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ENIIEUeCIAAIEA YEAEO?IYIA?AEE A ?ACEE*IUO IAEANOssO IAOEE

E AEEssIEA IAOEE IA ENIIEUeCIAAIEA YEAEO?IYIA?AEE A AEECIE

OO aae noae aaeii, eiaaea iaoea aoi?aaaony ai ana noa?u aeecie iauanoaa:
yeiiiieeo, iieeoeeo, eoeueoo?o, ia?aciaaiea e o.ae. Anoanoaaiii, /oi
iaoea iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeyao ia ?acaeoea yia?aaoeee e noa?o i?eiaiaiey
yeaeo?iyia?aee. N iaeiie noi?iiu iaoea niinianoaoao ?anoe?aieth noa?u
i?eiaiaiey yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee e oai naiui oaaee/eaaao aa iio?aaeaiea,
ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu a yiioo, eiaaea iaia?aie/aiiia eniieueciaaiea
iaaiciaiiaeyaiuo yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ianao iianiinoue aeey aoaeoueo
iieieaiee, aeooaeueiuie caaea/aie iaoee noaiiayony caaea/e ?ac?aaioee
yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee e aiaae?aiea eo a aeeciue.

?anniio?ei yoe aii?inu ia eiie?aoiuo i?eia?ao. Ieiei 80% i?e?inoa AAI
(aioo?aiiaai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa) ?acaeouo no?ai aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao
oaoie/aneeo eiiiaaoeee, iniiaiay /anoue eioi?uo naycaia n
eniieueciaaieai yeaeo?iyia?aee. Ana iiaia a i?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneia
oicyenoai e auo i?eoiaeeo e iai aeaaiaea?y iiaui ?ac?aaioeai a ?acee/iuo
io?aneyo iaoee.

Aieueoay /anoue iao/iuo ?ac?aaioie ia/eiaaony n oai?aoe/aneeo ?an/aoia.
Ii anee a OIO aaea yoe ?an/aou i?iecaiaeeeenue n iiiiuueth ia?a e
aoiaae, oi a aae IO? (iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee) ana oai?aoe/aneea
?an/aou, ioai? e aiaeec iao/iuo aeaiiuo e aeaaea eeiaaenoe/aneee ?acai?
eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee aeaeathony n iiiiuueth YAI
(yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei), eioi?ua ?aaioatho ia yeaeo?e/aneie
yia?aee, iaeaieaa oaeiaiie aeey ia?aaea/e aa ia ?annoiyiea e
eniieueciaaiey. Ii anee ia?aiia/aeueii YAI eniieueciaaeenue aeey iao/iuo
?an/aoia, oi oaia?ue ec iaoee eiiiuethoa?u i?eoee a aeeciue.

Nae/an iie eniieuecothony ai anao noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea: aeey
caiene e o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee, nicaeaiey a?oeaia, iiaeaioiaee e
?aaeaeoe?iaaiey oaenoia, auiieiaiey /a?oaaeiuo e a?aoe/aneeo ?aaio,
aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Yeaeo?iiecaoeey e
aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa – aaaeiaeoea iineaaenoaey “aoi?ie
i?iiuoeaiiie” eee “iee?iyeaeo?iiiie” ?aaiethoeee a yeiiiieea ?acaeouo
no?ai. N iee?iyeaeo?iieeie iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaii e ?acaeoea
eiiieaeniie aaoiiaoecaoeee, ea/anoaaiii iiaue yoai eioi?ie ia/aeny iinea
ecia?aoaiey a 1971 aiaeo iee?ii?ioeanni?a – iee?iyeaeo?iiiiai
eiae/aneiai ono?ienoaa, ano?aeaaaiiai a ?acee/iua ono?ienoaa aeey
oi?aaeaiey eo ?aaioie.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u onei?eee ?ino ?iaioioaoieee. Aieueoeinoai i?eiaiyaiuo
iuia ?iaioia ioiineony e oae iacuaaaiiio ia?aiio iieieaieth e
i?eiaiythony i?e naa?ea, ?acaiee, i?anniaea, iaianaiee iie?uoee e o.ae.
I?eoiaeyuea ei ia niaio ?iaiou aoi?iai iieieaiey iai?oaeiaaiu
ono?ienoaaie aeey ?aniiciaaaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A
?iaiou-“eioaeeaeooaeu” o?aoueaai iieieaiey aoaeoo “aeaeaoue”,
“/oanoaiaaoue”, “neuoaoue”. O/aiua e eiaeaia?u n?aaee iaeaieaa
i?ei?eoaoiuo noa? i?eiaiaiey ?iaioia iacuaatho aoiiioth yia?aaoeeo,
inaiaiea einie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa, o?ainii?oa, oi?aiaeth, neeaaeneia
oicyenoai, iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea, ia?a?aaioeo iooiaeia, inaiaiea
aiaaonoa ieaaie/aneiai aeia. Iniiaiay /anoue ?iaioia ?aaioatho ia
yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee, ii oaaee/aiea iio?aaeaiey yeaeo?iyia?aee ?iaioaie
eiiiaine?oaony nieaeaieai yia?aicao?ao ai iiiaeo yia?aiaieeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannao ca n/ao aiaae?aiey aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiuo
iaoiaeia e iiauo yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Ii aa?iainy e iaoea. Ana iiaua oai?aoe/aneea ?ac?aaioee iinea ?an/aoia
ia YAI i?iaa?ythony yenia?eiaioaeueii. E, eae i?aaeei, ia yoii yoaia
enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeyony n iiiiuueth oece/aneeo ecia?aiee, oeie/aneeo
aiaeecia e o.ae. Caeanue eino?oiaiou iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee iiiaiia?aciu
– iiiai/eneaiiua ecia?eoaeueiua i?eai?u, onei?eoaee, yeaeo?iiiua
iee?ineiiu, iaaieoi?aciiainiua oiiia?aou e o.ae. Iniiaiay /anoue yoeo
eino?oiaioia yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaoee ?aaioatho ia yeaeo?e/aneie
yia?aee.

Ii iaoea ia oieueei eniieuecoao yeaeo?iyia?aeth a naiae oai?aoe/aneie e
yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaeanoyo, iao/iua eaeae iinoiyiii aicieeatho a
o?aaeeoeeiiiie iaeanoe oeceee, naycaiiie n iieo/aieai e ia?aaea/ae
yeaeo?iyia?aee. O/aiua, iai?eia?, iuoathony nicaeaoue yeaeo?e/aneea
aaia?aoi?u aac a?auathueony /anoae. A iau/iuo yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeyo e
?ioi?o i?eoiaeeony iiaeaiaeeoue iinoiyiiue oie, /oiau aicieeea
“iaaieoiay neea”. E yeaeo?iiaaieoo, “?aaioathuaio ?ioi?ii” (nei?inoue
aai a?auaiey aeinoeaaao o?ao ouny/ iai?ioia a ieiooo) yeaeo?e/aneee oie
i?eoiaeeony iiaeaiaeeoue /a?ac i?iaiaeyuea oaieueiua uaoee e eieueoea,
eioi?ua o?oony ae?oa i ae?oaa e eaaei eciaoeaathony. O oeceeia
?iaeeeanue iuneue caiaieoue ?ioi? no?oae ?aneaeaiiuo aacia, ieaciaiiie
no?oae, a eioi?ie iiiai naiaiaeiuo yeaeo?iiia e eiiia. Anee i?iionoeoue
oaeoth no?oth iaaeaeo iiethnaie neeueiiai iaaieoa, oi ii caeiio
yeaeo?iiaaieoiie eiaeoeoeee a iae aicieeiao yeaeo?e/aneee oie – aaaeue
no?oy aeaeaeaony. Yeaeo?iaeu, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo aeieaeai auaiaeeony
oie ec ?aneaeaiiie no?oe, iiaoo auoue iaiiaeaeaeiuie, a ioee/ea io
oaieueiuo uaoie iau/iuo yeaeo?e/aneeo onoaiiaie. Iiaue oei yeaeo?e/aneie
iaoeiu iieo/ee iacaaiea iaaieoiaeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai aaia?aoi?a.

A na?aaeeia OO noieaoey o/aiua nicaeaee i?eaeiaeueiue yeaeo?ioeie/aneee
aaia?aoi?, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea oiieeaiiai yeaiaioa. E yeaeo?iaeiui
ieanoeieai oiieeaiiai yeaiaioa iiaeaiaeeony aeaa aaca – aiaei?iae e
eenei?iae. Ia ieaoeiiauo yeaeo?iaeao aacu ioaeatho yeaeo?iiu ai
aiaoithth yeaeo?e/aneoth oeaiue, noaiiayony eiiaie e, niaaeeiyynue,
i?aa?auathony a aiaeo. Ec aaciaiai oiieeaa iieo/aaony n?aco e
yeaeo?iyia?aey e aiaea. Oaeiaiue, aanooiiue e /enoue enoi/iee oiea aeey
aeaeueieo iooaoanoaee, iai?eia? a einiin, aaea iniaaiii ioaeiu iaa
i?iaeoeoa oiieeaiiai yeaiaioa.

Ae?oaie i?eaeiaeueiue niinia iieo/aiey yeaeo?iyia?aee, iieo/eaoee
?ani?ino?aiaiea a iineaaeiaa a?aiy, caeeth/aaony a i?aia?aciaaiee
nieia/iie yia?aee a yeaeo?e/aneoth “iai?yioth” – n iiiiuueth
oioiyeaeo?e/aneeo onoaiiaie (nieia/iuo aaoa?ae). N ieie naycaii
iiyaeaiea “nieia/iuo aeiiia”, “nieia/iuo oaieeoe”, “nieia/iuo oa?i”.
Oaeea nieia/iua aaoa?ae eniieuecothony e a einiina aeey iaania/aiey
yeaeo?iyia?aeae einie/aneeo ei?aaeae e noaioeee.

I/aiue ao?ii ?acaeaaaony iaoea a iaeanoe n?aaenoa nayce e eiiioieeaoeee.
Niooieeiaay naycue eniieuecoaony oaea ia oieueei eae n?aaenoai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nayce, ii e a auoo – niooieeiaua aioaiiu ia ?aaeeinoue
e a iaoai ai?iaea. Iiaua n?aaenoaa nayce, iai?eia? aieieiiiay oaoieea,
iicaieytho cia/eoaeueii nieceoue iioa?e yeaeo?iyia?aee a i?ioeanna
ia?aaea/e neaiaeia ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey.

Ia iaioea iaoea e noa?o oi?aaeaiey. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey IO?, ?anoe?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa? aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea,
ana aieaa aaaeioth ?ieue a iiauoaiee eo yooaeoeaiinoe ia/eiaao ea?aoue
oi?aaeaiea. Ec naiaai ?iaea eneonnoaa, aua iaaeaaii iniiauaaaoaainy ia
iiuoa e eiooeoeee, oi?aaeaiea a iaoe aeie i?aa?aoeeinue a iaoeo. Iaoea
ia oi?aaeaiee, ia iaueo caeiiao iieo/aiey, o?aiaiey, ia?aaea/e e
ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee iacuaaaony eeaa?iaoeeie. Yoio oa?iei i?ienoiaeeo
io a?a/aneeo neia “?oeaaie”, “ei?i/ee”. Ii ano?a/aaony a o?oaeao
ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo oeeinioia. Iaeiaei iiaia ?iaeaeaiea aai i?iecioei
oaeoe/anee a 1948 aiaeo, iinea auoiaea eieae aia?eeaineiai o/aiiai
Ii?aa?oa Aeia?a “Eeaa?iaoeea”.

Aei ia/aea “eeaa?iaoe/aneie” ?aaiethoeee nouanoaiaaea oieueei aoiaaeiay
Eioi?iaoeea, iniiaiui n?aaenoaii aini?eyoey eioi?ie inoaaaeny
/aeiaa/aneee iica, e eioi?ay ia eniieueciaaea yeaeo?iyia?aeth.
“Eeaa?iaoe/aneay” ?aaiethoeey ii?iaeeea i?eioeeieaeueii eioth –
iaoeiioth eioi?iaoeeo, niioaaonoaothuoth aeaaionee aic?inoei iioieai
eioi?iaoeee, enoi/ieeii yia?aee aeey eioi?ie neoaeeo yeaeo?iyia?aey.
Nicaeaiu niaa?oaiii iiaua n?aaenoaa iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee, aa
iaeiieaiey, ia?aaioee e ia?aaea/e, a niaieoiiinoe ia?acothuea neiaeioth
eioi?iaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o. Iia aeeth/aao ANO (aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey), eioi?iaoeeiiiua aaiee aeaiiuo, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua aacu, au/eneeoaeueiua oeaio?u, aeaeaioa?ieiaeu,
eiie?iaaeueiua e oioioaeaa?aoiua aiia?aou, iauaainoaea?noaaiiua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu, nenoaiu niooieeiaie e nei?inoiie
aieieienoi-iioe/aneie nayce – ana yoi iaia?aie/aiii ?anoe?eei noa?o
eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iyia?aee.

Iiiaea o/aiua n/eoatho, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i iiaie
“eioi?iaoeeiiiie” oeeaeeecaoeee, i?eoiaeyuae ia niaio o?aaeeoeeiiiie
i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia. Oaeay niaoeeaeecaoeey
oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie aaaeiuie i?eciaeaie:

oe?ieei ?ani?ino?aiaieai eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee a iaoa?eaeueiii e
iaiaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa, a iaeanoe iaoee, ia?aciaaiey,
cae?aaiio?aiaiey e o.ae.;

iaee/eai oe?ieie naoe ?acee/iuo aaieia aeaiiuo, a oii /enea
iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey;

i?aa?auaiea eioi?iaoeee a iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia yeiiiie/aneiai,
iaoeeiiaeueiiai e ee/iiai ?acaeoey;

naiaiaeiie oee?eoeyoeeae eioi?iaoeee a iauanoaa.

Oaeie ia?aoiae io eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa e “eioi?iaoeeiiiie
oeeaeeecaoeee” noae aiciiaeai ai iiiaii aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth yia?aaoeee
e iaania/aieth oaeiaiui a ia?aaea/a e i?eiaiaiee aeaeii yia?aee –
yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aeae.

YEAEO?IYIA?AEss A I?IECAIAeNOAA

Nia?aiaiiia iauanoai iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue aac yeaeo?eoeeaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaea a eiioea 80-o aiaeia aieaa 1/3
anaai iio?aaeaiey yia?aee a ie?a inouanoaeyeinue a aeaea yeaeo?e/aneie
yia?aee. E ia/aeo neaaeothuaai aaea yoa aeiey iiaeao oaaee/eoueny aei
1/2. Oaeie ?ino iio?aaeaiey yeaeo?iyia?aee i?aaeaea anaai naycai n
?inoii aa iio?aaeaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iniiaiay /anoue i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee ?aaioaao ia yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee. Aunieia iio?aaeaiea
yeaeo?iyia?aee oa?aeoa?ii aeey oaeeo yia?aiaieeo io?aneae, eae
iaoaeeo?aey, aethieieaaay e iaoeiino?ieoaeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

I?e yoii anoaao i?iaeaia yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey yoie yia?aee. I?e
ia?aaea/a yeaeo?iyia?aee ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey, io i?iecaiaeeoaey aei
iio?aaeoaey, iioa?e ia oaiei aaeieue eeiee ia?aaea/e ?anooo
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eaaae?aoo oiea, o.a. anee oie oaeaaeaaaony, oi
oaieiaua iioa?e oaaee/eaathony a 4 ?aca. Iiyoiio, aeaeaoaeueii, /oiau
oie a eeieyo aue iae. Aeey yoiai iiauoatho iai?yaeaiea ia eeiee
ia?aaea/. Yeaeo?iyia?aey ia?aaeaaony ii eeieyi, aaea iai?yaeaiea
aeinoeaaao nioai ouny/ aieueo. Aicea ai?iaeia, iieo/athueo yia?aeth io
eeiee ia?aaea/, yoi iai?yaeaiea n iiiiuueth iiieaeathuaai o?ainoi?iaoi?a
aeiaiaeyo aei ianeieueeeo ouny/ aieueo. A naiii aea ai?iaea ia
iiaenoaioeeyo iai?yaeaiea iiieaeaaony aei 220 aieueo.

Iaoa no?aia caieiaao aieueooth oa??eoi?eth, ii/oe 12 /aniauo iiynia. A
yoi cia/eo, /oi anee a iaeieo ?aaeiiao iio?aaeaiea yeaeo?iyia?aee
iaeneiaeueii, oi a ae?oaeo oaea ieii/ai ?aai/ee aeaiue e iio?aaeaiea
nieaeaaony. Aeey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iyia?aee
au?aaaouaaaiie yeaeo?inoaioeeyie, iie iauaaeeiaiu a
yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneea nenoaiu ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiia: aa?iiaeneie /anoe,
Neae?e, O?aea, Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea e ae?. Oaeia iauaaeeiaiea iicaieyao
yooaeoeaiae eniieueciaaoue yeaeo?iyia?aeth niaeaniauaay ?aaioo
ioaeaeueiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee. Nae/an ?acee/iua yia?ainenoaiu iauaaeeiaiu
a aaeeioth yia?aaoe/aneoth nenoaio ?innee.

Neaaeothuay aiciiaeiinoue yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey – nieaeaiea
yia?aicao?ao yeaeo?iyia?aee n iiiiuueth yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee e
nia?aiaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, iio?aaeythuaai ieieiaeueiia aa eiee/anoai.
Oaeei i?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue noaeaieaaeeueiia i?iecaiaenoai. Anee a
60-a aiaeu iniiaiui iaoiaeii auieaaee noaee aue ia?oaiianeee niinia (72%
anae auieaaee), oi a 90-a aiaeu yoa oaoiieiaey auieaaee caiaiaia aieaa
yooaeoeaiuie iaoiaeaie: eenei?iaeii-eiiaa?oi?iui e
yeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiui.

EEOA?AOO?A:

Eieooi I. Ie? oeceee: Iao/ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eeo-?a. – I.: Aeao. eeo.,
1984.- 271n.

Iaenaeianeee A.I. Aaia?aoe/aneay ea?oeia ie?a. *.1. Iauay
oa?aeoa?enoeea ie?a. – ss?ineaaeue: Aa?o.-Aieae. ei. ecae-ai, 1995.-
320n.

Yeeeii E., Oeeeiin O. Oeceea. – I.: Iaoea, 1967.- 808n.

Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue thiiai oeceea /Nino. A.A. *oyiia. – I.:
Iaaeaaiaeea, 1984.- 352n.

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