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IEAI:

1.Iniaaiiinoe eaca?iiai eceo/aiey.

2.I?e?iaea eaca?iiai eceo/aiey.

3.?aciiaeaeiinoe eaca?ia. Aaciaua eaca?u.Iaeiei ec naiuo caia/aoaeueiuo
aeinoeaeaiee oeceee aoi?ie iieiaeiu aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea auei ioe?uoea
oece/aneeo yaeaiee, iineoaeeaoeo iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey oaeeaeoaeueiiai
i?eai?a iioe/aneiai eaaioiaiai aaia?aoi?a, eee eaca?a.

Eaca? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoi/iee iiiio?iiaoe/aneiai eiaa?aioiiai naaoa
n aunieie iai?aaeaiiinoueth naaoiaiai eo/a. Naii neiai “eaca?”
ninoaaeaii ec ia?auo aoea aiaeeeneiai neiaini/aoaiey, icia/athuaai
”oneeaiea naaoa a ?acoeueoaoa auioaeaeaiiiai eceo/aiey”.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iniiaiie oece/aneee i?ioeann, ii?aaeaeythuee aeaenoaea
eaca?a, – yoi auioaeaeaiiia enioneaiea eceo/aiey. Iii i?ienoiaeeo i?e
acaeiiaeaenoaee oioiia n aicaoaeaeaiiui aoiiii i?e oi/iii niaiaaeaiee
yia?aee oioiia n yia?aeae aicaoaeaeaiey aoiia (eee iieaeoeu)

A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aoii ia?aoiaeeo a iaaicaoaeaeaiiia
ninoiyiea, a ecauoie yia?aee eceo/aaony a aeaea iiaiai oioiia n oi/ii
oaeie aea yia?aeae, iai?aaeaieai ?ani?ino?aiaiey e iiey?ecaoeeae, eae e
o ia?ae/iiai oioiia. Oaeei ia?acii, neaaenoaeai aeaiiiai i?ioeanna
yaeyaony iaee/ea oaea aeaoo aaniethoii eaeaioe/iuo oioiiia. I?e
aeaeueiaeoai acaeiiaeaenoaee yoeo oioiiia n aicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie,
aiaeiae/iuie ia?aiio aoiio, iiaeao aicieeiooue “oeaiiay ?aaeoeey”
?aciiiaeaiey iaeeiaeiauo oioiiia, “eaoyueo” aaniethoii oi/ii a iaeiii
iai?aaeaiee, /oi i?eaaaeao e iiyaeaieth oceiiai?aaeaiiiai naaoiaiai
eo/a. Aeey aicieeiiaaiey eaaeiu eaeaioe/iuo oioiiia iaiaoiaeeia n?aaea,
a eioi?ie aicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia auei au aieueoa, /ai iaaicaoaeaeaiiuo,
iineieueeo i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee oioiiia n iaaicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie
i?ienoiaeeei au iiaeiuaiea oioiiia. Oaeay n?aaea iacuaaaony n?aaeie n
eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth o?iaiae yia?aee.

Eoae, e?iia auioaeaeaiiiai enioneaiey oioiiia aicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie
i?ienoiaeyo oaeaea i?ioeann naiii?iecaieueiiai, niiioaiiiai enioneaiey
oioiiia i?e ia?aoiaea aicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie a iaaicaoaeaeaiiia
ninoiyiea e i?ioeann iiaeiuaiey oioiiia i?e ia?aoiaea aoiiia ec
iaaicaoaeaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a aicaoaeaeaiiia. Yoe o?e i?ioeanna,
nii?iaiaeaeathuea ia?aoiaeu aoiiia a aicaoaeaeaiiua ninoiyiey e ia?aoii,
auee iinooee?iaaiu A. Yeiooaeiii a 1916 a.

Anee /enei aicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia aaeeei e nouanoaoao eiaa?niay
auaeaeaiiinoue o?iaiae (a aa?oiai, aicaoaeaeaiiii ninoiyiee aoiiia
aieueoa, /ai a ieaeiai, iaaicaoaeaeaiiii), oi ia?aue aea oioii,
?iaeeaoeeny a ?acoeueoaoa niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey, auciaao
anaia?anoathuoth eaaeio iiyaeaiey eaeaioe/iuo oioiiia. I?iecieaeao
oneeaiea niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey.

Ia aiciiaeiinoue oneeaiey naaoa a n?aaea n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth ca
n/ao auioaeaeaiiiai enioneaiey aia?aua oeacae a 1939 a. niaaoneee oecee

A.A. Oaa?eeaio, i?aaeeiaeeaoee nicaeaaaoue eiaa?nioth ianaeaiiinoue a
yeaeo?e/aneii ?ac?yaea a aaca.

I?e iaeiia?aiaiiii ?iaeaeaiee (i?eioeeieaeueii yoi aiciiaeii) aieueoiai
/enea niiioaiii eniouaiiuo oioiiia aicieeiao aieueoia /enei eaaei,
eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo aoaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny a naiai iai?aaeaiee,
caaeaiiii ia?aiia/aeueiui oioiiii niioaaonoaothuae eaaeiu. A ?acoeueoaoa
iu iieo/ei iioiee eaaioia naaoa, ii ia niiaeai iieo/eoue ie
iai?aaeaiiiai eo/a, ie aunieie iiiio?iiaoe/iinoe, oae eae eaaeaeay
eaaeia eieoeee?iaaeanue nianoaaiiui ia?aiia/aeueiui oioiiii. Aeey oiai
/oiau n?aaeo n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth iiaeii auei eniieueciaaoue aeey
aaia?aoeee eaca?iiai eo/a, o. a. iai?aaeaiiiai eo/a n aunieie
iiiio?iiaoe/iinoueth, iaiaoiaeeii “nieiaoue” eiaa?nioth ianaeaiiinoue n
iiiiuueth ia?ae/iuo oioiiia, oaea iaeaaeathueo iaeiie e oie aea
yia?aeae, niaiaaeathuae n yia?aeae aeaiiiai ia?aoiaea a aoiia. A yoii
neo/aa iu aoaeai eiaoue eaca?iue oneeeoaeue naaoa.

Nouanoaoao, iaeiaei, e ae?oaie aa?eaio iieo/aiey eaca?iiai eo/a,
naycaiiue n eniieueciaaieai nenoaiu ia?aoiie nayce. Niiioaiii
?iaeeaoeany oioiiu, iai?aaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?uo ia
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ieineinoe ca?eae, nicaeaaeoo eaaeiu oioiiia, auoiaeyuea
ca i?aaeaeu n?aaeu. A oi aea a?aiy oioiiu, iai?aaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eioi?uo ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ieineinoe ca?eae, nicaeaaeoo eaaeiu,
iiiaie?aoii oneeeaathueany a n?aaea aneaaenoaea iiiaie?aoiiai io?aaeaiey
io ca?eae. Anee iaeii ec ca?eae aoaeao iaeaaeaoue iaaieueoei
i?iioneaieai, oi /a?ac iaai aoaeao auoiaeeoue iai?aaeaiiue iioie oioiiia
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ieineinoe ca?eae. I?e i?aaeeueii iiaeia?aiiii
i?iioneaiee ca?eae, oi/iie eo iano?ieea ioiineoaeueii ae?oa ae?oaa e
ioiineoaeueii i?iaeieueiie ine n?aaeu n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth
ia?aoiay naycue iiaeao ieacaoueny ianoieueei yooaeoeaiie, /oi eceo/aieai
“aaie” iiaeii aoaeao iieiinoueth i?aiaa?a/ue ii n?aaiaieth n eceo/aieai,
auoiaeyuei /a?ac ca?eaea. Ia i?aeoeea yoi, aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaeaaony
naeaeaoue. Oaeoth noaio ia?aoiie nayce iacuaatho iioe/aneei ?aciiaoi?ii,
e eiaiii yoio oei ?aciiaoi?a eniieuecotho a aieueoeinoaa nouanoaothueo
eaca?ia.

A 1955 a. iaeiia?aiaiii e iacaaeneii I.A. Aaniaui e A.I. I?ioi?iaui a
NNN? e *. Oaoinii a NOA aue i?aaeeiaeai i?eioeei nicaeaiey ia?aiai a
ie?a aaia?aoi?a eaaioia yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey ia n?aaea n
eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth, a eioi?ii auioaeaeaiiia enioneaiea a
?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey ia?aoiie nayce i?eaiaeeei e aaia?aoeee
/?acau/aeii iiiio?iiaoe/aneiai eceo/aiey.

Nionoy ianeieueei eao, a 1960 a., aia?eeaineei oeceeii O. Iaeiaiii aue
nicaeai ia?aue aeaenoaothuee eaaioiaue aaia?aoi? iioe/aneiai aeeaiaciia
– eaca?, a eioi?ii ia?aoiay naycue inouanoaeyeanue n iiiiuueth
iienaiiiai auoa iioe/aneiai ?aciiaoi?a, a eiaa?niay ianaeaiiinoue
aicaoaeaeaeanue a e?enoaeeao ?oaeia, iaeo/aaiuo eceo/aieai enaiiiiaie
eaiiu-aniuoee. ?oaeiiaue e?enoaee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?enoaee ieneaea
aethieiey AL2I3 n iaaieueoie aeiaaaeie = 0,05% o?iia. I?e aeiaaaeaiee
aoiiia o?iia i?ic?a/iua e?enoaeeu ?oaeia i?eia?aoatho ?iciaue oeaao e
iiaeiuatho eceo/aiea a aeaoo iieinao aeeaeiae oeueo?aoeieaoiaie iaeanoe
niaeo?a. Anaai e?enoaeeaie ?oaeia iiaeiuaaony ieiei 15% naaoa
eaiiu-aniuoee. I?e iiaeiuaiee naaoa eiiaie o?iia i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae
eiiia a aicaoaeaeaiiia ninoiyiea. A ?acoeueoaoa aioo?aiieo i?ioeannia
aicaoaeaeaiiua eiiu o?iia ia?aoiaeyo a iniiaiia ninoiyiea ia n?aco, a
/a?ac aeaa aicaoaeaeaiiuo o?iaiy. Ia yoeo o?iaiyo i?ienoiaeeo iaeiieaiea
eiiia, e i?e aeinoaoi/ii iiuiie aniuoea enaiiiiaie eaiiu aicieeaao
eiaa?niay ianaeaiiinoue iaaeaeo i?iiaaeooi/iuie o?iaiyie e iniiaiui
o?iaiai eiiia o?iia.

Oi?oeu ?oaeiiaiai noa?aeiy iiee?otho, iie?uaatho io?aaeathueie
eioa?oa?aioeeiiiuie ieaieaie, auaea?aeeaay i?e yoii no?iaoth
ia?aeeaeueiinoue oi?oeia ae?oa ae?oao.

I?e aicieeiiaaiee eiaa?nee ianaeaiiinoae o?iaiae eiiia o?iia a ?oaeia
i?ienoiaeeo eaaeiiia ia?anoaiea /enea auioaeaeaiii eniouaiuo oioiiia, e
ia?aoiie nayce ia iioe/aneii ?aciiaoi?a, ia?aciaaiiii ca?eaeaie ia
oi?oeao ?oaeiiaiai noa?aeiy, iaania/eaaao oi?ie?iaaiea oceiiai?aaeaiiiai
eo/a e?aniiai naaoa. Aeeeoaeueiinoue eaca?iiai eiioeuen (=0,0001n,
iaiiiai ei?i/a aeeeoaeueiinoe aniuoee enaiiiiaie eaiiu. Yia?aey
eiioeuena ?oaeiiaiai eaca?a ieiei 1AeAE.

N iiiiuueth iaoaie/aneie nenoaiu (a?auathuaany ca?eaei) eee
auno?iaeaenoaothuaai yeaeo?e/aneiai caoai?a iiaeii “aeeth/eoue “
ia?aoioth naycue (iano?ieoue iaeii ec ca?eae) a iiiaio aeinoeaeaiey
iaeneiaeueiie eiaa?nee ianaeaiiinoae e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeneiaeueiiai
oneeaiey aeoeaiie n?aaeu. A yoii neo/aa iiuiinoue eiaeooee?iaaiiiai
eceo/aiey aoaeao /?acau/aeii aaeeea e eiaa?ney ianaeaiiinoe “nieiaony”
auioaeaeaiiui eceo/aieai ca i/aiue ei?ioeia a?aiy.

A yoii ?aaeeia iiaeoee?iaaiiie aeia?ioiinoe ?aciiaoi?a eceo/aaony
aeaaioneee eiioeuen eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. Iieiay yia?aey yoiai eiioeuena
inoaiaony i?eaeeceoaiueii ia oii aea o?iaia, /oi e a ?aaeeia “naiaiaeiie
aaia?aoeee”, ii aneaaenoaea nie?auaiey a nioie ?ac aeeeoaeueiinoe
eiioeuena oaeaea a nioie ?ac aic?anoaao iiuiinoue eceo/aiey, aeinoeaay
cia/aiey =100000000Ao.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua oieeaeueiua naienoaa eaca?iiai eceo/aiey.

I?e niiioaiiii eceo/aiee aoii eceo/aao niaeo?aeueioth eeieth eiia/iie
oe?eiu. I?e eaaeiiia?aciii ia?anoaiee /enea auioaeaeaiii eniouaiiuo
oioiiia a n?aaea n eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoueth eioaineaiinoue eceo/aiey
yoie eaaeiu aoaeao aic?anoaoue i?aaeaea anaai a oeaio?a niaeo?aeueiie
eeiee aeaiiiai aoiiiiai ia?aoiaea, e a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?ioeanna
oe?eia niaeo?aeueiie eeiee ia?aiia/aeueiiai niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey aoaeao
oiaiueoaoueny. Ia i?aeoeea a niaoeeaeueiuo oneiaeyo oaeaaony naeaeaoue
ioiineoaeueioth oe?eio niaeo?aeueiie eeiee eaca?iiai eceo/aiey a
1*10000000-1*100000000 ?ac iaiueoa, /ai oe?eia naiuo oceeo eeiee
niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey, iaaethaeaaiuo a i?e?iaea.

E?iia noaeaiey eeiee eceo/aiey a eaca?a oaeaaony iieo/eoue
?anoiaeeiinoue eo/a iaiaa 0,00001 ?aaeeaia, o.a. ia o?iaia oaeiauo
naeoiae.

Ecaanoii, /oi iai?aaeaiiue oceee eo/ naaoa iiaeii iieo/eoue a i?eioeeia
io ethaiai enoi/ieea, iinoaaea ia iooe naaoiaiai iioiea ?yae ye?aiia n
iaeaiueeeie ioaa?noeyie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie ia iaeiie i?yiie. I?aaenoaaei
naaa, /oi iu acyee iaa?aoia /a?iia oaei e n iiiiuueth aeeao?aai iieo/eee
eo/ naaoa, ec eioi?iai iin?aaenoaii i?eciu eee ae?oaiai niaeo?aeueiiai
i?eai?a auaeaeeee eo/ n oe?eiie niaeo?a, niioaaonoaothuae oe?eia niaeo?a
eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. Ciay iiuiinoue eaca?iiai eceo/aiey, oe?eio aai
niaeo?a e oaeiaoth ?anoiaeeiinoue eo/a, iiaeii n iiiiuueth oi?ioeu
Ieaiea au/eneeoue oaiia?aoo?o aiia?aaeaaiiai /a?iiai oaea,
eniieueciaaiiiai a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea naaoiaiai eo/a, yeaeaaeaioiiai
eaca?iiio eo/o. Yoio ?an/ao i?eaaaeao ian e oaioanoe/aneie oeeo?a:
oaiia?aoo?a /a?iiai oaea aeieaeia auoue ii?yaeea aeanyoeia ieeeeiiia
a?aaeonia! Oaeeaeoaeueiia naienoai eaca?iiai eo/a – aai aunieay
yooaeoeaiay oaiia?aoo?a (aeaaea i?e ioiineoaeueii iaeie n?aaeiae
iiuiinoe eaca?iiai eceo/aiey eee iaeie yia?aee eaca?iiai eiioeuena)
ioe?uaaao ia?aae enneaaeiaaoaeyie aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe, aaniethoii
iainouanoaeiua aac eniieueciaaiey eaca?a.

Eaca?u ?acee/athony: niiniaii nicaeaiey a n?aaea eiaa?niie ianaeaiiinoe,
eee, eia/a aiai?y, niiniaii iaea/ee (iioe/aneay iaea/ea, aicaoaeaeaiea
yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii, oeie/aneay iaea/ea e o. i.); ?aai/ae n?aaeie (aacu,
aeeaeeinoe, noaeea, e?enoaeeu, iieoi?iaiaeieee e o.ae.); eiino?oeoeeae
?aciiaoi?a; ?aaeeiii ?aaiou (eiioeueniue, iai?a?uaiue). Yoe ?acee/ey
ii?aaeaeythony iiiaiia?aceai o?aaiaaiee e oa?aeoa?enoeeai eaca?a a nayce
n aai i?aeoe/aneeie i?eiaiaieyie.

EACA?IAss OAOIIEIAEss.

Eaca?u iaoee oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea, e a /anoiinoe eniieuecothony a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeey ?acee/iuo aeaeia ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia: iaoaeeia,
aaoiia, noaeea, oeaiae, eiaee e o. i.

Eaca?iua oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa
aeaea. Ia?aue ec ieo eniieuecoao aiciiaeiinoue /?acau/aeii oiieie
oieone?iaee eaca?iiai eo/a e oi/iiai aeice?iaaiey yia?aee, eae a
eiioeueniii, oae e a iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia. A oaeeo oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannao i?eiaiytho eaca?u n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieie n?aaeiae iiuiinoe:
yoi aaciaua eaca?u eiioeuenii-ia?eiaee/aneiai aeaenoaey, eaca?u ia
e?enoaeeao eoo?ee-aethieieaaiai a?aiaoa n i?eianueth iaiaeeia. N
iiiiuueth iineaaeieo auee ?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiaey naa?eaiey oiieeo
ioaa?noee (aeeaiao?ii 1-10 iei e aeoaeiie aei 10-100 iei) a ?oaeiiauo e
aeiaciuo eaiiyo aeey /aniaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey
oeeuea?ia aeey i?ioyaeee oiieie i?iaieiee. Iniiaiay iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey
iaeiiiuiuo eiioeueniuo eaca?ia naycaia n ?aceie e naa?eie ieieaoth?iuo
aeaoaeae a iee?iyeaeo?iieea e yeaeo?iaaeooiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, n
ia?ee?iaeie ieieaoth?iuo aeaoaeae, aaoiiaoe/aneei auaeeaaieai oeeo?,
aoea, ecia?aaeaiee aeey ioaeae iieea?aoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo iaeanoae iee?iyeaeo?iieee –
oioieeoia?aoee, aac i?eiaiaiey eioi?ie i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii
ecaioiaeaiea naa?oieieaoth?iuo ia/aoiuo ieao, eioaa?aeueiuo noai e
ae?oaeo yeaiaioia iee?iyeaeo?iiiie oaoieee, iau/iua enoi/ieee naaoa
caiaiythony ia eaca?iua. N iiiiuueth eaca?a ia OaNL (1=308 ii) oaeaaony
iieo/eoue ?ac?aoaiea a oioieeoia?aoe/aneie oaoieea aei 0,15-0,2 iei.

Aeaeueiaeoee i?ia?ann a noaiee?iiiie eeoia?aoee naycai n i?eiaiaieai a
ea/anoaa yeniiie?othuaai enoi/ieea naaoa iyaeiai ?aioaaiianeiai
eceo/aiey ec ieaciu, nicaeaaaaiie eaca?iui eo/ii. A yoii neo/aa i?aaeae
?ac?aoaiey, ii?aaeaeyaiue aeeeiie aieiu ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey
(1=0,01-0,001 iei), ieacuaaaony i?inoi oaioanoe/aneei.

Aoi?ie aeae eaca?iie oaoiieiaee iniiaai ia i?eiaiaiee eaca?ia n aieueoie
n?aaeiae iiuiinoueth io 1eAo e auoa. Iiuiua eaca?u eniieuecotho a oaeeo
yia?aiaieeo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao, eae ?acea e naa?ea oienouo
noaeueiuo eenoia, iiaa?oiinoiay caeaeea, iai?aaeaiea e eaae?iaaiea
e?oiiiaaaa?eoiuo aeaoaeae, i/enoea caeaiee io caa?yciaiiuo iiaa?oiinoae,
?acea i?aii?a, a?aieoa, ?ane?ie oeaiae, eiaee e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeia. I?e
eaca?iie naa?ea iaoaeeia aeinoeaaaony aunieia ea/anoai oaa e ia
o?aaoaony i?eiaiaiea aaeooiiuo eaia?, eae i?e yeaeo?iiiieo/aaie naa?ea,
a yoi i/aiue aaaeii a eiiaaea?iii i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiuiay eaca?iay oaoiieiaey iaoea i?eiaiaiea a iaoeiino?iaiee,
aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia.
Iia iicaieyao ia oieueei iiauneoue ea/anoai ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia, ii e
oeo/oeoue oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia.
Oae, nei?inoue eaca?iie naa?ee noaeueiuo eenoia oieueiie 14 iei
aeinoeaaao 100i// i?e ?anoiaea yeaeo?iyia?aee 10 eAo//.

AACIAUA EACA?U

Aaciauie iacuaathony eaca?u, a eioi?uo aeoeaiie n?aaeie yaeythony aac,
nianue ianeieueeeo aacia eee nianue aacia n ia?aie iaoaeea.

Aaciaua eaca?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie, iiaeaeoe, iaeaieaa oe?iei
eniieuecoaiue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oei eaca?ia e, aiciiaeii, a yoii
ioiioaiee iie i?aainoiaeyo aeaaea ?oaeiiaua eaca?u. Aaciaui eaca?ai
oaeaea, ii-aeaeeiiio, iinayuaia aieueoay /anoue auiieiaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee. N?aaee ?acee/iuo oeiia aaciauo eaca?ia anaaaea iiaeii
iaeoe oaeie, eioi?ue aoaeao oaeiaeaoai?youe ii/oe ethaiio o?aaiaaieth,
i?aaeuyaeyaiiio e eaca?o, ca eneeth/aieai i/aiue aieueoie iiuiinoe a
aeaeeiie iaeanoe niaeo?a a eiioeueniii ?aaeeia. Aieueoea iiuiinoe
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey iiiaeo yenia?eiaioia i?e eco/aiee iaeeiaeiuo iioe/aneeo
naienoa iaoa?eaeia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoea iiuiinoe a aaciauo
eaca?ao ia iieo/aiu ii oie i?inoie i?e/eia, /oi ieioiinoue aoiiia a ieo
iaaeinoaoi/ii aaeeea. Iaeiaei ii/oe aeey anao ae?oaeo oeaeae iiaeii
iaeoe eiie?aoiue oei aaciaiai eaca?a, eioi?ue aoaeao i?aainoiaeeoue eae
oaa?aeioaeueiua eaca?u n iioe/aneie iaea/eie, oae e iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua
eaca?u. Iiiai oneeee auei iai?aaeaii ia oi, /oiau yoe eaca?u iiaee
eiieo?e?iaaoue n aaciauie eaca?aie, e a ?yaea neo/aaa aue aeinoeaioo
ii?aaeaeaiiue oniao, iaeiaei ii anaaaea ieacuaaeny ia a?aie
aiciiaeiinoae, a oi a?aiy eae aaciaua eaca?u ia iaia?oaeeaatho ieeaeeo
i?eciaeia oiaiueoaiey iiioey?iinoe.

Iniaaiiinoe aaciauo eaca?ia aieueoae /anoi iaoneiaeaiu oai, /oi iie, eae
i?aaeei, yaeythony enoi/ieeaie aoiiiuo eee iieaeoey?iuo niaeo?ia.
Iiyoiio aeeeiu aiei ia?aoiaeia oi/ii ecaanoiu, iie ii?aaeaeythony
aoiiiie no?oeoo?ie e iau/ii ia caaenyo io oneiaee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.
Noaaeeueiinoue aeeeiu aieiu aaia?aoeee i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneeeyo iiaeao
auoue cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaia ii n?aaiaieth ni noaaeeueiinoueth
niiioaiiiai eceo/aiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiathony eaca?u n
iiiio?iiaoe/iinoui, eo/oae, /ai a ethaii ae?oaii i?eai?a. I?e
niioaaonoaothuai auai?a aeoeaiie n?aaeu iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaia
aaia?aoeey a ethaie /anoe niaeo?a, io oeueo?aoeieaoiaie (~2000A) aei
aeaeaeie eio?ae?aniie iaeanoe (~ 0,4 ii), /anoe/ii caoaaouaay
iee?iaieiiaoth iaeanoue. Iao oaeaea iniiaaiee niiiaaaoueny, /oi a
aoaeouai oaeanony nicaeaoue eaca?u aeey aaeooiiie oeueo?aoeieaoiaie
iaeanoe niaeo?a. ?ac?aaeaiiinoue ?aai/aai aaca iaania/eaaao iioe/aneoth
iaeii?iaeiinoue n?aaeu n ieceei eiyooeoeeaioii i?aeiieaiey, /oi
iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue i?inooth iaoaiaoe/aneoth oai?eth aeey iienaiey
no?oeoo?u iiae ?aciiaoi?a e aeaao oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi naienoaa
auoiaeiiai neaiaea aeecee e oai?aoe/aneei. Oioy e. i. ae. i?aa?auaiey
yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee a yia?aeth auioaeaeaiiiai eceo/aiey a aaciaii
eaca?a ia iiaeao auoue oaeei aieueoei, eae a iieoi?iaiaeieeiaii eaca?a,
iaeiaei aeaaiaea?y i?inoioa oi?aaeaiey ?ac?yaeii aaciaue eaca?
ieacuaaaony aeey aieueoeinoaa oeaeae iaeaieaa oaeiaiui a ?aaioa eae
iaeei ec eaai?aoi?iuo i?eai?ia. *oi eanaaony aieueoie iiuiinoe a
iai?a?uaiii ?a aeeia (a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eiioeueniie iiuiinoe), oi
i?e?iaea aaciauo eaca?ia iicaieyao ei a yoii ioiioaiee i?aacieoe ana
ae?oaea oeiu eaca?ia.

Iniaaiiinoueth aeoeaiie n?aaeu, iaoiaeyuaeny a aaciaie oaca, yaeyaony aa
aunieay iioe/aneay iaeii?iaeiinoue, /oi iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue aieueoea
iioe/aneea aeeeiu ?aciiaoi?a e aneaaenoaea yoiai iieo/aoue aunieoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue e iiiio?iiaoe/iinoue eceo/aiey.

Oeie/iue eaca? ia iaeo?aeueiuo aoiiao (aoiia?iue) – yoi aaci?ac?yaeiue
aaeee-iaiiiaue eaca?, a eioi?ii eniieuecoaony nianue aaeey e iaiia a
niioiioaiee i?eia?ii 10:1,5:1 i?e iauai aeaaeaiee a aaci?ac?yaeiie
o?oaea ieiei 80 Ia. Auioaeaeaiiia eceo/aiea nicaeaaony aoiiaie iaiia, a
aoiiu aaeey o/anoaotho eeoue a ia?aaea/e yia?aee aoiiai iaiia (?en 1.)

I?e aicaoaeaeaiee aaciaie niane yeaeo?e/aneei oieii (iinoiyiiui eee
ia?aiaiiui n /anoioie ieiei 30 IAoe) aicieeaao oeathuee ?ac?yae,
iiaeiaiue ?ac?yaeo a ?aeeaiiie iaiiiaie eaiia. A yeaeo?e/aneii ?ac?yaea
/anoue aoiiia iaiia ia?aoiaeeo n iniiaiiai o?iaiy A1 ia aeieaiaeeaouea
aicaoaeaeaiiua o?iaie A4 e A5. Eiaa?ney ianaeaiiinoae nicaeaaony
aeaaiaea?y aieueoae ianaeaiiinoe yoeo o?iaiae ii n?aaiaieth n
ei?ioeiaeeaouei o?iaiai A3. A /enoii iaiia nicaeaieth eiaa?nee
ianaeaiiinoe iaoaao iaoanoaaeeueiue o?iaaiue A2, iiyoiio iieaciui
ieacaeinue aaaaeaiey a ?aai/oth nianue aaeey.

Iiae aeaenoaeai yeaeo?e/aneiai ?ac?yaea /anoue aoiiia aaeey eiiece?oaony
e ia?acoaony ieacia, niaea?aeauay yeaeo?iiu n aieueoie eeiaoe/aneie
yia?aeae. Yoe yeaeo?iiu, noaeeeaaynue n aoiiaie aaeey, ia?aaiaeyo eo ec
iniiaiiai ninoiyiey A1 ia aeieaiaeeaouea aicaoaeaeaiiua o?iaie A2 e A3,
eioi?ua aeecee e o?iaiyi A4 e A5 iaiia. Iiyoiio i?e noieeiiaaieyo
aicaoaeaeaiiuo aoiiia aaeey n iaaicaoaeaeaiiuie aoiiaie iaiia aicieeaao
aunieay aa?iyoiinoue ?aciiainiie ia?aaea/e aicaoaeaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai aoiiu iaiia ieacuaathony ia o?iaiyo A4 e A5, a aoiiu aaeey
aica?auathony a iniiaiia ninoiyiea. Aa?iyoiinoue aicaoaeaeaiey aoiiia
iaiia aei o?iaiae A2 e A3 ca n/ao noieeiiaaiee n aoiiaie aaeey iaea, oae
eae yia?aey yoeo ninoiyiee nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io yia?aee o?iaiae A2
e A3 aaeey. Oaeei ia?acii, eniieueciaaiea aniiiiaaoaeueiiai aaca – aaeey
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeoue aeiiieieoaeueii canaeaiea
yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae iaiia e iieo/eoue eiaa?neth ianaeaiiinoae iaaeaeo
o?iaiyie A3 e A4 , A5 .

Iineieueeo o?iaaiue A3 iaiia yaeyaony ei?ioeiaeeaouei, ia ia?aoiaeao
A4(A3 e A5(A3, iiaeii iieo/eoue iai?a?uaioth aaia?aoeeth. Ia?aoiaeo
A4(A3 niioaaonoaoao aaia?aoeey a aeeaeiae eio?ae?aniie iaeanoe n aeeeiie
aieiu 1,153 iei, a ia?aoiaeo A5(A3 – a e?aniie iaeanoe aeaeeiiai niaeo?a
n aeeeiie aieiu 0,6328 iei. Eaaeaeue ec o?iaiae A3, a aeeaiaciia
aeaeeiiai e eio?ae?aniiai niaeo?ia aaeee-iaiiiaue eaca? iiaeao
niaea?aeaoue aieueoia /enei (~130) niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee. Auaeaeaiea
ioaeiie niaeo?aeueiie eeiee inouanoaeyaony iiaeai?ii ca?eae iioe/aneiai
?aciiaoi?a, aaaaeaieai a ?aciiaoi? aeenia?ae?othuaai eee naeaeoeaii
iiaeiuathuaai yeaiaioa, iinoiyiiiai iaaieoa. Iaaeaeo o?iaiyie A4 e A5
iaiia anoue aua iaeei ei?ioeiaeeaouee o?iaaiue, ia?aoiae aoiiia ia
eioi?ue n o?iaiy A5 iicaieyao iieo/eoue aaia?aoeeth ia aeeeia aieiu
3,392 iei.

A aaeee-iaiiiaii eaca?a ?aai/ay aaciaay nianue iaoiaeeony a
aaci?ac?yaeiie o?oaea, aeeeia eioi?ie iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 0,2…1 i. O?oaea
ecaioaaeeaaaony ec aunieiea/anoaaiiiai noaeea eee eaa?oea. Iiuiinoue
aaia?aoeee nouanoaaiii caaeneo io aeeaiao?a o?oaee. Oaaee/aiea
aeeaiao?a aaaeao e oaaee/aieth ?aai/ae niane, /oi niinianoaoao
aic?anoaieth iiuiinoe aaia?aoeee. Iaeiaei n oaaee/aieai aeeaiao?a o?oaee
oiaiueoaaony yeaeo?iiiay oaiia?aoo?a ieaciu, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
oiaiueoaieth /enea yeaeo?iiia, niiniaiuo aicaoaeaeaoue aoiiu aacia, /oi
a eiia/iii eoiaa nieaeaao iiuiinoue aaia?aoeee. Aeey oiaiueoaiey
iioa?ue oi?oeu aaci?ac?yaeiie o?oaee cae?uou ieineiia?aeeaeueiuie
ieanoeieaie, eioi?ua ?aniieiaeaiu ia ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e ine o?oaee, a
oae, /oiau ii?iaeue e yoie ieanoeiea ninoaaeyea n inueth o?oaee oaie
iA=arctg n (n – iieacaoaeue i?aeiieaiey iaoa?eaea ieanoeiee), iacuaaaiue
oaeii A?thnoa?a. Iniaaiiinoue io?aaeaiey yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieiu io
a?aieoeu ?acaeaea ?acee/iuo n?aae iiae oaeii iA oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a
eaca?iie oaoieea. Onoaiiaea auoiaeiuo ieii ethaaoa n aeoeaiie n?aaeie
iiae oaeii A?thnoa?a iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeyao iiey?ecaoeeth eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey. Aeey eceo/aiey, iiey?eciaaiiiai a ieineinoe iaaeaiey, iioa?e
a ?aciiaoi?a ieieiaeueiu. Anoanoaaiii, eiaiii yoi eeiaeii-iiey?eciaaiiia
eceo/aiea onoaiaaeeaaaony a eaca?a e yaeyaony i?aiaeaaeathuei.

Aaci?ac?yaeiay o?oaea iiiauaia a iioe/aneee ?aciiaoi?, eioi?ue ia?aciaai
ca?eaeaie n eioa?oa?aioeeiiiui iie?uoeai. Ca?eaea cae?aieaiu ai
oeaioeao, eiino?oeoeey eioi?uo iicaieyao iiai?a/eaaoue ca?eaea a aeaoo
acaeiii ia?iaiaeeeoey?iuo ieineinoyo i?e thnoe?iaea iooai a?auaiey
thnoe?iai/iuo aeioia. Aicaoaeaeaiea aaciaie niane inouanoaeyaony iooai
iiaea/e auniei/anoioiiai iai?yaeaiey n aeiea ieoaiey ia yeaeo?iaeu. Aeie
ieoaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie auniei/anoioiue aaia?aoi?, iaania/eaathuee
aaia?e?iaaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo eieaaaiee n /anoioie 30 IAoe i?e iiiiue a
ianeieueei aeanyoeia aaoo.

Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii ieoaiea aaciauo eaca?ia iinoiyiiui oieii i?e
iai?yaeaiee 1000…2000 A, iieo/aaiui n iiiiuueth noaaeeece?iaaiiuo
aui?yieoaeae. A yoii neo/aa aaci?ac?yaeiay o?oaea iiaeia?aaiui e
oieiaeiui eaoiaeii e aiiaeii. Aeey caaeeaaiey ?ac?yaea a o?oaea
eniieuecoaony yeaeo?iae, ia eioi?ue iiaeaaony eiioeueniia iai?yaeaiea
ieiei 12 eA. yoi iai?yaeaiea iieo/atho iooai ?ac?yaea eiiaeainaoi?a
aieinoueth 1…2 ieO /a?ac ia?ae/ioth iaiioeo eiioeueniiai o?ainoi?iaoi?a.

Aeinoieinoaii aaeee-iaiiiauo eaca?ia yaeythony eiaa?aioiinoue eo
eceo/aiey, iaeay iio?aaeyaiay iiuiinoue (8…10 Ao) e iaaieueoea ?acia?u.
Iniiaiua iaaeinoaoee – iaaunieee EIAe (0,01…0,1 %) e ieceay auoiaeiay
iiuiinoue, ia i?aauoathuay 60 iAo. Yoe eaca?u iiaoo ?aaioaoue a
eiioeueniii ?aaeeia, anee aeey aicaoaeaeaiey eniieueciaaoue eiioeueniia
iai?yaeaiea aieueoie aiieeooaeu i?e aeeeoaeueiinoe a aaeeieoeu
iee?inaeoiae. Aeaaiua iaeanoe i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey aaeee-iaiiiauo
eaca?ia – iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ecia?eoaeueiay oaoieea.

Ec eiiiuo eaca?ia iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee a?aiiiaue eaca?
iai?a?uaiiai eceo/aiey ia aeeeia aieiu 0,48 iei. Eiiu a?aiia ia?acothony
a ethaaoa a ?acoeueoaoa eiiecaoeee iaeo?aeueiuo aoiiia Ag II oieii
aieueoie ieioiinoe (~103 A/ni3).

Eiaa?ney ianaeaiiinoae a oaeii eaca?a iaaeaeo aa?oiei (4p) e ieaeiei
(4s) ?aai/eie o?iaiyie nicaeaaony oaeei ia?acii. O?iaaiue 4p, eiathuee
ii n?aaiaieth n o?iaiai 4s aieueoaa a?aiy aeecie, canaeythony eiiaie
a?aiia ca n/ao ec noieeiiaaiey n auno?uie yeaeo?iiaie a aaciaii ?ac?yaea
ca n/ao ia?aoiaeia aicaoaeaeaiiuo eiiia ec a?oiiu ?aniieiaeaiiuo auoa
o?iaiae 5p. A oi aea a?aiy o?iaaiue 5p, iaeaaeathuee i/aiue ei?ioeei
a?aiaiai aeecie, auno?i iionoioaaony ca n/ao aica?auaiey eiiia a
iniiaiia ninoiyiea. Oae eae o?iaie 5p, 5s, 4p ninoiyo ec a?oii
iiaeo?iaiae, aaia?aoeey iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iaeiia?aiaiii ia
ianeieueeeo aeeeiao aiei: io 0,45 aei 0,515.

A ianoiyuea a?aiy a?aiiiaua eiiiua eaca?u yaeythony naiuie iiuiuie
enoi/ieeaie iai?a?uaiiai eiaa?aioiiai eceo/aiey a oeueo?aoeieaoiaii e
aeaeeiii aeeaiaciiao niaeo?a. Oe?ieiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth iiuiuo a?aiiiauo
eaca?ia iaoatho eo aunieay noieiinoue, neiaeiinoue, iaeue EIAe (~0,1 %)
e aieueoay iio?aaeyaiay iiuiinoue (3…5 eAo).

E?AOEEE ENOI?E*ANEEE IACI?

Ia?aua ?an/aou, eanathueany aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey eaca?ia, e ia?aua
iaoaiou ioiineeenue aeaaiui ia?acii e aaciaui eaca?ai, oae eae noaiu
yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae e oneiaey aicaoaeaeaiey a yoii neo/aa aieaa
iiiyoiu, /ai aeey aauanoa a oaa?aeii ninoiyiee. Iaeiaei ia?aui aue
ioe?uo ?oaeiiaue eaca?, oioy anei?a aue nicaeai e aaciaue eaca?. A
eiioea 1960 a. Aeaeaaai, Aaiiao e Oa??eioo nicaeaee aaeee-iaiiiaue
eaca?, ?aaioathuee a eio?ae?aniie iaeanoe ia ?yaea eeiee a ?aeiia 1 iei.
A iineaaeothuea aeaa aiaea aaeee-iaiiiaue eaca? aue oniaa?oainoaiaai, a
oaeaea auee ioe?uou ae?oa a aaciaua eaca?u, .?aaioathuea a eio?ae?aniie
iaeanoe, aeeth/ay eaca?u n eniieueciaaieai ae?oaeo aeaai?iaeiuo aacia e
aoiia?iiai eenei?iaea. Iaeiaei iaeaieueoee eioa?an e aaciaui eaca?ai aue
aucaai ioe?uoeai aaia?aoeee aaeee-iaiiiaiai eaca?a ia e?aniie eeiee 6328
A i?e oneiaeyo, eeoue iacia/eoaeueii ioee/aaoeony io oneiaee, i?e
eioi?uo auea iieo/aia aaia?aoeey a ia?aii aaciaii eaca?a. Iieo/aiea
aaia?aoeee a aeaeeiie iaeanoe niaeo?a noeioee?iaaei eioa?an ia oieueei e
iieneai aeiiieieoaeueiui ia?aoiaeia oaeiai oeia, ii e e eaca?iui
i?eiaiaieyi, oae eae i?e yoii auee ioe?uou iiiaea iiaua e iaiaeeaeaiiua
yaeaiey, a eaca?iue eo/ iieo/ee iiaua i?eiaiaiey a ea/anoaa
eaai?aoi?iiai eino?oiaioa. Aeaa aiaea, iineaaeiaaaoea ca ioe?uoeai
aaia?aoeee ia eeiee 6328 A, auee ianuuaiu aieueoei eiee/anoaii
oaoie/aneeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo aeaaiui ia?acii ia
aeinoeaeaiea aieueoae iiuiinoe e aieueoae eiiiaeoiinoe yoiai oeia
eaca?a. Oai a?aiaiai i?iaeieaeaeenue iienee iiauo aeeei aiei e auee
ioe?uou iiiaea eio?ae?aniua e ianeieueei iiauo ia?aoiaeia a aeaeeiie
iaeanoe niaeo?a. Iaeaieaa aaaeiui ec ieo yaeyaony ioe?uoea Iaoeanii e
eiioeueniuo eaca?iuo ia?aoiaeia a iieaeoey?iii acioa e a ieene
oaea?iaea.

Neaaeothuei iaeaieaa aaaeiui yoaiii a ?acaeoee eaca?ia auei,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ioe?uoea Aaeeii a eiioea 1963a. eaca?a, ?aaioathuaai ia
eiiao ?oooe. Oioy eaca? ia eiiao ?oooe nai ii naaa ia ii?aaaeae
ia?aiia/aeueiuo iaaeaaeae ia iieo/aiea aieueoeo iiuiinoae a iai?a?uaiii
?aaeeia a e?aniie e caeaiie iaeanoyo niaeo?a, yoi ioe?uoea oeacaei iiaua
?aaeeiu ?ac?yaea, i?e eioi?uo iiaoo auoue iaia?oaeaiu eaca?iua ia?aoiaeu
a aeaeeiie iaeanoe niaeo?a. Iienee oaeeo ia?aoiaeia auee i?iaaaeaiu
oaeaea n?aaee ae?oaeo eiiia. Anei?a auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi eiiu a?aiia
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeeo/oee enoi/iee eaca?iuo ia?aoiaeia n aieueoie
iiuiinoueth a aeaeeiie iaeanoe e /oi ia ieo iiaeao auoue iieo/aia
aaia?aoeey a iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia . A ?acoeueoaoa aeaeueiaeoeo
oniaa?oainoaiaaiee a?aiiiaiai eaca?a a iai?a?uaiii ?aaeeia auea iieo/aia
iaeaieaa aunieay iiuiinoue, eaeay oieueei aiciiaeia a aeaeeiie iaeanoe.
A ?acoeueoaoa iieneia auea ioe?uoa aaia?aoeey ia 200 eiiiuo ia?aoiaeao,
nin?aaeioi/aiiuo aeaaiui ia?acii a aeaeeiie, a oaeaea a
oeueo?aoeieaoiaie /anoyo niaeo?a. Oaeea iienee, ii-aeaeeiiio, aua ia
ieii/aiu; a aeo?iaeao ii i?eeeaaeiie oeceea e a oaoie/aneeo aeo?iaeao
/anoi iiyaeythony niiauaiey i aaia?aoeee ia iiauo aeeeiao aiei,

Oai a?aiaiai .oaoie/aneea oniaa?oainoaiaaiey eaca?ia auno?i
?anoe?yeenue, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai en/acee iiiaea “eieaeianeea” ooeu?aiey
ia?auo eiino?oeoeee aaeee-iaiiiauo e ae?oaeo aaciauo eaca?ia.
Enneaaeiaaiey oaeeo eaca?ia, ia/aoua Aaiiaoii , i?iaeieaeaeenue aei oao
ii?, iiea ia aue nicaeai aaeee-iaiiiaue eaca?, eioi?ue iiaeii
onoaiiaeoue ia iau/iii noiea n iieiie oaa?aiiinoueth a oii, /oi eaca?
aoaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue oae, eae yoi iaeeaeaeinue i?e aai nicaeaiee.
A?aiiiaue eiiiue eaca? ia enneaaeiaai noieue aea oi?ioi; iaeiaei
aieueoia /enei i?eaeiaeueiuo ?aaio Ai?aeiia A?eaeaeana e iicaieyao
i?aaeaeaeaoue a ?acoiiuo i?aaeaeao aiciiaeiua ia?aiao?u oaeiai eaca?a.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeiaai aiaea iiyaeeny ?yae eioa?aniuo ?aaio,
iinayuaiiuo aaciaui eaca?ai, iaeiaei aua neeoeii ?aii ii?aaeaeyoue eo
ioiineoaeueioth oeaiiinoue. Ei anaiauaio oaeeaeaieth iaeaieaa aaaeiui
aeinoeaeaieai yaeeinue ioe?uoea Iaeoaeii aaia?aoeee auioaeaeaiiiai
eceo/aiey a NI2 ia iieina 1,6 ie n aunieei EIAe. auoiaeiay iiuiinoue a
yoeo eaca?ao iiaeao auoue aeiaaaeaia aei nioai aaoo, /oi iaauaao
ioe?uoue oeaeoth iiaoth iaeanoue eaca?iuo i?eiaiaiee.Nienie
eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue thiiai oeceea (ae. ?aaeaeoi? Ieaaeae A.A.)

Iineaa “Iaaeaaiaeea” 1991a.

I.I. Oaoiaaa, N.I. Oaoiaaa, Ae.O. Oiaeeaa “Oeceea 11”

Iineaa “I?inaauaiea” 1993a.

I.O.Eaaa?aeei “Oeceea” Iineaa “I?inaauaiea” 1988a.

”Aaciaua eaca?u” (iiae. ?aae. I.I. Niaieaaa) Iineaa “Ie?” 1968a.

”Iniiau eaca?iie oaoieee” Aaeai?iaeei TH. A. 2-a ecae., E.:1988, 383n.

PAGE 10

E3

E1

E2

E4

E3

E1

E2

E5

Aicaoaeaeaiea i?e noieeiiaaieyo n yeaeo?iiaie

?aciiainiay ia?aaea/a aicaoaeaeaiey

Aicaoaeaeaiea i?e noieeiiaaieyo n yeaeo?iiaie

E?aniue naao

h(53

EE-eceo/aiea

h(43

He

He

Iniiaiia ninoiyiea

?en.1. Noaia yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae aaeee-iaiiiaiai eaca?a

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