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История изучения капиллярных и поверхностных сил

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Aaaaeaiea.

Anee noaeeyiiay o?oaea, noieue aea oceay aioo?e, eae aiein (eao.
capillus), iia?oaeaaony a aiaeo, oi aeeaeeinoue iiaeieiaaony aioo?e
o?oaee aei auniou aieueoae, /ai nia?oaee. Yooaeo ia iae: aunioa
iiaeiyoey ieiei 3 ni a o?oaea n eaiaeii a 1 ii. Yoi eaaeouaany ia?ooaiea
caeiiia aeae?inoaoeee (ioe?uoea eioi?uo auei aeinoeaeaieai iaoee XVII
a.) aucaaei ia ii?iaa XVIII a. aic?anoathuee eioa?an e eaieeey?iui
yaeaieyi. Eioa?an aue aeaiyeei. Ai-ia?auo, oioaeinue aeaeaoue, iiaeii ee
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoae e oaa?aeuo oae iaeioi?ui
i?inoui iaoaie/aneei naienoaii, oaeei, eae ninoiyiea iaoyaeaiey, eioi?ia
iiaei au iauynieoue iaaethaeaaiua yaeaiey. Neaaeiaaei iauynieoue,
iai?eia?, ii/aio aiaea a o?oaea iiaeieiaaony, oiaaea eae ?oooue
iioneaaony; ii/aio iiaeiyoea aiaeu iaaeaeo ia?aeeaeueiuie ieanoeiaie
aaeaia iaiueoa, /ai a o?oaea n aeeaiao?ii, ?aaiui ?annoiyieth iaaeaeo
ieanoeiaie; ii/aio iiaeiyoea ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii yoiio aeeaiao?o.
Aoi?ay i?e/eia eioa?ana i?ienoiaeeea ec iiieiaiey oiai, /oi
iaaethaeaeenue yooaeou, eioi?ua aeieaeiu aicieeaoue a ?acoeueoaoa
aeaenoaey nee iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie aauanoaa, e /oi eco/aiea yoeo yooaeoia,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeii aeaoue eaeea-oi naaaeaiey i oaeeo neeao e,
aiciiaeii, i naieo /anoeoeao.

Aei iiyaeaiey oai?ee THiaa e Eaieana.

Ia?aiioe?uaaoaeai eaieeey?iuo yaeaiee n/eoaaony Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e
(Leonardo da Vinci). Iaeiaei ia?aua aeeo?aoiua iaaethaeaiey eaieeey?iuo
yaeaiee ia o?oaeao e noaeeyiiuo ieanoeieao auee i?iaeaeaiu O?yinenii
Oienae a 1709 aiaeo [1]).

Oi, /oi aauanoai ia yaeyaony aaneiia/ii aeaeeiui e eiaao aoiiioth eee
iieaeoey?ioth no?oeoo?o, auei ?aai/ae aeiioacie aeey aieueoeinoaa o/aiuo
ia/eiay n XVIII a. E eiioeo XIX a., eiaaea a?oiia oeceeia, noi?iiieeia
iiceoeaenoneie oeeinioee, oeacaea, eaeei iai?yiui yaeyeinue
aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaiaaiey aoiiia, ia eo cayaeaiea iineaaeiaaea
eeoue iacia/eoaeueiay ?aaeoeey, e a eoiaa eo aic?aaeaiey ia auee
ii?iaa?aioou aei ia/aea yoiai noieaoey. Anee a ?ao?iniaeoeaa e niiiaiey
eaaeoony iai iainiiaaoaeueiuie, iu aeieaeiu iiiieoue, /oi ii/oe ana, eoi
oiaaea aa?ee a nouanoaiaaiea aoiiia, aa?eee oaeaea oaa?aei a
iaoa?eaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai yoe?a, a a ia?aie iieiaeia
XIX a. — /anoi e oaiei?iaea. Oai ia iaiaa o/aiua, aianoea iaeaieueoee
aeeaae a oai?eth aacia e aeeaeeinoae, eniieueciaaee i?aaeiieiaeaiea
(iau/ii a yaiie oi?ia) i aeene?aoiie no?oeoo?a aauanoaa. Yeaiaioa?iua
/anoeoeu iaoa?ee iacuaaee aoiiaie, eee iieaeoeaie (iai?eia?, Eaiean),
eee i?inoi /anoeoeaie (THia), ii iu aoaeai neaaeiaaoue nia?aiaiiui
iiiyoeyi e oiio?aaeyoue neiai «iieaeoea» aeey yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe,
ninoaaeythueo aac, aeeaeeinoue eee oaa?aeia oaei.

, 1709 a.), e, oaeei ia?acii, oieueei neeu ni noi?iiu iieaeoe a
iiaa?oiinoiii neia noaeea aeaenoaotho ia iieaeoeu a aeeaeeinoe.
A?aaeoaoeeiiiua aea neeu eeoue ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu eaaae?aoo
?annoiyiey e, eae auei ecaanoii, aeaenoaotho naiaiaeii /a?ac
i?iiaaeooi/iia aauanoai.

I?e?iaea iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee, ioee/iuo io nee oyaioaiey, auea aanueia
iayniie, ii a eciuoeaieyo ia auei iaaeinoaoea. Nayuaiiee-eacoeo ?iaeaea?
Aineiae/ (Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich) iieaaae, /oi iieaeoeu
iooaeeeaathony ia i/aiue iaeuo ?annoiyieyo, i?eoyaeaathony i?e
ianeieueei aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo e caoai ii ia?a oaaee/aiey ?annoiyiey
aeaiiino?e?otho iiia?aiaiii iooaeeeaaiea e i?eoyaeaiea ni ana
oiaiueoathuaeny aaee/eiie. Aai eaeae a neaaeothuai noieaoee ieacaee
aeeyiea eae ia Oa?aaeay, oae e ia Eaeueaeia, ii auee neeoeii neiaeiuie,
/oiau ieacaoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii iieaciuie aeey oao, eoi caieiaeny
oai?eae eaieeey?iinoe. Iineaaeiea aeaai?acoiii aeiaieuenoaiaaeenue
i?inouie aeiioacaie.

Eoeie (G.H. Quincke) iinoaaee yenia?eiaiou ii ii?aaeaeaieth iaeaieueoaai
?annoiyiey, ia eioi?ii aeaenoaea iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee iuooeii. Ii
iieo/ee, /oi aeey ?acee/iuo aauanoa yoe ?annoiyiey ninoaaeytho ~ 1/20000
/anoue ieeeeiao?a, o.a. ~ 5(10–6 ni (aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiu niaeanii [2]).

Aeaeaein Aeaeo?ei iieacae, /oi aunioa, ia eioi?oth iiaeieiaaony
aeeaeeinoue, ii?aaeaeyaony aa?oiae /anoueth o?oaee, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony
iaae aeeaeeinoueth, e ia caaeneo io oi?iu ieaeiae /anoe o?oaee. Ii
n/eoae, /oi iiaeiyoea aeeaeeinoe i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y i?eoyaeaieth ni
noi?iiu aioo?aiiae oeeeeiae?e/aneie iiaa?oiinoe o?oaee, e eioi?ie
i?eiueaao aa?oiyy iiaa?oiinoue aeeaeeinoe. Enoiaey ec yoiai, ii iieacae,
/oi iiaeiyoea aeeaeeinoe a o?oaeao ec iaeeiaeiaiai aauanoaa ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eo aioo?aiiaio ?aaeeono [3].

Eea?i aue iaeiei ec ia?auo, eoi iieacae iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiyoey ai
aieiaiea i?eoyaeaiey iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie naiie aeeaeeinoe aeey iauyniaiey
eaieeey?iuo yaeaiee [4]. Ii, iaeiaei, ia i?eciaaae, /oi ?annoiyiey, ia
eioi?uo aeaenoaotho yoe neeu, iaiuooeii iaeu.

A 1751 a. oii Naaia? aaae aaaeioth eaeath iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey ii
aiaeiaee n iaoaie/aneei iaoyaeaieai iaia?aiu a oai?ee oi?oainoe [5].
Naaiaeiy iiiyoea iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey yaeyaony cao?yaeiui, n iaai
iau/ii ia/eiatho eco/aiea eaieeey?iuo nee e iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee a
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo.

Yoa eaeay noaea eeth/aaie a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee oai?ee. Nianoaaiii,
oai naiui aue naeaeai ia?aue oaa a eco/aiee yaeaiey — aaaaeaii
oaiiiaiieiae/aneia iiiyoea, iienuaathuaa iae?ineiie/aneia iiaaaeaiea
nenoaiu. Aoi?ie oaa — yoi auaiae oaiiiaiieiae/aneeo iiiyoee e au/eneaiea
cia/aiee aaee/ei, enoiaey ec iieaeoey?iie oai?ee. Yoio oaa eiaao
ia?iiioth aaaeiinoue, oae eae yaeyaony i?iaa?eie i?aaeeueiinoe oie eee
eiie iieaeoey?iie oai?ee.

A 1802 a. Aeaeii Eanee i?eaae ia?aia ei??aeoiia iauyniaiea iiaeuaia
aeeaeeinoe a o?oaea, ?anniao?eaay i?eoyaeaiea iaaeaeo oaa?aeui oaeii e
oiieei neiai aeeaeeinoe ia aai iiaa?oiinoe [6]. Ii, a ioee/ea io
aieueoeinoaa i?aaeuaeoueo enneaaeiaaoaeae, ia i?aaeiieaaae, /oi neea
yoiai i?eoyaeaiey iai?aaeaia aaa?o (iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
aeeaeeinoe). Iai?ioea, ii iieacae, /oi i?eoyaeaiea anthaeo ii?iaeueii e
iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea.

I?yiie yooaeo i?eoyaeaiey — oaaee/aiea aeaaeaiey a neia aeeaeeinoe,
iaoiaeyuainy a eiioaeoa n oaa?aeui oaeii, oae, /oi aeaaeaiea noaiiaeony
auoa, /ai aioo?e aeeaeeinoe. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai yaeyaony oi, /oi neie
no?aieony “?anoa/ueny” ii iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea, inoaiaaeeaaaiue
eeoue neeaie a?aaeoaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, noaeeyiiay o?oaea, iia?oaeaiiay
a aiaeo, nia/eaaaony aiaeie anthaeo, eoaea oa “niiaea aeiiiecoe”.
Iiaeieiaynue, aeeaeeinoue ia?acoao noiea, aan eioi?iai a eiioea eiioeia
o?aaiiaaoeaaao neeo, ii?iaeaeathuoth ?anoaeaiea aeeaeeinoe.

Yoa oai?ey ia auea caienaia n iiiiuueth iaoaiaoe/aneeo neiaieia e
iiyoiio ia iiaea iieacaoue eiee/anoaaiioth naycue iaaeaeo i?eoyaeaieai
ioaeaeueiuo /anoeoe e eiia/iui ?acoeueoaoii. Oai?ey Eanee auea iicaeiaa
ia?a?aaioaia n i?eiaiaieai eaieanianeeo iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia
Aeaeaeinii Eai?e (James Ivory) a noaouea i capillary action, under
“Fluids, Elevation of”, a i?eeiaeaiee e 4-io ecaeaieth Encyclopaedia
Britannica, iioaeeeiaaiiii a 1819 a.

Oai?ee THiaa e Eaieana.

A 1804 a. Oiian THia [7] iainiiaae oai?eth eaieeey?iuo yaeaiee ia
i?eioeeia iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey. Ii oaeaea iaaethaeae iinoiyinoai
oaea nia/eaaiey aeeaeeinoueth iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea (e?aaaiai oaea)
e iaoae eiee/anoaaiiia niioiioaiea, naycuaathuaa e?aaaie oaie n
eiyooeoeeaioaie iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo iaaeoaciuo
a?aieoe. A ?aaiiaanee eiioaeoiay eeiey ia aeieaeia aeaeaaoueny ii
iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea, a cia/eo, aiai?ee

(1)

aaea (SV, (SL, (LV — eiyooeoeeaiou iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey iaaeoaciuo
a?aieoe oaa?aeia oaei – aac (ia?), oaa?aeia oaei – aeeaeeinoue,
aeeaeeinoue – aac niioaaonoaaiii, ( — e?aaaie oaie. Yoi niioiioaiea
oaia?ue ecaanoii eae oi?ioea THiaa. Yoa ?aaioa ana aea ia ieacaea oaeiai
aeeyiey ia ?acaeoea iaoee a yoii iai?aaeaiee, eaeia ieacaea auoaaeoay
ianeieueeeie ianyoeaie iicaea noaouey Eaieana (Pierre Simon Laplace).
Yoi, ii-aeaeeiiio, naycaii n oai, /oi THia ecaaaae eniieueciaaiey
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaicia/aiee, a iuoaeny iienuaaoue ana neiaanii, io/aai
aai ?aaioa eaaeaony caiooaiiie e iayniie. Oai ia iaiaa ii n/eoaaony
naaiaeiy iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe.

ssaeaiey eiaacee e aaeaacee , eiiaeainaoeey ia?a a aeeaeeinoue,
nia/eaaiea oaa?aeuo oae aeeaeeinoyie e iiiaea ae?oaea i?inoua naienoaa
aauanoaa — ana oeacuaaei ia iaee/ea nee i?eoyaeaiey, ai iiiai ?ac aieaa
neeueiuo, /ai a?aaeoaoeey, ii aeaenoaothueo oieueei ia i/aiue iaeuo
?annoiyieyo iaaeaeo iieaeoeaie. Eae aiai?ee Eaiean, aaeeinoaaiiia
auoaeathuaa ec iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee oneiaea, iaeaaaaiia ia yoe neeu,
ninoieo a oii, /oi iie «iaiuooeiu ia iuooeiuo ?annoiyieyo».

Neeu iooaeeeaaiey nicaeaaaee aieueoa oeiiio. Eo iaee/ea iaeuecy auei
io?eoeaoue — iie aeieaeiu o?aaiiaaoeaaoue neeu i?eoyaeaiey e
i?aiyonoaiaaoue iieiiio ?ac?ooaieth aauanoaa, ii eo i?e?iaea auea
niaa?oaiii iayniie. Aii?in ineiaeiyeny aeaoiy neaaeothueie ioeai/iuie
iiaieyie. Ai-ia?auo, /anoi n/eoaeinue, /oi aeaenoaothuae neeie
iooaeeeaaiey yaeyaony oaiei (eae i?aaeei, iiaiea noi?iiieeia oai?ee
oaiei?iaea), iineieueeo (oaeiaa auea a?aoiaioaoeey) aeeaeeinoue i?e
iaa?aaaiee nia/aea ?anoe?yaony e caoai eeieo, oae /oi iieaeoeu
?acuaaeeiythony ia ai?acaei aieueoea ?annoiyiey, /ai a oaa?aeii oaea.
Aoi?ia ioeai/iia iiaiea aicieeei ec oaiaeyuaai iacaae e Iuethoiio
i?aaenoaaeaiey, niaeanii eioi?iio iaaethaeaaiia aeaaeaiea aaca
i?ienoiaeeo aneaaenoaea noaoe/aneiai iooaeeeaaiey iaaeaeo iieaeoeaie, a
ia ec-ca eo noieeiiaaiee ni noaieaie ninoaea, eae ouaoii aeieacuaae
Aeaieaeue Aa?ioeee.

Ia yoii oiia auei anoanoaaiii, /oi ia?aua iiiuoee iauynieoue
eaieeey?iinoue eee aiiaua noeaieaiea aeeaeeinoae iniiauaaeenue ia
noaoe/aneeo aniaeoao aauanoaa. Iaoaieea auea oi?ioi iiieiaaiie
oai?aoe/aneie aaoaueth iaoee; oa?iiaeeiaieea e eeiaoe/aneay oai?ey auee
aua a aoaeouai. A iaoaie/aneii ?anniio?aiee eeth/aaui auei
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i aieueoeo, ii ei?ioeiaeaenoaothueo neeao i?eoyaeaiey.
Iieiyueany aeeaeeinoe (a eaieeey?iie ee o?oaea eee aia aa) iaoiaeyony,
i/aaeaeii, a ?aaiiaanee, a iioiio yoe neeu i?eoyaeaiey aeieaeiu
o?aaiiaaoeaaoueny neeaie iooaeeeaaiey. Iineieueeo i ieo iiaeii auei
neacaoue aua iaiueoa, /ai i neeao i?eoyaeaiey, eo /anoi iaoiaeeee
iie/aieai, e, aiai?y neiaaie ?yeay, «neeai i?eoyaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeyeinue
eniieiyoue iaiuneeiue o?the o?aaiiaaoeaaiey naieo naay». Eaiean ia?aui
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii ?ac?aoee yoo i?iaeaio [8], iieaaay, /oi neeu
iooaeeeaaiey (oaieiaua, eae ii aeiioneae) iiaeii caiaieoue aioo?aiiei
aeaaeaieai, eioi?ia aeaenoaoao iianaianoii a ianaeeiaaiie aeeaeeinoe.
(Yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea i?eaiaeeo a?aiaiaie e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a ?aaioao
XIX a. a ioiioaiee oiai, /oi no?iai iiieiaaony iiae «aeaaeaieai a
aeeaeeinoe».) I?eaaaeai ?an/ao aioo?aiiaai aeaaeaiey ii Eaieano. (Yoio
auaiae aeeaea e auaiaeai Iaenaaeea [2] e ?yeay [10]. Auaiae i?eaiaeeony
ii [9] .)

Iii aeieaeii o?aaiiaaoeaaoue neeu noeaieaiey a aeeaeeinoe, e Eaiean
ioiaeaeanoaeye yoi n neeie ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee, eioi?ay ieacuaaao
nii?ioeaeaiea ?acaeaeaieth aaneiia/iiai aeeaeeiai oaea ia aeaa aeaeaei
?acuaaeeiyaiuo iieoaaneiia/iuo oaea, ia?aie/aiiuo ieineeie
iiaa?oiinoyie. I?eaaaeaiiue ieaea auaiae aeeaea e auaiaeai Iaenaaeea e
?yeay, /ai e i?eaeiaeueiie oi?ia Eaieana, ii nouanoaaiiiai ?acee/ey a
a?aoiaioaoeee iao.

, aaea ia/aei iiey?iuo eii?aeeiao niaiaaeaao n iieiaeaieai ia?aiai
yeaiaioa?iiai iauaia. Ionoue f(s) — neea, aeaenoaothuay iaaeaeo aeaoiy
iieaeoeaie, ?acaeaeaiiuie ?annoiyieai s, a d – ?aaeeon aa aeaenoaey.
Iineieueeo yoi anaaaea neea i?eoyaeaiey, eiaai

Anee r — ieioiinoue /enea iieaeoe a iaieo oaeao, oi aa?oeeaeueiay
ninoaaeythuay neeu acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoo yeaiaioia iauaia ?aaia

(2)

Iieiay neea i?eoyaeaiey, i?eoiaeyuayny ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee
(iieiaeeoaeueiay aaee/eia), anoue

(3)

Ionoue u(s) — iioaioeeae iaaeiieaeoey?iie neeu:

(4)

(5)

?en. 1.

Eioaa?e?oy ii /anoyi aua ?ac, iieo/aai

(6)

Aioo?aiiaa aeaaeaiea Eaieana K anoue neea i?eoyaeaiey ia aaeeieoeo
ieiuaaee iaaeaeo aeaoiy ieineeie iiaa?oiinoyie i?e eo eiioaeoa, o.a.
F(0):

(7)

. Iineieueeo u(r) ii i?aaeiieiaeaieth anthaeo io?eoeaoaeueii eee ?aaii
ioeth, oi K iieiaeeoaeueii. Eaiean iieaaae, /oi K aaeeei ii n?aaiaieth n
aoiinoa?iui aeaaeaieai, ii ia?aoth ?aaeenoe/aneoth /eneaiioth ioeaieo
i?aaenoiyei naeaeaoue THiao.

I?eaaaeaiiue auoa auaiae iniiaai ia iayaiii aeiiouaiee, /oi iieaeoeu
?ani?aaeaeaiu ?aaiiia?ii n ieioiinoueth (, o.a. aeeaeeinoue ia iaeaaeaao
?acee/eiie no?oeoo?ie a oeaea ?acia?ia, niecia?eiuo n ?aaeeonii
aeaenoaey nee d. Aac yoiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey iaeuecy auei au iaienaoue
au?aaeaiey (2) e (3) a oaeie i?inoie oi?ia, a iaaei auei au auynieoue,
eae i?enoonoaea iieaeoeu a ia?aii yeaiaioa iauaia aeeyao ia aa?iyoiinoue
iaee/ey iieaeoeu ai aoi?ii.

Iaoyaeaiea ia aaeeieoeo aeeeiu aaeieue i?iecaieueiie eeiee ia
iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe aeieaeii auoue ?aaiui (a niioaaonoaothuae nenoaia
aaeeieoe) ?aaioa, cao?a/aiiie ia nicaeaiea aaeeieoeu ieiuaaee naiaiaeiie
iiaa?oiinoe. Yoi neaaeoao ec iiuoa ii ?anoyaeaieth ieaiee aeeaeeinoe
(?en. 2).

?en. 2.

Ia i?iaiei/iie ?aiea aea?aeeony aeeaeeay ieaiea, i?ee?aieaiiay i?aaui
e?aai e naiaiaeii ia?aiauaaiie i?iaiei/ea. Neea F, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey
o?aaiiaaoeaaiey iaoyaeaiey a aeaonoi?iiiae ieaiea, i?iii?oeeiiaeueia
aeeeia L. Ionoue F = 2(L. Niauaiea i?iaiei/ee ia ?annoiyiea \symbol 100
\f “Symbol” \s 12 x o?aaoao ?aaiou F((x = ((A, aaea (A — oaaee/aiea
ieiuaaee. Oaeei ia?acii, iaoyaeaiea ia aaeeieoeo aeeeiu ia ioaeaeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe, eee iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea (, /eneaiii ?aaii
iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee.

Aaee/eia yoie ?aaiou iiaeao auoue n?aco iieo/aia ec au?aaeaiey (6) aeey
F(l). Anee acyoue aeaa iieoaaneiia/iuo oaea a eiioaeoa e ?acaanoe eo ia
?annoiyiea, i?aauoathuaa ?aaeeon aeaenoaey iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee, ?aaioa
ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny eae

(8)

I?e ?acaeaeaiee ia?acothony aeaa naiaiaeiua iiaa?oiinoe, e iioiio
cao?a/aiioth ?aaioo iiaeii i?e?aaiyoue oaeaiaiiie iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee
ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee, eioi?ay ?aaia iiaa?oiinoiiio iaoyaeaieth:

(9)

Oaeei ia?acii, K anoue eioaa?ae io iaaeiieaeoey?iiai iioaioeeaea, eee
aai ioeaaie iiiaio, a H — aai ia?aue iiiaio. A oi a?aiy eae K
iaaeinooiii i?yiiio yenia?eiaioo, H iiaeao auoue iaeaeaii, anee iu
niiaeai ecia?eoue iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea.

Ionoue \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” — ieioiinoue eiaaceiiiie yia?aee a
iaeioi?ie oi/ea aeeaeeinoe eee aaca, o.a. ioiioaiea ( \NEIAIE 100 \f
“Symbol” U/( \NEIAIE 100 \f “Symbol” V aaea ( \NEIAIE 100 \f “Symbol”
U — aioo?aiiyy yia?aey iaeiai iauaia \NEIAIE 100 \f “Symbol” V
aeeaeeinoe eee aaca, niaea?aeauaai yoo oi/eo. Aeey iieaeoey?iie iiaeaee
i?eieiaai

(10)

aaea r — ?annoiyiea io ?anniao?eaaaiie oi/ee. ?yeae ioiaeaeanoaeye
eaieanianeia K n ?aciinoueth yoiai iioaioeeaea 2 \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol”
iaaeaeo oi/eie ia ieineie iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe (cia/aiea 2 \NEIAIE
102 \f “Symbol” S) e oi/eie aioo?e (cia/aiea 2 \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol”
I). Ia iiaa?oiinoe eioaa?e?iaaiea a (10) ia?aie/aii iieonoa?ie ?aaeeona
d, a ai aioo?aiiae iaeanoe i?iaiaeeony ii anae noa?a. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
\NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” S anoue iieiaeia \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” I,
eee

(11)

, oi

(12)

Oiaaea aioo?aiiaa aeaaeaiea a eaiea anoue

(13)

aaea H ii?aaeaeyaony o?aaiaieai (9). Anee au iu acyee ia noa?e/aneoth
eaieth, a ii?oeeth aeeaeeinoe n iiaa?oiinoueth, ii?aaeaeyaiie aeaoiy
aeaaiuie ?aaeeonaie e?eaeciu R1 e R2 , oi iieo/eee au aioo?aiia
aeaaeaiea a aeaea

(14)

?aaia noiia ia?aoiuo ?aaeeonia e?eaeciu iiaa?oiinoe aaeieue ethauo
aeaoo i?oiaiiaeueiuo eanaoaeueiuo.

Oae eae K e H iieiaeeoaeueiu e R iieiaeeoaeueii aeey auioeeie
iiaa?oiinoe, oi ec (13) neaaeoao, /oi aioo?aiiaa aeaaeaiea a eaiea auoa,
/ai a aeeaeeinoe n ieineie iiaa?oiinoueth. Iaiai?io, aioo?aiiaa
aeaaeaiea a aeeaeeinoe, ia?aie/aiiie aiaiooie noa?e/aneie iiaa?oiinoueth
ieaea, /ai a aeeaeeinoe n ieineie iiaa?oiinoueth, iineieueeo R a yoii
neo/aa io?eoeaoaeueii.

(aeaaeaiea aaca nia?oaee) oaia?ue iacuaatho o?aaiaieai Eaieana:

(15)

Aeinoaoi/ii o?ao eaeae — iaoyaeaiey o iiaa?oiinoe, aioo?aiiaai aeaaeaiey
e e?aaaiai oaea, a oaeaea au?aaeaiee (1) e (15), /oiau ?aoeoue ana
caaea/e iau/iie ?aaiiaaniie eaieeey?iinoe iaoiaeaie eeanne/aneie
noaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, iinea ?aaio Eaieana e THiaa iniiau
eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe auee caeiaeaiu.

?acoeueoaou THiaa auee iieo/aiu iicaea Aaonnii aa?eaoeeiiiui iaoiaeii.
Ii ana yoe ?aaiou (THiaa, Eaieana e Aaonna) iaeaaeaee iaeiei iauei
iaaeinoaoeii, ecuyiii, anee iiaeii oae au?aceoueny. Ia yoii iaaeinoaoea
aoaeao ?anneacaii iicaea.

I?e ?an/aoa aeaaeaiey aioo?e ene?eaeaiiie aeeaeeie iiaa?oiinoe aue
aaaaeai iioaioeeae ?yeay 2 \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” (10); iiiooii auei
ioia/aii, /oi \NEIAIE 102 \f “Symbol” I yaeyaony ieioiinoueth
eiaaceiiiie yia?aee. Aia?aua yoi iieaciia iiiyoea a 1869 a. aaae
Aethi?a, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeee aai eae ?aaioo ae?iaeaiey eonea aauanoaa ia
ninoaaeythuea aai iieaeoeu (la travail de desagre \NEIAIE 233 \f “Times
New Roman CE” gation totale — ?aaioa iieiie aeacaa?aaaoeee).

?en. 3

Iai?aaeaiiay aioo?ue neea, aeaenoaothuay ia iieaeoeo ia aeoaeia r < d, i?ioeaiiieiaeia ii ciaeo iai?aaeaiiie ia?oaeo neea, eioi?ay au aicieeea ni noi?iiu iieaeoe a caoo?eoiaaiiii iauaia, anee au ii aue caiieiai ?aaiiia?ii n ieioiinoueth NEIAIE 114 \f "Symbol" .Ii i?eaiaeeo [12] auaiae, i?iaeaeaiiue aai eieeaaie O. AE. Ae. Iannuea neaaeothuei ia?acii. Neea, aeaenoaothuay ia iieaeoeo o iiaa?oiinoe ii iai?aaeaieth e iauaio aeeaeeinoe, i?ioeaiiieiaeia ii ciaeo neea, aicieeathuae io caoo?eoiaaiiiai iauaia ia ?en. 3, iineieueeo aioo?e aeeaeeinoe neea i?eoyaeaiey io oa?iaiai iauaia ?aaeeona ?aaia ioeth ec neiiao?ee. Oaeei ia?acii, neea, iai?aaeaiiay aioo?ue, anoue(16)Yoa neea iieiaeeoaeueia, oae eae f(0 < s < d) < 0 e F(d) = 0 ec-ca ia/aoiinoe ooieoeee f(s). Ieeaeay neea ia aeaenoaoao ia iieaeoeo, anee oieueei iia ia iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao ?annoiyiey d ii oo eee eioth noi?iio io iiaa?oiinoe. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaioa oaeaeaiey iaeiie iieaeoeu ec aeeaeeinoe ?aaia(17)iineieueeo u(r) — /aoiay ooieoeey. Yoa ?aaioa ?aaia ieion oaeaiaiiie yia?aee ia iieaeoeo, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey aeaceioaa?aoeee aeeaeeinoe (oaeaiaiiie, /oiau ia n/eoaoue iieaeoeu aeaaaeaeu: iaeei ?ac i?e eo oaeaeaiee, ae?oaie ?ac — eae /anoue n?aaeu):(18)Yoi i?inoia e iiiyoiia au?aaeaiea aeey aioo?aiiae yia?aee U aeeaeeinoe, niaea?aeauae N iieaeoe. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi ieioiinoue eiaaceiiiie yia?aee \NEIAIE 102 \f "Symbol" aeaaony au?aaeaieai (10), eee(19)/oi niaiaaeaao n (11), anee oa?aoue eiaeaen I. Nai Aethi?a iieo/ee oio aea ?acoeueoao ieieueiui iooai. Ii ?ann/eouaae dU/dV /a?ac ?aaioo i?ioea iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee i?e iaeii?iaeiii ?anoe?aiee eoaa aeeaeeinoe. Yoi aeaei aio(20)((7) e (11)), aaea iinoiyiiay a aeaaony au?aaeaieai(21)oi eioaa?e?iaaiea (20) niiaa i?eaiaeeo e (19).?yeae e?eoeeiaae auaiae Aethi?a [10]. Ii n/eoae, /oi ?anniio?aiea ?aaiou iaeii?iaeiiai ?anoe?aiey io ninoiyiey aaeaina eiaaceiiiuo e iooaeeeaathueo iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee i?e o/aoa oieueei eiaaceiiiuo nee auei iaiainiiaaiiui; i?aaeaea /ai i?aaei?eiyoue iiaeiaiue oaa, neaaeiaaei au ?aniieaaaoue eo/oei ciaieai aeaea nee iooaeeeaaiey.Iu aeaeei, /oi a yoii auaiaea, eae e a auaiaeao THiaa, Eaieana e Aaonna, nouanoaaiiui ia?acii eniieuecoaony i?aaeiieiaeaiea i nea/eiia?aciii eciaiaiee ieioiinoe /enea iieaeoe aauanoaa ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea oac. A oi aea a?aiy, /oiau i?iaaaeaiiua ?annoaeaeaiey iienuaaee ?aaeueiua yaeaiey a aauanoaa, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi ?aaeeon aeaenoaey iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee a aauanoaa iiiai aieueoa oa?aeoa?iiai ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie. Ii i?e yoii i?aaeiieiaeaiee a?aieoea ?acaeaea aeaoo oac ia iiaeao auoue ?aceie — aeieaeai aicieeiooue iai?a?uaiue ia?aoiaeiue i?ioeeue ieioiinoe, eia/a aiai?y, ia?aoiaeiay ciia.Auee i?aaei?eiyou iiiuoee iaiaueoue yoe auaiaeu ia iai?a?uaiue ia?aoiaeiue i?ioeeue. A /anoiinoe, Ioannii, iuoaynue iieoe ii oaeiio iooe, i?eoae e ioeai/iiio auaiaeo, /oi i?e iaee/ee ia?aoiaeiiai i?ioeey iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea aeieaeii aiiaua en/aciooue. Iicaea Iaenaaee iieacae ioeai/iinoue oaeiai auaiaea.Iaeiaei, naii i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi ?aaeeon aeaenoaey iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee a aauanoaa iiiai aieueoa oa?aeoa?iiai ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie ia niioaaonoaoao yenia?eiaioaeueiui aeaiiui. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, yoe ?annoiyiey iaeiiai ii?yaeea. Iiyoiio iaoaienoe/aneia ?anniio?aiea a aeooa Eaieana yaeyaony, aiai?y nia?aiaiiui ycueii, oai?eae n?aaeiaai iiey. Oaeiaie aea yaeyaony ia iienaiiay caeanue oai?ey Aai-aea?-Aaaeuena, aeaaoay ciaiaieoia o?aaiaiea ninoiyiey ?aaeueiuo aacia. Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo oi/iue ?an/ao o?aaoao o/aoa ei?aeeyoeee iaaeaeo ieioiinoyie eiee/anoaa /anoeoe a ?acee/iuo oi/eao. Yoi aeaeaao caaea/o i/aiue neiaeiie.Oai?ey eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana.Eae /anoi auaaao, oa?iiaeeiaie/aneia iienaiea ieacuaaaony aieaa i?inoui e aieaa iauei, ia aoaeo/e ia?aie/aiiui iaaeinoaoeaie eiie?aoiuo iiaeaeae.Eiaiii oaeei ia?acii iienae eaieeey?iinoue Aeaan a 1878 a., iino?iea /enoi oa?iiaeeiaie/aneoth oai?eth [12]. Yoa oai?ey noaea iaiouaieaiie /anoueth aeaanianeie oa?iiaeeiaieee. Oai?ey eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana, ia iie?aynue iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia eaeea-eeai iaoaienoe/aneea iiaeaee, eeoaia iaaeinoaoeia oai?ee Eaieana; iia iiaeao ii i?aao n/eoaoueny ia?aie aeaoaeueii ?acaeoie oa?iiaeeiaie/aneie oai?eae iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee.I?i oai?eth eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iia i/aiue i?inoa e i/aiue neiaeia. I?inoa iioiio, /oi Aeaano oaeaeinue iaeoe iaoiae, iicaieythuee iieo/eoue iaeaieaa eiiiaeoiua e ecyuiua oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea niioiioaiey, a ?aaiie ia?a i?eiaieiua e ieineei e ene?eaeaiiui iiaa?oiinoyi. «Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo caaea/ oai?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey a ethaie iaeanoe ciaiey, — ienae Aeaan, — yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea oaeie oi/ee c?aiey, n eioi?ie iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey i?iyaeyaony n iaeaieueoae i?inoioie» [13]. Oaeay oi/ea c?aiey a oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana — yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?acaeaeythueo iiaa?oiinoyo. Eniieueciaaiea iaaeyaeiiai aaiiao?e/aneiai ia?aca ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe e aaaaeaiea ecauoi/iuo aaee/ei iicaieeei iaeneiaeueii i?inoi iienaoue naienoaa iiaa?oiinoae e iaieoe aii?in i no?oeoo?a e oieueia iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy, eioi?ue ai a?aiaia Aeaana aue niaa?oaiii ia eco/ai e aei neo ii? inoaaony ?aoaiiui aeaeaei ia iieiinoueth. Ecauoi/iua aaee/eiu Aeaana (aaeni?aoeey e ae?oaea) caaenyo io iieiaeaiey ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe, e iineaaeiaa iiaeao auoue oaeaea iaeaeaii ec niia?aaeaiee iaeneiaeueiie i?inoiou e oaeianoaa.?acoiii auae?aoue a eaaeaeii neo/aa ?acaeaeythuoth iiaa?oiinoue oae, /oiau iia auea anthaeo ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia a?aaeeaioo ieioiinoe. Anee ?acaeaeythuea iiaa?oiinoe aua?aiu, oi eaaeaeie oaca {l} (l = a, b, g) oaia?ue niioaaonoaoao caieiaaiue ae iauai V{l}. Iieiue iauai nenoaiu— ieioiinoue eiee/anoaa iieaeoe ni?oa j a [iauaiiie] oaca {l}. Oiaaea iieiia /enei iieaeoe ni?oa j a ?anniao?eaaaiie nenoaia ?aaiii?iii?oeeiiaeai aa ieiuaaee A. Aaee/eia, ii?aaeaeyaiay eae iiaa?oiinoiue ecauoie /enea iieaeoe ni?oa j ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe, iacuaaaony aaeni?aoeeae iieaeoe ni?oa j ia yoie iiaa?oiinoe.Aeaan eniieueciaae aeaa iniiaiuo iieiaeaiey ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe: oaeia, i?e eioi?ii aaeni?aoeey iaeiiai ec eiiiiiaioia ?aaia ioeth (nae/an yoo iiaa?oiinoue iacuaatho yeaeiieaeoey?iie), e iieiaeaiea, aeey eioi?iai en/acaao yaiay caaeneiinoue iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee io e?eaeciu iiaa?oiinoe (yoi iieiaeaiea auei iacaaii Aeaanii iiaa?oiinoueth iaoyaeaiey). Yeaeiieaeoey?iie iiaa?oiinoueth Aeaan iieueciaaeny aeey ?anniio?aiey ieineeo aeeaeeeo iiaa?oiinoae (e iiaa?oiinoae oaa?aeuo oae), a iiaa?oiinoueth iaoyaeaiey — aeey ?anniio?aiey ene?eaeaiiuo iiaa?oiinoae. Aeey iaieo iieiaeaiee nie?auaaony /enei ia?aiaiiuo e aeinoeaaaony iaeneiaeueiay iaoaiaoe/aneay i?inoioa.Oaia?ue i neiaeiinoe oai?ee Aeaana. Aoaeo/e i/aiue i?inoie a iaoaiaoe/aneii ioiioaiee, iia ana aea o?oaeia aeey aini?eyoey; i?ienoiaeeo yoi ii ianeieueeei i?e/eiai. Ai-ia?auo, oai?eth eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana iaaiciiaeii iiiyoue a io?uaa io anae aeaanianeie oa?iiaeeiaieee, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeeo aanueia iauee, aeaaeoeoeaiue iaoiae. Aieueoay iauiinoue oai?ee anaaaea i?eaeaao ae iaeioi?oth aano?aeoiinoue, /oi, eiia/ii, io?aaeaaony ia eaaeinoe aini?eyoey. Ai-aoi?uo, naia oai?ey eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana anoue iaoe?iay, ii oneiaiay nenoaia, o?aaothuay aaeeinoaa aini?eyoey aac ioaea/aiey io ioaeaeueiuo aa iieiaeaiee. Aeeeaoaioneee iiaeoiae e eco/aieth Aeaana i?inoi iaaiciiaeai. Iaeiiaoe, iaiaeiaaaeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaii yaeyaony oi, /oi any oiiiyiooay ?aaioa Aeaana iaienaia aanueia eiiniaeoeaii e i/aiue o?oaeiui ycueii. Yoa ?aaioa, ii neiaai ?yeay, «neeoeii naeaoa e o?oaeia ia oieueei aeey aieueoeinoaa, ii, iiaeii neacaoue, aeey anao /eoaoaeae» [15]. Ii iiaieth Aoaaiaaeia, «ai?acaei eaa/a eniieueciaaoue oi?ioeu Aeaana, /ai iiieiaoue eo» [16].Anoanoaaiii, /oi eniieueciaaiea oi?ioe Aeaana aac eo enoeiiiai iiieiaiey i?eaiaeeei e iiyaeaieth iiiai/eneaiiuo ioeaie a eioa?i?aoaoeee e i?eiaiaiee ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana. Iiiai ioeaie auei naycaii n iaiiieiaieai iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaeiicia/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey iieiaeaiey ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe aeey iieo/aiey i?aaeeueiiai oece/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa. Ioeaee oaeiai ?iaea /anoi ano?a/aeenue i?e aiaeeca caaeneiinoe iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey io e?eaeciu iiaa?oiinoe; ia ecaaaeae eo aeaaea iaeei ec «noieiia» oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe — Aaeea?. I?eia? ioeaie ae?oaiai ?iaea — iai?aaeeueiay eioa?i?aoaoeey oeie/aneeo iioaioeeaeia i?e ?anniio?aiee iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee e aiaoieo iieae.Oaea anei?a iinea iioaeeeiaaiey oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana auneacuaaeenue iiaeaeaiey i aa aieaa iieiii e iiae?iaiii iiyniaiee a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a. A oeeoe?iaaiiii auoa ienueia e Aeaano ?yeae i?aaeeaaae, /oiau yoo ?aaioo acye ia naay nai Aeaan. Iaeiaei auiieiaii yoi auei cia/eoaeueii iicaea: ?aen iiaeaioiaee eiiiaioa?ee ei anae oai?ee Aeaana [17 no?. 505—708], a ioaeaeueiua aa iieiaeaiey eiiiaioe?iaaeenue a o?oaeao O?oieeia, Aeaoay, ?aaeiaea?a, Aoaaaiaaeia, Oieiaia, Aaooa, Naiai/aiei e ae?oaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae. Iiiaea iieiaeaiey oai?ee Aeaana i?iynieeenue, e aeey eo iainiiaaiey auee iaeaeaiu aieaa i?inoua e yooaeoeaiua eiae/aneea i?eaiu.Oeie/iui i?eia?ii yaeyaony yooaeoiay ?aaioa Eiiaei [18], a eioi?ie aue i?aaeeiaeai iaaeyaeiue e i?inoie aeey iiieiaiey iaoiae aaaaeaiey iiaa?oiinoe iaoyaeaiey iooai iuneaiiiai ia?aiauaiey ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe. Anee iu iaieoai au?aaeaiea aeey yia?aee ?aaiiaaniie aeaoooaciie nenoaiu ( – ( (( — aioo?aiiyy e ( — ia?oaeiay oacu) ni noa?e/aneie iiaa?oiinoueth ?ac?uaa(22)e aoaeai iuneaiii iaiyoue iieiaeaiea ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe, o.a. iaiyoue aa ?aaeeon r, oi, i/aaeaeii, oaeea oece/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, eae yia?aey U, oaiia?aoo?a O, yio?iiey S, aeaaeaiea ?, oeie/aneee iioaioeeae i-ai eiiiiiaioa (i e aai ianna mi , a oaeaea iieiue iauai nenoaiu V( + V( i?e yoii ia eciaiyaony. *oi aea eanaaony iauaia V( = 4/3(r3 e ieiuaaee A = 4(r2 e iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey (, oi yoe aaee/eiu aoaeoo caaenaoue io iieiaeaiey ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe e iioiio aeey oeacaiiiai iuneaiiiai i?ioeanna eciaiaiey r iu iieo/aai ec (22)– P( dV(+ P( dV( + (dA + Ad( = 0 (23)eee(24)O?aaiaiea (24) ii?aaeaeyao iaoece/aneoth (yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ioia/aii caacaei/eie) caaeneiinoue iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey io iieiaeaiey ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe. Yoa caaeneiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony aaeeinoaaiiui ieieioiii (, eioi?ue e niioaaonoaoao iiaa?oiinoe iaoyaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, ii Eiiaei, iiaa?oiinoue iaoyaeaiey — yoa oaeay ?acaeaeythuay iiaa?oiinoue, aeey eioi?ie iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea eiaao ieieiaeueiia cia/aiea.(25)(/a?oa naa?oo icia/aao ecauoie aeey i?iecaieueiie ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe n aeaaiuie e?eaeciaie N1 e C2 ) e ?anniao?eaae oece/aneee (a ia /enoi iuneaiiue) i?ioeann ene?eaeaiey iiaa?oiinoe i?e caaeaiiii aa iieiaeaiee e oeene?iaaiiuo aiaoieo oneiaeyo.Ii Aeaano, iiaa?oiinoe iaoyaeaiey niioaaonoaoao oaeia iieiaeaiea ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe, i?e eioi?ii ene?eaeaiea iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy i?e iinoiyinoaa aiaoieo ia?aiao?ia ia neacuaaaony ia iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee e niioaaonoaoao oaeaea oneiaeth:((((r =0 (26)Aoaaaiaaei oae eiiiaioe?oao aeieacaoaeuenoai Aeaana: «ss iaoae ?anniio?aiea Aeaana o?oaeiui, e /ai ouaoaeueiaa y eco/ae aai, oai aieaa iayniui iii iia eacaeinue» [16]. Yoi i?eciaiea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi iiieiaiea iiaa?oiinoe iaoyaeaiey ii Aeaano ano?a/aei o?oaeiinoe aeaaea o niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe oa?iiaeeiaieee.i?eia?, eniieuecoy aeae?inoaoe/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey [19, no?. 61](27)aaeaPt — eieaeueiia cia/aiea oaiaaioeeaeueiie ninoaaeythuae oaici?a aeaaeaiey;r' — ?aaeeaeueiay eii?aeeiaoa; ?aaeeonu R( e R( ia?aie/eaatho iiaa?oiinoiue neie.Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiea (27) i?e iuneaiiii ia?aiauaiee ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe e iinoiyinoaa oece/aneiai ninoiyiey (iiaeoiae Eiiaei) i?eaiaeeo e o?aaiaieth (24). Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiea aea i?e ene?eaeaiee iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy e iinoiyinoaa oece/aneiai ninoiyiey (iiaeoiae Aeaana, a yoii neo/aa R( e R( ia?aiaiiu) aeaao(28)aaea o/oaii, /oi Pt (P( ) = P( e Pt (P( ) = P(.Ec o?aaiaiee (28) e (24) aeaeii, /oi oneiaea (26) yeaeaaeaioii oneiaeth (d(/dr)* = 0 e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aieaa i?inoie e iaaeyaeiue iiaeoiae Eiiaei aaeaeaaoai iiaeoiaeo Aeaana.Aaaaeaiea iiiyoey ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe iicaieeei iaoaiaoe/anee no?iai ii?aaeaeeoue ?aiaa /enoi eiooeoeaiia iiiyoea a?aieoeu ?acaeaea oac e, cia/eo, eniieueciaaoue oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiua aaee/eiu a o?aaiaieyo. A i?eioeeia, oa?iiaeeiaieea iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee Aeaana iienuaaao i/aiue oe?ieee e?oa yaeaiee, e iiyoiio (e?iia iniciaiey, ia?aoi?ioee?iaie, aieaa ecyuiuo auaiaeia e aeieacaoaeuenoa) ni a?aiaie aa nicaeaiey auei naeaeaii i/aiue iaei iiaiai a yoie iaeanoe. Ii ana aea, iaeioi?ua ?acoeueoaou, eanathueany a iniiaiii oao aii?inia, eioi?ua ia auee inaauaiu Aeaanii, iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu auoue oiiiyioou.?acaeoea e iaiauaiea oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana.Iaoiae neiy eiia/iie oieueiuIa?aiia/aeueii iaoiae neiy eiia/iie oieueiu, iniiaaiiue o?oaeaie Aai-aea?-Aaaeuena [20], Aaeea?a [21], Aa?noaooaeueoa [22] e Aoaaaiaaeia [16], ?acaeaaeny eae iacaaeneiue iaoiae oa?iiaeeiaieee iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee. Iicaeiaa auei ia?auaii aieiaiea ia oi, /oi i?e no?iaie oi?ioee?iaea yoiai iaoiaea o?aaoaony i?eaea/aiea iiiyoey ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe, ii i?e yoii eniieuecoaony ia iaeia, a aeaa ?acaeaeythueo iiaa?oiinoe [23]. Aua aieueoay naycue n iaoiaeii Aeaana i?iyaeyaony i?e iino?iaiee oa?iiaeeiaieee ene?eaeaiiuo iiaa?oiinoae iaoiaeii neiy eiia/iie oieueiu [24, 25], aaea, eae e a iaoiaea Aeaana, eniieuecoaony iiiyoea iiaa?oiinoe iaoyaeaiey.?anniio?ei ?aaiiaanioth aeaoooacioth nenoaio ( – ( ieineie iiaa?oiinoueth ?ac?uaa, ninoiyiea eioi?ie oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?aaiaieai(29)e aaaaeai ?acaeaeythuoth iiaa?oiinoue ni noi?iiu oacu (, a oaeaea ae?oaoth ?acaeaeythuoth iiaa?oiinoue ni noi?iiu oacu ( ia i?iecaieueiii ?annoiyiee ( ae?oa io ae?oaa. I?aaenoaaei, /oi /anoe nenoaiu, ?acaeaeaiiua neiai oieueiu (, caiieiaiu iauaiiuie oacaie (, ( e eo ninoiyiea iienuaaaony o?aaiaieyie:(30)(31)Anee iu oaia?ue au/oai (11) e (12) ec (10), oi iieo/ei o?aaiaiea(32)a eioi?ii eaaeaeay yenoaineaiay aaee/eia, iiia/aiiay /a?oie naa?oo, ioiineony e iauaio V(=A( e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio ?aaeueiie aaee/eiu aeey aeaiiiai iauaia e ecauoeia ni noi?iiu iaaeo oac. Iai?eia?(33)aaea— ?aaeueiia eiee/anoai i-ai eiiiiiaioa a neia oieueiie (;— aaniethoiay aaeni?aoeey i-ai eiiiiiaioa ni noi?iiu oacu (, ioianaiiay e ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe ni noi?iiu oie aea oacu;— aiaeiae/iay aaee/eia aaeni?aoeee ni noi?iiu oacu (.o?aaiaiea (32) ia?aoiaeeo a o?aaiaiea (29) aeey aeaoooaciie nenoaiu a oeaeii.—ae?oaie i?aaeaeueiue aa?eaio oa?iiaeeiaieee iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee (yoio aa?eaio aue iaaeaaii ?anniio?ai Aoae?e/ai [26, no?. 1—37] ), a eioi?ii aiiaua ia eniieuecoaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, iu iiaeai neacaoue, /oi iaoiae neiy eiia/iie oieueiu yaeyaony iaiauaieai iaoiaea Aeaana e iaeaieaa iauei iaoiaeii ?anniio?aiey oa?iiaeeiaieee iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee.O?aaiaiea aaeni?aoeee AeaanaIaeaieaa ecaanoiui ?acoeueoaoii oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana yaeyaony o?aaiaiea aaeni?aoeee(34)aaea— ecauoi/iay yio?iiey ia aaeeieoeo iiaa?oiinoe;Ai — aaniethoiay aaeni?aoeey i-ai eiiiiiaioa.Yoi o?aaiaiea auei iieo/aii Aeaanii oieueei aeey aeeaeeeo iiaa?oiinoae. Iii ioiineony e iiaa?oiinoe iaoyaeaiey e ni?aaaaeeeai eae aeey ieineeo, oae e aeey ene?eaeaiiuo iiaa?oiinoae.A oa/aiea ieioaoaai noieaoey o?aaiaiea aaeni?aoeee Aeaana iiiaie?aoii iaiauaeinue e eaaeaeay aai iiaay oi?ia auea aaoie a ?acaeoee oa?iiaeeiaieee iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee, a oaeaea yoaiii eo/oaai iiieiaiey naiie oai?ee Aeaana. Iineaaeiaa ianiiiaiii i?e ?anniio?aiee iaiauaiiie oi?iu o?aaiaiey aaeni?aoeee Aeaana aeey i?iecaieueiiai iieiaeaiey noa?e/aneie ?acaeaeythuae iiaa?oiinoe [18, 27, 28]:(35)Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi o?aaiaiea (35) yaeyaony eeoue iaiauaieai oi?iu o?aaiaiey aaeni?aoeee Aeaana e oece/anee niaa?oaiii yeaeaaeaioii o?aaiaieth (34). Aieaa oiai, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi, onooiay o?aaiaieth (34) a i?inoioa, o?aaiaiea (35) e oneiaeiyao eioa?i?aoaoeeth aaee/eiu (, iineieueeo oo?a/eaaaony aiaeiaey n iaoyaeaieai oi?oaie iaia?aiu. No?iai aiai?y, oa?iei «iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea» i?eiaiei oieueei e iiaa?oiinoe iaoyaeaiey.Ae?oaie iaiauaiiie e oaeaea oece/anee yeaeaaeaioiie oi?iie yaeyaony caienue o?aaiaiey aaeni?aoeee Aeaana aeey neiy eiia/iie oieueiu [24](36)aaea V( e V( — /anoe iauaia V( iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy, ?acaeaeaiiua iiaa?oiinoueth iaoyaeaiey.A neo/aa ieineie iiaa?oiinoe o?aaiaiea (17) i?eieiaao aeae [4, 17, 18](37)e niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaieth (32).Auoa iu oeacuaaee, /oi o?aaiaiea (34) auei iieo/aii Aeaanii aeey a?aieoeu oetheaeiuo oac. Niioaaonoaothuaa o?aaiaiea aeey ieineie oaa?aeie iiaa?oiinoe a ecio?iiiii ninoiyiee auei auaaaeaii Y?eenniiii [30](38)aaea( — iaoaie/aneee aiaeia iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe (enoeiiia iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea oaa?aeiai oaea);( — oa?iiaeeiaie/aneee aiaeia iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeeaeeinoe (oneiaiia iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea oaa?aeiai oaea).A iauai neo/aa aiecio?iiiie iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea o?aaiaiea aaeni?aoeee i?eieiaao aeae [26, 27](39)aaea— oaici? ecauoi/iuo iiaa?oiinoiuo iai?yaeaiee;— aaeeie/iue oaici?;— oaici? iiaa?oiinoiie aeaoi?iaoeee; neiaie : icia/aao neaey?iia i?iecaaaeaiea oaici?ia.e iuneaiiie iiaa?oiinoe ?ac?aca.ia iaaeoaciie iiaa?oiinoe iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio(40)i?e/ai nouanoaoao niioiioaiea [31, 32](41).Iiaenoaiiaea (41) a (39) i?eaiaeeo e o?aaiaieth [31, 32](42), e o?aaiaiey (39) e (42) ia?aoiaeyo a o?aaiaiea aaeni?aoeee Aeaana.I?e i?eiaiaiee o?aaiaiey aaeni?aoeee Aeaana e iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeiai yeaeo?iaea a iai iiyaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiue /eai, naycaiiue n eciaiaieai yeaeo?e/aneiai iioaioeeaea. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aeey ecioa?ii-eciaa?e/aneeo oneiaee yoio /eai aue iieo/ai naiei Aeaanii, iineieueeo ii aeae oa?iiaeeiaie/aneee auaiae o?aaiaiey Eeiiiaia. A aeaeueiaeoai yoio aii?in iiiaie?aoii ianoaeaeaeny i?e enneaaeiaaiee yeaeo?ieaieeey?iuo yaeaiee (ni., iai?eia?, [33 – 35]). No?iaee auaiae o?aaiaiey aaeni?aoeee Aeaana aeey ieineiai iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy yeaeo?iaea aue aeai Ia?niinii [36]. Niioaaonoaothuoth oai?eth aeey ene?eaeaiiiai neiy iiaeii iaeoe a [25, 14].E aanueia neiaeiui ?acaeaeai oa?iiaeeiaieee iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee ioiineony aiaeec ene?eaeaiiuo iiaa?oiinoae ai aiaoieo iieyo. Aeaanii auei ia/aoi ?anniio?aiea iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee a a?aaeoaoeeiiiii iiea. *oi eanaaony yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey, oi ?acoeueoaou auee iieo/aiu cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa. O?oaeiinoue ?anniio?aiey caeanue neeueii caaeneo io oiai, yaeythony ee nii?eeanathueany oacu i?iaiaeieeaie eee aeeyeaeo?eeaie, Caaea/a aeey nii?eeanathueony i?iaiaeieeia ?aoaaony n?aaieoaeueii i?inoi [37], aeey aeeyeaeo?eeia — cia/eoaeueii neiaeiaa [38].Aaaeiui iiiaioii a ?acaeoee oa?iiaeeiaieee iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee auei iaiauaiea o?aaiaiey aaeni?aoeee Aeaana ia neo/ae ionoonoaey aaeni?aoeeiiiiai ?aaiiaaney. Caeanue ioaeii ioiaoeoue i?aaeaea anaai ?aaiou Aeaoyy [39, 40], a eioi?uo auei aaaaeaii iiiyoea aoi?e/iuo oeie/aneeo iioaioeeaeia (i io?aaeathueo caaeneiinoue iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey io ninoiyiey iauaiiuo oac ( e ( :(43)A o?aaiaiee (43) i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi oa?ie/aneia e iaoaie/aneia ?aaiiaanea onoaiiaeeinue, a aeeoooceiiiia aua ia aeinoeaiooi.I?ioeann onoaiiaeaiey aaeni?aoeeiiiiai ?aaiiaaney aeeth/aao o?aineyoeeiiiia e a?auaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe, a /anoiinoe, i?eaioaoeeth ianoa?e/aneeo iieaeoe a iiaa?oiinoiii neia. Anee i?eaioaoeey i?ienoiaeeo ai?acaei iaaeeaiiaa o?aineyoeeiiii-aeeoooceiiiiai i?ioeanna, oi iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue neo/ae, eiaaea any ia?aaiiaaniinoue nenoaiu iaoneiaeaia i?ioeannii i?eaioaoeee iieaeoe (iai?eia?, aeeiieae) a iiaa?oiinoiii neia. Aeey oaeiai neo/ay auei i?aaeeiaeaii iaiauaiea o?aaiaiey Aeaana [37](44)aaea— n?aaeiaa cia/aiea ninoaaeythuae ii ine x aeeiieueiiai iiiaioa iieaeoe i-ai eiiiiiaioa a oaca (;— n?aaeiaa cia/aiea eaaae?aoa oie aea aaee/eiu;— niioaaonoaothuea n?iaenoaa; noiie?iaaiea ii x e ( icia/aao noiie?iaaiea ii anai ninoaaeythuei aeeiieueiiai iiiaioa e ii anai oacai e oiieei yeaiaioa?iui neiyi aioo?e iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy, ?anniao?eaaaiui eae iaeii?iaeiua iaeanoe.Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a iniiaa auaiaea o?aaiaiey (44) eaaeeo aanueia oneiaiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea i iacaaeneiinoe o?aineyoeeiiiuo e a?auaoaeueiuo ninoaaeythueo aaeni?aoeeiiii-aeeoooceiiiiai i?ioeanna.?acaeoea iiauo iai?aaeaiee aoa?iiaeeiaieea iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaieeOa?iiaeeiaieea oiieeo ieaiieAeaan a oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe ia?aie/eeny ?anniio?aieai oieueei oienouo ieaiie, a eioi?uo iiaeii i?aiaa?a/ue acaeiiaeeyieai iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?iiao ieaiee. Oiieay ieaiea i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony io oienoie oai /oi aa iiaa?oiinoiua neie iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oaeoe/anee a oiieie ieaiea oaea iaeuecy auaeaeeoue iauaiioth oaco e ie?oaeathuea aa iiaa?oiinoiua neie, a iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue ieaieo a oeaeii. Aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie, ioee/athuae oiieoth ieaieo io oienoie, yaeyaony ?aneeeieaathuaa aeaaeaiea; a iiuoao iii i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi i?e ia?aoiaea io oienoie e oiieie ieaiea o?aaoaony eciaiaiea aiaoiaai aeaaeaiey. Iiiyoea ?aneeeieaathuaai aeaaeaiey auei aaaaeaii Aea?yaeiui [42], eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeao e ia?aua ecia?aiey yoie aaee/eiu.Nouanoaoao ianeieueei yeaeaaeaioiuo ii?aaeaeaiee ?aneeeieaathuaai aeaaeaiey ieineie oiieie ieaiee. I?aaeaea anaai ?aneeeieaathuaa aeaaeaiea I iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo cia/aieyie aiaoiaai aeaaeaiey P( ia oiieoth e oienooth ieaieo(45)aaea h — oieueia oiieie ieaiee.Anee oiieay ieaiea ia?aciaaeanue ec oacu ( e i?iaeieaeaao iaoiaeeoueny n iae a ?aaiiaanee (iai?eia?, i?e i?eeeiaiee iocu?ueea e oaa?aeie iiaa?oiinoe: oaca ( — aac, oaca ( — aeeaeeinoue), oi ?aneeeieaathuaa aeaaeaiea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae:(46)Iaeiiaoe, iineieueeo aeey ieineie ieaiee aiaoiaa aeaaeaiea anaaaea ?aaii ii?iaeueiie ninoaaeythuae oaici?a aeaaeaiey aioo?e ieaiee, iiaeii aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea(47)e noi?ioee?iaaoue aai neaaeothuei ia?acii:?aneeeieaathuaa aeaaeaiea anoue ?aciinoue iaaeaeo ii?iaeueiui aeaaeaieai aioo?e ieaiee (eee aiaoiei aeaaeaieai) e aeaaeaieai a iauaiiie oaca oie aea i?e?iaeu i?e oao aea cia/aieyo oaiia?aoo?u e oeie/aneeo iioaioeeaeia, /oi e a ieaiea.Ii?aaeaeaiea (46) aia?aua eniieueciaaee a yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo ?aneeeieaathuaai aeaaeaiey [42 – 45], a ii?aaeaeaiea (47) — aeey ?an/aoia [46].Eae aaee/eia oa?iiaeeiaie/aneay, ?aneeeieaathuaa aeaaeaiea iiaeao auoue naycaii n ae?oaeie oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeie ia?aiao?aie, e ioiinyueany e yoie iaeanoe niioiioaiey ia?acotho oa?iiaeeiaieeo oiieeo ieaiie eae iniaue ?acaeae oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe. ?ac?aaioea yoiai ?acaeaea niaea?aeeony a oeaeii ?yaea ?aaio (ni., iai?eia?, [47 – 57]). Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia eceiaeaiea oa?iiaeeiaieee oiieeo ieaiie aeaii a iiiia?aoee [25, no?. 259 – 310]. Oa?iiaeeiaieea oiieeo ieaiie iaoea aaaeiia i?eeiaeaiea a oai?eyo yeaeo?ieaieeey?iinoe, aaeni?aoeee e o?iiaoia?aoee (nnueee ia eiie?aoiua ?aaiou iiaeii iaeoe a [14]).Caeanue iu i?iaeaiiino?e?oai a ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeoiae e oa?iiaeeiaieea oiieeo ieaiie, naycaiiue n aaaaeaieai aeaoo ?acaeaeythueo iiaa?oiinoae. I?aaenoaaei, /oi ieaiea ia?aciaaeanue iooai ooiiueoaiey neiy oacu ( iaaeaeo oacaie ( e ( . Oiaaea, aua?aa iieiaeaiea aeaoo ?acaeaeythueo iiaa?oiinoae e acya ecauoee ni noi?iiu oac ( e ( , iu i?eaeai e o?aaiaieth (32) aeey neiy eiia/iie oieueiu, eioi?ia a aeaiiii neo/aa eiaao aeae(48)aaea( — iaoyaeaiea ieaiee;h — ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ?acaeaeythueie iiaa?oiinoyie.Oaia?ue iu naeaeaai aua iaeei oaa [66]: aicueiai ecauoie ii ioiioaieth e oaca (, oi anoue au/oai ec (48) o?aaiaiea(49)Eniieuecoy ii?aaeaeaiea (53), iieo/aai(50)— niaianoiua aeey iaaeo iiaa?oiinoae ecauoee yia?aee, yio?iiee e iannu i-ai eiiiiiaioa.O?aaiaiea (50) ni?aaaaeeeai i?e ethaii iieiaeaiee ?acaeaeythueo iiaa?oiinoae. Iii ea?aao ?ieue iniiaiiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai o?aaiaiey oiieie ieaiee, ec eioi?iai iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu iiiaea ae?oaea oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea niioiioaiey. A /anoiinoe, ec (50) iieo/aai au?aaeaiea(51)eioi?ia oaeaea iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae ii?aaeaeaiea ?aneeeieaathuaai aeaaeaiey. Ec (50) neaaeoao aua aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo o?aaiaiey:(52)(53)O?aaiaiea (53) yaeyaony aiaeiaii o?aaiaiey aaeni?aoeee Aeaana (a oa?ieiao aaniethoiie aaeni?aoeee). Eae e o?aaiaiea aaeni?aoeee Aeaana, iii ia yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiui oa?iiaeeiaie/aneei niioiioaieai e aeey iieo/aiey eaeeo-eeai oece/aneeo caaeneiinoae aeieaeii ?anniao?eaaoueny niaianoii n ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie o?aaiaieyie aeey iauaiiuo oac.Ioiaoei, /oi i?eaaaeaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey ?aneeeieaathuaai aeaaeaiey ioiinyony oieueei e ieineie ieaiea. I?e ia?aoiaea e neo/ath ene?eaeaiiie ieaiee aicieeatho neaaeothuea ineiaeiaiey: ii?aaeaeaiey (45) – (47) ia?anoatho auoue yeaeaaeaioiuie; eaaeaeia ec yoeo ii?aaeaeaiee oo?a/eaaao naith iaeiicia/iinoue. Oae, anee iieueciaaoueny ii?aaeaeaieyie (45) e (46), oi aeey ene?eaeaiiie ieaiee aoaeoo nouanoaiaaoue aeaa ?aneeeieaathueo aeaaeaiey, iineieueeo aeaaeaiey ?( e ?( ii iaaei noi?iiai ieaiee aoaeoo ?acee/iuie. Ii?aaeaeaieai (47) ainiieueciaaoueny aua o?oaeiaa, oae eae a neo/aa ene?eaeaiiie ieaiee aaee/eia ?n yaeyaony ooieoeeae i?ino?ainoaaiiuo eii?aeeiao.Aeey iienaiey aeaeueiiaeaenoaothueo iiaa?oiinoiuo nee a ene?eaeaiiuo ieaieao iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiia iiiyoea ?aaiou nia/eaaiey, aaaaeaiiia a [58]. Aeey ieineeo ieaiie ?aaioa nia/eaaiey i?inoi au?aaeaaony, anee ecaanoia ecioa?ia ?aneeeieaathuaai aeaaeaiey (o.a. caaeneiinoue ((h) i?e aeaiiie oaiia?aoo?a). Aeey ene?eaeaiiuo aea ieaiie iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue eaeea-oi ae?oaea i?aaeiieiaeaiey i aeaea caaeneiinoe ?aaiou nia/eaaiey io oieueiu ieaiee.Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaea caaea/a aaeaeaaoiiai iienaiey aeaeueiiaeaenoaothueo iiaa?oiinoiuo nee ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue inoaaony ia?aoaiiie.A oeaeii iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oa?iiaeeiaie/aneee iiaeoiae Aeaana e iienaieth eaieeey?iinoe ieacaeny i/aiue ieiaeioai?iui. Ii nae aeaiue oai?ey Aeaana inoaaony aanueia iieaciie eae a /enoi oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo, oae e a i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/ao. Cia/eoaeueiua oniaoe aeinoeaioou oaeaea a oa?iiaeeiaieea aaeni?aoeee, nia/eaaiey, ioeeaaoeee, yeaeo?iaeiuo i?ioeannia e a ae?oaeo iaeanoyo.Caeeth/aieaEae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiiai enoi?e/aneiai iaci?a, eaieeey?iua yaeaiey eco/athony oaea ii/oe o?enoa eao. Ca yoi a?aiy aeiaieueii neeueii eciaieeenue niiniau iienaiey eaieeey?iuo e iiaa?oiinoiuo nee. Iaeiaei, eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aeoe/anee n naiuo ia?auo ?aaio ii oai?ee eaieeey?iuo yaeaiee, ethaee niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii ioiineee eo e iae?ineiie/aneei i?iyaeaieyi nee, aeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie a aauanoaa. N ?acaeoeai i?aaenoaaeaiee ia yoeo neeao iaiyeinue e iiieiaiea eo ?iee a oao eee eaieeey?iuo yaeaieyo.Ia?aua ioeaiee ?aaeeona aeaenoaey iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee auee a?oauie e neeueii caauoaiiuie. Niioaaonoaaiii, ia?aua oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe auee a?oauie iaoaienoe/aneeie oai?eyie n?aaeiaai iiey.Oai?ey Aeaana aeaea niaa?oaiii iiaue eino?oiaio enneaaeiaaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee. N eniieueciaaieai iiuiiai e oieaa?naeueiiai aiia?aoa oa?iiaeeiaieee oaeaeinue aeaoue aieaa no?iaea ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoeyi a?aieoeu ?acaeaea oac, oieueiu ieaiee e o.ae. E?iia oiai, oi?ioea Eaieana aeey ?aciinoe aeaaeaiee a oacao aaeece ene?eaeaiiie iiaa?oiinoe eo ?acaeaea auea iieo/aia a oai?ee Aeaana aac anyeeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee i ?aaeeona aeaenoaey iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee. Iiaeoiae, ?acaeoue Aeaanii, e naaiaeiy ia oa?yao naiae aeooaeueiinoe a neeo naiae oieaa?naeueiinoe e oaeeaeoaeueiie oe?iou ioaaoa yaeaiee.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe eaieeey?iuo e iiaa?oiinoiuo nee i?iaeieaeathony, /oi iaoneiaeaii eae eo aaaeiinoueth a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo iaoee, oae e oe?ieei niaeo?ii i?aeoe/aneeo i?eeiaeaiee.Eeoa?aoo?a.( Hauksbee F. Physico-Mechanical Experiments, London, 1709, pp. 139–169; and Phil. Trans., 1711 and 1712.Maxwell J.C. Capillary Action. The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition, Cambrige: at the University Press, 1910, vol. 5, p. 256.© Jurin J. Phil. Trans., 1718, p. 739, and 1719, p. 1083.© Clairault A.C. Theorie de la figure de la terre, Paris, 1808, pp. 105, 128.© von Segner J.A. Comment. Soc. Reg. Goetting. i. (1751), p. 301.© Leslie J. Phil. Mag., 1802, vol. xiv p. 193.© Young T. Cohesion of Fluids, Phil. Trans., 1805, p. 65.( Laplace P.S. Traite de Mecanique Celeste; Supplement au dixieme livre, Sur l’Action. Capillaire (1807); in: Oeuvres completes de Laplace, v. 4. Gauthiers-Villars, Paris, 1880, p. 349, 419.?ioeeinii Aeae., Oeaeii A. Iieaeoey?iay oai?ey eaieeey?iinoe. I.: Ie?, 1986.? Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 30, 285, 456 (1890); Scentific Papers, v. 3. Cambrige University Press, 1902, p. 397.? Dupre A. Theorie mecanique de la Chaleur. Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1869, p. 152.( Gibbs J.W. Trans. Conn. Acad., 1878, v.3, p. 343; Aeaan Aeae. A. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea ?aaiou. I. – E., Ainoaoecaeao, 1950.§ Gibbs J.W. Prin. Amer. Acad., 1881, v. 16, p. 420.?onaiia A.E. 100 eao oai?ee eaieeey?iinoe Aeaana. A nai?ieea: Nia?aiaiiay oai?ey eaieeey?iinoe. E.: Oeiey, 1980.§ Wilson A.A. A letter from lord Rayleigh to J. Willard Gibbs and his reply. Proc. Nat. Acad. USA, 1945, v. 31, p. 34.§ Guggenheim A. A. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1940, v. 36, p. 397.§ Rice J. A. Commentary of the Scientific Writings of J.W. Gibbs. V. I/F. G. Donnan and A. Haas, eds. New Haven, 1936.§ Kondo S. J. Chem. Phys., 1956, v. 25, p. 662.Iii N., Eiiaei N. Iieaeoey?iay oai?ey iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey a aeeaeeinoyo. I., EE, 1963.§ Aai-aea?-Aaaeuen E. Ae., Eiinoaii O. Eo?n oa?iinoaoeee. o. 1. IIOE, 1936.§ Bakker N. Kapillaritaet und Oberflaechenspannung. Handb. der exper. Phys. Bd. VI. Leipzig, Wien – Harms, 1928.§ Verschaffelt. Acad. Roy. Belgique, Bull. classe sci., 1936, v. 22, p. 373, 390, 402.§ Eriksson J. N. Ark. Kemi, 1965, v.25, p. 331, 343; 1966, v. 26, p. 49, 117.§ ?onaiia A. E. Oa?iiaeeiaieea iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee. E., Ecae. EAO, 1960.§ ?onaiia A. E. Oaciaua ?aaiiaaney e iiaa?oiinoiua yaeaiey. E., Oeiey, 1967.§ Goodrich F. N. Surface and Colloid. Science. V. l/Matijevic A., ed. N. Y., Wiley, 1969.§ Buff F. P. J. Chem. Phys., 1951, v. 19, p. 1591.§ Hill O. L. J. Phys. Chem., 1959, v. 52, p. 526.§ ?onaiia A. E. Aanoiee EAO, 1959, ? 16, n. 71.§ Eriksson J. N. Surface Sci., 1969, v. 14, p. 221.§ ?onaiia A. E. Eieeieaei. ae., 1977, o. 39, n. 711.§ Rusanov A. I. J. Coll. Interface Sci., 1978, v. 63, p. 330.§ Frumkin A. Ergebnisse exakt. Nature, 1928, v. 7, p. 235.§ Koenig F.O. J. Phys. Chem., 1934, v. 38, p. Ill, 339.§ Butler J. A. V. Electrocapillarity. The Chemistry and Physics of Electrodes and other Charged Surfaces. London, Methuen, 1940.§ Parsons R. Canad. J. Chem., 1959, v.37, p. 308.§ Sanfeld A. Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Charged and Polarized Layers. London, Wiley, 1968.§ ?onaiia A. E. — AeAI NNN?, 1978, o. 238, n. 831.§ Defay R. Etude Thermodynamique de la Tension Superficielle. Paris, 1934.§ Defay R., Prigogine I. Tension Superficielle et Adsorption. Desoer, Liege, 1951; Defay R., Prigogine I., Bellemans A. Surface Tension and Adsorption. London, Longmans, 1966.§ Rusanov A. I. Progress in Surface and Membrane Sci. V. 4. N. Y., Academic Press, 1971.§ Aea?yaei A. A., Iaooia E. Acta physicochim. URSS, 1936, v. 5, p. 1.§ Aea?yaei A., Eonaeia I. Eca. AI NNN?. Na?. oei., 1936, n. 741; 1937, n. II 19.§ Aea?yaei A. A., Oeoeaaneay A. N. AeAI NNN? 1953 o. 89, n. 1041.§ Aea?yaei A. A., Aa?eeiniaa E. E. Oai aea, 1956, o. 108, n. 214; AE. oec. oei., 1958, o. 32, n. 442.§ ?onaiia A.E., Eoie O.I. A ei.: Enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe iiaa?oiinoiuo nee. I., Iaoea, 1967, n. 129.§ O?oieei A. ss. AE. oec. oei., 1938, o. 12, n. 337.§ Derjaguin A. V. Acta physicochim. URSS, 1940, v. 12, p. 181.§ Ia?ouiia A. A., Aea?yaei A. A. Eieeieaei. ae. 1962 o. 24, n. 480.§ Aea?yaei A. A., Ia?ouiia A. A., Aomin TH. A. Oai aea 1965, o. 27, n. 357.§ Aea?yaei A. A., Aomin TH. A. Oai aea 1965 o 27 n. 674.§ Derjaguin A. V. J. Coll. Interface Sci. 1967 v.24 p. 357.§ ?onaiia E. ss. Eieeieaei. ae., 1966, o. 28 n. 718-1967, o. 29, n. 141, 237.§ Sheludko A., Radoev A., Kolarov T. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1968, v. 64, p. 2213.§ ?onaiia A. E. AeAI NNN?, 1972, o. 203, n. 387.§ Rusanov A, I. J. Coll. Interface Sci., 1975, v.53, p. 20.§ Aea?yaei A. A., *o?aaa I.A. Eieeieaei. ae., 1976, o. 38, n. 438.Kuni F.M., Shchekin A.K., Rusanov A.I., Widom B. Role of surface forces in heterogeneous nucleation on wettable nuclei. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 1996, v.65, p.71-124.Oienae aue aeaiiino?aoi?ii a Ei?ieaaneii iauanoaa, e aai iiuou iiaeeyee ia niaea?aeaiea aanueia i?ino?aiiiai ni/eiaiey i ia?ae/iuo /anoeoeao aauanoaa e neeao iaaeaeo ieie, eioi?ui Iuethoii caaa?oee ecaeaiea naiae «Iioeee» 1717 aiaea. ni.E 1819 a. ii aue caiyo aeaoaeueiui ianoaeaeaieai iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee iooaeeeaaiey, eioi?ua, oioy e i?eienuaaeenue aua oaieioa eee oaiei?iaeo, iaeaaeaee nouanoaaiiui naienoaii oiaiueoaoueny n ?annoiyieai auno?aa, /ai neeu i?eoyaeaiey.THia oiiieiae iaee/ea a?aaeeaioa ieioiinoe a eiia/iii ii oieueia neia, ii ioa?inee yoio yooaeo, iin/eoaa aai ianouanoaaiiui.PAGEPAGE 21\NO? \# "'No?: '#''" No?: 2\NO? \# "'No?: '#''" No?: 1( Nnueea i?eaaaeaia ii [2].( Nnueea i?eaaaeaia ii [9].( Nnueea i?eaaaeaia ii [14].FLlsrs = d

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