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Eaeoeey 22

20. Noiy/ea aieiu. ?ao?aeoeey

Iu ?anniio?aee noiy/ea aieiu aeey (-ooieoeee a aaneiia/ii aeoaieie
iaeiiia?iie iioaioeeaeueiie yia. Ii e a ae?oaeo neo/ayo noaoeeiia?iia
?aoaiea o?aaiaiey O?(aeeiaa?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiy/oth aieio, oioy
yoi ia anaaaea noieue i/aaeaeii.

Eaeie iiaeao auoue, iai?eia?, noiy/ay aieia (-ooieoeee yeaeo?iia a iiea
i?ioiia, a aoiia aiaei?iaea? Aaaeue a yoii neo/aa, a?iaea au, aiiaua iao
eaeeo-ieaoaeue io?aaeathueo aieio noaiie. E a yoie nayce iu aniiiiei i
yaeaiee, eioi?ia, aiiaua aiai?y, caneoaeeaaao aieaa aeaoaeueiiai
?acaiai?a, – i ?ao?aeoeee.

Aiai?y i i?yiieeiaeiinoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey naaoa, iai?eia?, iu
iiae?acoiaaaee iaeii?iaeioth n?aaeo. Ii a iaiaeii?iaeiie n?aaea
iai?aaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiaiey aieiu ia inoaaony iinoiyiiui.

Z

Ionoue a iaiaeii?iaeiie n?aaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony aieia n ieineei o?iioii.
E ionoue nei?inoue (oaciaay) aic?anoaao a iai?aaeaiee ine Z,
ia?aeeaeueiie o?iioo. Iniiauaaynue ia i?eioeeia Atheaaina-O?aiaey,
?anniio?ei eaaeaeoth oi/eo o?iioa aieiu eae enoi/iee aoi?e/iuo aiei.
Oiaaea “iiaue” o?iio (ieineinoue, eanaoaeueiay e aieiiaui iiaa?oiinoyi
aoi?e/iuo enoi/ieeia) ia aoaeao ia?aeeaeai noa?iio, aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue
ene?eaeaiea eo/a, iiieiaaiiai eae e?eaay, eanaoaeueiay e eioi?ie
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia o?iioo aieiu. Aio yoi yaeaiea “ene?eaeaiey” eo/a a
iaiaeii?iaeiie n?aaea e iacuaaaony ?ao?aeoeeae.

I?iyaeaiey ?ao?aeoeee aanueia ?aciiia?aciu, e iiae?iaiue ?acaiai? i iae
iia au auoue aeinoaoi/ii eioa?anai. Ii – iaeuecy iauyoue iaiauyoiia e
iniaaiii ca aanueia ia?aie/aiiia a?aiy, eioi?ia anoue a iaoai
?anii?yaeaiee. Iaeiaei, iiniio?ei, eae yoi yaeaiea i?iyaeyaony a aoiia
aiaei?iaea.

A iiea i?ioiia ii ia?a oaaee/aiey ?aaeeona iioaioeeaeueiay yia?aey
yeaeo?iia aic?anoaao. I?e iinoiyiiie iieiie yia?aee E = const yoi
icia/aao oiaiueoaiea eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee, oiaiueoaiea eiioeuena

.

Oae /oi oiaiueoaiea eiioeuena icia/aao e oaaee/aiea oaciaie nei?inoe v
i?e oaaee/aiee ?aaeeona. Oaeei ia?acii, yeaeo?iiiay aieia aoaeao
ene?eaeyoueny a iai?aaeaiee e i?ioiio e i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo
iiaeao noaoue ie?oaeiinoueth. I?e eaeeo?

Oneiaea, eioi?ia aeieaeii auoue auiieiaii, aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeii.
Iineieueeo aeeeia ie?oaeiinoe i?iii?oeeiiaeueia ?aaeeono,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie ?aaeeono aeieaeia auoue e oaciaay nei?inoue. Oaeei
ia?acii iu iieo/aai:

.

Eneeth/ea oaciaoth nei?inoue, iieo/ei au?aaeaiea aeey caaeneiinoe
eiioeuena io ?aaeeona:

.

e oneiaey E = const iu iieo/ei:

.

:

.

Ec iiae/a?eioouo aeaoo au?aaeaiee neaaeoao:

.

Oaeei ia?acii, au?aaeaiea aeey yia?aee yeaeo?iia i?eieiaao aeae:

.

Yoi au?aaeaiea aeey yeaeo?iia niaiaaeaao n oi/iui cia/aieai, iieo/aiiui
ec ?aoaiey o?aaiaiey O??aeeiaa?a. Iaoe ioeaii/iua ?an/aou ieeae ia
ecaaaeytho io iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aoaoue yoi o?aaiaiea. Iie aeieaeiu eeoue
iiii/ue iiiyoue, /oi eaaioiaia ninoiyiea yeaeo?iia a aoiia iienuaaaony
noiy/ae aieiie.

21. “Aioo?aiiaa aeaeaeaiea” eaaioiaiai ninoiyiey

Ana oi, i /ai iu nae/an aaaeai ?a/ue, aiiaua aiai?y, ia eiaao i?yiiai
ioiioaiey e ?aoaieth caaea/ i iiaaaeaiee yeaeo?iia a oii eee eiii
neo/aa. I?inoi neeoeii /anoi eaaioiaay oeceea i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony
eeanne/aneie, oiaaea eae a ?yaea naieo i?iyaeaiee iiaay oeceea
ieacuaaaony i?yiie “ianeaaeieoeae” noa?ie.

Iu aiai?eee i oii, /oi i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia i?eaiineo eaaioiaaiea a
oeceeo. Iaieioi ioiaoeoue e oa aicc?aiey, /oi iiaoo auoue inoaaeaiu aac
eciaiaiee.

Ia?aoeiny aiiaue e caaea/a ia yeaeo?iia a iioaioeeaeueiie yia. Eaaae?ao
iiaeoey (-ooieoeee aeey ethaiai n yaeyaony ooieoeeae eii?aeeiaou:

.

. A yoii ia aoaeao ie/aai caaaaei/iiai, anee iu ia noaiai ioeacuaaoue
aieia (-ooieoeee a ?aaeueiinoe, aoaeai iiiieoue, /oi noiy/ay aieia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio aaaoueo a i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo aiei,
eioi?ua io?aaeathony io noaiie. Aieia ia?aiineo eiioeuen e i?e
io?aaeaiee i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea aai iai?aaeaiey. Eiia/ii, eae
iai?a?uaiue i?ioeann, a ia “iaiiaaiiia”, eae i?e ei?ioneoey?iii
i?aaenoaaeaiee yeaeo?iia.

ia caaeneo io a?aiaie, aeaao oi?ioaa, anoanoaaiiia iauyniaiea oiai,
ii/aio a noaoeeiia?iii ninoiyiee ia i?ienoiaeeo eceo/aiey
yeaeo?iiaaieoiie yia?aee – iao eieaaaiee yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea.

Eeiaeiiio aieiiaiio o?aaiaieth O??aeeiaa?a oaeiaeaoai?yao e aieiiaay
ooieoeey, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie noia?iiceoeeth aeaoo (noiy/eo) aiei n
?aciuie /anoioaie e aieiiauie /eneaie:

.

Eaaae?ao iiaeoey yoie ooieoeee:

.

Au?aaeaiea iieo/aaony aeinoaoi/ii a?iiicaeeei, ii eaaei aeaeaoue, /oi
aai iiaeii caienaoue a aeaea:

.

.

Eiiaaea aiai?yo, /oi iaaethaeathony oieueei noaoeeiia?iua ninoiyiey
yeaeo?iia, iai?eia?, a neo/aa aoiia aiaei?iaea

.

Iiaeaeoe, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea aa?ii n oi/iinoueth aei
iaiai?io: iaaethaeaaony, nianoaaiii, eceo/aiea eee iiaeiuaiea
yeaeo?iiaaieoiie yia?aee, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo i?e eciaiaiee yia?aee
yeaeo?iia io iaeiiai eaaioiaaiiiai cia/aiey aei ae?oaiai. Anee, eiia/ii,
i?eciaoue, /oi i?ioeann, iai?eia?, eceo/aiey caieiaao iaeioi?ia a?aiy, e
/oi a eaaioiaie oeceea auiieiyaony caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee.

Iiae/a?eio aua ?ac: i?aaeeaaaaiua ?annoaeaeaiey ieeaeei ia?acii ia
aeeytho ia i?aeoe/aneia ?aoaiea eaaioiaiiaoaie/aneeo caaea/. ?a/ue eaeao
oieueei i “ea?oeiea” i?ioeanna, eioi?oth Au iiaeaoa eiaoue o naay a
aieiaa. Anee Aai iiiyoiaa ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi a eaaioiaie oeceea
eceo/aiea ieeae ia naycaii n inoeeeeyoeeae ca?yaea, oi – aiey Aaoa.
I?aaaea, aeaaii auei neacaii: “Ia oiiiaeae /enei nouiinoae aac
iaaeiaiinoe”.

Ii i?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue e oaeia ianoiyoaeuenoai.
Yeia?eiaioaeueii iaaethaeaoue inoeeeeyoeeth ca?yaea iu ia iiaeai – i?e
iiiuoea oaeiai iaaethaeaiey ?ac?ooeony “o?oieay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue
eaaioiaiai ninoiyiey”. Ia inoeeeeyoeee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oi, /oi
i?ienoiaeeo eceo/aiea eee iiaeiuaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiie yia?aee.

22. Eaaioiaaiea iiiaioa eiioeuena

Ae?oaia “ne?uoia aeaeaeaiea” aioo?e eaaioiaiai iauaeoa i?iyaeyaony a
iaee/ee iiiaioa eiioeuena aai ninoiyiey. A neo/aa, iai?eia?, noiy/ae
yeaeo?iiiie aieiu a iiea yae?a aoiia iiiaio eiioeuena ia ii?aaeaeyaony n
iiiiuueth noiie?iaaiey yeaiaioa?iuo iiiaioia eiioeuenia, aai (iiiaioa
eiioeuena) iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea yaiie nayce n iaeioi?ui aeaeaeaieai ia
iaia?oaeeaaao. Iaeiaei, o ian iao e iniiaaiee n/eoaoue, /oi iiiaio
eiioeuena nicaeaaony eae-oi eia/a, /ai a oeceea iaueiiaaiiie, eae-oi aac
aeaeaeaiey. Aniiiieoa, /oi iu aiai?eee ia eiioeuena yeaeo?iia a
iaeiiia?iie iioaioeeaeueiie yia.

I?e ?aoaiee o?aaiaiey O??aeeiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony eeoue iiaeoeue (oi/iaa,
eaaae?ao iiaeoey) iiiaioa eiioeuen e iaeia ec i?iaeoeee (ninoaaeythueo?)
iiiaioa eiioeuena. Ii – ia ethaay, a eeoue i?iaeoeey ia inue neiiao?ee
eaaae?aoa iiaeoey aieiiaie ooieoeee (inue eaaioiaaiey). Oae /oi iau/iia
iaa?aaeiia caia/aiea, /oi iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia eeoue iaeia ec
i?iaeoeee Mx, My eee Mz cia/eo ia aieaa, /ai ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi inue
eaaioiaaiey iu iiaeai iaicia/eoue ethaie aoeaie.

Iii?iaoai i?aaenoaaeoue naaa iainiaeaiiue, ia eniuouaathuee aiaoieo
aicaeaenoaee aoii. Eae iai?aaeai aai iiiaio eiioeuena? Eae iai?aaeaia
inue eaaioiaaiey? Aeaeeii, ioaao aeieaeai auoue oaeie – eae oaiaeii.
Iieiaeei, iu oioei ii?aaeaeeoue yoe iai?aaeaiey. Anee Au n?aco
aniiiieoa, /oi ecia?aiey oa?aeoa?enoee eaaioiaiai ninoiyiey nii?yaeaiu n
eciaiaieai naiiai ninoiyiey, yoi i/aiue oi?ioi. Ii – oai ia iaiaa.

Iai?aaeaiea iiiaioa eiioeuena iai ii?aaeaeeoue ieeae ia oaeanony – iii
ia ii?aaeaeyao eaeeo-ieaoaeue oece/aneeo i?ioeannia eee eo
oa?aeoa?enoee. E caeanue iu ano?a/aainy n ecoieoaeueiie aa?iiieae: oi,
/oi iu ia iiaeai ii?aaeaeeoue yenia?eiaioaeueii, ia iiaeao auoue e
?ann/eoaii. E yoi, aeaeeii, aeieaeii ian ?aaeiaaoue, yoi icia/aao, /oi
iaoe o?aaiaiey iienuaatho ?aaeueiua oece/aneea i?ioeannu. Yoa aa?iiiey
ia yaeyaony iniaaiiinoueth eaaioiaie iaoaieee. Oae aea ianoieo aeaei e n
iioaioeeaeueiie yia?aeae – iia ii?aaeaeaia n oi/iinoueth aei
i?iecaieueiiai neaaaaiiai. Yenia?eiaioaeueii ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei
eciaiaiea, i?e?auaiea iioaioeeaeueiie yia?aee. Niioaaonoaaiii, o ian iao
e aiciiaeiinoe ?ann/eoaoue iaeiicia/iia aa cia/aiea.

Oaia?ue – inue eaaioiaaiey. Anee iu iiianoei aoii a yeaeo?e/aneia eee
iaaieoiia iiea, iia ieaaeaony iai?aaeaiiie aaeieue iiey. Iaaieoiia
eaaioiaia /enei m ii?aaeaeyao ninoaaeythuoth iiiaioa eiioeuena yeaeo?iia
aaeieue ine eaaioiaaiey. Yenia?eiaioaeueii yoi i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi a
?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey n iieai eciaiyaony yia?aey ninoiyiey. Yoi
eciaiaiea yia?aee i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aaee/eia iaaieoiiai iiey e
ninoaaeythuae iaaieoiiai iiiaioa aaeieue ine eaaioiaaiey. Aaee/eia
iaaieoiiai iiiaioa n/eoaaony i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie iaoaie/aneiio iiiaioo, e
eciaiaiea yia?aee yeaeo?iia a iaaieoiii iiea, oaeei ia?acii, naycuaaaony
n iaaieoiui eaaioiaui /eneii. Ii/aio iii oae e iacuaaaony.

23. Eeanne/aneee ae?ineii a iaaieoiii iiea

Iiiaio eiioeuena yeaeo?iia (aoiia) ia iiaeao auoue iai?aaeai aaeieue ine
eaaioiaaiey, eae eiiaaea aiai?yo, aaeieue “oece/anee auaeaeaiiiai
iai?aaeaiey”. Auooao iiaiea, /oi yoi iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae eaaioiaie
iaoaieee. ss oi/o ianoaeeoue yoio aii?in i?eiaieoaeueii e eeanne/aneie
oeceea.

Aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue ae?ineii a aeaea ianouaai iaeioi?ue ca?yae
eieueoea. Ae?ineii iau/ii ii?aaeaeytho eae oaei, eiathuaa inue neiiao?ee
e auno?i ?ane?o/aiiia aie?oa yoie ine. Iiiaio eiioeuena oaeiai ae?ineiia
iai?aaeai aaeieue aai ine neiiao?ee.

Z

((

Iiianoea a?auathuaany ca?yaeaiiia eieueoei a iaaieoiia iiea, iu eaaei
oaaaeeiny, /oi aeaenoaothuee ia iaai iiiaio nee ?aaai ioeth. A naiii
aeaea, aeaenoaothuay ia ethaie auaeaeaiiue o/anoie eieueoea n ca?yaeii
(( neea eiaao ioeaaie iiiaio ioiineoaeueii oeaio?a eieueoea.

Iaeiaei, oaeia aeaeaeaiea ae?ineiia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeoue /anoiue
neo/ae. A iauai neo/aa iai?aaeaiea iiiaioa eiioeuena ia iaycaoaeueii
niaiaaeaao n inueth neiiao?ee ae?ineiia. Oaeia aeaeaeaiea iiaeii eaaei
iaaethaeaoue, iiaea?inea n cae?o/eaaieai eaeie-ieaoaeue aeene (iai?eia?,
oa?aeeo) a aicaeoo. Ii/oe iaaa?iyea Aao aeene a iieaoa aoaeao
iiea/eaaoueny. I?ienoiaeeo yoi iioiio, /oi a ionoonoaee iiiaioia aiaoieo
nee iiiaio eiioeuena inoaaony iinoiyiiui, a inue neiiao?ee, ia
niaiaaeathuay n iiiaioii eiioeuena, iienuaaao eiion aie?oa iai?aaeaiey
iiiaioa.

Z O’

((

O

ia?aeeaeueii aaeoi?o iiiaioa eiioeuena, iiiaio nee ioiineoaeueii
oeaio?a eieueoea ioee/ai io ioey.

Yoio ?acoeueoao iaaiaeeo ia ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aciuoeaiey. Ai-ia?auo, ii
icia/aao, /oi a iauai neo/aa iiiaio eiioeuena ae?ineiia, ianouaai
yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae, e a eeanne/aneie oeceea ia iiaeao niaiaaeaoue n
iai?aaeaieai iaaieoiiai iiey. E ae?oaia, auoue iiaeao, aieaa aaaeiia.

Iiiaio eiioeuena e iaaieoiue iiiaio, eioi?ui ii?aaeaeyaony
acaeiiaeaenoaea oaeiai ae?ineiia n iaaieoiui iieai, ia iai?aaeaiu ii
iaeiie i?yiie. Ia ?anniao?eaay yoie caaea/e aieaa iiae?iaii, y oi/o
eeoue ia?aoeoue Aaoa aieiaiea ia oi, /oi i?e aiaeeca iiaaaeaiey aoiia a
iaaieoiii iiea aac eaeiai-ieaoaeue iainiiaaiey n/eoaaony, /oi yoe
aaeoi?u iai?aaeaiu ii iaeiie i?yiie.

Ii ana yoi oieueei iaaiaeeo ia ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aciuoeaiey. Eaeeo-ieaoaeue
auaiaeia y caeanue aeaeaoue ia oi/o.

24. Yieeia

Iu n Aaie caeai/eaaai ?acaiai? i oeceea a ?aieao “oeceee iauae”. A
?acaeaea “Iaoaieea e iieaeoey?iay oeceea” ca iniiao auei acyoi
?anniio?aiea iaoaie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a i?eaeeaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiie
oi/ee, oaa?aeiai oaea, aeaoi?ie?oaiiai oaea e iieaeoey?iiai aeaeaeaiey,
aeey iienaiey eioi?iai ieacaeinue iaiaoiaeeiui eniieueciaaiea
aa?iyoiinoiiai iiaeoiaea.

A ?acaeaea “Yeaeo?e/anoai e iaaiaoeci” iu nin?aaeioi/eeenue ia
?anniio?aiee noaoeeiia?iuo eee eaacenoaoeeiia?iuo iieae. Nianoaaiii,
iaeiiai – yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey.

Iaeiiaoe, o?aoee ?acaeae “Aieiu” aue iinayuai ?anniio?aieth aieiiauo
i?ioeannia e caeii/eeny ianoaeaeaieai yaeaiey, eioi?ia iau/ii iacuaatho
aieiiauie naienoaaie /anoeoe. Caeanue iu ianoaeeee iaeioi?ua aii?inu
eioa?i?aoaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiee eaaioiaie oeceee. N/eoay, /oi yoi ia
aii?in iauae oeceee, iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa e aieueoeinoaa
?acoeueoaoia, iieo/aiiuo eaaioiaie oeceeie, y ia eanaeny.

Eo?n iieo/eeny aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiue. ss ana a?aiy noa?aeny, /oiau
ianoaeaeaaiua yaeaiey e ?acoeueoaou auee iiiyoiu. Oau, yoi i/aiue
iania?aiaiiue iiaeoiae. A /ai yoi i?iyaeyaony? Iai?eia?, oaea a oii, /oi
iineaaeiyy eieaeea Naaaeueaaa iacaaia o/aaieeii. Aei oiai o/aaieeia ii
oeceea aeey AOCia ia nouanoaiaaei. Auee oieueei o/aaiua iiniaey. A
?aciuo iiniaeyo iaeioi?ua aii?inu eiiaaea o?aeoiaaeenue ii-?aciiio.
O/aaieee oaeie aieueiinoe ia aeiioneatho.

Nia?aiaiiui, e niaeaeaieth, /anoi ieacuaaaony oi?iaeueiia caiiieiaiea e
ia?aneac i?aaeeiaeaiiiai iaoa?eaea ia yecaiaia. Eae caiaoee iaeei
eeoaeneee i?ioanni?, “iioiaea, iu o/ei nooaeaioia ia oeceea, a oiio, eae
naeaoue yecaiai”. Ia neo/aeii neiaa “iieo/eoue ia?aciaaiea” i?i/ii
caauou. Nae/an i?e iao/aiee “aeathony ciaiey”. Oaeie niinia o/aau
?aiueoa iacuaaeny coa?aaeeie. Nae/an yoi ii?ia.

I/aiue iiaeao auoue, /oi i?e ianoaeaeaiee i?iaeai eaaioiaie oeceee y aue
a /ai-oi i/aiue ia i?aa. Ii e /anoia i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaaaoue eaaioiaua
i?aaenoaaeaiey a ?aoeaioo?iii ieaia iia i/aiue ia i?aaeony – eae iiaeii
ioeacuaaoueny io oioy au iiiuoie iiiyoue niune oeceee? Iiieiaoue
neiaeii, ii oieueei a iiieiaiee niune ia?aciaaiey.

Ia yoii y i?iuathnue n Aaie, ai?i/ai, iiea /oi oieueei aei yecaiaia.
Iineaaeiaai Aaoaai yecaiaia ii iauae oeceea.

Eaeoeey 22

Eaeoeey 22 PAGE 127

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