.

Лазерная технология – важнейшая отрасль современного естествознания

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 812
Скачать документ

IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

N?AAeIssss OEIEA-AEIIACEss ?54

?AOA?AO

ii oaia

“Eaca?iay oaoiieiaey – aaaeiaeoay io?aneue

nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey “

Eniieieoaeue: E?ueiaa Ia?ey,

o/aieoea 11 eeanna (A(

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Aaaeai?aa A. I.,

o/eoaeue oeceee

E?ANIIAeA? 1998 A.

IEAI:

1. Iniaaiiinoe eaca?iiai eceo/aiey.

2. I?e?iaea eaca?iiai eceo/aiey.

3. ?aciiaeaeiinoe eaca?ia. Iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua eaca?u.

Iaeiei ec naiuo caia/aoaeueiuo aeinoeaeaiee oeceee aoi?ie iieiaeiu
aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea auei ioe?uoea oece/aneeo yaeaiee, iineoaeeaoeo
iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey oaeeaeoaeueiiai i?eai?a iioe/aneiai eaaioiaiai
aaia?aoi?a, eee eaca?a. Eaca? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoi/iee
iiiio?iiaoe/aneiai eiaa?aioiiai naaoa n aunieie iai?aaeaiiinoueth
naaoiaiai eo/a. Naii neiai “eaca?” ninoaaeaii ec ia?auo aoea aiaeeeneiai
neiaini/aoaiey, icia/athuaai” oneeaiea naaoa a ?acoeueoaoa
auioaeaeaiiiai eceo/aiey”.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iniiaiie oece/aneee i?ioeann, ii?aaeaeythuee aeaenoaea
eaca?a, – yoi auioaeaeaiiia enioneaiea eceo/aiey. Iii i?ienoiaeeo i?e
acaeiiaeaenoaee oioiia n aicaoaeaeaiiui aoiiii i?e oi/iii niaiaaeaiee
yia?aee oioiia n yia?aeae aicaoaeaeaiey aoiia (eee iieaeoeu).

A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aoii ia?aoiaeeo a iaaicaoaeaeaiiia
ninoiyiea, a ecauoie yia?aee eceo/aaony a aeaea iiaiai oioiia n oi/ii
oaeie aea yia?aeae, iai?aaeaieai ?ani?ino?aiaiey e iiey?ecaoeeae, eae
e o ia?ae/iiai oioiia. Oaeei ia?acii, neaaenoaeai aeaiiiai i?ioeanna
yaeyaony iaee/ea oaea aeaoo aaniethoii eaeaioe/iuo oioiiia. I?e
aeaeueiaeoai acaeiiaeaenoaee yoeo oioiiia n aicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie,
aiaeiae/iuie ia?aiio aoiio, iiaeao aicieeiooue “oeaiiay ?aaeoeey”
?aciiiaeaiey iaeeiaeiauo oioiiia, “eaoyueo” aaniethoii oi/ii a iaeiii
iai?aaeaiee, /oi i?eaaaeao e iiyaeaieth oceiiai?aaeaiiiai naaoiaiai
eo/a. Aeey aicieeiiaaiey eaaeiu eaeaioe/iuo oioiiia iaiaoiaeeia
n?aaea, a eioi?ie aicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia auei au aieueoa, /ai
iaaicaoaeaeaiiuo, iineieueeo i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee oioiiia n
iaaicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie i?ienoiaeeei au iiaeiuaiea oioiiia. Oaeay
n?aaea iacuaaaony n?aaeie n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth o?iaiae
yia?aee.

Eoae, e?iia auioaeaeaiiiai enioneaiey oioiiia aicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie
i?ienoiaeyo oaeaea i?ioeann naiii?iecaieueiiai, niiioaiiiai enioneaiey
oioiiia i?e ia?aoiaea aicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie a iaaicaoaeaeaiiia
ninoiyiea e i?ioeann iiaeiuaiey oioiiia i?e ia?aoiaea aoiiia ec
iaaicaoaeaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a aicaoaeaeaiiia. Yoe o?e i?ioeanna,
nii?iaiaeaeathuea ia?aoiaeu aoiiia a aicaoaeaeaiiua ninoiyiey e ia?aoii,
auee iinooee?iaaiu A. Yeiooaeiii a 1916 a.

Anee /enei aicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia aaeeei e nouanoaoao eiaa?niay
auaeaeaiiinoue o?iaiae (a aa?oiai, aicaoaeaeaiiii ninoiyiee aoiiia
aieueoa, /ai a ieaeiai, iaaicaoaeaeaiiii), oi ia?aue aea oioii,
?iaeeaoeeny a ?acoeueoaoa niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey, auciaao
anaia?anoathuoth eaaeio iiyaeaiey eaeaioe/iuo oioiiia. I?iecieaeao
oneeaiea niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey.

Ia aiciiaeiinoue oneeaiey naaoa a n?aaea n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth ca
n/ao auioaeaeaiiiai enioneaiey aia?aua oeacae a 1939 a. niaaoneee
oecee A. A. Oaa?eeaio, i?aaeeiaeeaoee nicaeaaaoue eiaa?nioth
ianaeaiiinoue a yeaeo?e/aneii ?ac?yaea a aaca.

I?e iaeiia?aiaiiii ?iaeaeaiee (i?eioeeieaeueii yoi aiciiaeii) aieueoiai
/enea niiioaiii eniouaiiuo oioiiia aicieeiao aieueoia /enei eaaei,
eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo aoaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny a naiai iai?aaeaiee,
caaeaiiii ia?aiia/aeueiui oioiiii niioaaonoaothuae eaaeiu. A
?acoeueoaoa iu iieo/ei iioiee eaaioia naaoa ,ii ia niiaeai iieo/eoue ie
iai?aaeaiiiai eo/a, ie aunieie iiiio?iiaoe/iinoe, oae eae eaaeaeay
eaaeia eieoeee?iaaeanue nianoaaiiui ia?aiia/aeueiui oioiiii. Aeey
oiai /oiau n?aaeo n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth iiaeii auei
eniieueciaaoue aeey aaia?aoeee eaca?iiai eo/a, o. a. iai?aaeaiiiai
eo/a n aunieie iiiio?iiaoe/iinoueth, iaiaoiaeeii “nieiaoue” eiaa?nioth
ianaeaiiinoue n iiiiuueth ia?ae/iuo oioiiia, oaea iaeaaeathueo iaeiie e
oie aea yia?aeae, niaiaaeathuae n yia?aeae aeaiiiai ia?aoiaea a aoiia.
A yoii neo/aa iu aoaeai eiaoue eaca?iue oneeeoaeue naaoa.

Nouanoaoao, iaeiaei, e ae?oaie aa?eaio iieo/aiey eaca?iiai eo/a,
naycaiiue n eniieueciaaieai nenoaiu ia?aoiie nayce. Niiioaiii
?iaeeaoeany oioiiu, iai?aaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?uo ia
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ieineinoe ca?eae, nicaeaaeoo eaaeiu oioiiia, auoiaeyuea
ca i?aaeaeu n?aaeu. A oi aea a?aiy oioiiu, iai?aaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eioi?uo ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ieineinoe ca?eae, nicaeaaeoo eaaeiu,
iiiaie?aoii oneeeaathueany a n?aaea aneaaenoaea iiiaie?aoiiai
io?aaeaiey io ca?eae. Anee iaeii ec ca?eae aoaeao iaeaaeaoue iaaieueoei
i?iioneaieai, oi /a?ac iaai aoaeao auoiaeeoue iai?aaeaiiue iioie oioiiia
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ieineinoe ca?eae. I?e i?aaeeueii iiaeia?aiiii
i?iioneaiee ca?eae, oi/iie eo iano?ieea ioiineoaeueii ae?oa ae?oaa e
ioiineoaeueii i?iaeieueiie ine n?aaeu n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth
ia?aoiay naycue iiaeao ieacaoueny ianoieueei yooaeoeaiie, /oi
eceo/aieai “aaie” iiaeii aoaeao iieiinoueth i?aiaa?a/ue ii
n?aaiaieth n eceo/aieai, auoiaeyuei /a?ac ca?eaea. Ia i?aeoeea
yoi, aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaeaaony naeaeaoue. Oaeoth noaio ia?aoiie
nayce iacuaatho iioe/aneei ?aciiaoi?ii, e eiaiii yoio oei
?aciiaoi?a eniieuecotho a aieueoeinoaa nouanoaothueo eaca?ia.

A 1955 a. iaeiia?aiaiii e iacaaeneii I. A. Aaniaui e A. I. I?ioi?iaui a
NNN? e *. Oaoinii a NOA aue i?aaeeiaeai i?eioeei nicaeaiey ia?aiai a
ie?a aaia?aoi?a eaaioia yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey ia n?aaea n
eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth, a eioi?ii auioaeaeaiiia enioneaiea a
?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey ia?aoiie nayce i?eaiaeeei e aaia?aoeee
/?acau/aeii iiiio?iiaoe/aneiai eceo/aiey.

Nionoy ianeieueei eao, a 1960 a., aia?eeaineei oeceeii O. Iaeiaiii aue
caiouai ia?aue eaaioiaue aaia?aoi? iioe/aneiai aeeaiaciia – eaca?, a
eioi?ii ia?aoiay naycue inouanoaeyeanue n iiiiuueth iienaiiiai auoa
iioe/aneiai ?aciiaoi?a, a eiaa?niay ianaeaiiinoue aicaoaeaeaeanue a
e?enoaeeao ?oaeia, iaeo/aaiuo eceo/aieai enaiiiiaie eaiiu-aniuoee.
?oaeiiaue e?enoaee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?enoaee ieneaea aethieiey AL2I3
n iaaieueoie aeiaaaeie = I,05% o?iia. I?e aeiaaaeaiee aoiiia o?iia
i?ic?a/iua e?enoaeeu ?oaeia i?eia?aoatho ?iciaue oeaao e iiaeiuatho
eceo/aiea a aeaoo iieinao aeeaeiae oeueo?aoeieaoiaie iaeanoe
niaeo?a. Anaai e?enoaeeaie ?oaeia iiaeiuaaony ieiei 15% naaoa
eaiiu-aniuoee. I?e iiaeiuaiee naaoa eiiaie o?iia i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aoiae eiiia a aicaoaeaeaiiia ninoiyiea. A ?acoeueoaoa aioo?aiieo
i?ioeannia aicaoaeaeaiiua eiiu o?iia ia?aoiaeyo a iniiaiia ninoiyiea ia
n?aco, a /a?ac aeaa aicaoaeaeaiiuo o?iaiy. Ia yoeo o?iaiyo i?ienoiaeeo
iaeiieaiea eiiia, e i?e aeinoaoi/ii iiuiie aniuoea enaiiiiaie
eaiiu aicieeaao eiaa?niay ianaeaiiinoue iaaeaeo i?iiaaeooi/iuie
o?iaiyie e iniiaiui o?iaiai eiiia o?iia.

Oi?oeu ?oaeiiaiai noa?aeiy iiee?otho, iie?uaatho io?aaeathueie
eioa?oa?aioeeiiiuie ieaieaie, auaea?aeeaay i?e yoii no?iaoth
ia?aeeaeueiinoue oi?oeia ae?oa ae?oao.

I?e aicieeiiaaiee eiaa?nee ianaeaiiinoae o?iaiae eiiia o?iia a ?oaeia
i?ienoiaeeo eaaeiiia ia?anoaiea /enea auioaeaeaiii eniouaiiuo oioiiia,
e ia?aoiie nayce ia iioe/aneii ?aciiaoi?a, ia?aciaaiiii ca?eaeaie ia
oi?oeao ?oaeiiaiai noa?aeiy, iaania/eaaao oi?ie?iaaiea oceiiai?aaeaiiiai
eo/a e?aniiai naaoa. Aeeeoaeueiinoue eaca?iiai eiioeuena = 0.0001 n,
iaiiiai ei?i/a aeeeoaeueiinoe aniuoee enaiiiiaie eaiiu. Yia?aey
eiioeuena ?oaeiiaiai eaca?a ieiei 1AeAE.

N iiiiuueth iaoaie/aneie nenoaiu (a?auathuaany ca?eaei) eee
auno?iaeaenoaothuaai yeaeo?e/aneiai caoai?a iiaeii “aeeth/eoue“
ia?aoioth naycue (iano?ieoue iaeii ec ca?eae) a iiiaio aeinoeaeaiey
iaeneiaeueiie eiaa?nee ianaeaiiinoae e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeneiaeueiiai
oneeaiey aeoeaiie n?aaeu. A yoii neo/aa iiuiinoue eiaeooee?iaaiiiai
eceo/aiey aoaeao /?acau/aeii aaeeea e eiaa?ney ianaeaiiinoe “nieiaony”
auioaeaeaiiui eceo/aieai ca i/aiue ei?ioeia a?aiy.

A yoii ?aaeeia iiaeoee?iaaiiie aeia?ioiinoe ?aciiaoi?a eceo/aaony
aeaaioneee eiioeuen eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. Iieiay yia?aey yoiai eiioeuena
inoaiaony i?eaeeceoaeueii ia oii aea o?iaia, /oi e a ?aaeeia “naiaiaeiie
aaia?aoeee”, ii aneaaenoaea nie?auaiey a nioie ?ac aeeeoaeueiinoe
eiioeuena oaeaea a nioie ?ac aic?anoaao iiuiinoue eceo/aiey, aeinoeaay
cia/aiey =100000000Ao.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua oieeaeueiua naienoaa eaca?iiai eceo/aiey.

I?e niiioaiiii eceo/aiee aoii eceo/aao niaeo?aeueioth eeieth eiia/iie
oe?eiu I?e eaaeiiia?aciii ia?anoaiee /enea auioaeaeaiii eniouaiiuo
oioiiia a n?aaea n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth eioaineaiinoue eceo/aiey
yoie eaaeiu aoaeao aic?anoaoue i?aaeaea anaai a oeaio?a niaeo?aeueiie
eeiee aeaiiiai aoiiiiai ia?aoiaea, e a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?ioeanna
oe?eia niaeo?aeueiie eeiee ia?aiia/aeueiiai niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey
aoaeao oiaiueoaoueny. Ia i?aeoeea a niaoeeaeueiuo oneiaeyo oaeaaony
naeaeaoue ioiineoaeueioth oe?eio niaeo?aeueiie eeiee eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey a 1*10000000-1*100000000 ?ac iaiueoa, /ai oe?eia naiuo oceeo
eeiee niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey, iaaethaeaaiuo a i?e?iaea.

E?iia noaeaiey eeiee eceo/aiey a eaca?a oaeaaony iieo/eoue
?anoiaeeiinoue eo/a iaiaa 0,00001 ?aaeeaia, o. a. ia o?iaia oaeiauo
naeoiae.

Ecaanoii, /oi iai?aaeaiiue oceee eo/ naaoa iiaeii iieo/eoue a
i?eioeeia io ethaiai enoi/ieea, iinoaaea ia iooe naaoiaiai iioiea ?yae
ye?aiia n iaeaiueeeie ioaa?noeyie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie ia iaeiie
i?yiie. I?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi iu acyee iaa?aoia /a?iia oaei e n
iiiiuueth aeeao?aai iieo/eee eo/ naaoa, ec eioi?iai iin?aaenoaii i?eciu
eee ae?oaiai niaeo?aeueiiai i?eai?a auaeaeeee eo/ n oe?eiie
niaeo?a, niioaaonoaothuae oe?eia niaeo?a eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. Ciay
iiuiinoue eaca?iiai eceo/aiey, oe?eio aai niaeo?a e oaeiaoth
?anoiaeeiinoue eo/a, iiaeii n iiiiuueth oi?ioeu Ieaiea au/eneeoue
oaiia?aoo?o aiia?aaeaaiiai /a?iiai oaea, eniieueciaaiiiai a ea/anoaa
enoi/ieea naaoiaiai eo/a, ceaeaaeaioiiai eaca?iiio eo/o. Yoio ?an/ao
i?eaaaeao ian e oaioanoe/aneie oeeo?a: oaiia?aoo?a /a?iiai oaea
aeieaeia auoue ii?yaeea aeanyoeia ieeeeiiia a?aaeonia! Oaeeaeoaeueiia
naienoai eaca?iiai eo/a – aai aunieay yooaeoeaiay oaiia?aoo?a (aeaaea
i?e ioiineoaeueii iaeie n?aaeiae iiuiinoe eaca?iiai eceo/aiey eee
iaeie yia?aee eaca?iiai eiioeuena) ioe?uaaao ia?aae enneaaeiaaoaeyie
aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe, aaniethoii iainouanoaeiua aac eniieueciaaiey
eaca?a.

Eaca?u ?acee/athony: niiniaii nicaeaiey a n?aaea eiaa?niie
ianaeaiiinoe, eee, eia/a aiai?y, niiniaii iaea/ee (iioe/aneay
iaea/ea, aicaoaeaeaiea yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii, oeie/aneay iaea/ea e o.
i.); ?aai/ae n?aaeie (aacu, aeeaeeinoe, noaeea, e?enoaeeu,
iieoi?iaiaeieee e o.ae.); eiino?oeoeeae ?aciiaoi?a; ?aaeeiii ?aaiou
(eiioeueniue, iai?a?uaiue). Yoe ?acee/ey ii?aaeaeythony iiiaiia?aceai
o?aaiaaiee e oa?aeoa?enoeeai eaca?a a nayce n aai i?aeoe/aneeie
i?eiaiaieyie.

EACA?IAss OAOIIEIAEss.

Eaca?u iaoee oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea, e a /anoiinoe eniieuecothony a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeey ?acee/iuo aeaeia ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia: iaoaeeia,
aaoiia,noaeea,oeaiae, eiaee e o. i.

Eaca?iua oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia
aeaa aeaea. Ia?aue ec ieo eniieuecoao aiciiaeiinoue /?acau/aeii
oiieie oieone?iaee eaca?iiai eo/a e oi/iiai aeice?iaaiey yia?aee eae a
eiioeueniii, oae e a iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia. A oaeeo oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannao i?eiaiytho eaca?u n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieie n?aaeiae
iiuiinoe: yoi aaciaua eaca?u eiioeuenii-ia?eiaee/aneiai aeaenoaey,
eaca?u ia e?enoaeeao eoo?ee-aethieieaaiai a?aiaoa n i?eianueth
iaiaeeia. N iiiiuueth iineaaeieo auee ?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiaey naa?eaiey
oiieeo ioaa?noee (aeeaiao?ii 1 – 10 iei e aeoaeiie aei 10 -100 iei) a
?oaeiiauo e aeiaciuo eaiiyo aeey /aniaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oaoiieiaey
ecaioiaeaiey oeeuea?ia aeey i?ioyaeee oiieie i?iaieiee. Iniiaiay
iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey iaeiiiuiuo eiioeueniuo eaca?ia naycaia n ?aceie
e naa?eie ieieaoth?iuo aeaoaeae a iee?iyeaeo?iieea e
yeaeo?iaaeooiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, n ia?ee?iaeie ieieaoth?iuo
aeaoaeae, aaoiiaoe/aneei auaeeaaieai oeeo?, aoea, ecia?aaeaiee aeey
ioaeae iieea?aoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo iaeanoae iee?iyeaeo?iieee –
oioieeoia?aoee, aac i?eiaiaiey eioi?ie i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii
ecaioiaeaiea naa?oieieaoth?iuo ia/aoiuo ieao, eioaa?aeueiuo noai e
ae?oaeo yeaiaioia iee?iyeaeo?iiiie oaoieee, iau/iua enoi/ieee naaoa
caiaiythony ia eaca?iua. N iiiiuueth eaca?a ia OaNL (1=308 ii)
oaeaaony iieo/eoue ?ac?aoaiea a oioieeoia?aoe/aneie oaoieea aei 0,15 –
0,2 iei.

Aeaeueiaeoee i?ia?ann a noaiee?iiiie eeoia?aoee naycai n i?eiaiaieai a
ea/anoaa yeniiie?othuaai enoi/ieea naaoa iyaeiai ?aioaaiianeiai
eceo/aiey ec ieaciu, nicaeaaaaiie eaca?iui eo/ii. A yoii neo/aa
i?aaeae ?ac?aoaiey, ii?aaeaeyaiue aeeeiie aieiu ?aioaaiianeiai
eceo/aiey (1= 0,01 – I,001 iei), ieacuaaaony i?inoi oaioanoe/aneei.

Aoi?ie aeae eaca?iie oaoiieiaee iniiaai ia i?eiaiaiee eaca?ia n aieueoie
n?aaeiae iiuiinoueth: io 1 eAo e auoa. Iiuiua eaca?u eniieuecotho a
oaeeo yia?aiaieeo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao, eae ?acea e naa?ea oienouo
noaeueiuo eenoia, iiaa?oiinoiay caeaeea, iaieaaeaiea e eaae?iaaiea
e?oiiiaaaa?eoiuo aeaoaeae, i/enoea caeaiee io iiaa?oiinoae caa?yciaiee,
?acea i?aii?a, a?aieoa, ?ane?ie oeaiae, eiaee e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeia. I?e
eaca?iie naa?ea iaoaeeia aeinoeaaaony aunieia ea/anoai oaa e ia
o?aaoaony i?eiaiaiea aaeooiiuo eaia?, eae i?e yeaeo?iiiieo/aaie naa?ea,
a yoi i/aiue aaaeii a eiiaae?iii i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiuiay eaca?iay oaoiieiaey iaoea i?eiaiaiea a iaoeiino?iaiee,
aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia.
Iia iicaieyao ia oieueei iiauneoue ea/anoai ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia, ii e
oeo/oeoue oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia.
Oae, nei?inoue eaca?iie naa?ee noaeueiuo eenoia oieueiie 14 iEi
aeinoeaaao 100 i\/ i?e ?anoiaea yeaeo?iyia?aee 10 eAo. /.

AACIAUA EACA?U

Aaciaua eaca?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie, iiaeaeoe, iaeaieaa oe?iei
eniieuecoaiue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oei eaca?ia e, aiciiaeii, a yoii
ioiioaiee iie i?aainoiaeyo aeaaea ?oaeiiaua eaca?u. Aaciaui eaca?ai
oaeaea, ii-aeaeeiiio, iinayuaia aieueoay /anoue auiieiaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee. N?aaee ?acee/iuo oeiia aaciauo eaca?ia anaaaea
iiaeii iaeoe oaeie, eioi?ue aoaeao oaeiaeaoai?youe ii/oe ethaiio
o?aaiaaieth, i?aaeuyaeyaiiio e eaca?o, ca eneeth/aieai i/aiue
aieueoie iiuiinoe a aeaeeiie iaeanoe niaeo?a a eiioeueniii
?aaeeia. Aieueoea iiuiinoe iaiaoiaeeiu aeey iiiaeo yenia?eiaioia
i?e eco/aiee iaeeiaeiuo iioe/aneeo naienoa iaoa?eaeia. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy aieueoea iiuiinoe a aaciauo eaca?ao ia iieo/aiu ii oie i?inoie
i?e/eia, /oi ieioiinoue aoiiia a ieo iaaeinoaoi/ii aaeeea. Iaeiaei
ii/oe aeey anao ae?oaeo oeaeae iiaeii iaeoe eiie?aoiue oei aaciaiai
eaca?a, eioi?ue aoaeao i?aainoiaeeoue eae oaa?aeioaeueiua eaca?u n
iioe/aneie iaea/eie, oae e iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua eaca?u. Iiiai oneeee
auei iai?aaeaii ia oi, /oiau yoe eaca?u iiaee eiieo?e?iaaoue n
aaciauie eaca?aie, e a ?yaea neo/aaa aue aeinoeaioo ii?aaeaeaiiue oniao,
iaeiaei ii anaaaea ieacuaaeny ia a?aie aiciiaeiinoae, a oi a?aiy
eae aaciaua eaca?u ia iaia?oaeeaatho ieeaeeo i?eciaeia oiaiueoaiey
iiioey?iinoe.

Iniaaiiinoe aaciauo eaca?ia aieueoae /anoi iaoneiaeaiu oai,
/oi iie, eae i?aaeei, yaeythony enoi/ieeaie aoiiiuo eee
iieaeoey?iuo niaeo?ia. Iiyoiio aeeeiu aiei ia?aoiaeia oi/ii
ecaanoiu iie ii?aaeaeythony aoiiiie no?oeoo?ie e iau/ii ia caaenyo io
oneiaee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Noaaeeueiinoue aeeeiu aieiu aaia?aoeee
i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneeeyo iiaeao auoue cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaia ii
n?aaiaieth ni noaaeeueiinoueth niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy eiathony eaca?u n iiiio?iiaoe/iinoui, eo/oae, /ai a ethaii
ae?oaii i?eai?a. I?e niioaaonoaothuai auai?a aeoeaiie n?aaeu iiaeao
auoue inouanoaeaia aaia?aoeey a ethaie /anoe niaeo?a, io
oeueo?aoeieaoiaie (~2III A) aei aeaeaeie eio?ae?aniie iaeanoe (~ 0,4
ii), /anoe/ii caoaaouaay iee?iaieiiaoth iaeanoue. Iao oaeaea
iniiaaiee niiiaaaoueny, /oi a aoaeouai oaeanony nicaeaoue eaca?u
aeey aaeooiiie oeueo?aoeieaoiaie iaeanoe niaeo?a. ?ac?aaeaiiinoue
?aai/aai aaca iaania/eaaao iioe/aneoth iaeii?iaeiinoue n?aaeu n ieceei
eiyooeoeeaioii i?aeiieaiey, /oi iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue i?inooth
iaoaiaoe/aneoth oai?eth aeey iienaiey no?oeoo?u iiae ?aciiaoi?a e
aeaao oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi naienoaa auoiaeiiai neaiaea aeecee e
oai?aoe/aneei. Oioy e. i. ae. i?aa?auaiey yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee a
yia?aeth auioaeaeaiiiai eceo/aiey a aaciaii eaca?a ia iiaeao auoue
oaeei aieueoei, eae a iieoi?iaiaeieeiaii eaca?a, iaeiaei aeaaiaea?y
i?inoioa oi?aaeaiey ?ac?yaeii aaciaue eaca? ieacuaaaony aeey
aieueoeinoaa oeaeae iaeaieaa oaeiaiui a ?aaioa eae iaeei ec
eaai?aoi?iuo i?eai?ia. *oi eanaaony aieueoie iiuiinoe a
iai?a?uaiii ?a aeeia (a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eiioeueniie iiuiinoe),
oi i?e?iaea aaciauo eaca?ia iicaieyao ei a yoii ioiioaiee i?aacieoe
ana ae?oaea oeiu eaca?ia.

E?AOEEE ENOI?E*ANEEE IACI?

Ia?aua ?an/aou, eanathueany aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey eaca?ia, e ia?aua
iaoaiou ioiineeenue aeaaiui ia?acii e aaciaui eaca?ai, oae eae noaiu
yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae e oneiaey aicaoaeaeaiey a yoii neo/aa aieaa
iiiyoiu, /ai aeey aauanoa a oaa?aeii ninoiyiee. Iaeiaei ia?aui aue
ioe?uo ?oaeiiaue eaca?, oioy anei?a aue nicaeai e aaciaue eaca?. A
eiioea 1960 a. Aeaeaaai, Aaiiao e Oa??eioo nicaeaee aaeee-iaiiiaue
eaca?, ?aaioathuee a eio?ae?aniie iaeanoe ia ?yaea eeiee a ?aeiia 1 ie.
A iineaaeothuea aeaa aiaea aaeee-iaiiiaue eaca? aue oniaa?oainoaiaai, a
oaeaea auee ioe?uou ae?oa a aaciaua eaca?u, .?aaioathuea a eio?ae?aniie
iaeanoe, aeeth/ay eaca?u n eniieueciaaieai ae?oaeo aeaai?iaeiuo aacia e
aoiia?iiai eenei?iaea. Iaeiaei iaeaieueoee eioa?an e aaciaui eaca?ai aue
aucaai ioe?uoeai aaia?aoeee aaeee-iaiiiaiai eaca?a ia e?aniie eeiee
6328 A i?e oneiaeyo, eeoue iacia/eoaeueii ioee/aaoeony io oneiaee, i?e
eioi?uo auea iieo/aia aaia?aoeey a ia?aii aaciaii eaca?a. Iieo/aiea
aaia?aoeee a aeaeeiie iaeanoe niaeo?a noeioee?iaaei eioa?an ia oieueei e
iieneai aeiiieieoaeueiui ia?aoiaeia oaeiai oeia, ii e e eaca?iui
i?eiaiaieyi, oae eae i?e yoii auee ioe?uou iiiaea iiaua e
iaiaeeaeaiiua yaeaiey, a eaca?iue eo/ iieo/ee iiaua i?eiaiaiey a
ea/anoaa eaai?aoi?iiai eino?oiaioa. Aeaa aiaea, iineaaeiaaaoea ca
ioe?uoeai aaia?aoeee ia eeiee 6328 A, auee ianuuaiu aieueoei eiee/anoaii
oaoie/aneeo niaa?oainoaiaaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo aeaaiui ia?acii ia
aeinoeaeaiea aieueoae iiuiinoe e aieueoae eiiiaeoiinoe yoiai oeia
eaca?a. Oai a?aiaiai i?iaeieaeaeenue iienee iiauo aeeei aiei e auee
ioe?uou iiiaea eio?ae?aniua e ianeieueei iiauo ia?aoiaeia a aeaeeiie
iaeanoe niaeo?a. Iaeaieaa aaaeiui ec ieo yaeyaony ioe?uoea Iaoeanii
e nio?. eiioeueniuo eaca?iuo ia?aoiaeia a iieaeoey?iii acioa e a
ieene oaea?iaea.

Neaaeothuei iaeaieaa aaaeiui yoaiii a ?acaeoee eaca?ia auei,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ioe?uoea Aaeeii a eiioea 1963 a. eaca?a, ?aaioathuaai ia
eiiao ?oooe. Oioy eaca? ia eiiao ?oooe nai ii naaa ia ii?aaaeae
ia?aiia/aeueiuo iaaeaaeae ia iieo/aiea aieueoeo iiuiinoae a
iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia a e?aniie e caeaiie iaeanoyo niaeo?a, yoi
ioe?uoea oeacaei iiaua ?aaeeiu ?ac?yaea, i?e eioi?uo iiaoo auoue
iaia?oaeaiu eaca?iua ia?aoiaeu a aeaeeiie iaeanoe niaeo?a.
Iienee oaeeo ia?aoiaeia auee i?iaaaeaiu oaeaea n?aaee ae?oaeo
eiiia. Anei?a auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi eiiu a?aiia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iaeeo/oee enoi/iee eaca?iuo ia?aoiaeia n aieueoie iiuiinoueth a
aeaeeiie iaeanoe e /oi ia ieo iiaeao auoue iieo/aia aaia?aoeey a
iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia . A ?acoeueoaoa aeaeueiaeoeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee
a?aiiiaiai eaca?a a iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia auea iieo/aia iaeaieaa
aunieay iiuiinoue, eaeay oieueei aiciiaeia a aeaeeiie iaeanoe. A
?acoeueoaoa iieneia auea ioe?uoa aaia?aoeey ia 200 eiiiuo ia?aoiaeao,
nin?aaeioi/aiiuo aeaaiui ia?acii a aeaeeiie, a oaeaea a
oeueo?aoeieaoiaie /anoyo niaeo?a. Oaeea iienee, ii-aeaeeiiio, aua ia
ieii/aiu; a aeo?iaeao ii i?eeeaaeiie oeceea e a oaoie/aneeo
aeo?iaeao /anoi iiyaeythony niiauaiey i aaia?aoeee ia iiauo aeeeiao
aiei.

Oai a?aiaiai .oaoie/aneea oniaa?oainoaiaaiey eaca?ia auno?i
?anoe?yeenue, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai en/acee iiiaea “eieaeianeea”
ooeu?aiey ia?auo eiino?oeoeee aaeee-iaiiiauo e ae?oaeo aaciauo
eaca?ia. Enneaaeiaaiey oaeeo eaca?ia, ia/aoua Aaiiaoii,
i?iaeieaeaeenue aei oao ii?, iiea ia aue nicaeai aaeee-iaiiiaue
eaca?, eioi?ue iiaeii onoaiiaeoue ia iau/iii noiea n iieiie
oaa?aiiinoueth a oii, /oi eaca? aoaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue oae, eae yoi
iaeeaeaeinue i?e aai nicaeaiee. A?aiiiaue eiiiue eaca? ia
enneaaeiaai noieue aea oi?ioi; iaeiaei aieueoia /enei i?eaeiaeueiuo
?aaio Ai?aeiia A?eaeaeana e nio?. iicaieyao i?aaeaeaeaoue a ?acoiiuo
i?aaeaeao aiciiaeiua ia?aiao?u oaeiai eaca?a.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeiaai aiaea iiyaeeny ?yae eioa?aniuo ?aaio,
iinayuaiiuo aaciaui eaca?ai, iaeiaei aua neeoeii ?aii
ii?aaeaeyoue eo ioiineoaeueioth oeaiiinoue. Ei anaiauaio oaeeaeaieth
iaeaieaa aaaeiui aeinoeaeaieai yaeeinue ioe?uoea Iaeoaeii
aaia?aoeee auioaeaeaiiiai eceo/aiey a NI2 ia iieina 1,6 ie n
aunieei e.i.ae. auoiaeiay iiuiinoue a yoeo eaca?ao iiaeao auoue
aeiaaaeaia aei nioai aaoo, /oi iaauaao ioe?uoue oeaeoth iiaoth iaeanoue
eaca?iuo i?eiaiaiee.

Iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua eaca?u.

Iniiaiui i?eia?ii ?aaiou iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo eaca?ia yaeyaony
iaaieoii-iioe/aneee iaeiieoaeue(II).

I?eioeeiu ?aaiou II iaeiieoaey.

II iaeiieoaeue iino?iai ia niaiauaiee iaaieoiiai e iioe/aneiai i?eioeeia
o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. Caienuaaiea eioi?iaoeee i?iecaiaeeony i?e iiiiue
eo/a eaca?a e iaaieoiiai iiey, a n/eoiaaiea i?e iiiiue iaeiiai oieueei
eaca?a.

A i?ioeanna caiene ia II aeene eaca?iue eo/ iaa?aaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua
oi/ee ia aeenee, e iiae aicaeaenoeai oaiia?aoo?u nii?ioeaeyaiinoue
eciaiaieth iiey?iinoe, aeey iaa?aoie oi/ee, ?acei iaaeaao, /oi
iicaieyao iaaieoiiio iieth eciaieoue iiey?iinoue oi/ee. Iinea ieii/aiey
iaa?aaa nii?ioeaeyaiinoue niiaa oaaee/eaaaony iiiiey?iinoue iaa?aoie
oi/ee inoaaony a niioaaonoaee n iaaieoiui iieai i?eiaiaiiui e iae
a iiiaio iaa?aaa. A eiathueony ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue II iaeiieoaeyo
aeey caiene eioi?iaoeee i?eiaiythony aeaa oeeeea, oeeee noe?aiey e
oeeee caiene. A i?ioeanna noe?aiey iaaieoiia iiea eiaao iaeeiaeiaoth
iiey?iinoue, niioaaonoaothuoth aeaie/iui ioeyi. Eaca?iue eo/
iaa?aaaao iineaaeiaaoaeueii aanue noe?aaiue o/anoie e oaeei
ia?acii caienuaaao ia aeene iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ioeae. A oeeeea
caiene iiey?iinoue iaaieoiiai iiey iaiyaony ia i?ioeaiiieiaeioth,
/oi niioaaonoaoao aeaie/iie aaeeieoea. A yoii oeeeea eaca?iue eo/
aeeth/aaony oieueei ia oao o/anoeao, eioi?ua aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue
aeaie/iua aaeeieoeu, e inoaaeyy o/anoee n aeaie/iuie ioeyie aac
eciaiaiee.

A i?ioeanna /oaiey n II aeenea eniieuecoaony yooaeo Ea??a,
caeeth/athueeny a eciaiaiee ieineinoe iiey?ecaoeee io?aaeaiiiai
eaca?iiai eo/a, a caaeneiinoe io iai?aaeaiey iaaieoiiai iiey
io?aaeathuaai yeaiaioa. Io?aaeathuei yeaiaioii a aeaiiii neo/aa
yaeyaony iaiaaie/aiiay i?e caiene oi/ea ia iiaa?oiinoe aeenea,
niioaaonoaothuay iaeiiio aeoo o?aieiie eioi?iaoeee. I?e n/eouaaiee
eniieuecoaony eaca?iue eo/ iaaieueoie eioaineaiinoe, ia i?eaiaeyuee e
iaa?aao n/eouaaaiiai o/anoea, oaeei ia?acii i?e n/eouaaiee o?aieiay
eioi?iaoeey ia ?ac?ooaaony.

Oaeie niinia a ioee/ee io iau/iiai i?eiaiyaiiai a iioe/aneeo aeeneao ia
aeaoi?ie?oao iiaa?oiinoue aeenea e iicaieyao iiaoi?ioth caienue aac
aeiiieieoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Yoio niinia oaeaea eiaao i?aeiouanoai
ia?aae o?aaeeoeeiiiie iaaieoiie caienueth a ieaia iaaeaaeiinoe.
Oae eae ia?aiaaie/aaaieea o/anoeia aeenea aiciiaeii oieueei iiae
aeaenoaeai aunieie oaiia?aoo?u, oi aa?iyoiinoue neo/aeiiai
ia?aiaaie/aaaiey i/aiue ieceay, a ioee/ee io o?aaeeoeeiiiie iaaieoiie
caiene, e iioa?e eioi?ie iiaoo i?eaanoe neo/aeiua iaaieoiua iiey.

Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey.

Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey II aeeneia ii?aaeaeyaony aai aunieeie

oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ii iaaeaaeiinoe, iauaio e niaiyaiinoe. II aeene
iaiaoiaeei aeey caaea/, o?aaothueo aieueoiai aeeneiaiai iauaia, yoi
oaeea caaea/e, eae NAI?, ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee caoea. Iaeiaei
iaaieueoay nei?inoue aeinooia e aeaiiui, ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoe
i?eiaiyoue II aeenee aeey caaea/ n e?eoe/iie ?aaeoeaiinoueth nenoai.
Iiyoiio i?eiaiaiea II aeeneia a oaeeo caaea/ao naiaeeony e o?aiaieth ia
ieo a?aiaiiie eee ?aca?aiie eioi?iaoeee. Aeey II aeeneia i/aiue
auaiaeiui eniieueciaaieai yaeyaony ?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea aeanoeeo
aeeneia eee aac aeaiiuo. A ioee/ee io o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiaiyaiuo aeey
yoeo oeaeae no?eia?ia, i?e o?aiaiea ?aca?aiie eioi?iaoeee ia II
aeeneao, nouanoaaiii oaaee/eaaaony nei?inoue ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo
iinea naiy. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi II aeenee yaeythony
ono?ienoaaie n i?iecaieueiui aeinooiii, /oi iicaieyao
ainnoaiaaeeaaoue oieueei oa aeaiiua a eioi?uo iaia?oaeeeny naie.
E?iia yoiai i?e oaeii niiniaa ainnoaiiaeaiey iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iieiinoueth inoaiaaeeaaoue nenoaio aei iieiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo.
Yoe aeinoieinoaa a ni/aoaiee n aunieie iaaeaaeiinoueth o?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee aeaeatho i?eiaiaiea II aeeneia i?e ?aca?aiii eiie?iaaiee
auaiaeiui, oioy e aieaa aei?iaei ii n?aaiaieth ni no?eia?aie.

I?eiaiaiea II aeeneia, oaeaea oeaeaniia?acii i?e ?aaioa n
i?eaaoiie eioi?iaoeeae aieueoeo iauaiia. Eaaeay niaiyaiinoue aeeneia
iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue eo oieueei ai a?aiy ?aaiou, ia caaioynue ia
io?aia eiiiuethoa?a a ia?aai/aa a?aiy, aeaiiua iiaoo o?aieony a
ioaeaeueiii, io?aiyaiii ianoa. Yoi aea naienoai aeaeaao II aeenee
iacaiaieiuie a neooaoeee eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii ia?aaiceoue aieueoea
iauaiu n ianoa ia ianoi, iai?eia? n ?aaiou aeiiie e ia?aoii.

Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey.

Iniiaiua ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey II aeeneia naycaiiu i?aaeaea anaai n
oaaee/aieai nei?inoe caiene aeaiiuo. Iaaeeaiiay nei?inoue
ii?aaeaeyaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeaooi?ioiaeiui aeai?eoiii caiene.
A yoii aeai?eoia ioee e aaeeieoeu ieooony ca ?aciua i?ioiaeu, ec-ca
oiai, /oi iaaieoiia iiea, caaeathuea iai?aaeaiea iiey?ecaoeee
eiie?aoiuo oi/ae ia aeenea, ia iiaeao eciaiyoue naia iai?aaeaiea
aeinoaoi/ii auno?i.

Iaeaieaa ?aaeueiay aeueoa?iaoeaa aeaooi?ioiaeiie caiene – yoi
oaoiieiaey, iniiaaiiay ia eciaiaiea oaciaiai ninoiyiey. Oaeay
nenoaia oaea ?aaeeciaaia iaeioi?uie oe?iaie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie.
Nouanoaotho aua ianeieueei ?ac?aaioie a yoii iai?aaeaiee, naycaiiua n
iieeia?iuie e?aneoaeyie e iiaeoeyoeeyie iaaieoiiai iiey e
iiuiinoe eceo/aiey eaca?a.

Oaoiieiaey iniiaaiiay ia eciaiaiee oaciaiai ninoiyiey, iniiaaia
ia niiniaiinoe aauanoaa ia?aoiaeeoue ec e?enoaeee/aneiai ninoiyiey a
aii?oiia. Aeinoaoi/ii inaaoeoue iaeioi?oth oi/eo ia iiaa?oiinoe
aeenea eo/ii eaca?a ii?aaeaeaiiie iiuiinoe, eae aauanoai a yoie
oi/ea ia?aeaeao a aii?oiia ninoiyiea. I?e yoii eciaiyaony
io?aaeathuay niiniaiinoue aeenea a yoie oi/ea. Caienue eioi?iaoeee
i?ienoiaeeo cia/eoaeueii auno?aa, ii i?e yoii i?ioeanna aeaoi?ie?oaony
iiaa?oiinoue aeenea, /oi ia?aie/eaaao /enei oeeeeia ia?acaiene.

Oaoiieiaey iniiaaiiay ia iieeia?iuo e?aneoaeyo, oaeaea
aeiioneaao iiaoi?ioth caienue. I?e yoie oaoiieiaee iiaa?oiinoue aeenea
iie?uaaaony aeaoiy neiyie iieeia?ia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
/oanoaeoaeai e naaoo ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoiou. Aeey caiene eniieuecoaony
/anoioa, eaii?e?oaiay aa?oiei neiai, ii aucuaathuay ?aaeoeeth a
ieaeiai. A oi/ea iaaeaiey eo/a ieaeiee neie ?acaooaao e ia?acoao
auioeeinoue, aeeythuoth ia io?aaeathuea naienoaa iiaa?oiinoe aeenea.
Aeey noe?aiey eniieuecoaony ae?oaay /anoioa, ia eioi?oth ?aaae?oao
oieueei aa?oiee neie iieeia?a, i?e ?aaeoeee auioeeinoue naeaaeeaaaony.
Yoio iaoiae eae e i?aaeuaeouee eiaao ia?aie/aiiia /enei oeeeeia
caiene, oae eae i?e caiene i?ienoiaeeo aeaoi?iaoeey iiaa?oiinoe.

A ianoiyuea a?aiy oaea ?ac?aaaouaaaony oaoiieiaey iicaieythuay iaiyoue
iiey?iinoue iaaieoiiai iiey ia i?ioeaiiieiaeioth anaai ca ianeieueei
iaiinaeoiae. Yoi iicaieeo eciaiyoue iaaieoiia iiea neio?iiii n
iinooieaieai aeaiiuo ia caienue. Nouanoaoao oaeaea oaoiieiaey
iino?iaiiay ia iiaeoeyoeee eceo/aiey eaca?a. A yoie oaoiieiaee
aeeneiaiae ?aaioaao a o?ao ?aaeeiao – ?aaeei /oaiey n ieceie
eioaineaiinoueth, ?aaeei caiene ni n?aaeiae eioaineaiinoueth e ?aaeei
caiene n aunieie eioaineaiinoueth. Iiaeoeyoeey eioaineaiinoe
eaca?iiai eo/a o?aaoao aieaa neiaeiie no?oeoo?u aeenea, e
aeiiieiaiey iaoaiecia aeeneiaiaea eieoeeaeece?othuei iaaieoii,
onoaiiaeaiiui ia?aae iaaieoii niauaiey e eiathuei i?ioeaiiieiaeioth
iiey?iinoue. A naiii i?inoii neo/aa aeene eiaao aeaa ?aai/eo neiy –
eieoeeaeece?othuee e caienuaathuee. Eieoeeaeece?othuee neie
naeaeai ec oaeiai iaoa?eaea, /oi eieoeeaeece?othuee iaaieo
iiaeao eciaiyoue aai iiey?iinoue aac aeiiieieoaeueiiai
aicaeaenoaey eaca?a. A i?ioeanna caiene eieoeeaeece?othuee neie
caienuaaaony ioeyie, a i?e aicaeaenoaee eaca?iiai eo/a n?aaeiae
eioaineaiinoe caienuaathuee neie iaiaaie/eaaaony eieoeeaeece?othuei,
i?e aicaeaenoaee eo/a aunieie eioaineaiinoe, caienuaathuee neie
iaiaaie/eaaaony a niioaaonoaee n iiey?iinoueth iaaieoa niauaiey. Oaeei
ia?acii caienue aeaiiuo iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ca iaeei i?ioiae, i?e
ia?aeeth/aiee iiuiinoe eaca?a.

Aaconeiaii II aeenee ia?niaeoeaiua e ao?ii ?acaeaathueany ono?ienoaa,
eioi?ua iiaoo ?aoaoue iac?aaathuea i?iaeaiu n aieueoeie iauaiaie
eioi?iaoeee. Ii eo aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea caaeneo ia oieueei io
oaoiieiaee caiene ia ieo, ii e io i?ia?anna a aieaa yooaeoeaiue niinia
o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee, II aeenee aiciiaeii caeioo aeiieie?othuea ?iee.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1.Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue thiiai oeceea (ae. ?aaeaeoi? Ieaaeae
A.A.)

Iineaa “Iaaeaaiaeea” 1991a.

2.I.I.Oaoiaaa,N.I.Oaoiaaa,Ae.O.Oiaeeaa “Oeceea 11”

Iineaa “I?inaauaiea” 1993a.

3.I.O.Eaaa?aeei “Oeceea” Iineaa “I?inaauaiea” 1988a.

4.”Aaciaua eaca?u” (iiae ?aae. I. I. Niaieaaa) Iineaa “Ie?” 1968a.

5.AEo?iae “PC Magazine” ( Russion Edition ) N2 1991a.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019