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Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706921 PAGEREF
_Toc478706921 2

AEAAA I. Iioe/aneea eaaioiaua aaia?aoi?u – oieeaeueiua enoi/ieee naaoa.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706922 PAGEREF _Toc478706922 3

1.1 Eiaeooee?iaaiiia eceo/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706923 PAGEREF
_Toc478706923 3

1.2 I?eioeei aeaenoaey eaca?ia GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706924 PAGEREF
_Toc478706924 4

1.3 Iniiaiua naienoaa eaca?iiai eo/a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706925
PAGEREF _Toc478706925 5

1.3.1 Iiiio?iiaoe/iinoue eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. Aai iiuiinoue.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706926 PAGEREF _Toc478706926 7

1.3.2 Aeaaioneee eiioeuen GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706927 PAGEREF
_Toc478706927 9

1.4 Oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeioi?uo oeiia eaca?ia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706928
PAGEREF _Toc478706928 9

Aeaaa II. I?aeoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea iioe/aneeo eaaioiauo aaia?aoi?ia.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706929 PAGEREF _Toc478706929 16

2.1 I?eiaiaiea eaca?iiai eo/a a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oaoieea GOTOBUTTON
_Toc478706930 PAGEREF _Toc478706930 16

2.2 I?eiaiaiea eaca?ia a iaaeeoeeia GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706931
PAGEREF _Toc478706931 18

2.2.1 Eaca? a iooaeueiieiaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706932 PAGEREF
_Toc478706932 19

2.3 Eaca?iua oaoiieiaee – n?aaenoai caiene e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee
GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706933 PAGEREF _Toc478706933 20

Aeaaa III. Aieia?aoey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706934 PAGEREF
_Toc478706934 22

3.1 Aicieeiiaaiea aieia?aoee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706935 PAGEREF
_Toc478706935 22

3.2 Niiniau aieia?aoe?iaaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706936 PAGEREF
_Toc478706936 22

3.3 I?eiaiaiea aieia?aoee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706937 PAGEREF
_Toc478706937 26

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706938 PAGEREF _Toc478706938 28

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc478706939 PAGEREF _Toc478706939
29

Aaaaeaiea

Naaoiaie eo/! N aeaaieo a?aiai /aeiaae a naieo ia/oao aeaeae a iai
iaaeaaeiiai e iiuiiai iiiiuieea, naiaiaeii i?iieeathuaai a oaiieoeu,
?ac?ooathuaai ethaua i?aa?aaeu, niiniaiiai caueoeoue io ethaiai a?aaa. E
anaiiaouaio eo/o ia?auaeenue e iiiaea ienaoaee-oaioanou. Anaie?ii
ecaanoiu ?iiaiu “Aieia ie?ia” A. Oyeena e “Aeia?aieieae eiaeaia?a
Aa?eia” A. Oienoiai. Ii a yoeo ?iiaiao naaoiaie eo/ ieacuaaeny a ?oeao
nee cea, eioi?ua eniieueciaaee eo/e aeey ?ac?ooaiey. Ethaee aea ia/oaee
i eo/a-o?oaeaieea, eo/a-iiiiuieea, eo/a-niceaeaoaea. E yoie ia/oa
noaeaeaii auei nauoueny. ?aaeueiinoueth noaee eaca?u, eioi?ua oniaoii
“o?oaeyony” a eeeieeao, ia caaiaeao, ia no?ieoaeueiuo ieiuaaeeao, a
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eaai?aoi?eyo.

Ecia?aoaiea eaca?ia noieo a iaeiii ?yaeo n iaeaieaa auaeathueieny
aeinoeaeaieyie iaoee e oaoieee XX aaea. Ia?aue eaca? iiyaeeny a 1960
aiaeo, e n oao ii? i?ienoiaeeo ao?iia ?acaeoea eaca?iie oaoieee. A
ei?ioeia a?aiy auee nicaeaiu ?aciiia?aciua oeiu eaca?ia e eaca?iuo
ono?ienoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo iao/iuo e
oaoie/aneeo caaea/. Eaca?iie oaoieea anaai 30 n iaaieueoei eao, iaeiaei
eaca?u oaea oniaee caaiaaaoue i?i/iua iiceoeee ai iiiaeo io?aneyo
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, iai?a?uaii ?anoe?yaony iaeanoue eniieueciaaiey
eaca?ia a iao/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo – oece/aneeo, oeie/aneeo,
aeieiae/aneeo. Eaca?iue eo/ noaiiaeony iaaeaaeiui iiiiuieeii no?ieoaeae,
ea?oia?aoia, a?oaieiaia, e?eieiaeenoia.

AEAAA I. Iioe/aneea eaaioiaua aaia?aoi?u – oieeaeueiua enoi/ieee naaoa.

1.1 Eiaeooee?iaaiiia eceo/aiea

Iaeiei ec naiuo caia/aoaeueiuo aeinoeaeaiee oeceee aoi?ie iieiaeiu
aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea auei ioe?uoea oece/aneeo yaeaiee, iineoaeeaoeo
iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey oaeeaeoaeueiiai i?eai?a — iioe/aneiai eaaioiaiai
aaia?aoi?a eee eaca?a. Yoe ioe?uoey niaa?oeee i?i?ua a iaeanoe
iioe/aneie oeceee.

A iniiao eaca?ia auei iieiaeaii yaeaiea eiaeooee?iaaiiiai eceo/aiey,
nouanoaiaaiea eioi?iai auei i?aaeneacaii Yeiooaeiii a 1917 aiaeo. Ii
Yeiooaeio, ia?yaeo n i?ioeannaie iau/iiai eceo/aiey e ?aciiainiiai
iiaeiuaiey nouanoaoao o?aoee i?ioeann – auioaeaeaiiia (eiaeooee?iaaiiia)
eceo/aiea. Naao ?aciiainiie /anoiou, oi anoue oie /anoiou, eioi?oth
aoiiu niiniaiu iiaeiuaoue, ia?aoiaey ia oae iacuaaaiua aunoea
yia?aaoe/aneea o?iaie, aeieaeai aucuaaoue naa/aiea aoiiia, oaea
iaoiaeyueony ia yoeo o?iaiyo, anee oaeiaua eiathony a n?aaea.

Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue yoiai eceo/aiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
enioneaaiue naao iaioee/ei io auioaeaeathuaai naaoa, oi anoue niaiaaeaao
n iineaaeiei ii /anoioa, ii oaca, iiey?ecaoeee e iai?aaeaieth
?ani?ino?aiaiey. Yoi icia/aao, /oi auioaeaeaiiia eceo/aiea aeiaaaeyao a
naaoiaie io/ie oi/ii oaeea aea eaaiou naaoa, eaeea oaiaeeo ec iaai
?aciiainiia iiaeiuaiea.

1

(

2

?en. 1. Noaia aicieeiiaaiey eiaeooee?iaaiiiai eceo/aiey (oaie ( neeueii
i?aoaaee/ai)

Aoiiu n?aaeu iiaoo iiaeiuaoue naao, iaoiaeynue ia ieaeiai yia?aaoe/aneii
o?iaia, eceo/atho aea iie ia aa?oieo o?iaiyo. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi i?e
aieueoii eiee/anoaa aoiiia ia ieaeieo o?iaiyo (ii e?aeiae ia?a aieueoai,
/ai eiee/anoai aoiiia ia aa?oieo o?iaiyo), naao, i?ioiaey /a?ac n?aaeo,
aoaeao ineaaeyoueny. Iai?ioea, anee /enei aoiiia ia aa?oieo o?iaiyo
aieueoa /enea iaaicaoaeaeaiiuo, oi naao, i?ieaey /a?ac aeaiioth n?aaeo,
oneeeony. Yoi cia/eo, /oi a aeaiiie n?aaea i?aiaeaaeaao eiaeooee?iaaiiia
eceo/aiea.

Eaaioiaua oneeeoaee e aaia?aoi?u naaoa, a iniiao eioi?uo iieiaeaii
iienaiiia yaeaiea, ?aaioatho ii noaia, noaiaoe/ii ecia?aaeaiiie ia
?en.1. I?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo ca?eaeaie 1 e 2 caiieiaii aeoeaiie n?aaeie,
oi anoue n?aaeie, niaea?aeauae aieueoaa eiee/anoai aicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia
(aoiiia, iaoiaeyueony ia aa?oieo yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiyo), /ai
iaaicaoaeaeaiiuo. N?aaea oneeeaaao i?ioiaeyuee /a?ac ia? naao ca n/ao
eiaeooee?iaaiiiai eceo/aiey, ia/aei eioi?iio aea?o niiioaiiia eceo/aiea
iaeiiai ec aoiiia. Cia/eoaeueiia oneeaiea naaoa aeinoeaaaony oiaaea,
eiaaea oaie ( i/aiue iae. Oiaaea naao eniuouaaao iiiaeanoai io?aaeaiee,
e ana eo/e iaeeaaeuaathony, oneeeaay ae?oa ae?oaa. Ia ?en. 1 yoiio
niioaaonoaoao iinoaiaiiia ooieuaiea no?aeee.[4]

1.2 I?eioeei aeaenoaey eaca?ia

Eaca?iia eceo/aiea – anoue naa/aiea iauaeoia i?e ii?iaeueiuo
oaiia?aoo?ao. Ii iau/iuo oneiaeyo aieueoeinoai aoiiia iaoiaeyony a
iecoai yia?aaoe/aneii ninoiyiee. Iiyoiio i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao
aauanoaa ia naaoyony.

I?e i?ioiaeaeaiee yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieiu neaicue aauanoai a? yia?aey
iiaeiuaaony. Ca n/?o iiaeiuaiiie yia?aee aieiu /anoue aoiiia
aicaoaeaeaaony, oi anoue ia?aoiaeeo a aunoaa yia?aaoe/aneia ninoiyiea.
I?e yoii io naaoiaiai io/ea ioieiaaony iaeioi?ay yia?aey:

hv=E2-E1,

aaea hv – aaee/eia, niioaaonoaothuay eiee/anoao iio?a/aiiie yia?aee,

E2 – yia?aey aunoaai yia?aaoe/aneiai o?iaiy,

E1 – yia?aey iecoaai yia?aaoe/aneiai o?iaiy.

a
a a

?en. 2. I?eioeei aeaenoaey eaca?ia

a – iiaeiuaiea yia?aee e aicaoaeaeaiea aoiia; a – aoii iiaeioeaoee
yia?aeth; a – enioneaiea aoiiii oioiia

Ia ?enoiea 2(a) i?aaenoaaeaiu iaaicaoaeaeaiiue aoii e yeaeo?iiaaieoiay
aieia a aeaea e?aniie no?aeee. Aoii iaoiaeeony a ieaeiai yia?aaoe/aneii
ninoiyiee. Ia ?enoiea 2(a) ecia?aae?i aicaoaeaeaiiue aoii, iiaeioeaoee
yia?aeth. Aicaoaeaeaiiue aoii iiaeao ioaeaoue naith yia?aeth ninaaeiei
aoiiai i?e noieeiiaaiee eee enionoeoue oioii a ethaii iai?aaeaiee.

Oaia?ue i?aaenoaaei, /oi eaeei-eeai niiniaii iu aicaoaeeee aieueooth
/anoue aoiiia n?aaeu. Oiaaea i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee /a?ac aauanoai
yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieiu n /anoioie

,

aaea v – /anoioa aieiu,

A2 – A1 – ?acieoea yia?aee aunoaai e iecoaai o?iaiae,

h – aeeeia aieiu.

yoa aieia aoaeao ia ineaaeyoueny, a iai?ioea, oneeeaaoueny ca n/?o
eiaeooee?iaaiiiai eceo/aiey. Iiae a? aicaeaenoaeai aoiiu niaeaniaaiii
ia?aoiaeyo a iecoea yia?aaoe/aneea ninoiyiey, eceo/ay aieiu,
niaiaaeathuea ii /anoioa e oaca n iaaeathuae aieiie. Yoi iieacaii ia
?enoiea 2(a).[6]

1.3 Iniiaiua naienoaa eaca?iiai eo/a.

Eaca?u yaeythony oieeaeueiuie enoi/ieeaie naaoa. Eo oieeaeueiinoue
ii?aaeaeytho naienoaa, eioi?uie ia iaeaaeatho iau/iua enoi/ieee naaoa. A
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, iai?eia?, iau/iie yeaeo?e/aneie eaiii/ea,
yeaeo?iiaaieoiua aieiu, ca?iaeaeathueany a ?acee/iuo /anoyo iioe/aneiai
eaaioiaiai aaia?aoi?a, oaeaeaiiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa ia iae?ineiie/aneea
?annoiyiey, ieacuaathony eiaa?aioiu iaaeaeo niaie. Yoi cia/eo /oi ana
eieaaaiey a ?acee/iuo /anoyo eaca?a i?ienoiaeyo niaeaniaaiii.

*oiau ?acia?aoue iiiyoea eiaa?aioiinoe a aeaoaeyo, ioaeii aniiiieoue
iiiyoea eioa?oa?aioeee. Eioa?oa?aioeey – yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea aiei, i?e
eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo neiaeaiea aiieeooae yoeo aiei. Anee oaeaaony
caia/aoeaoue i?ioeann yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, oi iiaeii oaeaeaoue oae
iacuaaaioth eioa?oa?aioeeiiioth ea?oeio (iia auaeyaeeo eae /a?aaeiaaiea
oaiiuo e naaoeuo o/anoeia).

Eioa?oa?aioeeiiioth ea?oeio inouanoaeoue aeiaieueii o?oaeii, oae eae
iau/ii enoi/ieee enneaaeoaiuo aiei ii?iaeaeatho aieiu ianiaeaniaaiii, e
naie aieiu i?e yoii aoaeoo aaneoue ae?oa ae?oaa. A yoii neo/aa
eioa?oa?aioeeiiiay ea?oeia aoaeao /?acau/aeii ?aciuoa eee aea ia aoaeao
aeaeia aiana. I?ioeann acaeiiiai aaoaiey noaiaoe/ii i?aaenoaaeai ia
?en.3(a) Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu iieo/aiey eioa?oa?aioeeiiiie
ea?oeiu eaaeeo a eniieueciaaiee aeaoo caaeneiuo e niaeaniaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia aiei. Aieiu io niaeaniaaiiuo enoi/ieeia eceo/atho oaeei
ia?acii, /oi

a
a

?en 3. Acaeiiaeaenoaea aiei

a – iaeiaa?aioiua aieiu (acaeiiia aaoaiea); a – eiaa?aioiua aieiu
(neiaeaiea aiieeooae aiei)

?aciinoue oiaea aiei aoaeao ?aaia oeaeiio /eneo aeeei aiei. Anee yoi
oneiaea auiieiyaony, oi aiieeooaeu aiei iaeeaaeuaathony ae?oa ia ae?oaa
e i?ienoiaeeo eioa?oa?aioeey aiei (?en. 3(a)). Oiaaea enoi/ieee aiei
iiaeii iacaaoue eiaa?aioiuie.

Eiaa?aioiinoue aiei, e enoi/ieeia yoeo aiei iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
iaoaiaoe/anee. Ionoue A1 – iai?yaeaiiinoue yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey,
nicaeaaaaiay ia?aui io/eii naaoa, A2 – aoi?ui. Aeiionoei, /oi io/ee
ia?anaeathony a iaeioi?ie oi/ea i?ino?ainoaa A. Oiaaea niaeanii
i?eioeeio noia?iiceoeee iai?yaeaiiinoue iiey a oi/ea A ?aaia

A = A1 + A2

Oae eae a yaeaieyo eioa?oa?aioeee e aeeo?aeoeee iia?e?otho
ioiineoaeueiuie cia/aieyi aaee/ei, oi aeaeueiaeoea iia?aoeee aoaeai
i?iecaiaeeoue n aaee/eiie – eioaineaiinoue naaoa, eioi?ay iaicia/aia ca
I e ?aaia

I = E2.

Iaiyy aaee/eio I ia ii?aaeaeaiioth ?aiaa aaee/eio A, iieo/aai

I = I1 + I2 + I12,

aaea I1 – eioaineaiinoue naaoa ia?aiai io/ea,

I2 – eioaineaiinoue naaoa aoi?iai io/ea.

Iineaaeiaa neaaaaiia I12 o/eouaaao acaeiiaeaenoaea io/eia naaoa e
iacuaaaony eioa?oa?aioeeiiiui /eaiii. Yoi neaaaaiia ?aaii

I12 = 2 (E1 * E2).

Anee acyoue iacaaeneiua enoi/ieee naaoa, iai?eia?, aeaa yeaeo?e/aneea
eaiii/ee, oi iianaaeiaaiue iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi I = I1 + I2, oi anoue
?acoeueoe?othuay eioaineaiinoue ?aaia noiia eioaineaiinoae iaeaaathueony
io/eia, a iioiio eioa?oa?aioeeiiiue /eai ia?auaaony a iieue. Oiaaea
aiai?yo, /oi io/ee iaeiaa?aioiu iaaeaeo niaie, neaaeiaaoaeueii
iaeiaa?aioiu e enoi/ieee naaoa. Iaeiaei, anee iaeeaaeuaathueany io/ee
caaeneiu, oi eioa?oa?aioeeiiiue /eai ia ia?auaaony a iieue, a iioiio I (
I1 + I2. A yoii neo/aa a iaeieo oi/eao i?ino?ainoaa ?acoeueoe?othuay
eioaineaiinoue I aieueoa, a ae?oaeo – iaiueoa eioaineaiinoae I1 e I2.
Oiaaea e i?ienoiaeeo eioa?oa?aioeey aiei, a cia/eo enoi/ieee naaoa
ieacuaathony eiaa?aioiuie iaaeaeo niaie.

N iiiyoeai eiaa?aioiinoe oaeaea naycaii iiiyoea i?ino?ainoaaiiie
eiaa?aioiinoe. Aeaa enoi/ieea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei, ?acia?u e acaeiiia
?aniieiaeaiea eioi?uo iicaieyao iieo/eoue eioa?oa?aioeeiiioth ea?oeio,
iacuaathony i?ino?ainoaaiii eiaa?aioiuie.[7]

Ae?oaie caia/aoaeueiie /a?oie eaca?ia, oanii naycaiiie n
eiaa?aioiinoueth eo eceo/aiey, yaeyaony niiniaiinoue e eiioeaio?aoeee
yia?aee – eiioeaio?aoeee ai a?aiaie, a niaeo?a, a i?ino?ainoaa, ii
iai?aaeaieth ?ani?ino?aiaiey. Ia?aia icia/aao oi, /oi eceo/aiea
iioe/aneiai aaia?aoi?a iiaeao aeeeoueny anaai ieiei nioie iee?inaeoiae.
Eiioeaio?aoeey a niaeo?a i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi oe?eia niaeo?aeueiie eeiee
eaca?a i/aiue ocea. Yoi iiiio?iiaoe/iinoue.

Eaca?u oaeaea niiniaiu nicaeaaaoue io/ee naaoa n i/aiue iaeui oaeii
?anoiaeaeaiey. Eae i?aaeei, yoi cia/aiea aeinoeaaao 10-5 ?aae. Yoi
cia/eo, /oi ia Eoia oaeie io/ie, iineaiiue n Caiee, aeano iyoii
aeeaiao?ii ieiei 3 ei. Yoi yaeyaony i?iyaeaieai eiioeaio?aoeee yia?aee
eaca?iiai eo/a a i?ino?ainoaa e ii iai?aaeaieth ?ani?ino?aiaiey.[6]

1.3.1 Iiiio?iiaoe/iinoue eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. Aai iiuiinoue.

Aeey iaeioi?uo eaaioiauo aaia?aoi?ia oa?aeoa?ia /?acau/aeii aunieay
noaiaiue iiiio?iiaoe/iinoe eo eceo/aiey. Ethaie iioie yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo
aiei anaaaea iaeaaeaao iaai?ii /anoio. Eceo/aiea e iiaeiuaiea aoiiiie
nenoaiu oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia oieueei /anoioie, ii e iaeioi?ie
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth yoie aaee/eiu, iacuaaaiie oe?eiie niaeo?aeueiie
eeiee (eee iieinu). Aaniethoii iiiio?iiaoe/aneiai iaeiioeaaoiiai iioiea
nicaeaoue iaeuecy, iaeiaei, iaai? /anoio eaca?iiai eceo/aiey /?acau/aeii
ocie, /oi e ii?aaeaeyao aai i/aiue aunieoth iiiio?iiaoe/iinoue.

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi eeiee eaca?iiai eceo/aiey eiatho neiaeioth
no?oeoo?o e ninoiyo ec aieueoiai /enea /?acau/aeii oceeo eeiee. I?eiaiyy
niioaaonoaothuea iioe/aneea ?aciiaoi?u, iiaeii auaeaeeoue e
noaaeeece?iaaoue ioaeaeueiua eeiee yoie no?oeoo?u, nicaeaa oai naiui
iaeii/anoioiue eaca?. [7]

Iiuiinoue eaca?a. Eaca?u yaeythony naiuie iiuiuie enoi/ieeaie naaoiaiai
eceo/aiey. A oceii eioa?aaea niaeo?a e?aoeia?aiaiii (a oa/aiea
i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth ii?yaeea 10-13 n.) o
iaeioi?uo oeiia eaca?ia aeinoeaaaony iiuiinoue eceo/aiey ii?yaeea 1017
Ao/ni2, a oi a?aiy eae iiuiinoue eceo/aiey Nieioea ?aaia oieueei 7*103
Ao/ni2, i?e/?i noiia?ii ii anaio niaeo?o. Ia oceee aea eioa?aae (=10-6
ni (yoi oe?eia niaeo?aeueiie eeiee eaca?a) i?eoiaeeony o Nieioea anaai
eeoue 0,2 Ao/ni2. Anee caaea/a caeeth/aaony a i?aiaeieaiee ii?iaa a 1017
Ao/ni2, oi i?eaaaatho e ?acee/iui iaoiaeai iiauoaiey iiuiinoe.

Iiauoaiea iiuiinoe eceo/aiey. Aeey iiauoaiey iiuiinoe eceo/aiey
iaiaoiaeeii oaaee/eoue /enei aoiiia, o/anoaothueo a oneeaiee naaoiaiai
iioiea ca n/ao eiaeooee?iaaiiiai eceo/aiey, e oiaiueoeoue
aeeeoaeueiinoue eiioeuena.

Iaoiae iiaeoee?iaaiiie aeia?ioiinoe. *oiau oaaee/eoue /enei aoiiia,
o/anoaothueo ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii a oneeaiee naaoiaiai iioiea,
iaiaoiaeeii caaea?aeaoue ia/aei aaia?aoeee (nianoaaiii eceo/aiey), /oiau
iaeiieoue eae iiaeii aieueoa aicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia, nicaeathueo
eiaa?nioth canaeaiiinoue, aeey /aai iaaei iiaeiyoue ii?ia aaia?aoeee
eaca?a e oiaiueoeoue aeia?ioiinoue. Ii?iaii aaia?aoeee iacuaatho
i?aaeaeueiia /enei aoiiia, niiniaiuo iaoiaeeoueny a aicaoaeaeaiiii
ninoiyiee. Yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue iin?aaenoaii oaaee/aiey iioa?ue
naaoiaiai iioiea. Iai?eia?, iiaeii ia?ooeoue ia?aeeaeueiinoue ca?eae,
/oi ?acei oiaiueoeo aeia?ioiinoue nenoaiu. Anee i?e oaeie neooaoeee
ia/aoue iaea/eo, oi aeaaea i?e cia/eoaeueiie eiaa?nee canaeaiiinoe
o?iaiae aaia?aoeey ia ia/eiaaony, iineieueeo ii?ia aaia?aoeee aunie.
Iiai?io ca?eaea aei ia?aeeaeueiiai ae?oaiio ca?eaeo iieiaeaiey iiauoaao
aeia?ioiinoue nenoaiu e oai naiui iiieaeaao ii?ia aaia?aoeee. Eiaaea
aeia?ioiinoue nenoaiu iaania/eo ia/aei aaia?aoeee, eiaa?niay
canaeaiiinoue o?iaiae aoaeao aanueia cia/eoaeueiie. Iiyoiio iiuiinoue
eceo/aiey eaca?a neeueii oaaee/eaaaony. Oaeie niinia oi?aaeaiey
aaia?aoeeae eaca?a iacuaaaony iaoiaeii iiaeoee?iaaiiie aeia?ioiinoe.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eiioeuena eceo/aiey caaeneo io oiai, a oa/aiea
eaeiai a?aiaie aneaaenoaea eceo/aiey eiaa?niay canaeaiiinoue eciaieony
ianoieueei, /oi nenoaia aueaeao ec oneiaey aaia?aoeee.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue caaeneo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia, ii iau/ii ninoaaeyao
10-7 —10-8 n. I/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaii iiaeoee?iaaiea aeia?ioiinoe n
iiiiuueth a?auathuaeny i?eciu. I?e ii?aaeaeaiiii iieiaeaiee iia
iaania/eaaao iieiia io?aaeaiea iaaeathuaai aaeieue ine ?aciiaoi?a eo/a a
ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee. *anoioa a?auaiey i?eciu ninoaaeyao aeanyoee eee
nioie aa?oe. Eiioeuenu eaca?iiai eceo/aiey eiatho oaeoth aea /anoioo.

Aieaa /anoia iiaoi?aiea eiioeuenia iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi iiaeoeyoeeae
aeia?ioiinoe n iiiiuueth y/aeee Ea??a (auno?iaeaenoaothuee iiaeoeyoi?
naaoa). ss/aeeo Ea??a e iiey?ecaoi? iiiauatho a ?aciiaoi?. Iiey?ecaoi?
iaania/eaaao aaia?aoeeth eeoue eceo/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiie iiey?ecaoeee, a
y/aeea Ea??a i?eaioe?iaaia oae, /oiau i?e iaeiaeaiee ia iaa iai?yaeaiey
ia i?ioiaeee naao n yoie iiey?ecaoeeae. I?e iaea/ea eaca?a iai?yaeaiea n
y/aeee Ea??a nieiaaony a oaeie iiiaio a?aiaie, /oiau ia/aaoayny i?e yoii
aaia?aoeey auea iaeaieaa neeueiie. Aeey eo/oaai iiieiaiey yoiai iaoiaea
iiaeii i?iaanoe aiaeiaeth n ecaanoiui ec oeieueiiai eo?na oeceee iiuoii
n oo?iaeeiii.

Eiathony oaeaea e ae?oaea niiniau aaaaeaiey iioa?ue, i?eaiaeyuea e
niioaaonoaothuei iaoiaeai iiaeoeyoeee aeia?ioiinoe.[4]

1.3.2 Aeaaioneee eiioeuen

I?eiaieoaeueii e eaca?iui oaoiieiaeyi eniieuecoaony oa?iei aeaaioneee
eiioeuen. Oaeiaui iacuaatho eiioeuen, iaeaaeathuae i/aiue aieueoie
yia?aeae i?e naa?oiaeie aeeeoaeueiinoe.

Naia ii naaa eaeay nicaeaiey aeaaioneiai eiioeuena i?inoa i?e
eniieueciaaiee iioe/aneiai caoai?a – niaoeeaeueiiai ono?ienoaa, eioi?ia
ii neaiaeo iiaeao ia?aoiaeeoue ec ioe?uoiai ninoiyiey a cae?uoia e
iaiai?io. A ioe?uoii ninoiyiee caoai? i?iioneaao /a?ac naay eaca?iia
eceo/aiea, a cae?uoii – iiaeiuaao eee ioeeiiyao aai a ae?oaoth noi?iio.
I?e nicaeaiee aeaaioneiai eiioeuena caoai? ia?aaiaeyo a cae?uoia
ninoiyiea aua aei oiai, eae ia/iaony aunaa/eaaiea yia?aee iaea/ee.
Caoai, ii ia?a iiaeiuaiey yia?aee aeoeaiua oeaio?u (aoiiu, o/anoaothuea
a aaia?aoeee) ia?aoiaeyo a ianniaii ii?yaeea ia aeieaiaeeaouee aa?oiee
o?iaaiue. Aaia?aoeey a eaca?a iiea ia inouanoaeyaony, aaaeue caoai?
cae?uo. A ?acoeueoaoa ia ?anniao?eaaaiii o?iaia iaeaieeaaaony
/?acau/aeii aieueoia /enei aeoeaiuo oeaio?ia – nicaeaaony i/aiue
neeueiay eiaa?niay canaeaiiinoue o?iaiae. A ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio caoai?
ia?aeeth/atho a ioe?uoia ninoiyiea. A iaeioi?ii ioiioaiee yoi iioiaea ia
oi, anee au aunieay ieioeia, nicaeaaaaoay ia?iiiue ia?aiaae o?iaiae
aiaeu, aae?oa iaiaeeaeaiii en/acea. I?ienoiaeeo auno?ia e i/aiue ao?iia
aunaa/eaaiea aeoeaiuo oeaio?ia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai e ?iaeaeaaony
ei?ioeee e iiuiue eaca?iue eiioeuen – aeaaioneee eiioeuen. Aai
aeeeoaeueiinoue ninoaaeyao 10-8 n., a iaeneiaeueiay iiuiinoue 108 Ao.[8]

1.4 Oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeioi?uo oeiia eaca?ia.

?aciiia?acea eaca?ia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaaony a?iiaaeiia ?aciiia?acea
eaca?ia, ioee/athueony iaaeaeo niaie aeoeaiuie n?aaeaie, iiuiinoyie,
?aaeeiaie ?aaiou e ae?oaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ana eo
iienuaaoue. Iiyoiio caeanue aea?ony e?aoeia iienaiea eaca?ia, eioi?ua
aeinoaoi/ii iieii i?aaenoaaeytho oa?aeoa?enoeee iniiaiuo oeiia eaca?ia
(?aaeei ?aaiou, niiniau iaea/ee e o. ae.)

?oaeiiaue eaca?. Ia?aui eaaioiaui aaia?aoi?ii naaoa aue ?oaeiiaue
eaca?, nicaeaiiue a 1960 aiaeo.

?aai/ei aauanoaii yaeyaony ?oaei, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie e?enoaee
ieneaea aethieiey Al2O3 (ei?oiae), a eioi?ue i?e au?aueaaiee aaaaeai a
aeaea i?eiane ieneae o?iia Nr2Ic. E?aniue oeaao ?oaeia iaoneiaeai
iieiaeeoaeueiui eiiii Nr+3. A ?aoaoea e?enoaeea A2I3 eii Na+3 caiauaao
eii Al+3. Aneaaenoaea yoiai a e?enoaeea aicieeatho aeaa iieinu
iiaeiuaiey: iaeia—a caeaiie, ae?oaay—a aieoaie /anoe niaeo?a. Aonoioa
e?aniiai oeaaoa ?oaeia caaeneo io eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia Na+3: /ai aieueoa
eiioeaio?aoeey, oai aoua e?aniue oeaao. A oaiii-e?aniii ?oaeia
eiioeaio?aoeey eiiia Na+3 aeinoeaaao 1%.

Ia?yaeo n aieoaie e caeaiie iieinaie iiaeiuaiey eiaaony aeaa oceeo
yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiy A1 e A1’ , i?e ia?aoiaea n eioi?uo ia iniiaiie
o?iaaiue eceo/aaony naao n aeeeiaie aiei 694,3 e 692,8 ii. Oe?eia eeiee
ninoaaeyao i?e eiiiaoiuo oaiia?aoo?ao i?eia?ii 0,4 ii. Aa?iyoiinoue
auioaeaeaiiuo ia?aoiaeia aeey eeiee 694,3 ii aieueoa, /ai aeey 692,8 ii.
Iiyoiio i?iua ?aaioaoue n eeieae 694,3 ii. Iaeiaei iiaeii inouanoaeoue
aaia?aoeeth e eeiee 692,8 ii, anee eniieueciaaoue niaoeeaeueiua ca?eaea,
eiathuea aieueoie eiyooeoeeaio io?aaeaiey aeey eceo/aiey l = 692,8 ii e
iaeue — aeey l = 694,3 ii.

I?e iaeo/aiee ?oaeia aaeui naaoii aieoaay e caeaiay /anoe niaeo?a
iiaeiuathony, a e?aniay io?aaeaaony. A ?oaeiiaii eaca?a eniieuecoaony
iioe/aneay iaea/ea enaiiiiaie eaiiie, eioi?ay aeaao aniuoee naaoa
aieueoie eioaineaiinoe i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee /a?ac iaa eiioeuena oiea,
iaa?aaathuaai aac aei ianeieueeeo ouny/ eaeueaei. Iai?a?uaiay iaea/ea
iaaiciiaeia, iioiio /oi eaiia i?e noieue aunieie oaiia?aoo?a ia
auaea?aeeaaao iai?a?uaiiai ?aaeeia ?aaiou. Aicieeathuaa eceo/aiea aeecei
ii naiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai e eceo/aieth aaniethoii /a?iiai oaea. Eceo/aiea
iiaeiuaaony eiiaie Cr+, ia?aoiaeyueie a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ia
yia?aaoe/aneea o?iaie a iaeanoe iiein iiaeiuaiey. Iaeiaei n yoeo o?iaiae
eiiu Nr+3 i/aiue auno?i a ?acoeueoaoa aacuceo/aoaeueiiai ia?aoiaea
ia?aoiaeyo ia o?iaie A1, A1’. I?e yoii eceeoae yia?aee ia?aaeaaony
?aoaoea, o. a. i?aa?auaaony a yia?aeth eieaaaiee ?aoaoee eee, ae?oaeie
neiaaie, a yia?aeth oioiiia. O?iaie A1, A1’ iaoanoaaeeueiu. A?aiy aeecie
ia o?iaia A1 ?aaii 4,3 in. A i?ioeanna eiioeuena iaea/ee ia o?iaiyo A1,
A1’ iaeaieeaathony aicaoaeaeaiiua aoiiu, nicaeathuea cia/eoaeueioth
eiaa?nioth canaeaiiinoue ioiineoaeueii o?iaiy A0 (yoi o?iaaiue
iaaicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia).

E?enoaee ?oaeia au?aueaaaony a aeaea e?oaeiai oeeeeiae?a. Aeey eaca?a
iau/ii eniieuecotho e?enoaeeu ?acia?ii: aeeeia L = 5 ni, aeeaiao? d = 1
ni. Enaiiiiaay eaiia e e?enoaee ?oaeia iiiauathony a yeeeioe/aneoth
iieinoue n oi?ioi io?aaeathuae aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoueth (?en. 4). *oiau
iaania/eoue iiiaaeaiea ia ?oaei anaai eceo/aiey enaiiiiaie eaiiu,
e?enoaee ?oaeia e eaiia, eiathuay oaeaea oi?io e?oaeiai oeeeeiae?a,
iiiauathony a oieonu yeeeioe/aneiai na/aiey iieinoe ia?aeeaeueii aa
ia?acothuei. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ia ?oaei iai?aaeyaony eceo/aiea n
ieioiinoueth, i?aeoe/anee ?aaiie ieioiinoe eceo/aiey ia enoi/ieea
iaea/ee.

?en 4. ?oaeiiaue eaca? (a ieineinoe na/aiey)

Enaiiiiaay eaiia (aaeue e?oa) e e?enoaee ?oaeia (e?aniue e?oa)
iaoiaeyony aioo?e ca?eaea-io?aaeaoaey

Iaeei ec eiioeia ?oaeiiaiai e?enoaeea n?acai oae, /oi io a?aiae n?aca
iaania/eaaaony iieiia io?aaeaiea e aica?auaiea eo/a ia?aoii. Oaeie n?ac
caiaiyao iaeii ec ca?eae eaca?a. Aoi?ie eiiaoe ?oaeiiaiai e?enoaeea
n?acai iiae oaeii A?thnoa?a. Ii iaania/eaaao auoiae ec e?enoaeea ?oaeia
aac io?aaeaiey eo/a n niioaaonoaothuae eeiaeiie iiey?ecaoeeae. Aoi?ia
ca?eaei ?aciiaoi?a noaaeony ia iooe yoiai eo/a. Oaeei ia?acii, eceo/aiea
?oaeiiaiai eaca?a eeiaeii iiey?eciaaii.[2]

Aaeee-iaiiiaue eaca?. Aeoeaiie n?aaeie yaeyaony aaciia?aciay nianue
aaeey e iaiia. Aaia?aoeey inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo
yia?aaoe/aneeie o?iaiyie iaiia, a aaeee ea?aao ?ieue iin?aaeieea, /a?ac
eioi?ue yia?aey ia?aaeaaony aoiiai iaiia aeey nicaeaiey eiaa?niie
canaeaiiinoe.

Iaii, a i?eioeeia, iiaeao aaia?e?iaaoue eaca?iia eco/aiea a ?acoeueoaoa
aieaa 130 ?acee/iuo ia?aoiaeia. Iaeiaei iaeaieaa eioaineaiuie yaeythony
eeiee n aeeeiie aieiu 632,8 ii, 1,15 e 3,39 iei. Aieia 632,8 ii
iaoiaeeony a aeaeeiie /anoe niaeo?a, a aieiu 1,15 e 3,39 iei – a
eio?ae?aniie.

I?e i?iioneaiee oiea /a?ac aaeee-iaiiiaoth nianue aacia yeaeo?iiiui
oaea?ii aoiiu aaeey aicaoaeaeathony aei ninoiyiee 23S e 22S, eioi?ua
yaeythony iaoanoaaeeueiuie, iineieueeo ia?aoiae a iniiaiia ninoiyiea ec
ieo cai?auai eaaioiai-iaoaie/aneeie i?aaeeaie ioai?a. I?e i?ioiaeaeaiee
oiea aoiiu iaeaieeaathony ia yoeo o?iaiyo. Eiaaea aicaoaeaeaiiue aoii
aaeey noaeeeaaaony n iaaicaoaeaeaiiui aoiiii iaiia, yia?aey
aicaoaeaeaiey ia?aoiaeeo e iineaaeiaio. Yoio ia?aoiae inouanoaeyaony
i/aiue yooaeoeaii aneaaenoaea oi?ioaai niaiaaeaiey yia?aee
niioaaonoaothueo o?iaiae. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ia o?iaiyo 3S e 2S iaiia
ia?acoaony eiaa?niay canaeaiiinoue ioiineoaeueii o?iaiae 2P e 3P,
i?eaiaeyuay e aiciiaeiinoe aaia?aoeee eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. Eaca? iiaeao
iia?e?iaaoue a iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia. Eceo/aiea aaeee-iaiiiaiai eaca?a
eeiaeii iiey?eciaaii. Iau/ii aeaaeaiea aaeey a eaia?a ninoaaeyao 332 Ia,
a iaiia — 66 Ia. Iinoiyiiia iai?yaeaiea ia o?oaea ieiei 4 eA. Iaeii ec
ca?eae eiaao eiyooeoeeaio io?aaeaiey ii?yaeea 0,999, a aoi?ia, /a?ac
eioi?ia auoiaeeo eaca?iia eceo/aiea, — ieiei 0,990. A ea/anoaa ca?eae
eniieuecotho iiiaineieiua aeeyeaeo?eee, iineieueeo aieaa ieceea
eiyooeoeeaiou io?aaeaiey ia iaania/eaatho aeinoeaeaiey ii?iaa
aaia?aoeee.

N02-eaca? n caieiooui iauaiii. Iieaeoeu oaeaeeneiai aaca, eae e ae?oaea
iieaeoeu, eiatho iieinaoue niaeo?, iaoneiaeaiiue iaee/eai eieaaaoaeueiuo
e a?auaoaeueiuo o?iaiae yia?aee. Eniieuecoaiue a CO2 – eaca?a ia?aoiae
aeaao eceo/aiea n aeeeiie aieiu 10,6 iei, o. a. eaaeeo a eio?ae?aniie
iaeanoe niaeo?a. Iieuecoynue eieaaaoaeueiuie o?iaiyie, iiaeii ianeieueei
aa?uee?iaaoue /anoioo eceo/aiey a i?aaeaeao i?eia?ii io 9,2 aei 10,8
iei. Yia?aey iieaeoeai CO2 ia?aaeaaony io iieaeoe acioa N2, eioi?ua naie
aicaoaeaeathony yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee oiea /a?ac nianue.

N2 CO2

(001)

10,6 iei

9,6 iei

(100)

(020)

(010)

?en. 5. Noaia yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae a CO2-eaca?a

Aicaoaeaeaiiia ninoiyiea iieaeoeu acioa N2 yaeyaony iaoanoaaeeueiui e
ionoieo io iniiaiiai o?iaiy ia ?annoiyiee 2318 ni -1, /oi aanueia aeecei
e yia?aaoe/aneiio o?iaith (001) iieaeoeu CO2 (?en. 5). Aaeaeo
iaoanoaaeeueiinoe aicaoaeaeaiiiai ninoiyiey N2 i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee oiea
/enei aicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia iaeaieeaaaony. I?e noieeiiaaiee N2 n CO2
i?ienoiaeeo ?aciiainiay ia?aaea/a yia?aee aicaoaeaeaiey io N2 e CO2.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai aicieeaao eiaa?ney canaeaiiinoae iaaeaeo o?iaiyie
(001), (100), (020) iieaeoe CO2. Iau/ii aeey oiaiueoaiey canaeaiiinoe
o?iaiy (100), eioi?ue eiaao aieueoia a?aiy aeecie, /oi oooaeoaao
aaia?aoeeth i?e ia?aoiaea ia yoio o?iaaiue, aeiaaaeytho aaeee. A
oeie/iuo oneiaeyo nianue aacia a eaca?a ninoieo ec aaeey (1330 Ia),
acioa (133 Ia) e oaeaeeneiai aaca (133 Ia).

I?e ?aaioa CO2 – eaca?a i?ienoiaeeo ?aniaae iieaeoe CO2 ia NI e I,
aeaaiaea?y /aio aeoeaiay n?aaea ineaaeyaony. Aeaeaa NI ?aniaaeaaony ia N
e I, a oaea?iae inaaeaeaaony ia yeaeo?iaeao e noaieao o?oaee. An? yoi
oooaeoaao ?aaioo NO2-eaca?a. *oiau i?aiaeieaoue a?aaeiia aeaenoaea yoeo
oaeoi?ia a cae?uooth nenoaio aeiaaaeytho ia?u aiaeu, eioi?ua
noeioee?otho ?aaeoeeth

NI + I ® CO2.

Eniieuecothony ieaoeiiaua yeaeo?iaeu, iaoa?eae eioi?uo yaeyaony
eaoaeecaoi?ii aeey yoie ?aaeoeee. Aeey oaaee/aiey caiana aeoeaiie n?aaeu
?aciiaoi? niaaeeiyaony n aeiiieieoaeueiuie aieinoyie, niaea?aeaueie CO2,
N2, Ia, eioi?ua a iaiaoiaeeiii eiee/anoaa aeiaaaeythony a iau?i
?aciiaoi?a aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee ?aaiou eaca?a. Oaeie
cae?uoue CO2-eaca?, a ninoiyiee ?aaioaoue a oa/aiea iiiaeo ouny/ /ania.

I?ioi/iue NI2-eaca?. Aaaeiie iiaeeoeeaoeeae yaeyaony i?ioi/iue
NI2-eaca?, a eioi?ii nianue aacia CO2, N2, Ia iai?a?uaii i?iea/eaaaony
/a?ac ?aciiaoi?. Oaeie eaca? iiaeao aaia?e?iaaoue iai?a?uaiia
eiaa?aioiia eceo/aiea iiuiinoueth nauoa 50 Ao ia iao? aeeeiu naiae
aeoeaiie n?aaeu.

Aacuceo/aoaeueiua

ia?aoiaeu

2

Eaca? 1,06 iei

1

?en. 6. Iaiaeeiiaue eaca?

Iaiaeeiiaue eaca?. Ia ?en. 6 iieacaia noaia oae iacuaaaiiai iaiaeeiiaiai
eaca?a. Iacaaiea iiaeao aaanoe a caaeoaeaeaiea. Oaeii eaca?a yaeyaony ia
iaoaee iaiaeei, a iau/iia noaeei n i?eianueth iaiaeeia. Eiiu aoiiia
iaiaeeia aanii?yaei/ii ?ani?aaeaeaiu n?aaee aoiiia e?aiiey e eenei?iaea.
Iaea/ea i?iecaiaeyony eaiiaie-iieieyie. Eaiiu aeatho eceo/aiea a
i?aaeaeao aeeei aiei io 0,5 aei 0,9 iei. Aicieeaao oe?ieay iieina
aicaoaeaeaiiuo ninoiyiee. Niaa?oaiii oneiaii iia ecia?aaeaia iyoueth
/a?oi/eaie. Aoiiu niaa?oatho aacuceo/aoaeueiua ia?aoiaeu ia aa?oiee
eaca?iue o?iaaiue. Eaaeaeue ia?aoiae aeaao ?acioth yia?aeth, eioi?ay
i?aa?auaaony a eieaaaoaeueioth yia?aeth anae «?aoaoee» aoiiia.

Eaca?iia eceo/aiea, o.a. ia?aoiae ia ionoie ieaeiee o?iaaiue, iiia/aiiue
oeeo?ie 1, eiaao aeeeio aieiu 1,06 iei.

Iieacaiiue ioieoe?ii ia?aoiae n o?iaiy 1 ia iniiaiie o?iaaiue «ia
?aaioaao». Yia?aey auaeaeyaony a aeaea iaeiaa?aioiiai eceo/aiey.

O-eaca?. Ai iiiaeo i?aeoe/aneeo i?eeiaeaieyo aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao
NO2-eaca?, a eioi?ii ?aai/ay nianue iaoiaeeony iiae aoiinoa?iui
aeaaeaieai e aicaoaeaeaaony iiia?a/iui yeaeo?e/aneei iieai (O-eaca?).
Iineieueeo yeaeo?iaeu ?aniieiaeaiu ia?aeeaeueii ine ?aciiaoi?a, aeey.
iieo/aiey aieueoeo cia/aiee iai?yaeaiiinoe yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey a
?aciiaoi?a o?aaothony n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoea ?aciinoe iioaioeeaeia
iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue a eiioeueniii
?aaeeia i?e aoiinoa?iii aeaaeaiee, eiaaea eiioeaio?aoeey CO2 a
?aciiaoi?a aaeeea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeaaony iieo/eoue aieueooth
iiuiinoue, aeinoeaathuoth iau/ii 10 IAo e aieueoa a iaeiii eiioeuena
eceo/aiey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth iaiaa 1 ien. *anoioa iiaoi?aiey
eiioeuenia a oaeeo eaca?ao ninoaaeyao iau/ii ianeieueei eiioeuenia a
ieiooo.

Aaciaeeiaie/aneea eaca?u. Iaa?aoay aei aunieie oaiia?aoo?u (1000—2000 E)
nianue CO2 e N2 i?e enoa/aiee n aieueoie nei?inoueth /a?ac
?anoe?ythuaany niiei neeueii ioeaaeaeaaony. Aa?oiee e ieaeiee
yia?aaoe/aneee o?iaie i?e yoii oa?iieciee?othony n ?acee/iie
nei?inoueth, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?acoaony eiaa?niay canaeaiiinoue.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?aciaaa ia auoiaea ec niiea iioe/aneee ?aciiaoi?,
iiaeii ca n/ao yoie eiaa?niie canaeaiiinoe aaia?e?iaaoue eaca?iia
eceo/aiea. Aeaenoaothuea ia yoii i?eioeeia eaca?u iacuaathony
aaciaeeiaie/aneeie. Iie iicaieytho iieo/aoue i/aiue aieueoea iiuiinoe
eceo/aiey a iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia.

Eaca?u ia e?aneoaeyo. E?aneoaee yaeythony i/aiue neiaeiuie iieaeoeaie, o
eioi?uo neeueii au?aaeaiu eieaaaoaeueiua o?iaie yia?aee. Yia?aaoe/aneea
o?iaie a iieina niaeo?a ?aniieaaathony ii/oe iai?a?uaii. Aneaaenoaea
aioo?eiieaeoey?iiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iieaeoea i/aiue auno?i (ca a?aiaia
ii?yaeea 10-11—10-12 n) ia?aoiaeeo aacuceo/aoaeueii ia ieaeiee
yia?aaoe/aneee o?iaaiue eaaeaeie iieinu. Iiyoiio iinea aicaoaeaeaiey
iieaeoe /a?ac i/aiue ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie ia ieaeiai o?iaia
iieinu A1 nin?aaeioi/aony ana aicaoaeaeaiiua iieaeoeu. Iie aeaeaa eiatho
aiciiaeiinoue niaa?oeoue eceo/aoaeueiue ia?aoiae ia ethaie ec
yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae ieaeiae iieinu. Oaeei ia?acii, aiciiaeii
eceo/aiea i?aeoe/anee ethaie /anoiou a eioa?aaea, niioaaonoaothuai
oe?eia ioeaaie iieinu. A yoi icia/aao, /oi anee iieaeoeu e?aneoaey
acyoue a ea/anoaa aeoeaiiai aauanoaa aeey aaia?aoeee eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey, oi a caaeneiinoe io iano?ieee ?aciiaoi?a iiaeii iieo/eoue
i?aeoe/anee iai?a?uaioth ia?ano?ieeo /anoiou aaia?e?oaiiai eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey. Iiyoiio ia e?aneoaeyo nicaeathony eaca?u n ia?ano?aeaaaiie
/anoioie aaia?aoeee. Iaea/ea eaca?ia ia e?aneoaeyo i?iecaiaeeony
aaci?ac?yaeiuie eaiiaie eee eceo/aieai ae?oaeo eaca?ia,

Auaeaeaiea /anoio aaia?aoeee aeinoeaaaony oai, /oi ii?ia aaia?aoeee
nicaeaaony oieueei aeey oceie iaeanoe /anoio. Iai?eia?, iieiaeaiey
i?eciu e ca?eaea iiaeae?athony oae, /oi a n?aaeo iinea io?aaeaiey io
ca?eaea aeaaiaea?y aeenia?nee e ?aciui oaeai i?aeiieaiey aica?auathony
eeoue eo/e n ii?aaeaeaiiie aeeeiie aieiu. Oieueei aeey oaeeo aeeei aiei
iaania/eaaaony eaca?iay aaia?aoeey. A?auay i?ecio, iiaeii iaania/eoue
iai?a?uaioth ia?ano?ieeo /anoiou eceo/aiey eaca?a ia e?aneoaeyo.
Aaia?aoeey inouanoaeaia ni iiiaeie e?aneoaeyie, /oi iicaieeei iieo/eoue
eaca?iia eceo/aiea ia oieueei ai anai iioe/aneii aeeaiaciia, ii e ia
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe eio?ae?aniie e oeueo?aoeieaoiaie iaeanoae
niaeo?a.[5]

Aeaaa II. I?aeoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea iioe/aneeo eaaioiauo aaia?aoi?ia.

2.1 I?eiaiaiea eaca?iiai eo/a a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oaoieea

Iioe/aneea eaaioiaua aaia?aoi?u e eo eceo/aiea iaoee i?eiaiaiea ai
iiiaeo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oae, iai?eia?, a eiaeono?ee
iaaethaeaaony i?eiaiaiea eaca?ia aeey naa?ee, ia?aaioee e ?ac?acaiey
iaoaeee/aneeo e aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo iaoa?eaeia e aeaoaeae a
i?eai?ino?iaiee, iaoeiino?iaiee e a oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ia/eiay n 1964 aiaea iaeii?iecaiaeeoaeueiia iaoaie/aneia naa?eaiea
ioaa?noee noaei caiaiyoueny eaca?iui naa?eaieai. Oa?iei eaca?iia
naa?eaiea ia neaaeoao iiieiaoue aoeaaeueii. Eaca?iue eo/ ia naa?eeo
ioaa?noea: ii aai i?iaeaaao ca n/ao eioaineaiiai enia?aiey iaoa?eaea a
oi/ea aicaeaenoaey. I?eia? oaeiai niiniaa naa?eaiey – i?iaeaea ioaa?noee
a /aniauo eaiiyo, eioi?ay nae/an oaea yaeyaony iau/iui aeaeii. Aeey yoie
oeaee i?eiaiythony oaa?aeioaeueiua eiioeueniua eaca?u, iai?eia?, eaca?
ia noaeea n iaiaeeiii. Ioaa?noea a eaiia (i?e oieueia caaioiaee ieiei
0,1 – 0.5 ii.) i?iaeaaaony na?eae ec ianeieueeeo eaca?iuo eiioeuenia,
eiathueo yia?aeth ieiei 0,1 – 0,5 Aeae. e aeeeoaeueiinoueth ieiei 10-4
n. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue onoaiiaee a aaoiiaoe/aneii ?aaeeia ninoaaeyao 1
eaiaiue a naeoiaeo, /oi a 1000 ?ac auoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
iaoaie/aneiai naa?eaiey.

Eaca? eniieuecoaony e i?e ecaioiaeaiee naa?ooiieeo i?iaieie ec iaaee,
a?iicu, aieueo?aia e ae?oaeo iaoaeeia. I?e ecaioiaeaiee i?iaieie
i?eiaiytho oaoiieiaeth i?ioaneeaaiey (aiei/aiey) i?iaieiee neaicue
ioaa?noey i/aiue iaeiai aeeaiao?a. Yoe ioaa?noey (eee eaiaeu aiei/aiey)
aunaa?eeaatho a iaoa?eaeao, iaeaaeathueo iniai aunieie oaa?aeinoueth,
iai?eia?, a naa?ooaa?aeuo nieaaao. Iaeaieaa oaa?ae, eae ecaanoii, aeiac.
Iiyoiio eo/oa anaai i?ioyaeaaoue oiieoth i?iaieieo neaicue ioaa?noey a
aeiaca (aeiaciua oeeuea?u). Oieueei iie iicaieytho iieo/eoue i?iaieieo
aeeaiao?ii anaai 10 iei. Iaeiaei, ia iaoaie/aneia naa?eaiea iaeiiai
ioaa?noey a aeiaca o?aaoaony 10 /ania(!). Caoi nianai iao?oaeii i?iaeoue
yoi ioaa?noea na?eae ec ianeieueeeo iiuiuo eaca?iuo eiioeuenia. Eae e a
neo/aa n i?iaeaeie ioaa?noee a /aniauo eaiiyo, aeey naa?eaiey aeiaca
eniieuecothony oaa?aeioaeueiua eiioeueniua eaca?u.

Eaca?iia naa?eaiea oe?iei i?eiaiyaony i?e iieo/aiee ioaa?noee a
iaoa?eaeao, iaeaaeathueo iiauoaiiie o?oieinoueth. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
iiaeii i?eaanoe iiaeeiaeee iee?inoai, ecaioiaeaiiua ec aeeiicaiiie
ea?aieee. Ec-ca aunieie o?oieinoe ea?aieee iaoaie/aneia naa?eaiea
auiieiyaony ia “nu?ii” iaoa?eaea. Iaaeeaatho ea?aieeo oaea iinea
naa?eaiey. I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo iaeioi?ay aeaoi?iaoeey ecaeaeey,
eneaaeaaony acaeiiia ?aniieiaeaiea aunaa?eaiiuo ioaa?noee. I?e
eniieueciaaiee “eaca?iuo naa?e” iiaeii niieieii ?aaioaoue n
ea?aie/aneeie iiaeeiaeeaie, oaea i?ioaaeoeie iaaeea.

Eioa?anii i?eiaiaiea eaca?a e eae oieaa?naeueiiai iayeueieea.
I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi aioo?e yeaeo?iiii-eo/aaie o?oaee i?iecioea aaa?ey –
ia?aai?ae eee iai?aaeny eaeie-ieaoaeue i?iaiae, ia?ooeeny eiioaeo.
O?oaea auoea ec no?iy. Eacaeinue au, iieiiea iaeni?aaeia, aaaeue YEO
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ono?ienoai, ana aioo?aiiea eiiiiiaiou eioi?iai
iaoiaeyony a aaeooia, aioo?e noaeeyiiiai aaeeiia, e ieeaeiio iayeueieeo
ooaea ia i?iieeiooue. Iaeiaei, eaca?iue eo/ iicaieyao ?aoaoue e oaeea
caaea/e. Iai?aaeyy eo/ a ioaeioth oi/eo e aeieaeiui ia?acii oieone?oth
aai, iiaeii inouanoaeoue naa?i/ioth ?aaioo.[3]

Eaca?u n ieaaiie ia?ano?ieeie /anoiou neoaeao iniiaie aeey niaeo?aeueiuo
i?eai?ia n eneeth/eoaeueii aunieie ?ac?aoathuae neeie. Iai?eia?, ionoue
o?aaoaony enneaaeiaaoue niaeo? iiaeiuaiey eaeiai-eeai aauanoaa. Ecia?ea
aaee/eio eaca?iiai iioiea, iaaeathuaai ia eco/aaiue iauaeo, e
i?ioaaeoaai /a?ac iaai, iiaeii au/eneeoue cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa
iiaeiuaiey. Ia?ano?aeaay /anoioo eaca?iiai eceo/aiey, iiaeii,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii?aaeaeeoue eiyooeoeeaio iiaeiuaiey eae ooieoeeth io
aeeeiu aieiu. ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue yoiai iaoiaea niaiaaeaao,
i/aaeaeii, n oe?eiie eeiee eaca?iiai eceo/aiey, eioi?oth iiaeii
naeaeaoue i/aiue iaeie. Oe?eia eeiee, ?aaiay, iai?eia?, 10-3 ni-1
iaania/eaaao oaeoth aea ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue, eae e
aeeo?aeoeeiiiay ?ao?oea n ?aai/ae iiaa?oiinoueth 5 i., a ecaioiaeaiea
oaeeo ?ao?oie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii/oe ia?ac?aoeioth caaea/o.

Eaca?u iicaieeee inouanoaeoue naaoieieaoi?, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai
?annoiyiea aei i?aaeiaoia ecia?yaony n oi/iinoueth aei ianeieueeeo
ieeeeiao?ia. Oaeay oi/iinoue iaaeinooiia aeey ?aaeeieieaoi?ia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ie?a nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeanyoeia eaca?iuo
eieaoeeiiiuo nenoai. Iiiaea ec ieo oaea eiatho einie/aneia cia/aiea. Iie
inouanoaeytho eieaoeeth Eoiu e aaiaeace/aneeo eneonnoaaiiuo niooieeia
Caiee. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii iacaaoue eaca?i-eieaoeeiiioth nenoaio
Oece/aneiai einoeoooa eiaie I. I. Eaaaaeaaa. Iia?aoiinoue ecia?aiey i?e
eniieueciaaiee aeaiiie nenoaiu ninoaaeyao 40 ni.

I?iaaaeaiea oaeeo enneaaeiaaiee i?aaiecoaony aeey oiai, /oiau iioi/iaa
ociaoue ?annoiyiea aei Eoiu a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai ia?eiaea a?aiaie,
iai?eia?, a oa/aiea aiaea. Enneaaeoy a?aoeee, iienuaathuea eciaiaiea
yoiai ?annoiyiey ni a?aiaiai, o/aiua iieo/atho ioaaou ia ?yae aii?inia,
eiathueo iao/ioth aaaeiinoue.

Eiioeueniua eaca?iua eieaoi?u naaiaeiy i?eiaiythony ia oieueei a
einiiiaaoeea, ii e a aaeaoeee. A /anoiinoe, iie iiaoo ea?aoue ?ieue
iao/iuo ecia?eoaeae auniou. Eaca?iue aunioiia? i?eiaiyeny oaeaea a
einie/aneii ei?aaea “Aiieeii” aeey oioia?aoe?iaaiey iiaa?oiinoe Eoiu.

Ai?i/ai, o iioe/aneeo eaca?iuo nenoai anoue e naie neaaua noi?iiu.
Iai?eia?, ia oae i?inoi i?e iiiiue ino?iiai?aaeaiiiai eo/a eaca?a
iaia?oaeeoue iauaeo, oae eae a?aiy iaci?a eiio?iee?oaiie iaeanoe
i?ino?ainoaa ieacuaaaony neeoeii aieueoei. Iiyoiio iioe/aneea
eieaoeeiiiua nenoaiu eniieuecothony aianoa n ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiuie.
Iineaaeiea iaania/eaatho auno?ue iaci? i?ino?ainoaa, iaia?oaeeaatho
oeaeue, a caoai iioe/aneay nenoaia ecia?yao ia?aiao?u oeaee e
inouanoaeyao neaaeaiea ca iae.[8]

Aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho iineaaeiea ?ac?aaioee a iaeanoe
nicaeaiey oaeaaeci?a ia iniiaa eaca?iuo oaoiieiaee. Niaeanii iaeeaeaieyi
niaoeeaeenoia, oaeie oaeaaeci? aeieaeai ioee/aoueny naa?oaunieei
ea/anoaii ecia?aaeaiey.

Noieo oaeaea ioiaoeoue eniieueciaaiea eaca?ia a oaea aeaaii ecaanoiuo
i?eioa?ao aunieiai ea/anoaa eee eaca?iuo i?eioa?ao. A yoeo ono?ienoaao
eaca?iia eceo/aiea eniieuecoaony aeey nicaeaiey ia niaoeeaeueiii
naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiii aa?aaaia ne?uoie eiiee ia/aoaaiiai ecia?aaeaiey.[1]

2.2 I?eiaiaiea eaca?ia a iaaeeoeeia

A iaaeeoeeia eaca?iua onoaiiaee iaoee naia i?eiaiaiea a aeaea eaca?iiai
neaeueiaey. Aai eniieueciaaiea aeey i?iaaaeaiey oe?o?ae/aneeo iia?aoeee
ii?aaeaeytho neaaeothuea naienoaa:

Ii i?iecaiaeeo ioiineoaeueii aane?iaiue ?ac?ac, oae eae iaeiia?aiaiii n
?anna/aieai oeaiae ii eiaaoee?oao e?ay ?aiu “caaa?eaay” ia neeoeii
e?oiiua e?iaaiiniua ninoaeu;

Eaca?iue neaeueiaeue ioee/aaony iinoiyinoaii ?aaeoueo naienoa.
Iiiaaeaiea ia oaa?aeue i?aaeiao (iai?eia?, einoue) ia auaiaeeo
neaeueiaeue ec no?iy. Aeey iaoaie/aneiai neaeueiaey oaeay neooaoeey
noaea au oaoaeueiie;

Eaca?iue eo/ a neeo naiae i?ic?a/iinoe iicaieyao oe?o?ao aeaeaoue
iia?e?oaiue o/anoie. Eacaea aea iau/iiai neaeueiaey, ?aaii eae e eacaea
yeaeo?iiiaea, anaaaea a eaeie-oi noaiaie caai?aaeeaaao io oe?o?aa
?aai/aa iiea;

Eaca?iue eo/ ?annaeaao oeaiue ia ?annoiyiee, ia ieacuaay ieeaeiai
iaoaie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia oeaiue;

Eaca?iue neaeueiaeue iaania/eaaao aaniethoioth noa?eeueiinoue, aaaeue n
oeaiueth acaeiiaeaenoaoao oieueei eceo/aiea;

Eo/ eaca?a aeaenoaoao no?iai eieaeueii, enia?aiea oeaie i?ienoiaeeo
oieueei a oi/ea oieona. I?eeaaathuea o/anoee oeaie iia?aaeaeathony
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai i?e eniieueciaaiee iaoaie/aneiai neaeueiaey;

Eae iieacaea eeeie/aneay i?aeoeea, ?aia io eaca?iiai neaeueiaey ii/oe ia
aieeo e auno?aa caaeeaeyaony.

I?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea eaca?ia a oe?o?aee ia/aeinue a NNN? a 1966 aiaeo
a einoeoooa eiaie A. A. Aeoiaaneiai. Eaca?iue neaeueiaeue aue i?eiaiai a
iia?aoeeyo ia aioo?aiieo i?aaiao a?oaeiie e a?thoiie iieinoae. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eaca?iui eo/ii aeaeatho eiaeii-ieanoe/aneea iia?aoeee,
iia?aoeee ieuaaiaea, aeaeoaeea, eeoa/ieea, ii/ae, ia/aie, naeacaiee e
ae?oaeo i?aaiia. I/aiue caiai/eai i?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee n
eniieueciaaieai eaca?a ia i?aaiao, niaea?aeaueo aieueoia eiee/anoai
e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia, iai?eia?, ia na?aeoea, ia/aie.[8]

2.2.1 Eaca? a iooaeueiieiaee

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eioaineaii ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea a iaaeeoeeia
– eaca?iay iee?ioe?o?aey aeaca. Enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iaeanoe aaaeoony a
Iaeanneii Einoeoooa aeaciuo aieaciae eiaie A. I. Oeeaoiaa, a Iineianeii
IEE iee?ioe?o?aee aeaca e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo “aeaciuo oeaio?ao” no?ai
niae?oaeanoaa

Ia?aia i?eiaiaiea eaca?ia a iooaeueiieiaee auei naycaii n ea/aieai
ioneiaiey nao/aoee. Aioo?ue aeaca /a?ac c?a/ie iinueathony naaoiaua
eiioeuenu io ?oaeiiaiai eaca?a (yia?aey eiioeuena 0,01 – 0,1 Aeae,
aeeeoaeueiinoue ii?yaeea – 0,1 n.) Iie naiaiaeii i?iieeatho neaicue
i?ic?a/iia noaeeiaeaeiia oaei e iiaeiuathony nao/aoeie. Oieone?oy
eceo/aiea ia ioneieaoainy o/anoea, iineaaeithth “i?eaa?eaatho” e
aeaciiio aeio ca n/ao eiaaoeyoeee. Iia?aoeey i?ioiaeeo auno?i e
niaa?oaiii aacaieaciaiii.

Aiiaua, ec iaeaieaa na?ueaciuo caaieaaaiee aeaca, i?eaiaeyueo e neaiioa,
auaeaeytho iyoue. Yoi aeaoeiia, eaoa?aeoa, ioneiaiea nao/aoee,
aeeaaaoe/aneay ?aoeiiiaoey e ceiea/anoaaiiay iiooieue. Naaiaeiy ana yoe
caaieaaaiey oniaoii ea/aony i?e iiiiue eaca?ia, i?e/ai oieueei aeey
ea/aiey iiooieae ?ac?aaioaii e eniieuecoaony o?e iaoiaea:

Eaca?iia iaeo/aiea – iaeo/aiea iiooiee ?anoieone?iaaiiui eaca?iui eo/ii,
i?eaiaeyuaa e aeaaee ?aeiauo eeaoie, iioa?e eie niiniaiinoe e
?aciiiaeaieth

Eaca?iay eiaaoeyoeey – ?ac?ooaiea iiooiee oia?aiii noieone?iaaiiui
eceo/aieai.

Eaca?iay oe?o?aey – iaeaieaa ?aaeeeaeueiue iaoiae. Caeeth/aaony a
enna/aiee iiooiee aianoa n i?eeaaathueie oeaiyie noieone?iaaiiui
eceo/aieai.[8]

2.3 Eaca?iua oaoiieiaee – n?aaenoai caiene e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eaca?iua oaoiieiaee aeoeaii eniieuecothony eae
n?aaenoai caiene e ia?aaioee aieueoeo iau?iia eioi?iaoeee. E caeanue
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iiyaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai aeaea iineoaey
eioi?iaoeee – eiiiaeo-aeenea. Eae iu ciaai, a aoaeei- e aeaeaieannaoao,
eioi?ua aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie auee, iiaeaeoe, naiui ?ani?ino?ai?iiui
n?aaenoaii nio?aiaiey aeaiiuo, eniieueciaaeenue iaaieoiua yaeaiey. A
eiiiaeo-aeenea aea i?eiai?i ae?oaie iiaeoiae.

Nai aeene (a eiino?aiiie eeoa?aoo?a – CD-ROM) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ieanoeio e?oaeie oi?iu, ia iaeiie noi?iia eioi?iai iaianaia ia?ee?iaea
aeenea. Ae?oaay aea noi?iia yaeyaony ?aai/ae e ia ia?aue acaeyae iia
aaniethoii aeaaeeay. Iaeiaei, yoi ia oae, oae eae anee au yoi auei oae,
oi ie i eaeii nio?aiaiee eioi?iaoeee ia iiaei au eaeoe e ?a/e. Aioo?e
niaoeeaeueiiai ono?ienoaa ?aai/ay iiaa?oiinoue aeenea eae au neaie?oaony
eaca?iui eo/ii iaaieueoie iiuiinoe (eae i?aaeei 0,14 iAo i?e aeeeia
aieiu 790 ii.). I?e oaeii neaie?iaaiee ii?aaeaeyaony, /oi iaoiaeeony
aioo?e iyoia eaca?iiai eo/a – oaeoaeaiea eee iao? Ia aaeaaaynue a
eiiiuethoa?ioth oaoieeo iiaeii oieueei neacaoue, /oi iaee/ea oaeoaeaiey
(eee ieoa) niioaaonoaoao eiae/aneie aaeeieoea, a ai anao eiiiuethoa?iuo
oaoiieiaeyo eniieuecothony oieueei aeaa ninoiyiey – IIEUe e AAeEIEOeA.
Aeaeaa eniieuecoy niaoeeaeueiua oaaeeoeu iiaeii ?anoeo?iaaoue
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue yoeo ioeae e aaeeieoe e iieo/eoue enoiaeioth
eioi?iaoeeth.

Caienue oaeeo aeeneia i?iecaiaeeony oaeaea i?e iiiiue eaca?ia, ii
caeanue ?a/ue eae?o i ai?acaei aieueoae iiuiinoe eaca?a.

Aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi auaeeaaiea ieoia ia iiaa?oiinoe aeenea
i?iecaiaeeony i?e iiiiue eaca?a, iiaeii aeinoe/ue i/aiue aieueoie
ieioiinoe caiene eioi?iaoeee, oae eae aeeaiao? eaca?iiai eo/a, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii e ieoa i/aiue iae.

Ae?oaia iai?aaeaiea a nio?aiaiee eioi?iaoeee – aieia?aoey – iaoiae,
iicaieythuee nio?aieoue eioi?iaoeeth i aiaoiai aeaea ethaiai iau?iiiai
oaea n i/aiue aunieie oi/iinoueth.[1]

Aeaaa III. Aieia?aoey.

3.1 Aicieeiiaaiea aieia?aoee.

Iaoiae oioia?aoe?iaaiey, eniieuecoaiue aeey nio?aiaiey ecia?aaeaiey
i?aaeiaoia, ecaanoai oaea aeiaieueii aeieaia a?aiy e nae/an yoi naiue
aeinooiiue niinia iieo/aiey ecia?aaeaiey iauaeoa ia eaeii-eeai iineoaea
(oioiaoiaaa, oioiie?iea). Iaeiaei eioi?iaoeey, niaea?aeauayny a
oioia?aoee aanueia ia?aie/aia. A /anoiinoe, ionoonoaoao eioi?iaoeey i
?annoiyieyo ?acee/iuo /anoae iauaeoa io oioiieanoeiee e ae?oaeo aaaeiuo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iau/iay oioia?aoey ia iicaieyao
ainnoaiiaeoue iieiinoueth oio aieiiaie o?iio, eioi?ue ia iae aue
ca?aaeno?e?iaai. A oioia?aoee niaea?aeeony aieaa eee iaiaa oi/iay
eioi?iaoeey ia aiieeooaeao caoeene?iaaiiuo aiei, ii iieiinoueth
ionoonoaoao eioi?iaoeey i oacao aiei.

Aieia?aoey iicaieyao ono?aieoue yoio iaaeinoaoie iau/iie oioia?aoee e
caienaoue ia oioiieanoeiea eioi?iaoeeth ia oieueei ia aiieeooaeao
iaaeathueo ia ia? aiei, ii e i oacao, oi anoue iieioth eioi?iaoeeth.
Aieia, ainnoaiiaeaiiay n iiiiuueth oaeie caiene, iieiinoueth eaeaioe/ia
ia?aiia/aeueiie, niaea?aeeo a naaa anth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth
niaea?aeaea ia?aiia/aeueiay aieia. Iiyoiio iaoiae aue iacaai
aieia?aoeae, oi anoue iaoiaeii iieiie caiene aieiu.

Aeey oiai, /oiau inouanoaeoue yoio iaoiae a naaoiaii aeeaiaciia,
iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue eceo/aiea n aeinoaoi/ii aunieie noaiaiueth
eiaa?aioiinoe. Oaeia eceo/aiea iiaeii iieo/eoue i?e iiiiue eaca?a.
Iiyoiio oieueei iinea nicaeaiey eaca?ia, aeathueo eceo/aiea n aunieie
noaiaiueth eiaa?aioiinoe, oaeaeinue i?aeoe/anee inouanoaeoue
aieia?aoeth.

Eaeay aieia?aoee auea auaeaeiooa aua a 1920 aiaeo iieueneei oeceeii I.
Aieueoea (1883-1947), ii auea caauoa. A 1947 aiaeo iacaaeneii io
Aieueoea eaeath aieia?aoee i?aaeeiaeee e iainiiaae aiaeeeneee oecee Ae.
Aaai?, oaeinoiaiiue ca yoi a 1971 aiaeo Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee.[3]

3.2 Niiniau aieia?aoe?iaaiey

Aiai?y i i?ioeanna nicaeaiey aieia?aoe/aneiai ecia?aaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeii
auaeaeeoue yoaiu aieia?aoe?iaaiey:

?aaeno?aoeey eae aiieeooaeiuo, oae e oaciauo oa?aeoa?enoee aieiiaiai
iiey, io?aaeaiiiai iauaeoii iaaethaeaiey. Yoa ?aaeno?aoeey i?ienoiaeeo
ia oioiieanoeieao, eioi?ua iacuaatho aieia?aiiaie.

Ecaea/aiea ec aieia?aiiu eioi?iaoeee ia iauaeoa, eioi?ay ia iae
ca?aaeno?e?iaaia. Aeey yoiai aieia?aiio i?inaa/eaatho naaoiaui io/eii.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey yoeo yoaiia ia i?aeoeea nouanoaoao ianeieueei
niiniaia. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua ec ieo – iaoiae ieineie aieiu e
iaoiae ano?a/iuo io/eia.

Caienue aieia?aiiu n iiiiuueth ieineie aieiu.

2

2 2

4

3 3

1

3

4

I

1 4 1

IE AeE

a
a

?en. 7. Noaia caiene aieia?aiiu iaoiaeii ieineie aieiu

a – caienue aieia?aiiu (1 – iauaeo iaaethaeaiey; 2- aieiiaie o?iio
(ieineay aieia); 3 – ca?eaei; 4 – oioiieanoeiea); a – ainnoaiiaeaiea
ecia?aaeaiey (I – oioiieanoeiea; AeE – aeaenoaeoaeueiia ecia?aaeaiea; IE
– iieiia ecia?aaeaiea)

Noaiaea?oiay eioa?oa?aioeeiiiay ea?oeia iieo/aaony i?e eioa?oa?aioeee
eiaa?aioiuo naaoiauo aiei. Oaeei ia?acii aeey ?aaeno?aoeee oaciauo
niioiioaiee a aieiiaii iiea, eioi?ia iieo/aaony a ?acoeueoaoa io?aaeaiey
aieiu iauaeoii iaaethaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau iauaeo aue inaauai
iiiio?iiaoe/aneei e eiaa?aioiui a i?ino?ainoaa eceo/aieai. Oiaaea e
iiea, ?annayiiia iauaeoii a i?ino?ainoaa, aoaeao iaeaaeaoue yoeie
naienoaaie.

Anee aeiaaaeoue e enneaaeoaiiio iieth, nicaeaaaaiiio iauaeoii,
aniiiiaaoaeueiia iiea oie aea /anoiou, iai?eia?, ieineoth aieio (a?
iau/ii iacuaatho iii?iie aieiie), oi ia an?i i?ino?ainoaa, aaea iaa
aieiu ia?anaeathony, ia?acoaony neiaeiia, ii noaoeeiia?iia
?ani?aaeaeaiea iaeanoae acaeiiiai oneeaiey e ineaaeaiey aiei, oi anoue
noaoeeiia?iay eioa?oa?aioeeiiiay ea?oeia, eioi?oth oaea iiaeii
caoeene?iaaoue ia oioiieanoeiea.

I?eioeeieaeueiay noaia onoaiiaee aeey aieia?aoe?iaaiey ii aeaiiiio
iaoiaeo i?eaaaeaia ia ?en.7(a)

Ainnoaiiaeaiea aieia?aiiu, caienaiiie iaoiaeii ieineie aieiu.

Aeey oiai, /oiau ainnoaiiaeoue aieia?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea, oaea
caienaiiia ia aieia?aiio, iineaaeithth iaiaoiaeeii inaaoeoue oai aea
eo/ii eaca?a, eioi?ue aue eniieueciaai i?e caiene. Ainnoaiiaeaiea
i?iaiaeeony ii i?eaaaeaiiie auoa noaia (?en. 7(a))

Ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoa oi?ie?oaony a ?acoeueoaoa aeeo?aeoeee naaoa ia
iaiaeii?iaeiuo ii/a?iaieyo aieia?aiiu. A iai?aaeaiee 1-1
?ani?ino?aiyaony aieiiaia iiea, oi?ie?othuaa aac iiiiue iauaeoeaa
aeaenoaeoaeueiia ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoa (AeE). A iai?aaeaiee 2-2
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony aieiiaia iiea, ?annayiiia iauaeoii. Yoi iiea
niioaaonoaoao iieiiio ecia?aaeaieth iauaeoa (IE)

Naaoiaie io/ie 3-3 e iaiiiai ?anoiaeyueeny io/ie 4-4 ia ianoo
eioi?iaoeee ia iauaeoa iaaethaeaiey, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia o/anoaotho a
ainnoaiiaeaiee aieia?aoe/aneiai ecia?aaeaiey.

Aieia?aoe?iaaiea iaoiaeii ano?a/iuo naaoiauo io/eia.

A 1962 aiaeo niaaoneei o/aiui TH. I. Aeaientheii aue i?aaeeiaeai iaoiae
iieo/aiey aieia?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee, yaeythueeny ?acaeoeai
i?aeoe/anee oaea oiaaea ia i?eiaiyaoaainy niiniaa oeaaoiie aieia?aoee
Eeiiiaia.

Aieia?aoe?aaaiea ii iaoiaeo ano?a/iuo naaoiauo io/eia i?ioiaeeo ii
noaia, ecia?aaeaiiie ia ?en. 8 Iauaeo iaaethaeaiey 1 inaauaaony neaicue
oioiieanoeieo (iia aiieia i?ic?a/ia aeey naaoa aeaaea a iai?iyaeaiiii
ninoiyiee). Noaeeyiiay iiaeeiaeea oioiieanoeiee 2 iie?uoa oioiyioeueneae
3 n oieueiie neiy ieiei 15 – 20 iei.

Io?aaeaiiia io iauaeoa aieiiaia iiea ?ani?ino?aiyaony iacaae ii
iai?aaeaieth e neith oioiyioeuenee. Eaeouee iaano?a/o yoie aieia
enoiaeiue naaoiaie io/ie io eaca?a 4 auiieiyao ?ieue iii?iie aieiu.
Eiaiii iiyoiio aeaiiue iaoiae iieo/ee iacaaiea iaoiaea ano?a/iuo io/eia.

Eioa?oa?aioeey aiei, aicieeathuay a oieua oioiyioeuenee aucuaaao aa
neienoia ii/a?iaiea, eioi?ia ?aaeno?e?oao ?ani?aaeaeaiea eae aiieeooae,
oae e oac aieiiaiai iiey, ?annayiiiai iauaeoii iaaethaeaiey. Ia ?en. 8
neie ii/a?iaiey iieacaiu a aeaea nenoaiu aeoa.

Ia aieia?aoee ii iaoiaeo ano?a/iuo naaoiauo io/eia iniiaaia oeaaoiay
aieia?aoey. *oiau oynieoue i?eioeei aeaenoaey oeaaoiie aieia?aoee ioaeii
iaiiiieoue, a eaeeo neo/ayo /aeiaa/aneee aeac aini?eieiaao ecia?aaeaiea
oeaaoiui, a ia /a?ii-aaeui.

4

2

3

1

?en. 8. Aieia?aoe?iaaiea ii iaoiaeo Aeaienthea

Iiuou ii oeceieiaee c?aiey iieacaee, /oi /aeiaae aeaeeo ecia?aaeaiea
oeaaoiui eee aieaa iaiaa aeeceei e iaoo?aeueiie ie?anea iauaeoa, anee
iii aini?iecaiaeeony ieieioi a o?ao oeaaoao, iai?eia?, a neiai, e?aniii
e caeaiii. Niaiauaiea yoeo oeaaoia inouanoaeyaony i?e naiie i?eieoeaiie
oeaaoiie ?ai?iaeoeoeee, auiieiyaiie iaoiaeii eeoia?aoee (aeey
aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ?ai?iaeoeoeee eniieuecoaony 10 – 15 e?ani/iay
ia/aoue)

O/eouaay iniaaiiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai aini?eyoey, /oiau ainnoaiiaeoue
oeaaoiia ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoa, iaiaoiaeeii nai iauaeo inaaoeoue i?e
caiene aieia?aiiu iaeiia?aiaiii eee iineaaeiaaoaeueii eaca?iui
eceo/aieai o?ao niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee, ionoiyueo ii aeeeiai aiei
aeinoaoi/ii aeaeaei ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oiaaea a oieua oioiyioeuenee
ia?acoaony o?e nenoaiu noiy/eo aiei e, niioaaonoaaiii, o?e nenoaiu
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo ?aoaoie n ?acee/iui ?ani?aaeaeaieai ii/a?iaiey.

Eaaeaeay ec yoeo nenoai aoaeao oi?ie?iaaoue ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoa a naiai
niaeo?aeueiii o/anoea aaeiai oeaaoa, eniieuecoaiiai i?e ainnoaiiaeaiee
ecia?aaeaiey. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio a io?aaeaiiii io ia?aaioaiiie aieia?aiiu
?anoiaeyuainy io/ea aaeiai naaoa iieo/eony oeaaoiia ecia?aaeaiea
iauaeoa, eae ?acoeueoao noia?iiceoeee o?ao o/anoeia niaeo?a, /oi
niioaaonoaoao ieieiaeueiui oeceieiae/aneei o?aaiaaieyi c?aiey /aeiaaea.

Aieia?aoe?iaaiea ii iaoiaeo Aeaienthea oe?iei eniieuecoaony aeey
iieo/aiey aunieiea/anoaaiiuo iauaiiuo eiiee ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia,
iai?eia?, oieeaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa.[4]

3.3 I?eiaiaiea aieia?aoee.

Eae oaea auei oeacaii, ia?aiia/aeueiay caaea/a aieia?aoee caeeth/aeanue
a iieo/aiee iau?iiiai ecia?aaeaiey. N ?acaeoeai aieia?aoee ia
oienoineieiuo ieanoeiao aicieeea aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey iau?iiuo
oeaaoiuo oioia?aoee. Ia yoie aaca enneaaeothony iooe ?aaeecaoeee
aieia?aoe/aneiai eeii, oaeaaeaeaiey e o. ae.

Iaeei ec iaoiaeia i?eeeaaeiie aieia?aoee, eiaioaiue aieia?aoe/aneie
eioa?oa?iiao?eae, iaoae i/aiue oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Nooue iaoiaea a
neaaeothuai. Ia iaeio oioiieanoeieo iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?aaeno?e?othony
aeaa eioa?oa?aioeeiiiua ea?oeiu, niioaaonoaothuea aeaoi ?aciui, ii iaei
ioee/athueiny ninoiyieyi iauaeoa, iai?eia?, i?e aeaoi?iaoeee. I?e
i?inaa/eaaiee oaeie “aeaieiie” aieia?aiiu ia?acothony, i/aaeaeii, aeaa
ecia?aaeaiey iauaeoa, eciaiaiiua ioiineoaeueii ae?oa ae?oaa a oie aea
ia?a, /oi e iauaeo a aeaoo aai ninoiyieyo. Ainnoaiiaeaiiua aieiu,
oi?ie?othuea yoe aeaa ecia?aaeaiey, eiaa?aioiu, eioa?oa?e?otho, e ia
iiaii ecia?aaeaiee iaaethaeathony eioa?oa?aioeeiiiua iieinu, eioi?ua e
oa?aeoa?ecotho eciaiaiea ninoiyiey iauaeoa.

A ae?oaii aa?eaioa aieia?aiia ecaioaaeeaaaony aeey eaeiai-oi
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ninoiyiey iauaeoa. I?e i?inaa/eaaiee aa iauaeo ia
oaeaeyaony e i?iecaiaeeony aai iiaoi?iia inaauaiea, eae ia ia?aii yoaia
aieia?aoe?iaaiey. Oiaaea iiyoue iieo/aaony aeaa aieiu, iaeia oi?ie?oao
aieia?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea, a ae?oaay ?ani?ino?aiyaony io naiiai
iauaeoa. Anee oaia?ue i?ienoiaeyo eaeea-oi eciaiaiey a ninoiyiee iauaeoa
(a aeaoo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo aieiaie aicieeaao ?aciinoue n?aaiaiee n oai,
/oi auei ai a?aiy yeniiie?iaaiey aieia?aiiu), oi iaaeaeo oeacaiiuie
oiaea, e ecia?aaeaiea iie?uaaaony eioa?oa?aioeeiiiuie iieinaie.

Iienaiiue niinia i?eiaiyaony aeey enneaaeiaaiey aeaoi?iaoeee i?aaeiaoia,
eo aea?aoeee, iinooiaoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey e a?auaiee, iaiaeii?iaeiinoe
i?ic?a/iuo iauaeoia e o. i. Ia ?en.9 i?eaaaeaia oioia?aoey ecia?aaeaiey
oa?eeiaiai iiaeoeiieea, naeaoiai a iao?iia oiea?iiai noaiea.
Eioa?oa?aioeeiiiay ea?oeia iaaeyaeii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ?acee/ee
aeaoi?iaoeee i?e aeaoo cia/aieyo neeu naeaoey, i /ai aiai?yo aeaa
iieiaeaiey no?aeee oaiciiao?a (eaaay /anoue ?enoiea), ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua
ai a?aiy yeniiceoeee. iai?yaeaiee a oaea, e?ooeeueiua iiiaiou,
?ani?aaeaeaiea oaiia?aoo? e o. ae. Aieia?aoey iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny aeey
iaania/aiey oi/iinoe ia?aaioee aeaoaeae.

?en 9. Ecia?aaeaiea aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai oa?eeiaiai iiaeoeiieea

Eioa?anii i?eiaiaiea aieia?aoee a ea/anoaa iineoaey eioi?iaoeee. *anoi
iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue iauaiiia ecia?aaeaiea i?aaeiaoa, eioi?iai aua ia
nouanoaoao, e neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeuecy iieo/eoue aieia?aiio oaeiai
i?aaeiaoa iioe/aneeie iaoiaeaie. A yoii neo/aa aieia?aiia ?ann/eouaaaony
ia YAI (oeeo?iaay aieia?aiia) e ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoa niioaaonoaothuei
ia?acii ia?aiinyony ia oioiieanoeieo. N iieo/aiiie oaeei niiniaii
iaoeiiie aieia?aiiu iauaiiia ecia?aaeaiea i?aaeiaoa ainnoaiaaeeaaaony
iau/iui iioe/aneei niiniaai. Iiaa?oiinoue i?aaeiaoa, iieo/aiiiai ii
iaoeiiie aieia?aiia, eniieuecoaony eae yoaeii, n eioi?ui iaoiaeaie
aieia?aoe/aneie eioa?oa?aioeee i?iecaiaeeony n?aaiaiea iiaa?oiinoe
?aaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa, ecaioiaeyaiiai niioaaonoaothueie eino?oiaioaie.
Aieia?aoe/aneay eioa?oa?iiao?ey iicaieyao i?iecaanoe n?aaiaiea
iiaa?oiinoe ecaioiaeaiiiai i?aaeiaoa e yoaeiia n /?acau/aeii aieueoie
oi/iinoueth aei aeieae aeeeiu aieiu. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ecaioiaeyoue n oaeie aea aieueoie oi/iinoueth i/aiue neiaeiua
iiaa?oiinoe, eioi?ua auei au iaaiciiaeii ecaioiaeoue aac i?eiaiaiey
oeeo?iaie aieia?aoee e iaoiaeia aieia?aoe/aneie eioa?oa?iiao?ee. Naii
niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi aeey n?aaiaiey yoaeiiiie iiaa?oiinoe n
ecaioiaeyaiie ia iaycaoaeueii ainnoaiaaeeaaoue iioe/aneei niiniaii
iaoeiioth aieia?aiio. Iiaeii niyoue aieia?aiio i?aaeiaoa, ia?aaanoe aa
ia oeeo?iaie ycue YAI e n?aaieoue n oeeo?iaie aieia?aiiie. Iaa yoe iooe
a i?eioeeia yeaeaaeaioiu.

Iniaaiiinoe aieia?aii eae iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee aeaeatho aanueia
ia?niaeoeaiuie ?ac?aaioee ii nicaeaieth aieia?aoe/aneie iaiyoe, eioi?ay
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aieueoei iauaiii, iaaeaaeiinoueth, auno?ioie n/eouaaiey
e o. ae.[3]

Caeeth/aiea

Eaca?u ?aoeoaeueii e i?eoii oe?ieei o?iioii aoi?aathony a iaoo
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Iie iaiau/aeii ?anoe?eee iaoe aiciiaeiinoe a naiuo
?acee/iuo iaeanoyo – ia?aaioea iaoaeeia, iaaeeoeeia, ecia?aiee,
eiio?iea, oece/aneeo, oeie/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo. Oaea
naaiaeiy eaca?iue eo/ iaeaaeae iiiaeanoaii iieaciuo e eioa?aniuo
i?ioannee. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo eniieueciaaiea eaca?iiai eo/a iicaieyao
iieo/eoue oieeaeueiua ?acoeueoaou. Iiaeii ia niiiaaaoueny, /oi a
aoaeouai eo/ eaca?a iiaea?eo iai iiaua aiciiaeiinoe, i?aaenoaaeythueany
naaiaeiy oaioanoe/aneeie.

Iu oaea ia/aee i?eaueaoue, /oi “eaca? ana iiaeao”. Iiae/an yoi iaoaao
o?acai ioeaieoue ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eaca?iie oaoieee ia nia?aiaiiii
yoaia aa ?acaeoey. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi /?acia?iua ainoi?ae ii iiaiaeo
aiciiaeiinoae eaca?a eiiaaea niaiythony iaeioi?ui ioeaaeaeaieai e iaio.
Ana yoi, iaeiaei, ia iiaeao caianee?iaaoue iniiaiie oaeo – n
ecia?aoaieai eaca?a /aeiaa/anoai iieo/eei a naia ?anii?yaeaiea
ea/anoaaiii iiaue, a aunieie noaiaie oieaa?naeueiue, i/aiue yooaeoeaiue
eino?oiaio aeey iianaaeiaaiie, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe. N aiaeaie yoio eino?oiaio aoaeao ana aieaa
niaa?oainoaiaaoueny, a aianoa n yoei aoaeao iai?a?uaii ?anoe?youeny e
iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey eaca?ia.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aeaeai E. Aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa PC: ia?aaiae n iai. – Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a.:
BHV – NIa, 1996. – 544 n.

Eeoaeai?iaeneee A. E. Oeceea aeey anao: Oioiiu e yae?a. – I.: Iaoea,
1982 – 208 n.

Eaiaenaa?a A. N. Iioeea. – I.: Iaoea, 1976. – 928 n.

Eaiaenaa?a A. N. Yeaiaioa?iue o/aaiee oeceee. – I.: Iaoea, 1986. – O.3.
– 656 n.

Iaoaaaa A. I. Iioeea. – I.: Aunoay oeiea, 1985. – 351 n.

Iyeeoaa A. ss., Aooiaoeaa A. A. Oeceea. – I.: I?inaauaiea, 1998. – 254
n.

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