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Эвристические функции законов сохранения

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I E I E N O A ? N O A I

IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

AEAOeEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE IAAeAAIAE*ANEEE EINOEOOO

EAOAAe?A OEEINIOEE E IIEEOIEIAEE

?AOA?AO II OEEINIOEE IA OAIO:

“Ya?enoe/aneea ooieoeee

caeiia nio?aiaiey”

Auiieiee:

anie?aio eaoaae?u oeceee

Onothaeaiei ?iiai TH?ueaae/

Aeaoe, 1997 a.NIAeA?AEAIEA

TOC \o “1-3”

AAAAeAIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc385695665 PAGEREF _Toc385695665 3

AEAAA I. IIIssOEA CAEIIA. GOTOBUTTON _Toc385695666 PAGEREF
_Toc385695666 5

AEAAA II. IIIssOEA NEIIAO?EE E CAEIIU NIO?AIAIEss. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc385695667 PAGEREF _Toc385695667 10

§ 1.I?eioeei neiiao?ee e aai ?ieue a iiciaiee. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc385695668 PAGEREF _Toc385695668 10

§ 2.Caeiiu nio?aiaiey a iee?iie?a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc385695669 PAGEREF
_Toc385695669 15

§ 3.Niaoeeoe/aneea caeiiu nio?aiaiey a oai?ee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc385695670 PAGEREF _Toc385695670 21

CAEETH*AIEA. GOTOBUTTON _Toc385695671 PAGEREF _Toc385695671 24

EEOA?AOO?A GOTOBUTTON _Toc385695672 PAGEREF _Toc385695672 28

N?aaee oeceeia aa?a a caeiiu

nio?aiaiey auea oae neeueia,

eae anee au iie i?aaenoaaeyeenue

i/aaeaeiuie.

A.Aeaia?.

AAAAeAIEA

I /ai aeaiiay ?aaioa? Eacaeinue, au ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in iao?oaeii.
Iacaaiea aa aiai?eo i oii, /oi ?a/ue iieaeao i caeiiao nio?aiaiee. Ii
iaei neacaoue – caeiiu nio?aiaiey, aaaeue yoio caeii ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
aanue aeeaiacii oece/aneeo yaeaiee, io iee?i/anoeoe aei iae?ioae.

Caeiiu nio?aiaiey caieiatho n?aaee anao caeiiia i?e?iaeu iniaia ianoi.
Iauiinoue e oieaa?naeueiinoue caeiiia nio?aiaiey ii?aaeaeytho eo
aieueoia iao/iia, iaoiaeieiae/aneia e oeeinioneia cia/aiea. Iie
yaeythony iniiaie aaaeiaeoeo ?an/aoia oeceea e aa oaoie/aneeo
i?eeiaeaieyo, iicaieytho a ?yaea neo/aaa i?aaeneacuaaoue yooaeou e
yaeaiey i?e enneaaeiaaiee ?aciiia?aciuo oeceei-oeie/aneeo nenoai e
i?ioeannia. N caeiiaie nio?aiaiey naycaii aaaaeaiea a nia?aiaiioth
oeceeo eaeae, eiathueo i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea.

Caeiiu nio?aiaiey neoaeao i?iaiui eaiiai ethaie iauae oece/aneie oai?ee.
Iai?ioeai?a/eainoue oai?ee yoei caeiiai neoaeeo oaaaeeoaeueiue
a?aoiaioii a aa iieueco e yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei e?eoa?eai aa enoeiiinoe.
Iiyoiio a nia?aiaiiuo oece/aneeo oai?eyo aeaeaei ia iineaaeithth ?ieue
ea?aao eaeay nio?aiaiey niaoeeoe/aneeo aeey aeaiiie oai?ee aaee/ei,
i?e/ai ca/anooth iienee oaeeo aaee/ei yaeythony aaaeiaeoae oeaeueth
oai?ee.

A caeiiao nio?aiaiey iaoiaeyo naia ioia?aaeaiea aaaeiaeoee
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee i?eioeei iaoie/oiaeeiinoe iaoa?ee e
aeaeaeaiey, acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie oi?iaie aeaeaeouaeny iaoa?ee
e niaoeeoeea i?aa?auaiey iaeiie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey a ae?oaoth.

Iao/iia e iaoiaeieiae/aneia cia/aiea caeiiia nio?aiaiey a aeinoaoi/ii
iieiie ia?a auyaeyaony ia oiia enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey iauae eaeae
nio?aiaiey. Ioe?uoea e iaiauaiea caeiiia nio?aiaiey i?ienoiaeeei aianoa
n ?acaeoeai anae oeceee, io ia?auo ?iaeeo aeiaaaeie aioe/iuo
iaoo?oeeinioia /a?ac eeanne/aneoth iaoaieeo e yeaeo?iaeeiaieeo aei
oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe, eaaioiaie iaoaieee e oeceee yeaiaioa?iuo
/anoeoe.

Ii inoaiiaeiny ia /ooue-/ooue. Aieaa 10 ?ac auei oiio?aaeaii neiai
“caeii”. Oae /oi aea aiiaua yoi oaeia – caeii? E /oi iu iiieiaai iiae
caeiiii nio?aiaiey?

A aeaiiie ?aaioa y e iiiuoathnue ioaaoeoue ia caaeaiiua aii?inu. A
iineieueeo caeii nio?aiaiey ioaaouaaao i?aeoe/anee ana iaeanoe iaoee, oi
i?aaeiaoii aieiaiey aoaeao neoaeeoue eeoue caeii nio?aiaiey neiiao?ee e
caeii nio?aiaiey a oeceea iee?iie?a.

AEAAA I. IIIssOEA CAEIIA.

A oeeinioneii yioeeeeiiaaee/aneii neiaa?a /eoaai “Caeii – aioo?aiiyy
nouanoaaiiay e onoie/eaay naycue yaeaiee, iaoneiaeeaathuay eo
oii?yaei/aiiia eciaiaiea. Ia iniiaa ciaiey caeiia aiciiaeii aeinoiaa?iia
i?aaeaeaeaiea oa/aiey i?ioeanna. Iiiyoea caeiia aeecei e iiiyoeth
caeiiiia?iinoe, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue
acaeiinaycaiiuo ii niaea?aeaieth caeiiia, iaania/eaathueo onoie/eaoth
oaiaeaioeeth eee iai?aaeaiiinoue a eciaiaieyo nenoaiu. Aianoa n oai
caeii au?aaeaao iaeio ec noi?ii nouiinoe, iiciaiea eioi?ie a oai?ee
niaiaaeaao n ia?aoiaeii io yiie?e/aneeo oaeoia e oi?ioee?iaea caeiiia
eco/aaiuo i?ioeannia” [5].

Iiiyoea caeiia noi?ioee?iaaeinue a ?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey
iaoee e oeeinioneie iunee. Ec eaeeo aea enoi/ieeia ii/a?iiooi yoi
iiiyoea? Iaeiei ec oaeeo enoi/ieeia yaeyaony nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneay
i?aeoeea /aeiaa/anoaa. A ae?aaiai iauanoaa, a oneiaeyo ia?aiauoiiai
?iaeiaiai no?iy caeii aunooiaao i?aaeaea anaai eae iaiienaiiia, ii oai
ia iaiaa iaycaoaeueiia i?aaeei, eioi?iio aeieaeii iiae/eiyoueny
iiaaaeaiea ethaeae.

I?e yoii oi?ie?iaaiea iiiyoey caeiia naycaii n aeaoiy oi?iaie
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa –
ieoieiaeae e ?aeeaeae.

Iaeiei ec oeaio?aeueiuo yeaiaioia aioe/iie ieoieiaee auei i?aaenoaaeaiea
i ainiiaenoaothuae a ie?a anaiauae iaiaoiaeeiinoe, noaeueaa. Noaeueaa
neo/aaa eae iaeay aano?aeoiay neea, iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Oae
ca?iaeaeaaony iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo iiiyoee aioe/iiai ie?iaicc?aiey –
iiiyoea iaiaoiaeeiinoe, eioi?ia a iineaaeothuai yaeeinue i?aaeiinueeie
eaeae caeiiiia?iinoe a i?e?iaea.

A ia?ac?uaiie nayce n ieoieiaeae a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa aicieeaao oaeaea
e ?aeeaey, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie ethaee iuoathony iniuneeoue naia
nianoaaiiia nouanoaiaaiea.

Eae e ieoieiaey, ?aeeaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaioanoe/aneia io?aaeaiea a
/aeiaa/aneii niciaiee caiiiai, iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, a eioi?ii
ainiiaenoaothuea iaae /aeiaaeii a aai iianaaeiaaiie aeecie aiaoiea neeu
i?eieiatho oi?io iacaiiuo, naa?ouanoanoaaiiuo. A ?aeeaeiciii
ie?iaicc?aiee iiiyoea caeiia iieo/eei eneaaeaiiia oieeiaaiea. Caeii n
?aeeaeiciie oi/ee c?aiey – yoi i?aaeienaiea aiaeanoaa, o.a. ia/oi
iaaycaiiia ie?o naa?ouanoanoaaiiie neeie. Eiaiii ia iniiaa ?aeeaeiciiai
niciaiey aicieeei i?aaenoaaeaiea, /oi aia-aea nicaeae ana aaue, a caoai
iiae/eiee eo naiae aiea a oi?ia caeiiia i?e?iaeu, iinea /aai eo
iiaaaeaiea noaei ii?aaeaeyoueny aiaeanoaaiiui niecaieaieai. ?aeeaeiciia
iiiyoea i caeiia iaoei iiae?iaiia au?aaeaiea a oae iacuaaaiuo nayuaiiuo
eieaao – Aeaeee, Ei?aia, Aaaeao e ae?.

Ia?aua iiiuoee noi?ie?iaaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i caeiiiia?iii oa?aeoa?a
ie?iauo i?ioeannia, naiaiaeiii io ?aeeaeiciuo e ieoieiae/aneeo
iiaeoiaeia, auee i?aaei?eiyou oeeinioaie ae?aaiaai ie?a. Ia?yaeo n
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie i?aeoeeie, ec eioi?ie auea caeinoaiaaia eaeay
caeiia, aaaeiue enoi/ieeii iiiyoey caeiia i?e?iaeu aeey iuneeoaeae oiai
a?aiaie yaeyeny nai iauaeoeaiue iaoa?eaeueiue ie?, ie?oaeathuay /aeiaaea
i?e?iaea. I?aaenoaaeaiea i aa?iiie/iinoe Anaeaiiie, i iiaoi?yaiinoe,
eiaa?eaioiinoe i?ioaeathueo a iae i?ioeannia auei ii/a?iiooi eie ec
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iaaethaeaiey ca yaeaieyie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Yoi
iaoei naia au?aaeaiea a ?yaea oiic?eoaeueiuo oeeinioneeo nenoai,
nicaeaiiuo ae?aaieie iuneeoaeyie, a iniaaiiinoe a nenoaiao aioe/iuo
oeeinioia – Aa?aeeeoa, Aeaiie?eoa, Yieeo?a, Ieaoiia, A?enoioaey e iiiaeo
ae?oaeo. Anoanoaaiii, iaeiaei, /oi yoa iiiuoea auea aua aanueia
ianiaa?oaiiie. Aaaeue anoanoaiciaiea a oi a?aiy oieueei ca?iaeaeaeinue e
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie ?yae ianenoaiaoece?iaaiiuo io?uai/iuo naaaeaiee i
i?e?iaea.

Oieueei a Iiaia A?aiy iiiyoea caeiia i?e?iaeu ia/eiaao ana aieaa
aeoaiei ?ac?aaaouaaoueny oeeinioaie e o/aiuie. Yoi noaei aiciiaeiui
aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi ?acaeoea iaoaiaoeee, ano?iiiiee, iaoaieee
i?iaeaeioeinue aeinoaoi/ii aeaeaei, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai auei ioe?uoi
iiiai iaiaeiaaaeiuo caeiiia iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a.

Ii iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi caeiiu i?e?iaeu aeey iuneeoaeae yoiai a?aiaie: a
eiaiii XVII e XVIII a. Naiaeeeenue e caeiiai iaoaieee, caeiiai
iaoaie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ua iia ?anniao?eaaee eae anaiauea
oieaa?naeueiua caeiiu i?e?iaeu. Iiiyoey iao/iiai caeiia a oi a?aiy aua
ia auei. Caeiiu i?e?iaeu ?anniao?eaaeenue eae aa/iua, iinoiyiiua e
iaeciaiiua.

Cia/eoaeueiue oaa a aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioea iiiyoey caeiia aue naeaeai
eeanneeaie iaiaoeeie oeeinioee eiioea XVIII – ia/aea XIX aa. E.Eaioii e
A.Aaaaeai. A yoi a?aiy anoanoaaiiua iaoee ec iienaoaeueiuo ia/eiatho
i?aa?auaoueny a iaoee ia ioiioaieyo, naycyo iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie
no?oeoo?u, i caeiiao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey iauaeoia. A iao/iue
iaeoiae i?iieeaao eaeay ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu, a Aaaaeue i?eaeaao
enoieeiaaieth iiiyoeth caeiia aeeaeaeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Caeanue iiaeii aua aeieai aiai?eoue i iiiyoee caeiia: ?anniio?aoue oeiu
caeiiia, i?eioeeiu nicaeaiey, iaoiaeu eiino?oe?iaaiey; ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
eo (caeiiia) i?inoioo e ecyuanoai, neacaoue i ?acee/iuo iiaeaeyo
caeiiia. Inoaiiaethnue eeoue e?aoei ia iiiyoee aeiioacu e aa ?iee a
iiciaiee caeiiia, aaaeue aa auaeaeaeaiea, ai?iaaoeey – yoi iaeei ec
aaaeiaeoeo iaoiaeia ioe?uoey caeiiia.

Aeiioaca – yoi aeiaaaeea, i?aaeiieiaeaiea. E eiaaea euoo eaeoth-oi
iiaoth, iiea aua iaecaanoioth ii, aiciiaeii, nouanoaothuoth
caeiiiia?iinoue, auneacuaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea. Yoi
i?aaeiieiaeaiea iiaeao ieacaoueny aa?iui eee aea – iieiinoueth eee
/anoe/ii – iaaa?iui, eiaeiui. Aaeeinoaaiiui noaeueae, eioi?ue auiineoue
yoio “aa?aeeeo”, yaeyaony iiuo, i?aeoeea.

“Aiiaua aiai?y, – ieoao ?.Oaeiiai a eieaa “Oa?aeoa? oece/aneeo caeiiia”,
– iiene iiaiai caeiia aaaeaony neaaeothuei ia?acii. I?aaeaea anaai i iai
aeiaaaeuaathony. Caoai au/eneytho neaaenoaey yoie aeiaaaeee e auyniytho,
/oi iiaea/ao ca niaie yoi caeii, anee ieaaeaony, /oi ii ni?aaaaeeea.
Caoai ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoia n?aaieaathony n oai, /oi iaaethaeaaony a
i?e?iaea, n ?acoeueoaoaie yenia?eiaioia eee n iaoei iiuoii e auyniytho,
oae yoi eee ia oae. Anee ?an/aou ?anoiaeyony n yenia?eiaioaeueiuie
aeaiiuie, oi aeiioaca iai?aaeeueia. A yoii i?inoii ooaa?aeaeaiee – naiia
ca?ii iaoee…”

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeiioaca, eiooeoeaiia iao/iia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, yaeyaony
iaeciaiiui niooieeii o/aiiai a aai oai?/aneie ?aaioa. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie niinia ioe?uoey iiaiai, iaoiae ?acaeoey iaoee. Iao/iua caeiiu e
oai?ee ioe?uaathony e oi?ioee?othony a ?acoeueoaoa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, nouanoaaiiui eiiiiiaioii eioi?ie yaeyaony auaeaeaeaiea
aeiioac. Aac aeiioacu ia iiaeao auoue oai?/anoaa, a aac oai?/anoaa iao
iiaeeeiiie iaoee.

Iai?eia?, eiaiii ia?a?aaioea iiiaeanoaa aeiioac oaiiiaia yaeaiey
b-?aniaaea, i eioi?ii aoaeao aiai?eoue ieaea, e iicaieeea onoaiiaeoue
nouanoaiaaiea iiaie /anoeoeu – iaeo?eii. Eae e ia eaeeo iniiaaieyo
niaa?oaeinue aeaiiia ioe?uoea – yoiio e iinayuaia neaaeothuay aeaaa.

Ii aeey ia/aea ia?aoeiny e oece/aneiio yioeeeeiiaaee/aneiio neiaa?th.
Aio /oi oai aiai?eony i caeiiao nio?aiaiey.

Caeiiu nio?aiaiey – oece/aneea, caeiiiia?iinoe, niaeanii eioi?ui
/eneaiiua cia/aiey iaeioi?uo oece/aneeo aaee/ei ia eciaiythony ni
a?aiaiai a ethauo i?ioeannao eee a eeanna i?ioeannia.

AEAAA II. IIIssOEA NEIIAO?EE E CAEIIU NIO?AIAIEss.

§ 1. I?eioeei neiiao?ee e aai ?ieue a iiciaiee.

?anniio?aiea oeeinioneeo aniaeoia oece/aneiai ciaiey iaiaeiie?aoii
i?eaiaeeei ian e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iia?e?iaaoue iiiyoeyie neiiao?ee e
aneiiao?ee. *oi aea oaeia neiiao?ey e aneiiao?ey? A /ai nouiinoue eo
iaoiaeieiae/aneiai cia/aiey?

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ouny/aeaoee a oiaea iauanoaaiiie i?aeoeee e iiciaiey
caeiiia iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/anoai iaeiieei
iiiai/eneaiiua aeaiiua, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i iaee/ee a ie?oaeathuai
ie?a aeaoo oaiaeaioeee: n iaeiie noi?iiu, e no?iaie oii?yaei/aiiinoe,
aa?iiiee, a n ae?oaie – e eo ia?ooaieth. Ethaee aeaaii ia?aoeee aieiaiea
ia i?aaeeueiinoue oi?iu e?enoaeeia, oeaaoia, i/aeeiuo nio e ae?oaeo
anoanoaaiiuo iauaeoia e aini?iecaiaeeee yoo i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue a
i?iecaaaeaieyo eneonnoaa, a nicaeaaaaiuo eie i?aaeiaoao, aaaee iiiyoea
neiiao?ey. “Neiiao?ey, – ieoao ecaanoiue o/aiue Aeae. Iuethiai, –
onoaiaaeeaaao caaaaiia i oaeeaeoaeueiia ?iaenoai iaaeaeo i?aaeiaoaie,
yaeaieyie e oai?eyie, aiaoia, eacaeinue au, ie/ai ia naycaiiuie: caiiui
iaaiaoeciii, aeaineie aoaeueth, iiey?eciaaiiui naaoii, anoanoaaiiui
ioai?ii, oai?eae a?oii, eiaa?eaioaie e i?aia?aciaaieyie, ?aai/eie
i?eau/eaie i/ae a oeuea. no?iaieai i?ino?ainoaa, ?enoieaie aac,
eaaioiaie oeceeie, nea?aaayie, eaianoeaie oeaaoia, eioa?oa?aioeeiiiie
ea?oeiie ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae, aeaeaieai eeaoie ii?neeo aaeae,
?aaiiaaniuie eiioeao?aoeeyie e?enoaeeia, ?iiaineeie niai?aie,
niaaeeieaie, iocueie, oai?eae ioiineoaeueiinoe…».

Neiai “neiiao?ey” eiaao aeaa cia/aiey. A iaeiii niunea neiiao?e/iia
icia/aao ia/oi aanueia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia, naaeaine?iaaiiia; neiiao?ey
iieacuaaao oio niinia niaeaniaaiey iiiaeo /anoae, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai
iie iauaaeeiythony a oeaeia.

Aoi?ie niune yoiai neiaa – ?aaiiaanea. Aua A?enoioaeue aiai?ee i
neiiao?ee eae i oaeii ninoiyiee, eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony niioiioaieai
e?aeiinoae.

I?enoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyee neiiao?ee Ieoaai? e aai o/aieee.

Iniiaiia iieiaeaiea ieoaai?aeneie oeeinioee, niaeanii A?enoioaeth,
ninoieo a oii, “/oi /enei anoue nouiinoue anao aauae e i?aaiecaoeey
anaeaiiie a aa ii?aaeaeaieyo i?aaenoaaeyao niaith aiiaua aa?iiie/aneoth
nenoaio /enae e eo ioiioaiee”. Enoiaey ec o/aiey i /enea ieoaai?aeoeu
aeaee ia?aoth iaoaiaoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo aa?iiiee, neiiao?ee, eioi?ay ia
iioa?yea naiaai cia/aiey e a iaoe aeie.

Acaeyaeu Ieoaai?a e aai oeieu iieo/eee aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea a
ieaoiiianeii o/aiee i iiciaiee. Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho acaeyaeu
Ieaoiia ia no?iaiea ie?a, eioi?ue, ii aai ooaa?aeaeaieth, ninoieo ec
i?aaeeueiuo iiiaioaieueieeia, iaeaaeathueo eaeaaeueiie neiiao?eae. Aeey
Ieaoiia oa?aeoa?ii niaaeeiaiea o/aiey ia eaeayo n ieoaai?aeneei o/aieai
i /enea.

N?aaee aieaa iicaeieo anoanoaieniuoaoaeae e oeeinioia, caieiaaoeony
?ac?aaioeie eaoaai?ee neiiao?ee, neaaeoao iacaaoue ?. Aeaea?oa e A.
Niaina?a.

?. Aeaea?o ienae: “Eaeiai au ie auei oi ia?aaainoai e aanii?yaeie,
eioi?ia, eae iu iiaeai i?aaeiieiaeeoue, auee n naiiai ia/aea onoaiiaeaiu
aiaii iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie iaoa?ee, ii/oe ana yoe /anoeoeu aeieaeiu ii
caeiiai i?e?iaeu i?eaeeceoueny e n?aaeiae aaee/eia e n?aaeiaio
aeaeaeaieth”. Oaeei ia?acii, ii Aeaea?oo, aia, nicaeaa aneiiao?e/iua
oaea, i?eaeae ei «anoanoaaiiia» e?oaiaia aeaeaeaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?iai iie niaa?oainoaiaaeenue a oaea neiiao?e/iua.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi e iaeaieaa eioa?aniui ?acoeueoaoai iaoea i?eoiaeeea
eiaiii oiaaea, eiaaea onoaiaaeeaaea oaeou ia?ooaiey neiiao?ee.
Neaaenoaey, auoaeathuea ec i?eioeeia neiiao?ee, eioaineaii
?ac?aaaouaaeenue oeceeai a i?ioeii aaea e i?eaaee e ?yaeo aaaeiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Oaeeie neaaenoaeyie caeiiia neiiao?ee yaeythony i?aaeaea
anaai caeiiu nio?aiaiey eeanne/aneie oeceee.

Iiiyoey neiiao?ee e aneiiao?ee, eioi?uie iieuecothony a /anoiuo iaoeao,
aeaeaei ia iieii io?aaeatho nouanoaothuoth a ?aaeueiii ie?a neiiao?eth e
aneiiao?eth; iie ?acaeaathony e iaiaauathony. Eae iieacuaaao enoi?ey
iaoee, yoi iiiyoey, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iiaeii iauynieoue iiiaea yaeaiey
e i?aaeneacuaaoue nouanoaiaaiea iiauo, aua ia iiciaiiuo naienoa
i?e?iaeu.

Oae /oi aea oaeia neiiao?ey e aneiiao?ey?

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a anoanoaiciaiee i?aiaeaaeatho ii?aaeaeaiey eaoaai?ee
neiiao?ee e aneiiao?ee ia iniiaaiee ia?a/eneaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?eciaeia. Iai?eia?, neiiao?ey ii?aaeaeyaony eae niaieoiiinoue naienoa:
ii?yaeea, iaeii?iaeiinoe, ni?acia?iinoe, aa?iiie/iinoe. Iiae aneiiao?eae
aea iau/ii iiieiatho ionoonoaea i?eciaeia neiiao?ee – aanii?yaeie,
iani?acia?iinoue, iaiaeii?iaeiinoue e o. ae. Ana i?eciaee neiiao?ee a
oaeiai ?iaea aa ii?aaeaeaieyo, anoanoaaiii, ?anniao?eaathony
?aaiii?aaiuie, iaeeiaeiai nouanoaaiiuie, e a ioaeaeueiuo eiie?aoiuo
neo/ayo, i?e onoaiiaeaiee neiiao?ee eaeiai-oi yaeaiey, iiaeii
iieueciaaoueny ethaui ec ieo. Oae, a iaeieo neo/ayo neiiao?ey – yoi
iaeii?iaeiinoue, a ae?oaeo – ni?acia?iinoue e o.ae. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey
iaoaai iiciaiey e ii?aaeaeaieth neiiao?ee iiaeii i?eaaaeyoue ana iiaua e
iiaua i?eciaee. Oi aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue e i nouanoaothueo a /anoiuo
iaoeao ii?aaeaeaieyo aneiiao?ee.

Iauea iiiyoey neiiao?ee e aneiiao?ee aeieaeiu auoue oaeeie, /oiau iiae
ieo iiaeioee ana ecaanoiua e aeaaea iaecaanoiua i ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaeu
neiiao?ee e aneiiao?ee.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiie eiae/aneie iniiaie aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoee neiiao?ee
e aneiiao?ee, ii iiaieth A.N.Aiooa, yaeyaony aeeaeaeoeea oiaeaeanoaa e
?acee/ey. A a aeeaeaeoeea, eae iu oaea ciaai, oiaeaeanoai e ?acee/ea
?anniao?eaathony eeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaieyo, ai acaeiiaeaenoaee,
ai aeeth/aiee ?acee/ey a oiaeaeanoai, a oiaeaeanoaa a ?acee/ea.

Aeeaeaeoe/aneia iiieiaiea oiaeaeanoaa i?aaeiieaaaao iaycaoaeueiia
i?eciaiea neaaeothuaai: oiaeaeanoai ia nouanoaoao aia ?acee/ey e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, oiaeaeanoai aicieeaao e en/acaao, oiaeaeanoai
nouanoaoao oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaieyo e aicieeaao i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo; iaeaieaa iieiui au?aaeaieai oiaeaeanoaa yaeyaony
iieiia i?aa?auaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae ae?oa a ae?oaa.

Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi a i?ioeanna iiciaiey yaeaiee ie?a iaeuecy
ia?aie/eaaoueny oieueei onoaiiaeaieai oiaeaeanoaa iaaeaeo ieie, ii
iaiaoiaeeii ?ane?uaaoue, eae aicieeaao yoi oiaeaeanoai, i?e eaeeo
oneiaeyo e a eaeeo ioiioaieyo iii nouanoaoao. Ia iniiaa yoie
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeaeaeoeee oiaeaeanoaa e ?acee/ey iaie A.N.Aiooii
i?aaeeiaeaiu neaaeothuea ii?aaeaeaiey neiiao?ee e aneiiao?ee:

Neiiao?ey – yoi eaoaai?ey, iaicia/athuay i?ioeann nouanoaiaaiey e
noaiiaeaiey oiaeaeanoaaiiuo iiiaioia, a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo e a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie e i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie
ninoiyieyie yaeaiee ie?a.

Ec aeaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey neiiao?ee aicieeatho oaeea
iaoiaeieiae/aneea o?aaiaaiey: i?e eco/aiee yaeaiey, niauoey, ninoiyiey
aeaeaeouaeny iaoa?ee i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue naienoaaiiua
ei ?acee/ey e i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, caoai oaea ?ane?uoue, /oi a iai anoue
oiaeaeanoaaiiiai e i?e eaeeo oneiaeyo e a eaeeo ioiioaieyo yoi
oiaeaeanoaaiiia aicieeaao, nouanoaoao e en/acaao. Ionthaea neaaeotho e
iaeioi?ua iauea i?aaeea aeey oi?ioee?iaaiey iaoeo aeiioac (yoi i?aaeei
/anoi ioiinyo e iao/iie eiooeoeee). Anee onoaiiaeaii nouanoaiaaiea
eaeiai-oi yaeaiey, ninoiyiey eee eaeeo-oi eo naienoa e ia?aiao?ia, oi
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeiieaaaoue e nouanoaiaaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo yaeaiee,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo naienoa e ia?aiao?ia; a naith i/a?aaeue, iaiaoiaeeii
aeaeaa iinooee?iaaoue, /oi iaaeaeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie oneiaeyie a
eaeeo-oi ioiioaieyo e oneiaeyo aicieeatho e nouanoaotho oiaeaeanoaaiiua
iiiaiou. A yoeo aeaoo i?aaeeao e au?aaeaaony a iauai aeaea i?eiaiaiea
iiiyoey neiiao?ee a eiie?aoiuo enneaaeiaaieyo.

Aneiiao?eae iacuaaaony eaoaai?ey, eioi?ay iaicia/aao nouanoaiaaiea e
noaiiaeaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo e ioiioaieyo ?acee/ee e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae aioo?e aaeeinoaa, oiaeaeanoaa, oeaeueiinoe yaeaiee
ie?a.

Ai anao ?aaeueiuo yaeaieyo neiiao?ey e aneiiao?ey ni/aoathony ae?oa n
ae?oaii. I?aaeaea /ai eneaoue neiiao?eth, ioaeii iaeoe aneiiao?eth.
Aa?iui aoaeao e ia?aoiia.

§ 2.Caeiiu nio?aiaiey a iee?iie?a.

Anee iaoaieci aicieeiiaaiey aeueoa- e aaiia-eceo/aiey aac iniauo
o?oaeiinoae aue iauyniai eaaioiaie iaoaieeie, oi enioneaiea b-/anoeoe
(yeaeo?iiia) ieacaeinue iaeiie ec o?oaeiaeoeo aeey iiieiaiey i?iaeai
yaea?iie oeceee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?e a-?aniaaea yae?i aoiia enioneaao
a-/anoeoeo, i?aaenoaaeythuoth niaie yae?i aaeey, ninoiyuaa ec aeaoo
i?ioiiia e aeaoo iaeo?iiia. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e a-?aniaaea ia ia?acoaony
iiauo /anoeoe, iineieueeo e i?ioiiu e iaeo?iiu oaea eiaeenue a yae?a.
Aue iiiyo e i?ioeann g-eceo/aiey, i?e eioi?ii ec yae?a aueaoaea iiaay
(ia auaoay, ?aiaa a iai) /anoeoea – g-eaaio (oioii). Ii aue naycai n
oai, /oi iooai g-?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe yae?i aoiia inaiaiaeaeaeinue io
ecauoi/iie yia?aee aiaeiae/ii oiio, eae ?iaeaeaeny oioii a aoiia i?e
ia?aoiaea yeaeo?iia n aa?oiae i?aeou ia ieaeithth. Eae a-, oae e
g-?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue i?ioaeaea a iieiii niioaaonoaee n caeiiii nio?aiaiey
yia?aee, eiioeuena e iiiaioa eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey.

*oi aea eanaaony b-?aniaaea, oi yoi yaeaiea ieacaeinue cia/eoaeueii
aieaa neiaeiui e iinoaaeei ia?aae o/aiuie ?yae i?iaeai. I?aaeaea anaai
iioiio, /oi i?e yoii aeaea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe ec yae?a aueaoaao ?aiaa ia
iaoiaeeaoayny oai b-/anoeoea – yeaeo?ii. Eiaaea e yoiio yaeaieth auee
i?eiaiaiu caeiiu nio?aiaiey, oi auyaeeanue niaa?oaiii iaiau/iay
neooaoeey: yia?aey, eiioeuen e iiiaio eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey ia/aeueiiai
yae?a ia auee ?aaiu, eiioeueno e iiiaioo eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey
i?iaeoeoia ?aniaaea aiiaue ia?aciaaaoaainy yae?a e eniouaiiiai
yeaeo?iia. Aaeain oeacaiiuo aaee/ei ia oieueei ii/oe ieeiaaea ia
noiaeeeny, ii e eaaeaeue ?ac aeaaae ?acee/ioth aaee/eio. ssae?i iaeiiai
e oiai aea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ecioiia enioneaao yeaeo?iiu ?acee/iie
yia?aee, ia/eiay io iaeioi?ie iaeneiaeueiie aei ioeaaie. I?e yoii
ieacuaaaony, /oi ia?acothuaany eiia/iia yae?i eiaao anaaaea iaeio e oo
aea yia?aeth. Ia/aeueiia aea yae?i, i?aa?auaynue a ?acoeueoaoa
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ?aniaaea a iiaia yae?i, oa?yao iaeio e oo aea yia?aeth,
a oi/iinoe ?aaioth iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie yia?aee eniouaiiiai
yeaeo?iia. Aiciee, anoanoaaiii, aii?in: eoaea aeaaaaony yia?aey a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea yia?aey yeaeo?iia iaiueoa iaeneiaeueiie?

Yoi aue ioithaeue ia aaeeinoaaiiue nth?i?ec, i?aiiaeianaiiue oeceeai
b-?aaeeiaeoeaiinoueth. Eiaaea iiaen/eoaee eiioeuen enoiaeiiai yae?a e
aai iiiaio eiee/anoai aeaeaeaiey e n?aaieee n eiioeuenii e iiiaioii
eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey aiiaue ia?aciaaaoaainy yae?a e yeaeo?iia, oi
ieacaeinue, /oi e caeanue aaeain ia noiaeeony. Oaeei ia?acii, a
i?ioeanna b-?aniaaea eae aoaeoi ia?ooaeenue ana o?e eeanne/aneeo caeiia
nio?aiaiey, iaaeaeo oai eae ai anao ae?oaeo ecaanoiuo yaeaieyo iee?iie?a
iie iaoeinieoaeueii niaethaeaeenue.

Aeey iauyniaiey caaaaeee b-?aniaaea auei i?aaeeiaeaii iiiai aeiioac,
eiathueo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eeoue, enoi?e/aneee eioa?an. A 1922 a. E.
Iaeoia? i?aaeeiaeeea, /oi b-yeaeo?iiu ?ano?a/eaatho /anoue naiae yia?aee
aioo?e aoiia, eiaaea i?ieaoatho /a?ac aai yeaeo?iiioth iaiei/eo. Yoa
aeiioaca iiaeaa?aeanue no?iaie iiuoiie i?iaa?ea a 1927 a. Yeeenii e
Aonoa?ii. Iiuo yoeo o/aiuo ninoiye a neaaeothuai: ?aaeeiaeoeaiue
i?aia?ao RaA a oienoinoaiiie naeioeiaie iaiei/ea iiiauaeny a iaaeiue
eaei?eiao?. Eiee/anoai yia?aee, auaeaeaiiie i?aia?aoii ca ii?aaeaeaiiue
i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, oi/ii ecia?yeinue. Niaeanii aeiioaca Iaeoia?
neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, /oi n?aaeiyy yia?aey, i?eoiaeyuayny ia iaeei aeo
?aniaaea, aeieaeia auea au ?aaiyoueny iaeneiaeueiie yia?aee a b-niaeo?a.
A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea yoa yia?aey ieacaeanue ?aaiie n?aaeiae yia?aee,
ninoaaeythuae ieiei iaeiie o?aoe io aaee/eiu a?aie/iie yia?aee
b-/anoeoe. Aua aieaa ouaoaeueiua iiuou, inouanoaeaiiua a 1930 a. naiie
Iaeoia? niaianoii n I?oiaiii, iiaeoaa?aeeee ?acoeueoao Yeeena e Aonoa?a.
Oaeei ia?acii, aiiaue auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi /anoue yia?aee yaea?iiai
i?aa?auaiey aanneaaeii en/acaao.

Aaeeinoaaiiui auoiaeii ec iieiaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyeinue aeiiouaiea i oii,
/oi a i?ioeanna b-?aniaaea caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee ia?ooaaony. Eiaiii
oaeie auoiae e i?aaeeiaeee Ai? a 1930 a. Aeiioaca Ai?a, eae e
?anniio?aiiay auoa, caeeth/aeanue a i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi caeii
nio?aiaiey yia?aee ia?ooaaony a yeaiaioa?iuo aeoao b-?aniaaea, ii
auiieiyaony noaoenoe/anee aeey aeinoaoi/ii aieueoiai /enea oaeeo aeoia.
Ai eiy ?aoaiey iaeiie i?iaeaiu Ai? i?aaeeaaae noieue aieueooth aea?oao,
/oi anee au iia ii?aaaeaeanue, oi yoi icia/aei au ii nouanoao e?ooaiea
ia oieueei oeceee, ii e anaai anoanoaiciaiey a oeaeii. Eai n iiiaioa
i?eciaiey caeiia nio?aiaiey e i?aa?auaiey yia?aee eae iniiau oece/aneiai
anoanoaiciaiey iaoea ia aue ecaanoai ie iaeei oaeo, eioi?ue i?ioeai?a/ee
au yoiio caeiio. Iinea enneaaeiaaiee Eiiioiia e ae?oaeo oeceeia ia auei
niiiaiee a auiieiaiee yoiai caeiia e a iaeanoe iee?iie?a.

Aeiioaca Ai?a i noaoenoe/aneii auiieiaiee caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee a
b-?aniaaea auea ii?iaa?aiooa a 1933 a. iiuoaie Yeeena e Iiooa.

N?aco aea iinea iiyaeaiey iia ano?aoeea ae?oaeiua aic?aaeaiey oeceeia.
Oae neeoeii aaeeea auea aea?oaa. Iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia nia?aiaiiie
oai?ee b-?aniaaea oaaeoea?neee oecee A. Iaoee ienae ii yoiio eniiaeo:
“Ia iie acaeyae, yoa aeiioaca ia oieueei iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueia, ii
aeaaea iaaeiionoeia. I?aaeaea anaai, a yoeo i?ioeannao yeaeo?e/aneee
ca?yae nio?aiyaony, a y ia aeaeo iniiaaiee n/eoaoue nio?aiaiea ca?yaea
aieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiui, /ai nio?aiaiea aia?aee e eiioeuena”.

A 1931 a. ia oece/aneie eiioa?aioeee a Ianaaeaia Iaoee aeieiaeee o/aiui
i naiae eioa?i?aoaoeee b-?aniaaea: “Caeiiu nio?aiaiey auiieiythony, oae
eae enioneaiea b-/anoeoe nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?iieeathuae ?aaeeaoeeae ec
iaeo?aeueiuo /anoeoe… Noiia yia?aee b-/anoeoeu e iaeo?aeueiie
/anoeoeu…, eniouaiiuo yae?ii a ioaeaeueiii aeoa, ?aaia yia?aee,
niioaaonoaothuae aa?oiae a?aieoea b-niaeo?a. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi
iu aeiioneaai ai anao yeaiaioa?iuo i?ioeannao ia oieueei nio?aiaiea
yia?aee, ii e nio?aiaiea eiioeuena e iiiaioa eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey”.

Iineieueeo a ?acoeueoaoa b-?aniaaea ca?yae yae?a eciaiyaony ia
aaeeieoeo, i?aaeiieaaaaiay /anoeoea aeieaeia auoue yeaeo?e/anee
iaeo?aeueiie. Oaeie /anoeoeae iia au auoue e oioii, ii yoo aiciiaeiinoue
io?eoeae iiuo Yeeena e Aonoa?a. Ianna yae?a i?e b-?aniaaea i?aeoe/anee
ia eciaiyaony, e iiyoiio /anoeoea aeieaeia auea iaeaaeaoue ie/oiaeii
iaeie iannie. Oaeei ia?acii, iinooee?iaaiiay Iaoee /anoeoea ii niiei
naienoaai ioee/aeanue io ecaanoiuo a oi a?aiy /anoeoe. Iicaea iia auea
iacaaia iaeo?eii. Aaaaeaiea yoie aeiioaoe/aneie /anoeoeu iauyniyei
ia?aaeienu b-?aniaaea. Oeacaiiua naienoaa iaeo?eii i?eaiaeeee e oiio,
/oi iii niaa?oaiii naiaiaeii i?ioiaeeei neaicue noaiee i?eai?ia, ia
eniuouaay yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee, e iiyoiio oiineiay ei
yia?aey ia iiaea auoue, anoanoaaiii, o/oaia.

Aeiioaca iaeo?eii iicaieeea oaeaea ionoiyoue e caeii nio?aiaiey iiiaioa
eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey a yae?a. O?oaeiinoe n yoei caeiiii aicieeee a 1932
a., eiaaea A.Aaecaiaa?aii e E. Eaaiaiei auea i?aaeeiaeaia
iaeo?iiii-i?ioiiiay noaia no?iaiey aoiiia yae?a. Niaeanii yoie noaia
yeaeo?iiia, a yae?a auoue ia aeieaeii, iie ?iaeaeathony a i?ioeanna
b-?aniaaea. Oai?ey yae?a i?eaiaeeea e caeeth/aieth, /oi niei enoiaeiiai
yae?a a aaeeieoeao h/2p aeieaeai au?aaeaoueny oeaeui /eneii. Iaaeaeo oai
niei yeaeo?iia ?aaai iieiaeia, a i?aeoaeueiue iiiaio eiee/anoaa
aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiia iia auoue oieueei oeaeui /eneii h/2p. Iiyoiio
iieo/aeinue, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa b-?aniaaea oeaeue niei yae?a aeieaeai aue
au ia?aoiaeeoue a iieooeaeue e iaiai?io. Yoi icia/aei ia?ooaiea caeiia
nio?aiaiey iiiaioa eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey. Yoa o?oaeiinoue nae/an
ono?aiyeanue, anee iaeo?eii i?eienaoue iieooeaeue niei (1/2).

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii aeiioaca Iaoee iaeo?eii yaeeinue oie /anoeoeae,
eioi?ay eiiiaine?iaaea eae iaaeinoathuoth yia?aeth, oae e niei. A
aeaeueiaeoai aue ooi/iai e caeii nio?aiaiey eiioeuena ia iniiaa
aeiiouaiey, /oi eiioeuen yae?a ioaea/e aeieaeai auoue ?aaai ii aaee/eia
e iai?aaeai i?ioeaiiieiaeii noiia?iiio eiioeueno yeaeo?iia e iaeo?eii.

A iaeiii ec naieo aieaa iicaeieo aunooieaiee Iaoee iiae/a?eioe, /oi ii
anaaaea aue i?ioea oiai, /oiau ?aoaoue eaeea au oi ie auei o?oaeiinoe a
oece/aneeo i?iaeaiao iooai ioeaca io caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee:
“Ai-ia?auo, y n/eoath, /oi aiaeiaey iaaeaeo caeiiaie nio?aiaiey yia?aee
e nio?aiaiey yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea eiaao aeoaieia cia/aiea e iiaeao
yaeyoueny iaaeaaeiie ?oeiaiaeyuae ieoueth. A?yae ee iiaeii,
ioeacaaoenue io caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee, nio?aieoue caeii nio?aiaiey
yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea, a yoio iineaaeiee caeii ieeiaaea aua ia
i?eaiaeee ie e eaeei cao?oaeiaieyi. Iiyoiio y n naiiai ia/aea
ioeacuaaeny aa?eoue a ia?ooaiea nio?aiaiey yia?aee”.

Aeiioaca Iaoee i iaeo?eii auea eceiaeaia aia?aua a ia/aoe n aai
?ac?aoaiey aeaoiy o/anoieeaie naieia?a Ea?eniiii e Iiiaiaaeia?ii a
1932a., a aiae nionoy aaoi? aa, aunooiay ia naaeueiii Nieueaaaaneii
eiia?anna, iinayuaiiii oaia “No?iaiea e naienoaa aoiiiuo yaea?”,
ianoiyoaeueii aeieiaeee o/anoieeai eiia?anna i oao i?aaeiinueeao,
eioi?ua i?eaaee aai e noieue iaiau/iie aeiioaca).

A 1934 a. eoaeueyineee oecee Y. Oa?ie ia iniiaa aeiioacu i iaeo?eii e
i?ioiiii-iaeo?iiiie noaiu no?iaiey aoiiiiai yae?a nicaeae oai?eth
b-?aniaaea, eioi?ay oniaoii iauynieea ana iniiaiua /a?ou yoiai
i?ioeanna. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu iiiai oneeee auei cao?a/aii ia
yenia?eiaioaeueiia aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaiaaiey iaeo?eii. Nia/aea yoe
aeieacaoaeuenoaa auee iieo/aiu einaaiii, a a ia?eiae 1953-1955 aa. iooai
iinoaiiaee aeiaieueii neiaeiuo yenia?eiaioia aia?eeaineea oeceee Eioyi e
?ieiaa iaia?oaeeee iaeo?eii a naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee.

Aio /oi aiai?eo oece/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey i iaeo?eii.

“I?aaenoaaeaiea i iaeo?eii aaaaeaii a 1930 oaaeoea?neei oeceeii A. Iaoee
n oeaeueth iauynieoue iai?a?uaiue yia?aaoe/aneee niaeo? yeaeo?iiia i?e
b-?aniaaea: iauea i?eioeeiu eaaioiaie iaoaieee e caeii nio?aiaiey
yia?aee o?aaiaaee, /oiau yeaeo?iiu eiaee ii?aaeaeaiioth yia?aeth,
?aaioth yia?aee, auaeaeyaiie i?e b-?aniaaea. Niaeanii aeiioaca Iaoee, a
b-?aniaaea aianoa n yeaeo?iiii ?iaeaeaaony iiaay iaeo?aeueiay neeueii
i?iieeathuay e, neaaeiaaoaeue- ii, o?oaeii iaia?oaeeiay /anoeoea n
iannie CAEETH*AIEA. A iaci?a caeiiia nio?aiaiey, aeaenoaothueo a oeceea iee?iie?a, iu ia eiaee aiciiaeiinoe einiooueny anao aii?inia oai?ee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe. Yoi e ia aoiaeeei a iaoo caaea/o. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo oieueei ca iineaaeiea aiaeu iiyaeeny ?yae i?aainoiaeiuo iaci?ia e iiiia?aoee, iaienaiiuo auaeathueieny o/aiuie, eae ioa/anoaaiiuie, oae e ca?oaaaeiuie. Iu ia?aie/einy eeoue ianeieueeeie caeeth/eoaeueiuie caia/aieyie ioiineoaeueii niaoeeoe/aneeo caeiiia nio?aiaiey a iee?iie?a. Caeii nio?aiaiey e i?aa?auaiey yia?aee, caeii nio?aiaiey eiioeuena, caeii nio?aiaiey iiiaioa eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey e caeii nio?aiaiey yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea, oae aea eae e caeii nio?aiaiey iannu, iiaeii n/eoaoue caeiiaie nio?aiaiey, eiathueie neeo eae a iaeanoe iae?iie?a, oae e a iaeanoe iee?iie?a. Yoi - caeiiu nio?aiaiey, eiathuea iaeneiaeueioth noaiaiue iauiinoe. Aianoa n oai ioe?uoea Ee e ssiaa aia?aua iieacaei, /oi ia?yaeo n iaueie caeiiaie nio?aiaiey nouanoaotho e caeiiu nio?aiaiey n ia?aie/aiiie noa?ie aeaenoaey. Yoi - caeiiu nio?aiaiey /aoiinoe, ecioiie/aneiai nieia e no?aiiinoe, eioi?ua auiieiythony ia i?e anao aeaeao acaeiiaeaenoaee. Ioe?uoea ia?ooaiee caeiiia nio?aiaiey a iaeioi?uo yaeaieyo iee?iie?a noaaeo ii-eiiio aii?in ia aaniethoecaoeee yoeo caeiiia. Aaniethoiuie ieacuaathony ia caeiiu nio?aiaiey, a naia eaeay nio?aiaiey. Eiaiii n oaeeo iiceoeee e iiaeoiaeeo e yoiio aii?ino I.O.Ia/eiieeia: "Aaniethoiinoue i?eioeeiia nio?aiaiey caeeth/aaony ia a oii, /oi oio eee eiie i?eioeei nio?aiaiey ia aucuaaao niiiaiey a aai iauiinoe e yaeyaony aaniethoii no?iaei ia aa/iua a?aiaia, ii a oii, /oi ethaie iauee i?eioeei nio?aiaiey i?e aai aiciiaeiii ia?ooaiee a eaeie-eeai iaeanoe i?e?iaeu niaiyaony ae?oaei i?eioeeiii, aeaenoaothuei a yoie iaeanoe. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aaniethoai ia oio eee eiie eiie?aoiue caeii nio?aiaiey, a aaniethoia eaeay nio?aiaiey: ie iaeia iaeanoue i?e?iaeu ia iiaeao ia niaea?aeaoue onoie/eauo, nio?aiythueony aauae, naienoa eee ioiioaiee, e niioaaonoaaiii ie iaeia oece/aneay oai?ey ia iiaeao auoue iino?iaia aac oao eee eiuo nio?aiythueony aaee/ei. Oaa?aiiinoue a aaniethoiinoe i?eioeeiia nio?aiaiey aaaeao ian e i?eciaieth iaiaoiaeeiinoe no?iaie i?iaa?ee anao ecaanoiuo caeiiia, e aiciiaeiinoe e aeaaea iaecaaaeiinoe niiiaiey a eo iauiinoe, anee yoi aoaeao aeeeoiaaoueny iiauie iaiaeeaeaiiuie oaeoaie ?acaeaathuaeny iaoee. Oaeiai ?iaea niiiaiea, anee iii ii?aaaeuaaaony, iiaeao eeoue iineoaeeoue ia/aeii ?acaeoey iiauo iai?aaeaiee, iiauo oece/aneeo oai?ee". Anee eeanne/aneay oeceea ciaea oieueei iyoue caeiiia nio?aiaiey, oi oeceea iee?iie?a ian/eouaaao eo aieaa aeanyoe. Yoi iaeeea caeiiia nio?aiaiey a nia?aiaiiie oeceea naycaii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, n oai, /oi caeii nio?aiaiey yaeyaony iaeaieaa iauei au?aaeaieai aieueoiai eiee/anoaa yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oaeoia, a eo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oieueei a iaeanoe oeceee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe eiaaony iiiaeanoai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiaeii aeoiaoue, /oi iaeeea caeiiia nio?aiaiey naycaii n ianiaa?oainoaii iaoeo ciaiee ioiineoaeueii i?ioeannia ia yeaiaioa?iii o?iaia iaoa?ee. A aoaeouai, aa?iyoii, ieaaeaony, /oi iiiaea caeiiu nio?aiaiey acaeiinaycaiu e yaeythony neaaenoaeai iaeiae aua aieaa iauae neiiao?ee i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Iaeiaei nae/an iie aunooiatho eae iacaaeneiua, e eo eco/aiea yaeyaony iniiaiui iai?aaeaieai nia?aiaiiuo iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee. I?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiie yaeyaony naycue caeiiia nio?aiaiey iee?iie?a n i?eioeeiaie neiiao?ee. Oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi i?e yoii iaeioi?ua caeiiu nio?aiaiey ieacuaathony i?eaeeaeaiiuie, naycaii, aeaeeii, n iaiieiioie iaoeo ciaiee naienoa neiiao?ee ia noaiee?ineiie/aneii o?iaia. Naycue caeiiia nio?aiaiey ni naienoaaie neiiao?ee auea ioe?uoa ia anao no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiyo iaoa?ee, ia/eiay n iae?ioae e eii/ay yeaiaioa?iuie /anoeoeaie. A iee?iie?a neiiao?ey ieacaeanue aacaeanouae. Ia aoiiiii o?iaia neiiao?ey i?iyaeyao naay a ii?aaeaeaiiie no?oeoo?a yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae aoiiia, a /anoiinoe aoiia aiaei?iaea; a yaea?iie oeceea - a aeaea ca?yaeiaie eiaa?eaioiinoe; ia o?iaia yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe - a aeaea ?yaea niaoeeoe/aneeo caeiiia nio?aiaiey. Naycue caeiiia nio?aiaiey n i?eioeeiaie neiiao?ee yaeyaony ianoieueei ooiaeaiaioaeueiie, /oi aa iiaeii n/eoaoue iaeaieaa iieiui au?aaeaieai eaeae nio?aiaiey eae a iae?ioeceea, oae e a iee?iie?a. Ae?oaie aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth caeiiia nio?aiaiey iniaaiii a oeeinioneii ieaia, yaeyaony eo oaniay naycue n i?eioeeiii i?e/eiiinoe. Eiaiii caeiiu nio?aiaiey ia?acotho oio ooiaeaiaio, ia eioi?ii ceaeaeaony i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiay naycue caeiiiia?iinoae i?e?iaeu. Iie yaeythony oie aioo?aiiae oeaiueth, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao eiae/anee caeiiiia?ioth naycue iaaeaeo i?e/eiie e neaaenoaeai. "Eaeay nio?aiaiey aioo?aiia naycaia n eaeaae i?e/eiiiai oa?aeoa?a i?ioeannia i?e?iaeu. A naiae aeoaieie iniiaa yoe aeaa eaeae i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eeoue noi?iiu i?eioeeia naiiaeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. A naiii aeaea, anee iaoa?ey ia?ac?uaia n aeaeaeaieai, oi aeaeaeaiea, eae e iaoa?ey, iaoie/oiaeeii e ianicaeaaaaii. Ii ia?ac?uaiinoue iaoa?ee e aeaeaeaiey, eee, eia/a, naiiaeaeaeaiea iaoa?ee icia/aao a oi aea a?aiy, /oi i?e/eia anao eciaiaiee eaaeeo a naiie iaoa?ee, a aa aioo?aiieo caeiiao... Iinoiyinoai aeaenoaey i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae iaania/eaaaony iai?aoiaeyuei oa?aeoa?ii caeiiia nio?aiaiey". Aaaeii ioiaoeoue e oio oaeo, /oi caeiiu nio?aiaiey ia?acotho oio ooiaeaiaio, ia eioi?ii iniiauaaaony i?aainoaaiiinoue oece/aneeo oai?ee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ?anniao?eaay yaiethoeeth aaaeiaeoeo oece/aneeo eiioeaioeee a iaeanoe iaoaieee, yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, oai?ee oaieiou, nia?aiaiiuo oece/aneeo oai?ee, iu oaaaeaeaeenue a oii, /oi a yoeo oai?eyo iaeciaiii i?enoonoaotho eeai iaeie e oa aea eeanne/aneea caeiiu nio?aiaiey (yia?aee, eiioeuena e ae?.), eeai ia?yaeo n ieie iiyaeythony iiaua caeiiu, ia?acoy oio noa?aeaiue, aie?oa eioi?iai e eaeao enoieeiaaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oaeoia. "Iauiinoue caeiiia nio?aiaiey a noa?uo e iiauo oai?eyo yaeyaony aua iaeiie oi?iie aioo?aiiae acaeiinayce iineaaeieo". Caeanue eeoue e?aoei oeacaii ia iaeioi?ua aniaeou nayce caeiiia nio?aiaiey n iaueie oeeinioneeie i?iaeaiaie. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey eaeae nio?aiaiey iieacuaaao, /oi yoa naycue aanueia oaniay e aeoaieay. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi oeeiniou, iniaaiii iaoa?eaeenou, ia/eiay n O.Yiaaeuena, i?iyaeee aieueoie eioa?an e eaeaa nio?aiaiey eae iauaeoo oeeinioneiai e iaoiaeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca . Iniaaiii aeoaieea e ianoiyoaeueiua ?aaiou a yoii iai?aaeaiee noaee iiyaeyoueny a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea, eiaaea auyaeeanue oaniay naycue caeiiia nio?aiaiey n iaeaieaa iaueie naienoaaie iaoa?ee, i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, n i?eioeeiaie neiiao?ee. Cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a ?ac?aaioeo oeeinioneie noi?iiu caeiiia nio?aiaiey e iauae eaeae nio?aiaiey aianee niaaoneea oeeiniou. Caeanue i?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue I.O.Ia/eiieeiaa, a eieaa eioi?iai "I?eioeeiu nio?aiaiey" aeai aeoaieee ananoi?iiiee oeeinioneee aiaeec eaeae nio?aiaiey e aa nayce n i?eioeeiaie neiiao?ee, a oaeaea ?aaiou A.I,Ayeueoeaaa, TH.A.Nea/eiaa, A.N.Aiooa e ae?oaeo o/aiuo. EEOA?AOO?A 1.Aaeueoa? ss.I. Caeiiu nio?aiaiey. - I.: Iaoea, 1967. - 264 n. 2.Aioo A.N. Oaeeaeoaeueiue iaen/a?iaaiue iiciaaaaiue ie?. - I.: Ciaiea, 1974. - 224 n. 3.Ae?oyiia E.A. Caeiiu i?e?iaeu e eo iiciaiea. - I.: I?inaauaiea, 1982.- 112 n., ee. 4.Oece/aneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. 5.Oeeinioneee neiaa?ue / Iiae ?aae. E.O.O?ieiaa. - 4-a ecae. - I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1981. - 445 n. PAGE PAGE 2

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