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История изучения капиллярных и поверхностных сил

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Aaaaeaiea.

Anee noaeeyiiay o?oaea, noieue aea oceay aioo?e, eae aiein (eao.
capillus), iia?oaeaaony a aiaeo, oi aeeaeeinoue iiaeieiaaony aioo?e
o?oaee aei auniou aieueoae, /ai nia?oaee. Yooaeo ia iae: aunioa
iiaeiyoey ieiei 3 ni a o?oaea n eaiaeii a 1 ii. Yoi eaaeouaany ia?ooaiea
caeiiia aeae?inoaoeee (ioe?uoea eioi?uo auei aeinoeaeaieai iaoee XVII
a.) aucaaei ia ii?iaa XVIII a. aic?anoathuee eioa?an e eaieeey?iui
yaeaieyi. Eioa?an aue aeaiyeei. Ai-ia?auo, oioaeinue aeaeaoue, iiaeii ee
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoae e oaa?aeuo oae iaeioi?ui
i?inoui iaoaie/aneei naienoaii, oaeei, eae ninoiyiea iaoyaeaiey, eioi?ia
iiaei au iauynieoue iaaethaeaaiua yaeaiey. Neaaeiaaei iauynieoue,
iai?eia?, ii/aio aiaea a o?oaea iiaeieiaaony, oiaaea eae ?oooue
iioneaaony; ii/aio iiaeiyoea aiaeu iaaeaeo ia?aeeaeueiuie ieanoeiaie
aaeaia iaiueoa, /ai a o?oaea n aeeaiao?ii, ?aaiui ?annoiyieth iaaeaeo
ieanoeiaie; ii/aio iiaeiyoea ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii yoiio aeeaiao?o.
Aoi?ay i?e/eia eioa?ana i?ienoiaeeea ec iiieiaiey oiai, /oi
iaaethaeaeenue yooaeou, eioi?ua aeieaeiu aicieeaoue a ?acoeueoaoa
aeaenoaey nee iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie aauanoaa, e /oi eco/aiea yoeo yooaeoia,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeii aeaoue eaeea-oi naaaeaiey i oaeeo neeao e,
aiciiaeii, i naieo /anoeoeao.

Aei iiyaeaiey oai?ee THiaa e Eaieana.

Ia?aiioe?uaaoaeai eaieeey?iuo yaeaiee n/eoaaony Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e
(Leonardo da Vinci). Iaeiaei ia?aua aeeo?aoiua iaaethaeaiey eaieeey?iuo
yaeaiee ia o?oaeao e noaeeyiiuo ieanoeieao auee i?iaeaeaiu O?yinenii
Oienae a 1709 aiaeo [1]).

Oi, /oi aauanoai ia yaeyaony aaneiia/ii aeaeeiui e eiaao aoiiioth eee
iieaeoey?ioth no?oeoo?o, auei ?aai/ae aeiioacie aeey aieueoeinoaa o/aiuo
ia/eiay n XVIII a. E eiioeo XIX a., eiaaea a?oiia oeceeia, noi?iiieeia
iiceoeaenoneie oeeinioee, oeacaea, eaeei iai?yiui yaeyeinue
aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaiaaiey aoiiia, ia eo cayaeaiea iineaaeiaaea
eeoue iacia/eoaeueiay ?aaeoeey, e a eoiaa eo aic?aaeaiey ia auee
ii?iaa?aioou aei ia/aea yoiai noieaoey. Anee a ?ao?iniaeoeaa e niiiaiey
eaaeoony iai iainiiaaoaeueiuie, iu aeieaeiu iiiieoue, /oi ii/oe ana, eoi
oiaaea aa?ee a nouanoaiaaiea aoiiia, aa?eee oaeaea oaa?aei a
iaoa?eaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai yoe?a, a a ia?aie iieiaeia
XIX a. — /anoi e oaiei?iaea. Oai ia iaiaa o/aiua, aianoea iaeaieueoee
aeeaae a oai?eth aacia e aeeaeeinoae, eniieueciaaee i?aaeiieiaeaiea
(iau/ii a yaiie oi?ia) i aeene?aoiie no?oeoo?a aauanoaa. Yeaiaioa?iua
/anoeoeu iaoa?ee iacuaaee aoiiaie, eee iieaeoeaie (iai?eia?, Eaiean),
eee i?inoi /anoeoeaie (THia), ii iu aoaeai neaaeiaaoue nia?aiaiiui
iiiyoeyi e oiio?aaeyoue neiai «iieaeoea» aeey yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe,
ninoaaeythueo aac, aeeaeeinoue eee oaa?aeia oaei.

, 1709 a.), e, oaeei ia?acii, oieueei neeu ni noi?iiu iieaeoe a
iiaa?oiinoiii neia noaeea aeaenoaotho ia iieaeoeu a aeeaeeinoe.
A?aaeoaoeeiiiua aea neeu eeoue ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu eaaae?aoo
?annoiyiey e, eae auei ecaanoii, aeaenoaotho naiaiaeii /a?ac
i?iiaaeooi/iia aauanoai.

I?e?iaea iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee, ioee/iuo io nee oyaioaiey, auea aanueia
iayniie, ii a eciuoeaieyo ia auei iaaeinoaoea. Nayuaiiee-eacoeo ?iaeaea?
Aineiae/ (Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich) iieaaae, /oi iieaeoeu
iooaeeeaathony ia i/aiue iaeuo ?annoiyieyo, i?eoyaeaathony i?e
ianeieueei aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo e caoai ii ia?a oaaee/aiey ?annoiyiey
aeaiiino?e?otho iiia?aiaiii iooaeeeaaiea e i?eoyaeaiea ni ana
oiaiueoathuaeny aaee/eiie. Aai eaeae a neaaeothuai noieaoee ieacaee
aeeyiea eae ia Oa?aaeay, oae e ia Eaeueaeia, ii auee neeoeii neiaeiuie,
/oiau ieacaoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii iieaciuie aeey oao, eoi caieiaeny
oai?eae eaieeey?iinoe. Iineaaeiea aeaai?acoiii aeiaieuenoaiaaeenue
i?inouie aeiioacaie.

Eoeie (G.H. Quincke) iinoaaee yenia?eiaiou ii ii?aaeaeaieth iaeaieueoaai
?annoiyiey, ia eioi?ii aeaenoaea iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee iuooeii. Ii
iieo/ee, /oi aeey ?acee/iuo aauanoa yoe ?annoiyiey ninoaaeytho ~ 1/20000
/anoue ieeeeiao?a, o.a. ~ 5(10–6 ni (aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiu niaeanii [2]).

Aeaeaein Aeaeo?ei iieacae, /oi aunioa, ia eioi?oth iiaeieiaaony
aeeaeeinoue, ii?aaeaeyaony aa?oiae /anoueth o?oaee, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony
iaae aeeaeeinoueth, e ia caaeneo io oi?iu ieaeiae /anoe o?oaee. Ii
n/eoae, /oi iiaeiyoea aeeaeeinoe i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y i?eoyaeaieth ni
noi?iiu aioo?aiiae oeeeeiae?e/aneie iiaa?oiinoe o?oaee, e eioi?ie
i?eiueaao aa?oiyy iiaa?oiinoue aeeaeeinoe. Enoiaey ec yoiai, ii iieacae,
/oi iiaeiyoea aeeaeeinoe a o?oaeao ec iaeeiaeiaiai aauanoaa ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eo aioo?aiiaio ?aaeeono [3].

Eea?i aue iaeiei ec ia?auo, eoi iieacae iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiyoey ai
aieiaiea i?eoyaeaiey iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie naiie aeeaeeinoe aeey iauyniaiey
eaieeey?iuo yaeaiee [4]. Ii, iaeiaei, ia i?eciaaae, /oi ?annoiyiey, ia
eioi?uo aeaenoaotho yoe neeu, iaiuooeii iaeu.

A 1751 a. oii Naaia? aaae aaaeioth eaeath iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey ii
aiaeiaee n iaoaie/aneei iaoyaeaieai iaia?aiu a oai?ee oi?oainoe [5].
Naaiaeiy iiiyoea iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey yaeyaony cao?yaeiui, n iaai
iau/ii ia/eiatho eco/aiea eaieeey?iuo nee e iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee a
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo.

Yoa eaeay noaea eeth/aaie a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee oai?ee. Nianoaaiii,
oai naiui aue naeaeai ia?aue oaa a eco/aiee yaeaiey — aaaaeaii
oaiiiaiieiae/aneia iiiyoea, iienuaathuaa iae?ineiie/aneia iiaaaeaiea
nenoaiu. Aoi?ie oaa — yoi auaiae oaiiiaiieiae/aneeo iiiyoee e au/eneaiea
cia/aiee aaee/ei, enoiaey ec iieaeoey?iie oai?ee. Yoio oaa eiaao
ia?iiioth aaaeiinoue, oae eae yaeyaony i?iaa?eie i?aaeeueiinoe oie eee
eiie iieaeoey?iie oai?ee.

A 1802 a. Aeaeii Eanee i?eaae ia?aia ei??aeoiia iauyniaiea iiaeuaia
aeeaeeinoe a o?oaea, ?anniao?eaay i?eoyaeaiea iaaeaeo oaa?aeui oaeii e
oiieei neiai aeeaeeinoe ia aai iiaa?oiinoe [6]. Ii, a ioee/ea io
aieueoeinoaa i?aaeuaeoueo enneaaeiaaoaeae, ia i?aaeiieaaae, /oi neea
yoiai i?eoyaeaiey iai?aaeaia aaa?o (iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
aeeaeeinoe). Iai?ioea, ii iieacae, /oi i?eoyaeaiea anthaeo ii?iaeueii e
iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea.

I?yiie yooaeo i?eoyaeaiey — oaaee/aiea aeaaeaiey a neia aeeaeeinoe,
iaoiaeyuainy a eiioaeoa n oaa?aeui oaeii, oae, /oi aeaaeaiea noaiiaeony
auoa, /ai aioo?e aeeaeeinoe. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai yaeyaony oi, /oi neie
no?aieony “?anoa/ueny” ii iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea, inoaiaaeeaaaiue
eeoue neeaie a?aaeoaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, noaeeyiiay o?oaea, iia?oaeaiiay
a aiaeo, nia/eaaaony aiaeie anthaeo, eoaea oa “niiaea aeiiiecoe”.
Iiaeieiaynue, aeeaeeinoue ia?acoao noiea, aan eioi?iai a eiioea eiioeia
o?aaiiaaoeaaao neeo, ii?iaeaeathuoth ?anoaeaiea aeeaeeinoe.

Yoa oai?ey ia auea caienaia n iiiiuueth iaoaiaoe/aneeo neiaieia e
iiyoiio ia iiaea iieacaoue eiee/anoaaiioth naycue iaaeaeo i?eoyaeaieai
ioaeaeueiuo /anoeoe e eiia/iui ?acoeueoaoii. Oai?ey Eanee auea iicaeiaa
ia?a?aaioaia n i?eiaiaieai eaieanianeeo iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia
Aeaeaeinii Eai?e (James Ivory) a noaouea i capillary action, under
“Fluids, Elevation of”, a i?eeiaeaiee e 4-io ecaeaieth Encyclopaedia
Britannica, iioaeeeiaaiiii a 1819 a.

Oai?ee THiaa e Eaieana.

A 1804 a. Oiian THia [7] iainiiaae oai?eth eaieeey?iuo yaeaiee ia
i?eioeeia iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey. Ii oaeaea iaaethaeae iinoiyinoai
oaea nia/eaaiey aeeaeeinoueth iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea (e?aaaiai oaea)
e iaoae eiee/anoaaiiia niioiioaiea, naycuaathuaa e?aaaie oaie n
eiyooeoeeaioaie iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo iaaeoaciuo
a?aieoe. A ?aaiiaanee eiioaeoiay eeiey ia aeieaeia aeaeaaoueny ii
iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea, a cia/eo, aiai?ee

(1)

aaea (SV, (SL, (LV — eiyooeoeeaiou iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey iaaeoaciuo
a?aieoe oaa?aeia oaei – aac (ia?), oaa?aeia oaei – aeeaeeinoue,
aeeaeeinoue – aac niioaaonoaaiii, ( — e?aaaie oaie. Yoi niioiioaiea
oaia?ue ecaanoii eae oi?ioea THiaa. Yoa ?aaioa ana aea ia ieacaea oaeiai
aeeyiey ia ?acaeoea iaoee a yoii iai?aaeaiee, eaeia ieacaea auoaaeoay
ianeieueeeie ianyoeaie iicaea noaouey Eaieana (Pierre Simon Laplace).
Yoi, ii-aeaeeiiio, naycaii n oai, /oi THia ecaaaae eniieueciaaiey
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaicia/aiee, a iuoaeny iienuaaoue ana neiaanii, io/aai
aai ?aaioa eaaeaony caiooaiiie e iayniie. Oai ia iaiaa ii n/eoaaony
naaiaeiy iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe.

ssaeaiey eiaacee e aaeaacee , eiiaeainaoeey ia?a a aeeaeeinoue,
nia/eaaiea oaa?aeuo oae aeeaeeinoyie e iiiaea ae?oaea i?inoua naienoaa
aauanoaa — ana oeacuaaei ia iaee/ea nee i?eoyaeaiey, ai iiiai ?ac aieaa
neeueiuo, /ai a?aaeoaoeey, ii aeaenoaothueo oieueei ia i/aiue iaeuo
?annoiyieyo iaaeaeo iieaeoeaie. Eae aiai?ee Eaiean, aaeeinoaaiiia
auoaeathuaa ec iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee oneiaea, iaeaaaaiia ia yoe neeu,
ninoieo a oii, /oi iie «iaiuooeiu ia iuooeiuo ?annoiyieyo».

Neeu iooaeeeaaiey nicaeaaaee aieueoa oeiiio. Eo iaee/ea iaeuecy auei
io?eoeaoue — iie aeieaeiu o?aaiiaaoeaaoue neeu i?eoyaeaiey e
i?aiyonoaiaaoue iieiiio ?ac?ooaieth aauanoaa, ii eo i?e?iaea auea
niaa?oaiii iayniie. Aii?in ineiaeiyeny aeaoiy neaaeothueie ioeai/iuie
iiaieyie. Ai-ia?auo, /anoi n/eoaeinue, /oi aeaenoaothuae neeie
iooaeeeaaiey yaeyaony oaiei (eae i?aaeei, iiaiea noi?iiieeia oai?ee
oaiei?iaea), iineieueeo (oaeiaa auea a?aoiaioaoeey) aeeaeeinoue i?e
iaa?aaaiee nia/aea ?anoe?yaony e caoai eeieo, oae /oi iieaeoeu
?acuaaeeiythony ia ai?acaei aieueoea ?annoiyiey, /ai a oaa?aeii oaea.
Aoi?ia ioeai/iia iiaiea aicieeei ec oaiaeyuaai iacaae e Iuethoiio
i?aaenoaaeaiey, niaeanii eioi?iio iaaethaeaaiia aeaaeaiea aaca
i?ienoiaeeo aneaaenoaea noaoe/aneiai iooaeeeaaiey iaaeaeo iieaeoeaie, a
ia ec-ca eo noieeiiaaiee ni noaieaie ninoaea, eae ouaoii aeieacuaae
Aeaieaeue Aa?ioeee.

Ia yoii oiia auei anoanoaaiii, /oi ia?aua iiiuoee iauynieoue
eaieeey?iinoue eee aiiaua noeaieaiea aeeaeeinoae iniiauaaeenue ia
noaoe/aneeo aniaeoao aauanoaa. Iaoaieea auea oi?ioi iiieiaaiie
oai?aoe/aneie aaoaueth iaoee; oa?iiaeeiaieea e eeiaoe/aneay oai?ey auee
aua a aoaeouai. A iaoaie/aneii ?anniio?aiee eeth/aaui auei
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i aieueoeo, ii ei?ioeiaeaenoaothueo neeao i?eoyaeaiey.
Iieiyueany aeeaeeinoe (a eaieeey?iie ee o?oaea eee aia aa) iaoiaeyony,
i/aaeaeii, a ?aaiiaanee, a iioiio yoe neeu i?eoyaeaiey aeieaeiu
o?aaiiaaoeaaoueny neeaie iooaeeeaaiey. Iineieueeo i ieo iiaeii auei
neacaoue aua iaiueoa, /ai i neeao i?eoyaeaiey, eo /anoi iaoiaeeee
iie/aieai, e, aiai?y neiaaie ?yeay, «neeai i?eoyaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeyeinue
eniieiyoue iaiuneeiue o?the o?aaiiaaoeaaiey naieo naay». Eaiean ia?aui
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii ?ac?aoee yoo i?iaeaio [8], iieaaay, /oi neeu
iooaeeeaaiey (oaieiaua, eae ii aeiioneae) iiaeii caiaieoue aioo?aiiei
aeaaeaieai, eioi?ia aeaenoaoao iianaianoii a ianaeeiaaiie aeeaeeinoe.
(Yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea i?eaiaeeo a?aiaiaie e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a ?aaioao
XIX a. a ioiioaiee oiai, /oi no?iai iiieiaaony iiae «aeaaeaieai a
aeeaeeinoe».) I?eaaaeai ?an/ao aioo?aiiaai aeaaeaiey ii Eaieano. (Yoio
auaiae aeeaea e auaiaeai Iaenaaeea [2] e ?yeay [10]. Auaiae i?eaiaeeony
ii [9] .)

Iii aeieaeii o?aaiiaaoeaaoue neeu noeaieaiey a aeeaeeinoe, e Eaiean
ioiaeaeanoaeye yoi n neeie ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee, eioi?ay ieacuaaao
nii?ioeaeaiea ?acaeaeaieth aaneiia/iiai aeeaeeiai oaea ia aeaa aeaeaei
?acuaaeeiyaiuo iieoaaneiia/iuo oaea, ia?aie/aiiuo ieineeie
iiaa?oiinoyie. I?eaaaeaiiue ieaea auaiae aeeaea e auaiaeai Iaenaaeea e
?yeay, /ai e i?eaeiaeueiie oi?ia Eaieana, ii nouanoaaiiiai ?acee/ey a
a?aoiaioaoeee iao.

, aaea ia/aei iiey?iuo eii?aeeiao niaiaaeaao n iieiaeaieai ia?aiai
yeaiaioa?iiai iauaia. Ionoue f(s) — neea, aeaenoaothuay iaaeaeo aeaoiy
iieaeoeaie, ?acaeaeaiiuie ?annoiyieai s, a d – ?aaeeon aa aeaenoaey.
Iineieueeo yoi anaaaea neea i?eoyaeaiey, eiaai

Anee r — ieioiinoue /enea iieaeoe a iaieo oaeao, oi aa?oeeaeueiay
ninoaaeythuay neeu acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoo yeaiaioia iauaia ?aaia

(2)

Iieiay neea i?eoyaeaiey, i?eoiaeyuayny ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee
(iieiaeeoaeueiay aaee/eia), anoue

(3)

Ionoue u(s) — iioaioeeae iaaeiieaeoey?iie neeu:

(4)

(5)

?en. 1.

Eioaa?e?oy ii /anoyi aua ?ac, iieo/aai

(6)

Aioo?aiiaa aeaaeaiea Eaieana K anoue neea i?eoyaeaiey ia aaeeieoeo
ieiuaaee iaaeaeo aeaoiy ieineeie iiaa?oiinoyie i?e eo eiioaeoa, o.a.
F(0):

(7)

. Iineieueeo u(r) ii i?aaeiieiaeaieth anthaeo io?eoeaoaeueii eee ?aaii
ioeth, oi K iieiaeeoaeueii. Eaiean iieaaae, /oi K aaeeei ii n?aaiaieth n
aoiinoa?iui aeaaeaieai, ii ia?aoth ?aaeenoe/aneoth /eneaiioth ioeaieo
i?aaenoiyei naeaeaoue THiao.

I?eaaaeaiiue auoa auaiae iniiaai ia iayaiii aeiiouaiee, /oi iieaeoeu
?ani?aaeaeaiu ?aaiiia?ii n ieioiinoueth (, o.a. aeeaeeinoue ia iaeaaeaao
?acee/eiie no?oeoo?ie a oeaea ?acia?ia, niecia?eiuo n ?aaeeonii
aeaenoaey nee d. Aac yoiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey iaeuecy auei au iaienaoue
au?aaeaiey (2) e (3) a oaeie i?inoie oi?ia, a iaaei auei au auynieoue,
eae i?enoonoaea iieaeoeu a ia?aii yeaiaioa iauaia aeeyao ia aa?iyoiinoue
iaee/ey iieaeoeu ai aoi?ii.

Iaoyaeaiea ia aaeeieoeo aeeeiu aaeieue i?iecaieueiie eeiee ia
iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe aeieaeii auoue ?aaiui (a niioaaonoaothuae nenoaia
aaeeieoe) ?aaioa, cao?a/aiiie ia nicaeaiea aaeeieoeu ieiuaaee naiaiaeiie
iiaa?oiinoe. Yoi neaaeoao ec iiuoa ii ?anoyaeaieth ieaiee aeeaeeinoe
(?en. 2).

?en. 2.

Ia i?iaiei/iie ?aiea aea?aeeony aeeaeeay ieaiea, i?ee?aieaiiay i?aaui
e?aai e naiaiaeii ia?aiauaaiie i?iaiei/ea. Neea F, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey
o?aaiiaaoeaaiey iaoyaeaiey a aeaonoi?iiiae ieaiea, i?iii?oeeiiaeueia
aeeeia L. Ionoue F = 2(L. Niauaiea i?iaiei/ee ia ?annoiyiea \symbol 100
\f “Symbol” \s 12 x o?aaoao ?aaiou F((x = ((A, aaea (A — oaaee/aiea
ieiuaaee. Oaeei ia?acii, iaoyaeaiea ia aaeeieoeo aeeeiu ia ioaeaeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe, eee iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea (, /eneaiii ?aaii
iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee.

Aaee/eia yoie ?aaiou iiaeao auoue n?aco iieo/aia ec au?aaeaiey (6) aeey
F(l). Anee acyoue aeaa iieoaaneiia/iuo oaea a eiioaeoa e ?acaanoe eo ia
?annoiyiea, i?aauoathuaa ?aaeeon aeaenoaey iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee, ?aaioa
ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny eae

(8)

I?e ?acaeaeaiee ia?acothony aeaa naiaiaeiua iiaa?oiinoe, e iioiio
cao?a/aiioth ?aaioo iiaeii i?e?aaiyoue oaeaiaiiie iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee
ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee, eioi?ay ?aaia iiaa?oiinoiiio iaoyaeaieth:

(9)

Oaeei ia?acii, K anoue eioaa?ae io iaaeiieaeoey?iiai iioaioeeaea, eee
aai ioeaaie iiiaio, a H — aai ia?aue iiiaio. A oi a?aiy eae K
iaaeinooiii i?yiiio yenia?eiaioo, H iiaeao auoue iaeaeaii, anee iu
niiaeai ecia?eoue iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea.

Ionoue \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” — ieioiinoue eiaaceiiiie yia?aee a
iaeioi?ie oi/ea aeeaeeinoe eee aaca, o.a. ioiioaiea ( \NEIAIE 100 \f
“Symbol” U/( \NEIAIE 100 \f “Symbol” V aaea ( \NEIAIE 100 \f “Symbol”
U — aioo?aiiyy yia?aey iaeiai iauaia \NEIAIE 100 \f “Symbol” V
aeeaeeinoe eee aaca, niaea?aeauaai yoo oi/eo. Aeey iieaeoey?iie iiaeaee
i?eieiaai

(10)

aaea r — ?annoiyiea io ?anniao?eaaaiie oi/ee. ?yeae ioiaeaeanoaeye
eaieanianeia K n ?aciinoueth yoiai iioaioeeaea 2 \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol”
iaaeaeo oi/eie ia ieineie iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe (cia/aiea 2 \NEIAIE
102 \f “Symbol” S) e oi/eie aioo?e (cia/aiea 2 \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol”
I). Ia iiaa?oiinoe eioaa?e?iaaiea a (10) ia?aie/aii iieonoa?ie ?aaeeona
d, a ai aioo?aiiae iaeanoe i?iaiaeeony ii anae noa?a. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
\NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” S anoue iieiaeia \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” I,
eee

(11)

, oi

(12)

Oiaaea aioo?aiiaa aeaaeaiea a eaiea anoue

(13)

aaea H ii?aaeaeyaony o?aaiaieai (9). Anee au iu acyee ia noa?e/aneoth
eaieth, a ii?oeeth aeeaeeinoe n iiaa?oiinoueth, ii?aaeaeyaiie aeaoiy
aeaaiuie ?aaeeonaie e?eaeciu R1 e R2 , oi iieo/eee au aioo?aiia
aeaaeaiea a aeaea

(14)

?aaia noiia ia?aoiuo ?aaeeonia e?eaeciu iiaa?oiinoe aaeieue ethauo
aeaoo i?oiaiiaeueiuo eanaoaeueiuo.

Oae eae K e H iieiaeeoaeueiu e R iieiaeeoaeueii aeey auioeeie
iiaa?oiinoe, oi ec (13) neaaeoao, /oi aioo?aiiaa aeaaeaiea a eaiea auoa,
/ai a aeeaeeinoe n ieineie iiaa?oiinoueth. Iaiai?io, aioo?aiiaa
aeaaeaiea a aeeaeeinoe, ia?aie/aiiie aiaiooie noa?e/aneie iiaa?oiinoueth
ieaea, /ai a aeeaeeinoe n ieineie iiaa?oiinoueth, iineieueeo R a yoii
neo/aa io?eoeaoaeueii.

(aeaaeaiea aaca nia?oaee) oaia?ue iacuaatho o?aaiaieai Eaieana:

(15)

Aeinoaoi/ii o?ao eaeae — iaoyaeaiey o iiaa?oiinoe, aioo?aiiaai aeaaeaiey
e e?aaaiai oaea, a oaeaea au?aaeaiee (1) e (15), /oiau ?aoeoue ana
caaea/e iau/iie ?aaiiaaniie eaieeey?iinoe iaoiaeaie eeanne/aneie
noaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, iinea ?aaio Eaieana e THiaa iniiau
eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe auee caeiaeaiu.

?acoeueoaou THiaa auee iieo/aiu iicaea Aaonnii aa?eaoeeiiiui iaoiaeii.
Ii ana yoe ?aaiou (THiaa, Eaieana e Aaonna) iaeaaeaee iaeiei iauei
iaaeinoaoeii, ecuyiii, anee iiaeii oae au?aceoueny. Ia yoii iaaeinoaoea
aoaeao ?anneacaii iicaea.

I?e ?an/aoa aeaaeaiey aioo?e ene?eaeaiiie aeeaeeie iiaa?oiinoe aue
aaaaeai iioaioeeae ?yeay 2 \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” (10); iiiooii auei
ioia/aii, /oi \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” I yaeyaony ieioiinoueth
eiaaceiiiie yia?aee. Aia?aua yoi iieaciia iiiyoea a 1869 a. aaae
Aethi?a, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeee aai eae ?aaioo ae?iaeaiey eonea aauanoaa ia
ninoaaeythuea aai iieaeoeu (la travail de desagre \NEIAIE 233 \f “Times
New Roman CE” gation totale — ?aaioa iieiie aeacaa?aaaoeee).

?en. 3

Iai?aaeaiiay aioo?ue neea, aeaenoaothuay ia iieaeoeo ia aeoaeia r Eeoa?aoo?a. ( Hauksbee F. Physico-Mechanical Experiments, London, 1709, pp. 139–169; and Phil. Trans., 1711 and 1712. Maxwell J.C. Capillary Action. The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition, Cambrige: at the University Press, 1910, vol. 5, p. 256. © Jurin J. Phil. Trans., 1718, p. 739, and 1719, p. 1083. © Clairault A.C. Theorie de la figure de la terre, Paris, 1808, pp. 105, 128. © von Segner J.A. Comment. Soc. Reg. Goetting. i. (1751), p. 301. © Leslie J. Phil. Mag., 1802, vol. xiv p. 193. © Young T. Cohesion of Fluids, Phil. Trans., 1805, p. 65. ( Laplace P.S. Traite de Mecanique Celeste; Supplement au dixieme livre, Sur l’Action. Capillaire (1807); in: Oeuvres completes de Laplace, v. 4. Gauthiers-Villars, Paris, 1880, p. 349, 419. ?ioeeinii Aeae., Oeaeii A. Iieaeoey?iay oai?ey eaieeey?iinoe. I.: Ie?, 1986. ? Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 30, 285, 456 (1890); Scentific Papers, v. 3. Cambrige University Press, 1902, p. 397. ? Dupre A. Theorie mecanique de la Chaleur. Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1869, p. 152. ( Gibbs J.W. Trans. Conn. Acad., 1878, v.3, p. 343; Aeaan Aeae. A. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea ?aaiou. I. – E., Ainoaoecaeao, 1950. § Gibbs J.W. Prin. Amer. Acad., 1881, v. 16, p. 420. ?onaiia A.E. 100 eao oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana. A nai?ieea: Nia?aiaiiay oai?ey eaieeey?iinoe. E.: Oeiey, 1980. § Wilson A.A. A letter from lord Rayleigh to J. Willard Gibbs and his reply. Proc. Nat. Acad. USA, 1945, v. 31, p. 34. § Guggenheim A. A. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1940, v. 36, p. 397. § Rice J. A. Commentary of the Scientific Writings of J.W. Gibbs. V. I/F. G. Donnan and A. Haas, eds. New Haven, 1936. § Kondo S. J. Chem. Phys., 1956, v. 25, p. 662. Iii N., Eiiaei N. Iieaeoey?iay oai?ey iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey a aeeaeeinoyo. I., EE, 1963. § Aai-aea?-Aaaeuen E. Ae., Eiinoaii O. Eo?n oa?iinoaoeee. o. 1. IIOE, 1936. § Bakker N. Kapillaritaet und Oberflaechenspannung. Handb. der exper. Phys. Bd. VI. Leipzig, Wien – Harms, 1928. § Verschaffelt. Acad. Roy. Belgique, Bull. classe sci., 1936, v. 22, p. 373, 390, 402. § Eriksson J. N. Ark. Kemi, 1965, v.25, p. 331, 343; 1966, v. 26, p. 49, 117. § ?onaiia A. E. Oa?iiaeeiaieea iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee. E., Ecae. EAO, 1960. § ?onaiia A. E. Oaciaua ?aaiiaaney e iiaa?oiinoiua yaeaiey. E., Oeiey, 1967. § Goodrich F. N. Surface and Colloid. Science. V. l/Matijevic A., ed. N. Y., Wiley, 1969. § Buff F. P. J. Chem. Phys., 1951, v. 19, p. 1591. § Hill O. L. J. Phys. Chem., 1959, v. 52, p. 526. § ?onaiia A. E. Aanoiee EAO, 1959, ? 16, n. 71. § Eriksson J. N. Surface Sci., 1969, v. 14, p. 221. § ?onaiia A. E. Eieeieaei. ae., 1977, o. 39, n. 711. § Rusanov A. I. J. Coll. Interface Sci., 1978, v. 63, p. 330. § Frumkin A. Ergebnisse exakt. Nature, 1928, v. 7, p. 235. § Koenig F.O. J. Phys. Chem., 1934, v. 38, p. Ill, 339. § Butler J. A. V. Electrocapillarity. The Chemistry and Physics of Electrodes and other Charged Surfaces. London, Methuen, 1940. § Parsons R. Canad. J. Chem., 1959, v.37, p. 308. § Sanfeld A. Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Charged and Polarized Layers. London, Wiley, 1968. § ?onaiia A. E. — AeAI NNN?, 1978, o. 238, n. 831. § Defay R. Etude Thermodynamique de la Tension Superficielle. Paris, 1934. § Defay R., Prigogine I. Tension Superficielle et Adsorption. Desoer, Liege, 1951; Defay R., Prigogine I., Bellemans A. Surface Tension and Adsorption. London, Longmans, 1966. § Rusanov A. I. Progress in Surface and Membrane Sci. V. 4. N. Y., Academic Press, 1971. § Aea?yaei A. A., Iaooia E. Acta physicochim. URSS, 1936, v. 5, p. 1. § Aea?yaei A., Eonaeia I. Eca. AI NNN?. Na?. oei., 1936, n. 741; 1937, n. II 19. § Aea?yaei A. A., Oeoeaaneay A. N. AeAI NNN? 1953 o. 89, n. 1041. § Aea?yaei A. A., Aa?eeiniaa E. E. Oai aea, 1956, o. 108, n. 214; AE. oec. oei., 1958, o. 32, n. 442. § ?onaiia A.E., Eoie O.I. A ei.: Enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe iiaa?oiinoiuo nee. I., Iaoea, 1967, n. 129. § O?oieei A. ss. AE. oec. oei., 1938, o. 12, n. 337. § Derjaguin A. V. Acta physicochim. URSS, 1940, v. 12, p. 181. § Ia?ouiia A. A., Aea?yaei A. A. Eieeieaei. ae. 1962 o. 24, n. 480. § Aea?yaei A. A., Ia?ouiia A. A., Aomin TH. A. Oai aea 1965, o. 27, n. 357. § Aea?yaei A. A., Aomin TH. A. Oai aea 1965 o 27 n. 674. § Derjaguin A. V. J. Coll. Interface Sci. 1967 v.24 p. 357. § ?onaiia E. ss. Eieeieaei. ae., 1966, o. 28 n. 718-1967, o. 29, n. 141, 237. § Sheludko A., Radoev A., Kolarov T. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1968, v. 64, p. 2213. § ?onaiia A. E. AeAI NNN?, 1972, o. 203, n. 387. § Rusanov A, I. J. Coll. Interface Sci., 1975, v.53, p. 20. § Aea?yaei A. A., *o?aaa I.A. Eieeieaei. ae., 1976, o. 38, n. 438. Kuni F.M., Shchekin A.K., Rusanov A.I., Widom B. Role of surface forces in heterogeneous nucleation on wettable nuclei. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 1996, v.65, p.71-124. Oienae aue aeaiiino?aoi?ii a Ei?ieaaneii iauanoaa, e aai iiuou iiaeeyee ia niaea?aeaiea aanueia i?ino?aiiiai ni/eiaiey i ia?ae/iuo /anoeoeao aauanoaa e neeao iaaeaeo ieie, eioi?ui Iuethoii caaa?oee ecaeaiea naiae «Iioeee» 1717 aiaea. ni. E 1819 a. ii aue caiyo aeaoaeueiui ianoaeaeaieai iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee iooaeeeaaiey, eioi?ua, oioy e i?eienuaaeenue aua oaieioa eee oaiei?iaeo, iaeaaeaee nouanoaaiiui naienoaii oiaiueoaoueny n ?annoiyieai auno?aa, /ai neeu i?eoyaeaiey. THia oiiieiae iaee/ea a?aaeeaioa ieioiinoe a eiia/iii ii oieueia neia, ii ioa?inee yoio yooaeo, iin/eoaa aai ianouanoaaiiui. PAGE PAGE 21 \NO? \# "'No?: '#' '" No?: 2 \NO? \# "'No?: '#' '" No?: 1 ( Nnueea i?eaaaeaia ii [2]. ( Nnueea i?eaaaeaia ii [9]. ( Nnueea i?eaaaeaia ii [14]. F L l s r s = d

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