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n e?ecenii anoanoaiciaiey ia ?oaaaea
XIX-XX aa., ia?aoei aieiaiea ia oi, /oi e?eceniua neooaoeee aicieeaee
a iai e ?aiueoa, caeai/eaaynue ?aaiethoeeiiiui ia?aoiaeii ia iiaue,
aieaa aeoaieee o?iaaiue iiciaiey. I?eioeeieaeueiua o?oaeiinoe
aicieeaee anyeee ?ac, eiaaea iaoea, oaeoaeyy aiaeec nouiinoe
yaeaiee, auyaeyea i?ioeai?a/ea, iauynieoue eioi?ia nouanoaothuay
oai?ey ia iiaea. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aai niyoey e iaoneaaeeaaea eioaineaioth
?ac?aaioeo iiaie oai?ee, iiaie iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a. ( Aeeaeaeoeea ,
iaiiiiei, ?anniao?eaaao i?ioeai?a/ea eae enoi/iee ?acaeoey ).

?anniao?eaay iaoa?eth, eae oeeinioneoth eaoaai?eth, iaicia/athuoth
iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue, A.E.Eaiei oai naiui i?iaeieaeaao
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth eeieth a oeeinioee. A aai ii?aaeaeaiee iao
iiaeaaaeaiey eaoaai?ee “iaoa?ey” iiae aieaa oe?ieia iiiyoea, eai oaeiai
iiiyoey i?inoi ia nouanoaoao. A yoii niunea Ioiyoey “iaoa?ey’ e
“iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue” – neiiieiu. Iaoa?ey i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony
niciaieth, i?e yoii iiae/a?eeaaaony iauaeoeaiinoue, eae iacaaeneiinoue
aa nouanoaiaaiey io niciaiey. Eiaiii yoi naienoai: nouanoaiaaoue aei,
aia e iacaaeneii io niciaiey ii?aaeaeyao niune i cia/aiea
oeeinionei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaoa?ee. Oeeinioneay
o?aeoiaea iaoa?ee iaeaaeaao i?eciaeii anaiauiinoe e iaicia/aao anth
iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue. I?e oaeii iiieiaiee iaoa?ee iao e ia iiaeao
auoue nnueie ia oece/aneea naienoaa iaoa?ee, ciaiea i eioi?uo
ioiineoaeueii.

Iaoa?ey e aa ao?eaoou: i?ino?ainoai, a?aiy, aeaeaeaiea, nenoaiiinoue

Iaoa?ey, eae iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony aaneiia/iui
eiee/anoaii naienoa. Iaoa?eaeueiua aaue e i?ioeannu eiia/iu e
aaneiia/iu, iineieueeo eo eieaeeciaaiiinoue ioiineoaeueia, a eo acaeiiay
naycue – aaniethoia, iai?a?uaia (aioo?e naieo naay iaeii?iaeia) e
i?a?uaia (oa?aeoa?ecothony aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?ie): anai iaoa?eaeueiui
iauaeoai i?enoua ianna (aoaeue oi ianna iieiy aeey ethaiai aauanoaa eee
ianna aeaeaeaiey aeey iieae) e yia?aey (iioaioeeaeueiay eee
aeooaeece?iaaiiay).

Ii aaaeiaeoeie aa naienoaaie, aa ao?eaooaie, yaeythony i?ino?ainoai,
a?aiy e aeaeaeaiea.

I?ino?ainoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?ioyaeaiiinoueth e no?oeoo?iinoueth
iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia (ia?aciaaiee) a eo niioiioaiee n ae?oaeie
ia?aciaaieyie.

A?aiy oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeeeoaeueiinoueth e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth
nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee a eo niioiioaiee n ae?oaeie
iaoa?eaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie.

I?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiui yaeyaony ioaao ia aii?in i oii, a eaeii
ioiioaiee i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy iaoiaeyony e iaoa?ee. Ii yoiio aii?ino a
oeeinioee nouanoaotho 2 oi/ee c?aiey.

Ia?aoth ec ieo iau/ii iacuaatho noanoaioeeiiaeueiie eiioeaioeeae
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. A niioaaonoaee n yoie eiioeaioeeae i?ino?ainoai
e a?aiy – naiinoiyoaeueiua nouiinoe, nouanoaothuea ia?yaeo n iaoa?eae e
iacaaeneii io iaa. .Oaeia iiieiaiea i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie aaei e
auaiaeo i iacaaeneiinoe eo naienoa io oa?aeoa?a i?ioaeathueo a ieo
iaoa?eaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Noanoaioeeiiaeueiay eiioeaioeey aaaeao ia/aei
io Aeaiie?eoa, iaeaieaa y?eia aiieiuaiea iia iaoea a .eeanne/aneie
oeceea E. Iuethoiia. Eaeay aaniethoiiai i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie E.
Iuethoiia niioaaonoaiaaea ii?aaeaeaiiie oece/aneie ea?oeia ie?a, a
eiaiii aai acaeyaeai ia iaoa?eth eae ia niaieoiiinoue ioa?aie/aiiuo
ae?oa io ae?oaa aoiiia, iaeaaeathueo iaeciaiiui iauaiii, eia?oiinoueth
(iannie) e aeaenoaothueo ae?oa ia ae?oaa iaiiaaiii, eeai ia ?annoiyiee,
eeai i?e nii?eeiniiaaiee. I?ino?ainoai, ii Iuethoiio, iaeciaiii,
iaiiaeaeaeii, aai naienoaa ia caaenyo ie io /aai, a oii /enea e io
a?aiaie, iie ia caaenyo ie io iaoa?eaeueiuo oae, ie io eo aeaeaeaiey.
Iiaeii oa?aoue ec i?ino?ainoaa ana oaea, ii i?ino?ainoai inoaiaony e
naienoaa nio?aiyony. Iieo/aaony, /oi i?ino?ainoai – yoi eae au
a?aiaeeiciia aianoeeeua, iaiiieiathuaa ia?aaa?iooue aaa?o aeiii ia?iiiue
yuee, a eioi?ue iiiauaia iaoa?ey. Oaeea aea acaeyaeu o Iuethoiia e ia
a?aiy. Ii n/eoae, /oi a?aiy oa/ao iaeeiaeiai ai Anaeaiiie e yoi oa/aiea
ia caaeneo ie io /aai, – a iiyoiio a?aiy aaniethoii, eai iii ii?aaeaeyao
ii?yaeie neaaeiaaiey e aeeeoaeueiinoue nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo
nenoai.

Eae aeaeei, a aeaiiii neo/aa e i?ino?ainoai, e a?aiy aunooiatho eae
?aaeueiinoe, eioi?ua a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea yaeythony aunoeie nouiinoyie
ii ioiioaieth e iaoa?eaeueiiio ie?o.

Aoi?oth eiioeaioeeth i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie iacuaatho ?aeyoeaenoneie.
Niaeanii yoie eiioeaioeee i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy – ia naiinoiyoaeueiua
nouiinoe, a nenoaiu ioiioaiee, ia?acoaiua acaeiiaeaenoaothueie
iaoa?eaeueiuie iauaeoaie. Niioaaonoaaiii naienoaa i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie
caaenyo io oa?aeoa?a acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoa?eaeueiuo nenoai.
?aeyoeaenoneay eiioeaioeey aaaeao naia ia/aei io A?enoioaey. Iaeaieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueii iia i?iaaaeaia a iayaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee Eiaa/aaneiai
e ?eiaia e a oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe A. Yeiooaeia. Eiaiii eo
oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey eneeth/eee ec iaoee iiiyoey aaniethoiiai
i?ino?ainoaa e aaniethoiiai a?aiaie, iaia?oaeea oai naiui
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue noanoaioeeiiaeueiie o?aeoiaee i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie, eae naiinoiyoaeueiuo, iacaaeneiuo io iaoa?ee oi?i auoey. Eiaiii
yoe o/aiey, iniaaiii iauay e niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe
iainiiaaee caaeneiinoue i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, eo naienoai io oa?aeoa?a
aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo nenoai.

I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy eae ia?ac?uaii naycaiiua n iaoa?eae anaiauea oi?iu
aa auoey iaeaaeatho oeaeui ?yaeii eae iaueo, oae e niaoeeoe/aneeo aeey
eaaeaeie ec yoeo oi?i naienoa.

Iauea naienoaa i?ino?ainoaa – a?aiaie: eo iauaeoeaiinoue, e
anaiauiinoue. I?eciaiea aeaiiuo naienoa i?aeoe/anee n?aco aea
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie
eo eaeaaeenoe/aneei o?aeoiaeai. Aaaeue niaeanii eaeaaeenoe/aneei o/aieyi
i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy – yoi ii?iaeaeaiea niciaiey /aeiaaea, a iioiio iie
iauaeoeaii ia nouanoaotho.

Iniiaiuie naienoaaie i?ino?ainoaa yaeythony: i?ioyaeaiiinoue,
iaeii?iaeiinoue, ecio?iiiinoue (?aaiii?aaiinoue anao aiciiaeiuo
iai?aaeaiee), o?aoia?iinoue, e niaoeeoe/aneea naienoaa a?aiaie:
aeeeoaeueiinoue, iaeii?iaeiinoue .(?aaiii?aaea anao iiiaioia),,
iaeiiia?iinoue, iaia?aoeiinoue.

Naienoaa i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie i?iyaeythony anyeee ?ac iniaui ia?acii
a iee?iie?a, iae?iie?a e iaaaie?a, a aeeaie i?e?iaea e a nioeeaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Iauaeoeaiay iai?a?uaiinoue i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie e eo i?a?uaiinoue
iaoneiaeeaatho aeaeaeaiea iaoa?ee, eioi?ia yaeyaony iniiaiui niiniaii aa
nouanoaiaaiey. Aeaeaeaiea iaoa?ee – aaniethoii, aa iieie – ioiineoaeai.

I?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a oeeinioee aeaeaeaiea iiieiaaony
eae anyeia eciaiaiea aauae e i?ioeannia.

Iaicia/ea eciaiaiea ai a?aiaie i?ino?ainoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aauae e
i?ioeannia (eo ianoiiieiaeaiea e iauai) iiiyoeai “ia?aiauaiea”, a
eciai/eainoue eo ea/anoaaiiie ii?aaeaeaiiinoe eae ?acoeueoao eo
nouanoaiaaiey ai a?aiaie oneiaiui oa?ieiii “eciaiaiea”, i?eoiaeei e
neaaeothuaio auaiaeo.

Aeaeaeaiea a naiii oe?ieii aai iiieiaiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai
iiiaioia ia?aiauaiey aauae e i?ioeannia e eo eciaiaiey. Aaeouay iaoeia
ia?aiauaaony a i?ino?ainoaa, “noa?ay” eieaa ia iieea “noa?aao”, ec?aaeea
“ia?aiauaynue”.

Eiaiii oaeie niune aeeaaeuaatho a oa?iei “aeaeaeaiea”, eiaaea aiai?yo,
/oi iaoa?ay ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac aeaeaeaiey.

Nouanoaaiiui aeiiieiaieai e yoiio i?eioeeio yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaiea i
oii, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaeaeaiea ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac
iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey (aauanoaa eee iiey). Ooaa?aeaeaiea aoaeoi
aeaeaeaiea nouanoaoao aac iaoa?ee n oi/ee c?aiey oeeinioia-iaoa?eaeenoia
noieue aea aano?aeii, eae e oiicaeeth/aiea i nouanoaiaaiee iaoa?ee aac
aeaeaeaiey.

A ia?ac?uaiii aaeeinoaa iaoa?ee e aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ey enoiaeia, a
aeaeaeaiea – i?iecaiaeii. Iii eae au iiae/eiaii iaoa?ee.

I?ioeaiiieiaeioth iaoa?eaeecio iiceoeeth caieiaao yia?aaoeci,
auaeaeiooie iaiaoeeei o/aiui A. Inoaaaeueaeii. A naiae oai?ee A.
Inoaaaeueae iuoaeny naanoe iaoa?eth e aeaeaeaiea e yia?aee (ionthaea e
i?iecioei iacaaiea oai?ee yia?aaoecia). Eae ecaanoii, yia?aey – yoi
oece/aneay ia?a aeaeaeaiey. A. Inoaaaeueae aea iauyaeyao yia?aeae ana,
/oi nouanoaoao a ie?a. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iaoa?ey, e niciaiea, e
iiciaiea – ana yoi yia?aey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii iaoa?ey e niciaiea
yaeythony i?iecaiaeiuie io yia?aee e aeaeaeaiey. Nia?aiaiiay oi?ia
yia?aaoecia (iaiyia?aaoeci) naycaia n iiiuoeaie aeieacaoaeuenoaa –
i?ioeanna i?aa?auaiey iaoa?ee a yia?aeth ia iniiaa ecaanoiiai caeiia
niioiioaiey iannu e yia?aee A. Yeiooaeia A =mn2 (caeanue A – yia?aey, m
– ianna, n – nei?inoue naaoa a aaeooia). Iaeiaei yoe iiiuoee ieacaeenue
ianinoiyoaeueiuie, eae a oece/aneii, oae e a oeeinioneii ioiioaiee.

N oece/aneie oi/ee c?aiey yoa oi?ioea io?aaeaao i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue
acaeiinayce iannu aauanoaa e yia?aee aa iaaeaoiiiuo naycae e
eiyooeoeeaioii yoie i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe yaeyaony eaaae?ao nei?inoe
naaoa a aaeooia).

N oeeinioneie aea oi/ee c?aiey iia eeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi aaue,
eiathuea ianno iieiy, iauaeoeaii nouanoaotho. Aieaa oiai, iie iaoiaeyony
a nayce ni noieue aea iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueie iieyie, ia eiathueie
iannu iieiy (yeaeo?e/aneeie, iaaieoiuie, eaioiiiuie, iee?ieaioiiiuie e
o. i.). E, iaeiiaoe, yoa oi?ioea, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao i?eioeeieaeueiia
iieiaeaiea iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee i aiciiaeiinoe i?aa?auaiey anaai
ai an?, a oii /enea e aauanoaa a iiea.

Aeaeaeaiea iaeaaeaao oeaeui ?yaeii aaaeiaeoeo naienoa. Ai-ia?auo,
aeaeaeaieth naienoaaiia iauaeoeaiinoue, o. a. iacaaeneiinoue aai
nouanoaiaaiey io niciaiey /aeiaaea. Eiuie neiaaie, iaoa?ey naia ii naaa
eiaao i?e/eio naieo eciaiaiee. Ionthaea neaaeoao iieiaeaiea e i
aaneiia/iinoe acaeiii?aa?auaiee iaoa?ee.

Ai-aoi?uo, aeaeaeaieth naienoaaiia anaiauiinoue. Yoi icia/aao, /oi
ethaua yaeaiey a ie?a iiaeaa?aeaiu aeaeaeaieth eae niiniao nouanoaiaaiey
iaoa?ee (iao iauaeoia eeoaiiuo aeaeaeaiey). Yoi icia/aao oaeaea e oi,
/oi naii niaea?aeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia ai anao naieo iiiaioao a
ioiioaieyo ii?aaeaeyaony aeaeaeaieai, au?aaeaao aai eiie?aoiua oi?iu (e
i?iyaeaiey).

A-o?aoueeo, aeaeaeaieth naienoaaiiu ianioai?eiinoue e iaoie/oiaeeiinoue.
Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue oeeinioneee iaoa?eaeeci ioaa?aaao eaeia-eeai
?annoaeaeaiea i ia/aea eee eiioea aeaeaeaiey. Ecaanoii, iai?eia?, /oi E.
Iuethoii aeiioneae aiciiaeiinoue aiaeanoaaiiiai oie/ea. a iaiaoeeee
oeeinio A. Aeth?eia n/eoae, /oi aeaeaeaiea aicieeaao ec iieiy /a?ac oae
iacuaaaiue iino iinoaiaiiinoe. A yaiie eee ia yaiie oi?ia a aeaiiii
neo/aa i?iaiaeeony iuneue i iaeiai ia/aea (enoiaea) aeaeaeaiey. Oaeay
iiceoeey e?eoeeoaony iaoa?eaeenoaie. Iineaaeiaaoaeueii yoi caueuaao
aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci. Ooaa?aeaeay i?eioeei naiiaeaeaeaiey
iaoa?ee, .aeeaeaeoeee-iaoa?eaeenou iaeiia?aiaiii, ?ane?uaatho e aai
iaoaieci. Ii eo iiaieth (a iii iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiuoii /aeiaa/anoaa e
aeaiiuie anoanoaaiiuo iaoe) aeaeaeaiea anoue ?acoeueoao ai?ueau
iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae. Yoi, iai?eia?, aeaenoaea e
i?ioeaiaeaenoaea a iaoaie/aneii aeaeaeaiee, aieaa aunieay e aieaa ieceay
oaiia?aoo?a (yia?aey) – a oaieiaii aeaeaeaiee, iieiaeeoaeueiue e
io?eoeaoaeueiue ca?yae – a yeaeo?e/anoaa, iiey?iua eioa?anu ethaeae e
eo ?acee/iuo iauaaeeiaiee – a iauanoaaiiii ?acaeoee e o.. i.

A-/aoaa?ouo, aeaeaeaieth naienoaaiia aaniethoiinoue. I?eciaaay anaiauee
oa?aeoa? aeaeaeaiey, oeeinioneee iaoa?eaeeci ia ioaa?aaao nouanoaiaaiey
a ie?a onoie/eainoe, iieiy. Iaeiaei iineaaeiaaoaeueiue oeeinioneee
iaoa?eaeeci iiae/a?eeaaao ioiineoaeueiue oa?aeoa? oaeeo ninoiyiee
iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aaniethoiay i?e?iaea
aeaeaeaiey ?aaeecoaony anaaaea oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiuo, eieaeueii e
enoi?e/anee ia?aie/aiiuo, caaeneiuo io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee, ia?aoiaeyueo
e, a yoii niunea, ioiineoaeueiuo aai aeaeao. Eiaiii iiyoiio iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi anyeee iieie (eee onoie/eainoue) – yoi iiiaio aeaeaeaiey,
iineieueeo ii i?aoiaeyu, a?aiaiai, ioiineoaeai. Iieie – yoi eae au
.aeaeaeaiea a ?aaiiaanee, iineieueeo iieie aeeth/ai a niaieoiiia
aeaeaeaiea, e ii nieiaaony yoei aaniethoiui aeaeaeaieai.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i iieia eae iaeioi?ii ?aaiiaanee, iiiaioa aeaeaeaiey
iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue ii ioiioaieth e ii?aaeaeaiiie oi/ea ion/aoa. Oae,
iai?eia?, iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi ethaie aic?ano /aeiaaea, (aeiionoei 18
eao) – yoi oeene?iaaiiue iiiaio a aai iinoiyiiii eciaiaiee, aeaeaeaiee,
naycai n ii?aaeaeaiiie onoie/eainoueth, iieiai a?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey
iaeioi?uo naienoa aai iaoo?u ii n?aaiaieth, neaaeai, n 17-eaoeai e
19-eaoeai.

Iiiaiia?aciua eiie?aoiua i?iyaeaiey aeaeaeaiey iiaoo auoue niioianaiu n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie iineoaeyie. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
iino?iaiey ?aciuo eeanneoeeaoeee oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. Oi?ia
aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee naycaia n ii?aaeaeaiiui iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai,
eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth iaeanoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey e naie ii?aaeaeaiiia
caeiiu.

O. Yiaaeuen ioia/ae iaee/ea 5-oe iniiaiuo oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee.

Iaoaie/aneia aeaeaeaiea, naycaiiia n ia?aiauaieai oae a i?ino?ainoaa.

Oece/aneia (ii nouanoao oaieiaia) aeaeaeaiea, eae aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe.

Oeie/aneia aeaeaeaiea – aeaeaeaiea aoiiia aioo?e iieaeoe.

I?aaie/aneia eee aeieiae/aneia aeaeaeaiea, naycaiiia n ?acaeoeai
aaeeiaie oi?iu aeecie.

Nioeeaeueiia aeaeaeaiea (ana eciaiaiey a iauanoaa).

Yoa eeanneoeeaoeey e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie onoa?aea. A /anoiinoe, nae/an
iai?aaiia?ii oece/aneia aeaeaeaiea naiaeeoue oieueei e oaieiaiio.
Iiyoiio nia?aiaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee aeeth/aao:

i?ino?ainoaaiiia ia?aiauaiea;

yeaeo?iiaaieoiia aeaeaeaiea, ii?aaeaeyaiia eae acaeiiaeaenoaea
ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe;

a?aaeoaoeeiiioth oi?io aeaeaeaiey;

neeueiia (yaea?iia) acaeiiaeaenoaea;

neaaia acaeiiaeaenoaea (iiaeiuaiea e eceo/aiea iaeo?iia);

oeie/aneoth oi?io aeaeaeaiey (i?ioeann e ?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaey
iieaeoe e aoiiia);

aaieiae/aneoth oi?io aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee (naycaiioth n eciaiaieai a
aainenoaiao – iaoa?eeao, neiyo caiiie ei?u e o. ae.):

aeieiae/aneoth oi?io aeaeaeaiey (iaiai aauanoa, i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea
ia eeaoi/iii o?iaia, ianeaaenoaaiiinoue e o. ae.;

nioeeaeueioth oi?io aeaeaeaiey (i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a iauanoaa).

I/aaeaeii, /oi ?acaeoea iaoee e aeaeueoa aoaeao iinoiyiii .aiineoue naie
ei??aeoeau e a yoo eeanneoeeaoeeth oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. Iaeiaei,
i?aaenoaaeyaony, ./oi a iaic?eiii aoaeouai iia aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny
enoiaey ec i?eioeeiia, noi?ioee?iaaiiuo O. Yiaaeuenii.

I?aaeaea anaai ia oo?aoeo naiaai cia/aiey i?eioeei ?acaeoey
i?eiaieoaeueii e aiaeeco oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. Ii iicaieyao
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue eo a niioaaonoaee n ?aaeueiui i?ioeanni?a yaiethoeee
iaoa?eaeueiuo nenoai a iai?aaeaiee io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio, io iecoaai e
aunoaio, io i?inoaeoeo i?ioeannia iaoaie/aneiai ia?aiauaiey aei
i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a /aeiaa/aneii iauanoaa.

Ii-i?aaeiaio aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao i?eioeei nayce eaaeaeie oi?iu
aeaeaeaiey n ii?aaeaeaiiui iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai eee oi/iaa, n iaai?ii
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae.

Inoaaony aeooaeueiui i?eioeei aaiaoe/aneie e no?oeoo?iie iaoneiaeaiiinoe
aunoeo oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee iecoeie. Aaaeue anyeay aunoay oi?ia
aeaeaeaiey aicieeaao ia iniiaa iecoae, aeeth/aao aa a naay a niyoii
aeaea. Yoi ii-nouanoao icia/aao, /oi no?oeoo?u, niaoeeoe/iua aeey aunoae
oi?iu aeaeaeaiey, iiaoo auoue iiciaiu oieueei ia iniiaa aiaeeca no?oeoo?
iecoeo oi?i.

E, iaiai?io, nouiinoue oi?iu aeaeaeaiey iecoaai ii?yaeea iiaeao auoue
iiciaia oieueei ia iniiaa ciaiey niaea?aeaiey aunoae ii ioiioaieth e iae
oi?iu aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee.

N i?eioeeiii aaiaoe/aneie iaoneiaeaiiinoe oanii naycai i?eioeei
ianaiaeeiinoe aunoeo oi?i aeaeaeaiey e iecoei i iai?aaiia?iinoe ia?aiina
(yeno?aiieyoeee) naienoa aunoeo oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee ia iecoea. Yoi
i?eioeei ea/anoaaiiie niaoeeoeee anyeie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey. A aunoae oi?ia
aeaeaeaiey iecoea aai oi?iu i?aaenoaaeaiu ia a “/enoii”, a a
neioace?iaaiiii (“niyoii”) aeaea. “Iaoaie/aneea” aeaeaeaiea ?oee
/aeiaaea –yoi ?acoeueoao neiaeaiey neiaeiuo i?ioeannia e nianoaaiii
iaoaie/aneiai, e aeieiae/aneiai, e oeie/aneiai, e. o. ae. Iiyoiio anyeay
iiiuoea nicaeaoue /enoi iaoaie/aneee aiaeia ?oee /aeiaaea aano?aeia.

Aano?aeai e ia?aiin aeeaioiiai ie?a ia iauanoai, aeaaea anee ia ia?aue
acaeyae eaaeaony, ./oi a iai ainiiaenoaoao “caeii aeaeoiaeae”. Eiia/ii
aea, aeanoieinoue /aeiaa/aneay iiaeao auoue ian?aaiaiii aieueoa
aeanoieinoe oeuieeia. E ana aea oeuieeai iaecaanoiu oaeea /aeiaa/aneea
/oanoaa, eae ethaiaue, o/anoea e nino?aaeaiea.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aaniethoii aaciniiaaoaeueiuie yaeythony iiiuoee
iouneaiey a iecoeo oi?iao aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee .yeaiaiou .aai aunoeo oi?i.
Iuneyuee aoeuaeiee – yoi iiinain. Iaeiaei, yoi – e?aeiee, oae neacaoue
neo/ae, aeia?aiea. Iaiaa niaoiie auaeyaeaea, iiiuoea iaeiiai ec .
e?oiiuo niaaoneeo o/?iuo-aeieiaia, eioi?ue iuoaeny nicaeaoue iaacueyiai
“/aeiaa/aneea” oneiaey, ?ann/eouaay /a?ac nioith – ae?oaoth eao
iaia?oaeeoue a eo iioiinoaa aio?iiieaea (ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea).

Iaeiiaoe, iaeuecy aeeth/eoue e aua iaeei i/aiue aaaeiue i?eioeei,
eaaeauee a iniiaaiee eeanneoeeaoeee oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee – i?eioeei
nayce eaaeaeie ec ieo n ii?aaeaeaiiie iaoeie. Yoio i?eioeei iicaieyao
naycaoue i?iaeaio eeanneoeeaoeee oi?i aeaeaeaiey n i?iaeaiie
eeanneoeeaoeee iaoe.

I?eioeeiu eeanneoeeaoeee oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee iicaieytho ioianoenue
e ?aaeoeoeeiiiiio iaoaieoeecio , nouiinoue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a
naaaeaiee caeiiiia?iinoae aunoeo oi?i aeaeaeaiey e caeiiiia?iinoyi:
iecoeo oi?i nioeeaeueiuo e aeieiae/aneei, aeieiae/aneeo e
oeceei-oeie/aneei e o.i.

I?eioeeiu eeanneoeeaoeee oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee iicaieytho e?eoe/anee
ioianoenue e e aeoaeecio (io eao.aeeciue) – oeeinioneiio oa/aieth,
aaniethoece?othuaio niaoeeoeeo aeieiae/aneie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey e
iauyniythuaio niaoeeoe/iinoue anaai aeeaiai iaee/eai iaeiae iniaie
“aeeciaiiie neeu”.

Aaaeiaeoei naienoaii iaoa?ee e iaoa?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee yaeyaony eo
nenoaiiay i?aaiecaoeey. Nenoaia (io a?a/aneiai – oeaeia, ninoaaeaiiia ec
/anoae) – yoi eiiieaen acaeiiaeaenoaothueo yeaiaioia, eee, /oi iaeii e
oiaea: ioa?aie/aiiia iiiaeanoai acaeiiaeaenoaothueo yeaiaioia.

.I?aeoe/anee ethaie, iaoa?eaeueiue e eaeaaeueiue iauaeo iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue eae nenoaio, aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue a i?i aai
yeaiaiou (yeaiaio anoue aeaeaa ia?aceiaeeiue eiiiiiaio nenoaiu i?e
aeaiiii niiniaa aa ?anniio?aiey, .auyaeoue no?oeoo?o iauaia
(niaieoiiinoue onoie/eauo ioiioaiee e naycae iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie) e
caoeene?iaaoue aai oa?aeoa?enoeeo aaeeiiai a naiae iniiaa ia?aciaaiey.
I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea iaia?oaeeaaaony, /oi ana nenoaiu aeaeyony ia
oeaeinoiua e noiia?iua. Oeaeinoiay nenoaia – yoi oaeay, a eioi?ie ana aa
yeaiaiou ia iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue eciee?iaaiii ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oo?aoa
eee ecuyoea oioy au iaeiiai aa yeaiaioa i?eaiaeeo e ?ac?ooaieth nenoaiu
a oeaeii. Oeaeinoiuie nenoaiaie yaeythony, iai?eia?, nieia/iay nenoaia,
iieaeoeu aiaeu (I2I)., iiaa?aiiie niee (NaCl), neiaeicu a i?aaie/aneie
i?e?iaea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiay eiiia?aoeey a yeiiiie/aneie noa?a
iauanoaaiiie aeecie e o. i.

Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth oeaeinoiie nenoaiu yaeyaony ianaiaeeiinoue
aa ea/anoaa e i?inoie noiia ea/anoa ninoaaeythueo aa yeaiaioia.

Noiiaoeaiua nenoaiu – yoi nenoaiu, ea/anoai eioi?uo ?aaii noiia naienoa,
ninoaaeythueo aa yeaiaioia, acyouo eciee?iaaiii ae?oa io ae?oaa. Ai anao
noiiaoeaiuo nenoaiao, ninoaaeythuea aa /anoe iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue naie ii
naaa aaoiiiiii. I?eia?ii oaeeo nenoai iiaoo auoue eo/a eaiiae, neiieaiea
iaoei ia oeeoea, oieia ethaeae. Iiiyoii, /oi ia yoeo niaieoiiinoyo
iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi iie aannenoaiiu, oioy eo nenoaiiinoue au?aaeaia
neaai e aeecea e ioeth, iineieueeo aa yeaiaiou iaeaaeatho cia/eoaeueiie
iacaaeneiinoueth ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao e e naiie nenoaia, aea e
naycue yoeo yeaiaioia ca/anooth iineo neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?.

Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae eee, nenoaiiia enneaaeiaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia
i?aaeiieaaaao ia oieueei onoaiiaeaiea niiniaia iienaiey ioiioaiee e
naycae (no?oeoo?u) yoiai iiiaeanoaa, yeaiaioia, ii – /oi. iniaaiia
aaaeii – auaeaeaiea oao ec ieo eioi?ua yaeythony nenoaiiia?acothueie, o.
a. iaania/eaatho iainiaeaiiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea nenoaiu.
Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e iaoa?eaeueiui ia?aciaaieyi i?aaeiieaaaao
aiciiaeiinoue iiieiaiey ?anniao?eaaaiie nenoaiu aieaa. aunieiai o?iaiy.
Aeey nenoaiu iau/ii oa?aeoa?ia ea?a?oe/iinoue no?iaiey –
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia aeeth/aiea nenoaiu aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy a nenoaio
aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy. Cia/eo, ioiioaiey e nayce a nenoaia i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiii aa i?aaenoaaeaiee naie iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae aa
yeaiaiou, iiae/eiythueany niioaaonoaothuae ea?a?oee. Yoi iicaieyao
no?ieoue ?acee/iua, ia niaiaaeathuea iaaeaeo niaie, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
aeeth/aiey nenoai ae?oa a ae?oaa, iienuaathuea enneaaeoaiue
iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo n ?aciuo noi?ii.

A nia?aiaiiie iaoea oe?iei eniieuecoaony iaoiae no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca,
i?e eioi?ii o/eouaaaony nenoaiiinoue enneaaeoaiuo iauaeoia. Aaaeue
no?oeoo?iinoue – yoi aioo?aiiyy ?an/eaiaiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiiai auoey,
niinia nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee. No?oeoo?iua o?iaie iaoa?ee ia?aciaaiu ec
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiiaeanoaa iauaeoia eaeiai-eeai aeaea e oa?aeoa?ecothony
iniaui niiniaii acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ninoaaeythueie eo yeaiaioaie.
I?eiaieoaeueii e o?ai iniiaiui noa?ai iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoe
o?iaie auaeyaeyo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Iai?aaie/aneay i?e?iaea AEeaay i?e?iaea Iauanoai

1.Noaiee?iyeaiaioa?iue Aeieiae/aneee iae?iiieaeoey?iue Eiaeeaeae

2. Iee?iyeaiaioa?iue Eeaoi/iue Naiuey

3. ssaea?iue Iee?ii?aaie/aneee Eieeaeoeau

4.Aoiia?iue I?aaiu e oeaie Aieueoea nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu (eeannu, iaoeee)

5. Iieaeoey?iue I?aaieci a oeaeii Ainoaea?noai (a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai)

6. Iae?io?iaaiue Iiioeyoeey Nenoaiu ainoaea?noaa

7. Iaaao?iaaiue (ieaiaou, caacaeiieaiaoiua nenoaiu, aaeaeoeee) Aeioeaiic
*aeiaa/anoai a oeaeii

8. Iaoao?iaaiue (iaoaaaeaeoeee) Aeinoa?a Iiinoa?a

Eaaeaeay ec noa? iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeeth/aao a naay ?yae
acaeiinaycaiiuo no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae. Aioo?e yoeo o?iaiae aeiieie?othueie
yaeythony eii?aeeiaoeeiiiua ioiioaiey, a iaaeaeo o?iaiyie –
noai?aeeiaoeeiiaeueiua.

Caeeth/aiea

Eco/aiea i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n oeeinioneei aiaeecii iaoa?ee e a? naienoa
yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai oi?ie?iaaiey ie?iaicc?aiey ee/iinoe,
iacaaeneii io oiai, ieaaeaony ee iii a eiia/iii n/?oa iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei
eee eaeaaeenoe/aneei.

A naaoa eceiaeaiiiai aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeii, /oi i/aiue aaaeia ?ieue
ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey iaoa?ee, iiieiaiey iineaaeiae eae iaen/a?iaaiie
aeey iino?iaiey iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a, ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu ?aaeueiinoe e
iiciaaaaiinoe iauaeoia e yaeaiee iee?i- e iaaaie?a.

?acoiii oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea: “…Iaoa?ey anoue iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue,
aeaiiay iai a iuouaiee”; “Iaoa?ey anoue oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey aeey
iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, eioi?ay aeaia /aeiaaeo a iuouaieyo
aai, eioi?ay eiie?oaony, oioia?aoe?oaony, ioia?aaeaaony iaoeie
iuouaieyie, nouanoaoy iacaaeneii io ieo”. (A ia?aii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i
iaoa?ee eae eaoaai?ee auoey , iioieiae/aneie eaoaai?ee , ai aoi?ii – i
oeene?othuai aa iiiyoee, eaoaai?ee aiinaieiae/aneie ).

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aieueoaeia A.A., A?aoiaa A.N., Aeia?uieia A.E. Iniiau oeeinioneeo
ciaiee. I. Iauanoai “Ciaiea” ?inneee, 1997.

Oeeinioey: oai?ey e iaoiaeieiaey: O/aaiia iiniaea iiae ?aae.
I..Aaeeeia, IYNE, 1991.

Oeeinioneia iiieiaiea ie?a: O/aaiia iiniaea iiae ?aae. A.A.
Oa?aioueaaa, IEEO, 1994.

Ni. Eaiei A.E. Iiei. nia?. ni/. O. 18. N. 272-273.

Eaiei A.E. Iiei. nia?. ni/. O. 18. N. 275-276.

Ni. Eaiei A.E. Iiei. nia?. ni/. O. 18. N. 276.

Eaiei A.E. Iiei. nia?. ni/. O. 18. N. 281.

Oai aea . N. 275.

Ni. oai aea . N. 328.

Eaiei A.E. Iiei. nia?. ni/. O. 18. N. 149.

Oai aea. N. 131.

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