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*ANOUe 1. ANOANOAICIAIEA – NINOAAIAss *ANOUe IAUAE EOEUeOO?U
*AEIAA*ANOAA.

1. ANOANOAAIII – IAO*IAss E AOIAIEOA?IAss EOEUeOO?U

O/aiua e niaoeeaeenou ian/eouaatho aieaa 170 ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey
eoeueoo?a. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oieaa?naeueiinoe aeaiiiai yaeaiey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. Iiiyoeai eoeueoo?a iaicia/atho e iau/iua
yaeaiey, e ni?oa ?anoaiee e oinoaaiiua ea/anoaa /aeiaaea, e ia?ac
aeecie, e nenoaio iieiaeeoaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e oae aeaeaa. A oaeii
eiioaenoa ana nicaeaiiia /aeiaaeii anoue eoeueoo?a.

Iu eniieuecoai iaeii ec ii?aaeaeaiee eoeueoo?u, eioi?ia naycaii n aa
eino?oiaioaeueiie o?aeoiaeie. Eoeueoo?a – yoi nenoaia n?aaenoa
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ie ?aaeecothony aeaenoaey
eiaeeaeaea, a?oii, /aeiaa/anoaa a eo acaeiiaeaenoaee n i?e?iaeie e
iaaeaeo niaie. Yoe n?aaenoaa nicaeathony ethaeueie , iinoiyiii iaiythony
e niaa?oainoaothony. I?eiyoi auaeaeyoue o?e oeia eoeueoo?u:
iaoa?eaeueioth, nioeeaeueioth e aeooiaioth.

Iaoa?eaeueiay eoeueoo?a -niaieoiiinoue n?aaenoa auoey /aeiaaea e
iauanoaa. Iia aeeth/aao ?aciiia?aciua oaeoi?u: i?oaeey o?oaea, oaoieeo,
aeaaininoiyiea /aeiaaea e iauanoaa. Nioeeaeueiay eoeueoo?a – yoi nenoaia
i?aaee iiaaaeaiey ethaeae a ?acee/iuo aeaeao iauaiey. Iia aeeth/aao
yoeeao, i?ioanneiiaeueioth, i?aaiaoth, ?aeeaeicioth e o. ae.
?aciiaeaeiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Aieaa iiae?iaii
niaea?aeaoaeueiay /anoue ia?aie e aoi?ie eoeueoo? eco/aaony a ae?oaeo
aeenoeeieeiao. Aeooiaiay eoeueoo?a – yoi ninoaaiay /anoue eoeueoo?iuo
aeinoeaeaiee /aeiaa/anoaa. Iniiaiua aeaeu aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u – ii?aeue,
i?aai, ie?iaicc?aiea, eaeaieiaey, eneonnoai, iaoea e o.ae. Eaaeaeue ec
yoeo aeaeia aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u ninoieo ec ioiineoaeueii
naiinoiyoaeueiuo /anoae. Yoe /anoe acaeiinaycaiu e ioiinyony e aeooiaiie
eoeueoo?a /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iiae iaoeie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiieiatho oo noa?o /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ooieoeey eioi?ie – au?aaioea e oai?aoe/aneay
nenoaiaoecaoeey iauaeoeaiuo ciaiee i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Nenoaia iaoe
oneiaii aeaeeony ia anoanoaaiiua, iauanoaaiiua e oaoie/aneea iaoee.

A iaoea i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue nenoaio ciaiee i i?e?iaea – anoanoaiciaiea,
eioi?ia yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii anoanoaaiiiiao/iie eoeueoo?u e nenoaio
ciaiee i iiceoeaii cia/eiuo oeaiiinoyo auoey eiaeeaeaea, a?oii ,
ainoaea?noaa, /aeiaa/anoaa – aoiaieoa?iua iaoee eee aoiaieoa?ioth
eoeueoo?o. Aei oiai, eae iaoea ioi?ieeanue a naiinoiyoaeueioth /anoue
eoeueoo?u /aeiaa/anoaa, ciaiey i i?e?iaea e oeaiiinoyo iauanoaaiiie
aeecie aoiaeeee a eiua ninoiyiey aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u : i?aeoe/aneee
iiuo, ioae?inoue, ia?iaeiay iaaeeoeeia, iaoo?oeeinioey e o.ae.

Acaeiinaycue anoanoaaiiiiao/iie e aoiaieoa?iie eoeueoo? caeeth/aaony a
neaaeothuai:

iie eiatho aaeeioth iniiao, au?aaeaiioth a iio?aaiinoyo e eioa?anao
/aeiaaea e /aeiaa/anoaa, a nicaeaiee iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee aeey
naiinio?aiaiey e naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey;

inouanoaeytho acaeiiiaiai aeinoeaioouie ?acoeueoaoaie;

acaeiii eii?aeeie?otho a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa;

yaeythony naiinoiyoaeueiuie aaoayie aaeeiie nenoaiu ciaiee iaoee e
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u a oeaeii.

Iu yaeyainy naeaeaoaeyie oiai, eae nioeeieiae, th?enou, yeiiiienou,
iaiaaeaea?u e ae?oaea niaoeeaeenou – aoiaieoa?ee ia/eiatho i?eiaiyoue a
naiae ?aaioa nenoaiiue iiaeoiae, eaeae e iaoiaeu eeaa?iaoeee e oai?ee
eioi?iaoeee, ciaiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo caeiiia anoanoaiciaiey e a
/anoiinoe oeceee.

Iiyniei auoaneacaiiia i?eia?aie ec i?aeoeee. TH?eno ?acae?aao aeaei i
noieeiiaaiee noaeia. Eiia/ii, aio ioaeii ciaoue caeiiu, i?eiyou a
ie?iaie i?aeoeea noaeiaiaeaeaiey. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, anee ii ia
ciaao, /oi oaeia ianna, ?aaeeon iiai?ioa, nei?inoue, onei?aiea e o. ae.
, ii ia niiaeao ?aaeueii i?eiaieoue naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua ciaiey.

Nioeeieia eco/aao iauanoaaiiia iiaiea iooai ii?ina. Ii eae ii niiaeao
ioeaieoue noaiaiue aeinoiaa?iinoe ?acoeueoaoia, anee ia eiaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oai?ee aa?iyoiinoe e oai?ee iia?aoiinoae. Aac ciaiey
yoeo ?acaeaeia anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, ?acoeueoaou aai i?aaeneacaiee ia
aoaeoo i?aaenoaaeyoue i?aeoe/aneie oeaiiinoe.

Iaiaaeaea? ?aeeaie?oao ecaeaeea eaeiai – oi i?aaei?eyoey. Oi?ioi
ecaanoii, /oi ia aunoaaeao eee i?iniio?ao ia?aua aii?inu anaaaea
eanathony oaoie/aneeo noi?ii ecaeaeey. Eiia/ii, iieiinoueth ioaaoeoue ia
oaeea aii?inu iiaeao oieueei niaoeeaeeno, eiathuee oi?iooth
ooiaeaiaioaeueioth anoanoaaiiiiao/ioth iiaeaioiaeo. Iaeiaei ?acae?aoueny
a yoeo aii?inao aeieaeai e iaiaaeaea?.

Nouanoaoao e ae?oaay noi?iia ?anniao?eaaaiiai aii?ina. Iaoea /anoi
iaaeiyaony a oao a?aoao, a eioi?uo iiaeiia ia noieueei iia naia,
neieueei oa nenoaia einoeoooia, a ?aieao eioi?ie iia ooieoeeiie?oao e
?acaeaaaony. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i/aaeaeii, /oi ?acaeoea iaoee iiaeao
i?eaiaeeoue e io?eoeaoaeueiui iineaaenoaeyi aeeythuai ia ana
/aeiaa/anoai a oeaeii. Aeooaeueiui noaiiaeony aii?in i nioeeaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe anao ethaeae, a ia oieueei o/aiuo ca aiciiaeiinoue
eniieueciaaiey ec ioe?uoee e aeinoeaeaiee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
noi?ie?iaaeanue iai?aaeaiea, iacuaaaiia yoeeie iaoee, aeenoeeieeia,
eco/athuae i?aanoaaiiua iniiau iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe i?eia? ec enoi?ee aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu. ?.Iiiaiaaeia?a iacuaatho iooeii aoiiiie aiiau. Ii yaeyeny
eii?aeeiaoi?ii e ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?iaeoa nicaeaiey aoiiiie aiiau. Iia
auea nicaeaia e eniuoaia nia/aea a Iaaaaea, a iioii e a Oe?ineia e
Iaaanaea. Iicaeiaa Iiiaiaaeia?, iniciaaay oyaeanoue ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
ooae ec i?iaeoa e noae caieiaoueny aeayoaeueiinoueth, iai?aaeaiiie ia
i?aaeioa?auaiea eniieueciaaiey aoiiiuo aiia.

Auoaneacaiiia ooaa?aeaeaao ian a iunee, /oi i?aaenoaaeyaony aanueia
aaaeiui iiciaeiieony n iniiaiuie eiioeaioeeyie anoanoaiciaiey. Yoi
iaiaoiaeeii aeey oiai, /oiau: ai ia?auo, niciaoaeueii i?eiaiyoue eo a
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, ai aoi?uo, /oiau iieo/eoue aieaa yniia e oi/iia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i nia?aiaiiie iao/iie ea?oeia ie?a, eioi?oth aeaao
anoanoaiciaiea.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey anoanoaaiii iao/iuo iaoiaeia e caeiiia a
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aoiaieoa?iuo niaoeeaeueiinoae e i?eaaei e
iinoaiiaea oiai eo?na, eioi?ue iu aoaeai eco/aoue: Oeceea aeey
aoiaieoa?eaa.

Eo?n ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo /anoae. A ia?aie /anoe iu ?anniio?ei iniiau
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai iaoiaea iiciaiey, iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao
anoanoaiciaiey, aeaeu iaoa?ee , o.a. iauea aeey anao ?acaeaeia
anoanoaiciaiey aii?inu.

Ai aoi?ie /anoe , naiie aieueoie ii iauaio, iu eco/ei ?acaeae iiae
iauae oaiie: Oeceea aeey aoiaieoa?eaa. Ii ninoieo ec o?ao /anoae:
oeceee iaiaoiaeeiiai, oeceee iai?a?uaiiai e oeceee aiciiaeiiai.

A o?aoueae /anoe iu ?anniio?ei eiioeaioeee naiii?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee.

2. IAO*IUE IAOIAe IICIAIEss. IIUO, AEIIOACA, CAEII, OAI?Ess.

*oi oaeia iao/iue iaoiae iiciaiey? Ia /ai ii aace?oaony? *oi eaaeeo a
aai iniiaa e /ai ii ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo iaoiaeia iiciaiey?

Niinia iieo/eoue /anoe/iua ioaaou ia aii?inu i?eaeoiai ianeieueei nioai
eao iacaae. Iaaethaeaiea, ?aciuoeaiea e iiuo ninoaaeytho oae
iacuaaaiue iao/iue iaoiae iiciaiey, eioi?ue e iicaieyao aeaaaoue ioaaou
ia iiiaea eioa?anothuea ian aii?inu. Iniiaie iao/iiai iaoiaea yaeyaony
iiuo – i?iaiue eaiaiue anao iaoeo ciaiee. Iiuo, yenia?eiaio – yoi
aaeeinoaaiiue noaeuey iao/iie enoeiu.

I?iaiaey iaaethaeaiey eaeeo-eeai i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee, iaaiciiaeii
ioaaoeoue ana i?ioeannu, n yoeie yaeaieyie naycaiiua. Iiyoiio ioaeii
ioa?ineoue ana aoi?inoaiaiiua oaeou e auaeaeeoue iniiaiua, o.a. nooue
yaeaiey. Yoio i?ioeann iacuaaaony aano?aae?iaaieai eee iino?iaieai
iiaeaee yaeaiey. A ?aciuoeaieyo nicaeaaony iniiaa iaaethaeaaiiai
yaeaiey, aai iiaeaeue. *oi yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui aeey aeaiiiai yaeaiey,
a /oi ianouanoaaiiui, aii?in iaiaeiicia/iue e neiaeiue. Ia anaaaea ii
?aoaaony n?aco, ia ia?auo yoaiao iaaethaeaiey e ?aciuoeaiey. Ia yoii
yoaia iaeuecy, eae aiai?eony a noa?ie iiaiai?ea, “auieaniooue
ieaaeaioea ec eoiaee aianoa n aiaeie”.

A nicaeaaaaiie iiaeaee aeieaeiu auoue o/oaiu aeaaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e
iniiaiua ia?aiao?u eco/aaiiai yaeaiey. Iino?iaiiay iiaeaeue aeieaeia ia
oieueei aa?ii iienuaaoue iaaethaeaaiia yoi yaeaiea, ii e oi?ioi
i?iaiice?iaaoue aai ?acaeoea a iiauo oneiaeyo. I?aaeneacaiey oai?ee
i?iaa?ythony yenia?eiaioii eee iiuoii – aaaeiaeoae /anoueth iao/iiai
iaoiaea iiciaiey.

N naiiai ia/aea iaiaoiaeeii aeiaiai?eony, /oi iiae?acoiaaaoueny iiae
oai eee eiui oa?ieiii. A iiiyoea “iiuo” aoaeai aeeaaeuaaoue niune
iaaethaeaiey ca yaeaieai i?e eiio?iee?oaiuo oneiaeyo, o.a. iaaethaeaiey
n aiciiaeiinoueth eiio?iee?iaaoue, aini?iecaiaeeoue e eciaiyoue
aeaeaaiui ia?acii aiaoiea oneiaey. Nouanoaaiia aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaaaoue
eae iau/iua, oae e eneonnoaaiiua (o.a. a i?e?iaea ia ano?a/athueany)
oneiaey. Oeceea, oeiey, aeieiaey e ?yae ae?oaeo iaoe iacuaathony
anoanoaaiiuie eiaiii iioiio, /oi a eo iniiaa eaaeeo iiuo.

Aeey iauyniaiey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oaeoia i?eaeaeathony aeiioacu.
Aeiioaca – yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea, iicaieythuaa iauynieoue e eiee/anoaaiii
iienaoue iaaethaeaaiia yaeaiea. Iienaoue /oi-eeai eiee/anoaaiii iiaeii
eeoue ia ycuea iaoaiaoeee.

Iaaeaeo yaeaieyie i?e?iaeu nouanoaotho onoie/eaua, iiaoi?ythueany nayce
– i?iyaeaiey caeiiia i?e?iaeu. Ea/anoaaiiay oi?ioee?iaea caeiiia iiaeao
auoue eiiaaea aeaia aac i?eaea/aiey iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa. Caeiiu,
caienaiiua ia ycuea oi?ioe iicaieytho ia?aeoe e aieaa aunieie nooiaie
iiciaiey. Yoo nooiaiue iacuaatho oai?eae. O.a. i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo auaeaeiooay aeiioaca iiaeao ia?aeoe a oai?eth, a iniiaa eioi?ie
eaaeao caeiiu. Oai?ey aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i caeiiiia?iinoyo e
nouanoaaiiuo naycyo a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe.

Caeiiu anoanoaaiiuo iaoe onoaiaaeeaatho eiee/anoaaiiua niioiioaiey
iaaeaeo iaaethaeaaiuie yaeaieyie, o.a. eiatho iaoaiaoe/aneoth
oi?ioee?iaeo. Ia anaaaea yoa oi?ioee?iaea auaaao yaiie. Iai?eia?, anai
i?eau/ia neaaeothuay, eacaeinue au, ea/anoaaiiay oi?ioee?iaea ia?aiai
caeiia Iuethoiia: “Nouanoaotho oaeea nenoaiu ion/aoa, eioi?uo oaei
nio?aiyao ninoiyiea iieiy eee i?yiieeiaeiiai ?aaiiia?iiai aeaeaeaiey,
anee ia iaai ia aeaenoaotho ae?oaea oaea, eee aeaenoaea ae?oaeo oae
acaeiii eiiiaine?oaony”. Ii no?iai noi?ioee?iaaoue, /oi oaeia
i?yiieeiaeiia ?aaiiia?iia aeaeaeaiea, iiaeii eeoue ia ycuea
iaoaiaoe/aneeo oi?ioe. O.a. aeaaea ea/anoaaiiay oi?ioee?iaea caeiia
iiae?acoiaaaao aaaaeaiea eiee/anoaaiiuo iiiyoee.

Anoanoaiciaiea, eco/athuaa eiee/anoaaiiua (o.a. oi/iua) niioiioaiey
i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee, ioiineony e oi/iui iaoeai. Iiiyoea “oi/iia” o?aaoao
eiiiaioa?eaa. Oi/iua iaoee, eae i?aaeei iia?e?otho ia n aaniethoii
oi/iuie, a n i?eaeeaeaiiuie aaee/eiaie. I?e eiee/anoaaiiii iienaiee
ethaiai iaaethaeaaiiai yaeaiey anaaaea iaiaa?eaatho, n eaeie noaiaiueth
oi/iinoe eiatho aeaei, o.a. i?eaiaeyo iia?aoiinoe ecia?yaiuo aaee/ei.

Eiaaea aeiioaca ia?a?anoaao a oai?eth, o. a. a oi?io iao/iuo ciaiee,
aeathueo oeaeinoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i caeiiiia?iinoyo e nouanoaaiiuo
naycyo ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe? Eaeie iooue iia
aeieaeia i?ieoe? Ioaao ia yoio aii?in /anoe/ii aeai. Aeiioacu aeieaeiu
auoue i?iaa?aiu oaeoaie, iiuoaie, cae?aaui niuneii. A naiae iaeanoe iie
aeieaeiu iauyniyoue anth niaieoiiinoue eiathueony yaeaiee. Ii yoiai
iaei. Aeey oiai, /oiau noaoue oai?eae, aeiioaca aeieaeia noi?ioee?iaaoue
eiee/anoaaiiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iaaethaeaaiuie yaeaieyie. Oaeoe/anee
yoi icia/aao oi?ioee?iaeo caeiiia. Iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai i?aa?auaiey
aeiioacu a oai?eth yaeyaony i?aaeneacaiea iiauo, aei neo ii? ia
iaaethaeaaoeony e ec ecaanoiuo oai?ee ia neaaeothueo, yaeaiee, e
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea yoeo i?aaeneacaiee a niaoeeaeueii iinoaaeaiiuo
yenia?eiaioao.

Ia?aoiae aeiioacu a oai?eth ca/anooth ia iaoiaeeony aac ae?ai.
Eeanne/aneeie yaeythony i?eia?u Ieeieay Eiia?ieea (1473-1543) e
Aeaei?aeaii A?oii (1548-1600). I.Eiia?iee auaeaeioe aeiioaco i
aaeeioeaio?e/aneie nenoaia ie?a, a eioi?ie ieaiaou a?auathony aie?oa
Nieioea ii i?aeoai. Yoa aeiioaca iicaieyea aeinoaoi/ii oi/ii e i?inoi
iienuaaoue e i?aaeneacuaaoue iaaethaeaaiua aeaeaeaiey ieaiao. Iaeiaei
nai Eiia?iee ia ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iaoa nenoaia e anoue
aaeeioeaio?e/aneay. Aeey iaai iiaeaeue aaeeioeaio?e/aneie nenoaiu ie?a
ioaeia auea oieueei aeey aieaa oaeiaiiai iienaiey aeaeaeaiey ieaiao.
Aaeeioeaio?e/aneay nenoaia i?ioeai?a/eea Aeaeee, a eioi?ie aiai?eeinue,
/oi Eenon Iaaei inoaiiaee a?auaiea Nieioea aie?oa Caiee. ?acaeaay
aaeeioeaio?e/aneoth einiieiaeth, A?oii auaeaeioe eaeath
iiiaeanoaaiiinoe ie?ia ai Anaeaiiie, oeaio?aie eioi?uo yaeythony
caacaeu. Ae. A?oii ooaa?aeee iuneue i oii, /oi aaeeioeaio?e/aneay
nenoaia ia yaeyaony aeiioacie Eiia?ieea, a einiieiae/aneie oai?eae,
iie?athuaeny ia oaeo aeaeaeaiey ieaiao aie?oa Nieioea. E eiaiii iiyoiio
aue iaaeiai a a?ane e niaeaeai a 1600 aiaeo ia Ieiuaaee ?ic a ?eia.

Anoanoaaiiiiao/iay oai?ey aeaao iauyniaiea oeaeie iaeanoe yaeaiee a
i?e?iaea n aaeeiie oi/ee c?aiey. Eaeioynnaioeeae oai?ee yaeythony
caeiiu, onoaiaaeeaathuea eiee/anoaaiiua nayce, niioiioaiey iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie iaaethaeaaiuie a iiuoa aaee/eiaie.

Ioaeii ?acee/aoue caeiiu i?e?iaeu e caeiiu iaoee. Ia?aua i?iyaeythony a
iniaaiiinoyo i?ioaeaiey i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia e ai acaeiinayce
iaeioi?uo aaee/ei. Iie iaeciaiiu e anaaaea auiieiythony. Iao/iua caeiiu
– yoi iiiuoea iienaoue caeiiu i?e?iaeu ia ycuea iaoaiaoe/aneeo oi?ioe e
oi/iuo oi?ioee?iaie. A aeaeueiaeoai ?a/ue aoaeao eaeoe oieueei i ieo.
Iao/iua caeiiu ia oi/iu e ia iinoiyiiu. Ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo yoaiao ?acaeoey
iaoee aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ooi/iaiey iaaethaeaaiuo a iiuoa yaeaiee
e ia?aniio?a caeiiia eee a?aieoe eo i?eiaieiinoe. Iinoiyiiay i?iaa?ea
iiuoiuo oaeoia ia aaca iiauo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo iaoiaeee, iicaieythueo
oaaee/eoue oi/iinoue i?iaaaeaiey yenia?eiaioa, iaiaoiaeeia anaaaea ia
ethaii o?iaia ciaiee. ?anoiaeaeaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo e
nouanoaothueo caeiiia iicaieyao auaeaeaaoue iiaua aeiioacu e no?ieoue
iiaua oai?ee.

3. IAOA?Ess E OI?IU AA NOUANOAIAAIEss.

A iniiaa anao anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo aeenoeeieei eaaeeo iiiyoea iaoa?ee,
caeiiu aeaeaeaiey e eciaiaiey eioi?ie eco/athony. A caaeneiinoe io
oiai, eae iu ii?aaeaeei yoi iiiyoea, iu e aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue
i?iyaeaiea ?acee/iuo oai?ee. Aeey iiieiaiey anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo oai?ee, a
/anoiinoe eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiie oeceee, i?eaieaiui yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiea, aeaiiia A.E. Eaieiui a iiiia?aoee “Iaoa?eaeeci e
yiie?eie?eoeoeeci”. “Iaoa?ey – anoue oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey aeey
iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, eioi?ay ioia?aaeaaony iaoeie
iuouaieyie, nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io ieo. Iaoa?ey – yoi iniiaa
(noanoaioeey, noano?ao) anao ?aaeueii nouanoaothueo a ie?a naienoa,
naycae e oi?i aeaeaeaiey, aaneiia/iia iiiaeanoai anao nouanoaothueo a
ie?a iauaeoia e nenoai”.

A yoii ii?aaeaeaiee anoue aeaa iniiaiuo iiiaioa. Ai-ia?auo, iaoa?ey
nouanoaoao iauaeoeaii, iacaaeneii io ian, io /ueaai-oi noauaeoeaiiai
niciaiey eee iuouaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, iaoa?ey eiie?oaony, ioia?aaeaaony
iaoeie iuouaieyie e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiciaaaaia. Iu caeanue enoiaeei ec
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai aaeeinoaa ie?a ec ia?ae/iinoe iaoa?ee.

Iaoa?ey ianioai?eia e iaoie/oiaeaaiay. Iia aaneiia/ia. Iaiouaieaiui
ao?eaooii iaoa?ee yaeyaony aa aeaeaeaiea, eae oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey
iaoa?ee, aa aaaeiaeoee ao?eaoo. Aeaeaeaiea a naiii iauai aeaea – yoi
anyeia eciaiaiea aiiaua. Aeaeaeaiea iaoa?ee aaniethoii, oiaaea eae
anyeee iieie ioiineoaeai. Iiiyoue yoo iuneue i?iua anaai i?e
?anniio?aiee i?inoaeoeo aeaeia aeaeaeaiey. Iai?eia?, oaei iieieony
ioiineoaeueii Caiee, ii ioiineoaeueii Nieioea iii aeaeaeaony.

Oi?iaie nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee yaeythony i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy. Iaoa?ey
iaiouaieaia io ieo. Nia?aiaiiay iaoea iia?e?oao oaeeie no?oeoo?iuie
o?iaiyie, eae yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu e iiey, aoiiu e iieaeoeu,
iae?ineiie/aneea oaea, aaieiae/aneea nenoaiu, ieaiaou e caacaeu,
aaeaeoeee e iaoaaaeaeoeee; niaieoiiinoe i?aaieciia, niiniaiuo e
aini?iecaiaenoao e, iaeiiaoe, iauanoai. Iu aoaeai eco/aoue oieueei
ia?aua no?oeoo?iua o?iaie- iiey e /anoeoeu, iae?ineiie/aneea oaea.

?acee/atho ?yae iniiaiuo oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee: iaoaie/aneoth,
oece/aneoth (aeeth/ay oaieiaoth, a?aaeoaoeeiiioth, yaea?ioth e o.ae.),
oeie/aneoth, aeieiae/aneoth, iauanoaaiioth. Aunoea oi?iu aeaeaeaiey
aeeth/atho a naay aieaa iecoea, ii ia naiaeyony oieueei e iei. Oae,
yaea?iua i?ioeannu iaaiciiaeii iienaoue oieueei oi?ioeaie eeanne/aneie
iaoaieee.

A ianoiyuai eo?na aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu eeoue i?inoua oi?iu aeaeaeaiey
iaoa?ee – iaoaie/aneay, oece/aneay e oeie/aneay. Aeey iienaiey iaoa?ee e
aa aeaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe eiee/anoaaiiua ia?u yoeo aaee/ei
enoiaey ec iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/. Ianna yaeyaony eiee/anoaaiiie ia?ie
iaoa?ee e aaiaeeony eae aeey iee?i- e iae?iiauaeoia, oae e aeey iieae.
Iaeiie ec eiee/anoaaiiuo ia? aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee yaeyaony yia?aey. Iia
eiaao iiiai oi?i: iaoaie/aneay, oaieiaay, yaea?iay, oeie/aneay e o.ae.
Iineieueeo iaoa?ey ia nouanoaoao aac aeaeaeaiey, a aeaeaeaiea aac
iaoa?ee iaaeaeo eiee/anoaaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia?u e aeaeaeaiey
iaoa?ee aeieaeia nouanoaiaaoue naycue. Yoa naycue auea onoaiiaeaia a
ia/aea iaoaai aaea A. Yeiooaeiii (1879-1955) a ?aaioao ii oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe.

Iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue aeaa aeaea iaoa?ee – aauanoai e iiea. E ia?aiio
ioianai yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu, aoiiu, iieaeoeu, ana iino?iaiiua ec ieo
iae?inenoaiu. Ei aoi?iio ioianai iniaoth oi?io iaoa?ee, oece/aneoth
nenoaio n aaneiia/iui /eneii noaiaiae naiaiaeu. I?eia?aie oece/aneeo
iieae iiaoo neoaeeoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiua e a?aaeoaoeeiiiua iiey, iiey
yaea?iuo nee, a oaeaea aieiiaua iiey.

4. IINOOEAOEAIINOUe INIIAIUO CAEIIIA ANOANOAICIAIEss, A?AIEOeU
EO I?EIAIEIINOE.

Aeey iienaiey iiaaaeaiey i?inouo e neiaeiuo nenoai ioaeii onoaiiaeoue
“i?aaeea ea?u”, o.a. caeiiu eioi?ui iiae/eiythony oa eee eiua aeae
aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. A iaeioi?uo iaoeao, eioi?ua ia ioiinyony e
anoanoaaiiui, iai?eia? aaiiao?ey, iinooiatho neaaeothuei ia?acii.
Nia/aea oi?ioee?othony aeneiiu, a iioii ec ieo aeaeathony auaiaeu
(oai?aiu). Eiaeea iino?iaiey anoanoaaiiuo iaoe ae?oaay, iaeuecy n?aco
aaanoe caeiiu e niio?aoue, /oi ec ieo neaaeoao. Oae iinooieoue iaeuecy,
iineieueeo enneaaeiaaoaeth iaecaanoiu ana caeiiu anoanoaiciaiey. Iaeiie
ec caaea/ yaeyaony eiaiii eo onoaiiaeaiea e oi?ioee?iaaiea. Ii, ioaaoea
ia eaaeaeue aii?in, enneaaeiaaoaeue iaecaaaeii noaaeo ianeieueei iiauo.
*ai aieueoa iiciaaony, oai oe?a noaiiayony a?aieoeu iaiiciaiiiai.
Onoaiiaeaiiua ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey iaoee caeiiu, anaaaea
yaeythony i?eaeeaeaiiuie. Ii ia?a iaeiieaiey ciaiee, iiauo
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oaeoia, yaeaiee e oaaee/aiey oi/iinoe ecia?aiee
iiyaeythony aeaiiua, ia oeeaaeuaathueany a ?aiee eiathueony caeiiia e
yoe caeiiu ia?aniao?eaathony.

Anoue e ae?oaay noi?iia yoiai aii?ina. Aeey oi/iie oi?ioee?iaee caeiiia
anoanoaiciaiey, a iniaaiiinoe oeceee, o?aaothony iiaua ii?aaeaeaiey e
iiiyoey, ciaiea niaoeeaeueiuo ?acaeaeia iaoaiaoeee. Enaaeo Iuethoiio
(1643-1727) aeey iienaiey caeiiia iaoaieee iio?aaiaaeinue nicaeaoue
niaa?oaiii iiaua aeey naiaai a?aiaie ?acaeaeu aunoae iaoaiaoeee:
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia e eioaa?aeueiia en/eneaiea. Oeceee /anoi
noaeeeaaeenue n neooaoeeae, eiaaea eiaaoaainy iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa
ieacuaaeinue iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey iieo/aiey eiee/anoaaiiuo oi?ioee?iaie
iieo/aiiiai caeiia e o?aaiaaeinue nicaeaaaoue niaoeeaeueiue
iaoaiaoe/anee aiia?ao. I?eia? n Iuethoiiii e Eaeaieoeai e nicaeaieai
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai e eioaa?aeueiiai en/eneaiey yaeyaony eeanne/aneei.

A yoii ?acaeaea iu ?anniio?ei naiua iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, eae
onoaiaaeeaathony caeiiu anoanoaiciaiey, eae iie i?eiaiythony e /ai iie
ia?aie/aiu. Oaea aiai?eeinue, /oi iiuo – aaeeinoaaiiue noaeuey enoeiu.
Caeiiu anoanoaiciaiey iinooee?othony ia iniiaaiee iaaethaeaaiuo iiuoiuo
oaeoia. Nia/aea eaeao i?ioeann iaeiieaiey ciaiee a ii?aaeaeaiiie
iaeanoe. Yoe ?acoeueoaou aiaeece?othony e aeaeaaony iaeioi?ia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea. Yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia auaiaeeony ec ae?oaeo caeiiia.
Iii aicieeaao naii ii naaa ia iniiaaiee iiuoa. Naeaeaiiia
oiicaeeth/aiea, noi?ioee?iaaiiia a aeaea iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?ioeu,
noaiiaeony /anoueth aeiioacu. Anee iineaaeothuea iiuou iiaeoaa?aeaeatho
i?aaeeueiinoue yoiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey, iii noaiiaeony caeiiii.

I?ieeethno?e?oai neacaiiia ianeieueeeie i?eia?aie. Caeii anaie?iiai
oyaioaiey, aue ioe?uo E. Iuethoiiii ia iioiio, /oi, eae ethayo ienaoue a
iiioey?iie eeoa?aoo?a, aio “oiaei ia aieiao yaeiei”.. Caeii ?iaeeeny a
?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca o?ao caeiiia aeaeaeaiey ieaiao E. Eaiea?a
(1571-1630). Caeiiu Eaiea?a iicaieyee ?ann/eouaaoue n aunieie
oi/iinoueth aeaeaeaiey ieaiao. Iuethoii iieacae, /oi yoe caeiiu iiaoo
auoue iieo/aiu ia iniiaaiee iaeiiai caeiia – caeiia anaie?iiai
oyaioaiey:

, aaea G(-(eiinoaioa, m1 e m2(-(iannu oae, r(-(?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ieie.

Aiaeece?oy iiuou, O.I. Eoeii a 1785 aiaeo noi?ioee?iaae caeii
acaeiiaeaenoaey ca?yaeia, iicaea iacaaiiue aai eiaiai:

,

aaea q1 e q2 – ca?yaeu, r – ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ieie; eiinoaioa
ii?aaeaeyaony auai?ii nenoaiu aaeeieoe. Aei Eoeiia yoio caeii ie a eaeii
aeaea ia oi?ioee?iaaeny.

Oaea ioia/aeinue, /oi ana iao/iua caeiiu anaaaea i?eaeeaeaiiua. Ii/aio
aea n?aco ia oaeaaony ioe?uoue “i?aaeeueiue caeii”? Ii/aio anaaaea
i?eoiaeeony ia/eiaoue n eaeeo-oi i?eaeeaeaiee? Ai-ia?auo, aeey “oi/iie”
oi?ioee?iaee caeiia ca/anooth auaaao aua ia aioia niioaaonoaothuee
iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao, a, ai-aoi?uo, yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua anaaaea
auaatho iaaeinoaoi/ii oi/iu. Oi/iinoue ecia?aiee ii?aaeaeyaony n iaeiie
noi?iiu iaoeie i?eai?aie, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu – iaeioi?uie
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie cai?aoaie, naycaiiuie n i?e?iaeie yaeaiey.
Nouanoaoao, iai?eia?, niioiioaiea iaii?aaeaeaiiinoae Aaecaiaa?aa,
eioi?ia ia?aie/eaaao oi/iinoue iaeiia?aiaiiiai ecia?aiey eiioeuena e
eii?aeeiaou /anoeoeu.

I?eaaaeai i?eia?. ?aaeueii iu iiaeai ecia?eoue ianno aie/ea n
oi/iinoueth aei aeieae iee?ia?aiia. Ecia?yy ianno iieiyuaainy e
a?auathuaainy aie/ea iu anaaaea aoaeai iieo/aoue iaeei ?acoeueoao.
Ionthaea, eacaeinue au, iiaeii auei auaanoe caeii, /oi ianna oaea
iinoiyiia e ia caaeneo io aai nei?inoe. Ii ieacuaaaony ianna io nei?inoe
caaeneo eiaaea nei?inoe noaiiayony n?aaieiuie n nei?inoueth naaoa.

Neacaiiia i?eaiaeeo ian e auaiaeo, /oi caeiiu e oai?ee ia aaniethoiu.
Iie ?acaeaathony ii ia?a iaeiieaiey ciaiee. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua caeiiu
anoanoaiciaiey iienuaatho ia?iiiia eiee/anoai yaeaiee a ?aciuo
iaeanoyo. E ana iie iiae/eiythony iaeioi?ui iauei i?aaeeai. ?anniio?ei
eo.

Ai ia?auo, caeiiu naie ii naaa ia iaiythony. Eiaiii iiyoiio iie e
iacuaathony ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie. Eia/a ieeaeay iaoea ia iiaea au
?acaeaaoueny. Ii, iaaei iiiieoue i oii, /oi caeii iaienai aeey
ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe yaeaiee.

Anyeee ?ac, eiaaea n ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaiueth oi/iinoe iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony
eaeie-eeai caeii, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi caeii ieii/aoaeai e ie eaeie
?acoeueoao aai ia ii?iaa?aiao a oie iaeanoe, aeey eioi?ie ii iaienai.
Iaeiaei iiaeao oae neo/eony, /oi iiyaeaiea iiauo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
aeaiiuo eee oai?ee i?eaaaeao e oiio, /oi caeii ieaaeaony i?eaeeaeaiiui.
Eia/a aiai?y, oaaee/aiea oi/iinoe ecia?aiee iiaeao iaia?oaeeoue
iaoi/iinoue aeaaea naiuo iacuaeaiuo caeiiia.

Ieeuen Ai? (1885-1962) aiaeece?oy iieiaeaiey eaaioiaie iaoaieee
noi?ioee?iaae ”I?eioeei niioaaonoaey” iiaie e noa?ie oai?ee. Yoio
i?eioeei i?eiaiei e ethaui oai?eyi a anoanoaiciaiee. Nouiinoue aai
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi anyeay iiaay oai?ey aeieaeia niaea?aeaoue a naaa
noa?oth eae /anoiue neo/ae, e eioi?iio iia naiaeeony i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo.

I?iua anaai i?eioeei niioaaonoaey i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue i?eia?ii ec
eeanne/aneie iaoaieee e iaoaieee oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe. Nicaeaiiay
A.Yeiooaeiii niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe niaea?aeeo a naaa
eeanne/aneoth iaoaieeo Iuethoiia, a eioi?oth iia ia?aoiaeeo i?e
nei?inoyo aeaeaeaiey V, iaeuo ii n?aaiaieth, n nei?inoueth naaoa -C.
Iaoaiaoe/anee yoi caienuaaaony eae V>S. I?e
ecia?aiee i niauoey (i i?eiaaeeaaeeo iiiaeanoao s, 1 (6.11).

Cia/eo, anee iai ecaanoia aa?iyoiinoue auiaaeaiey eaeiai-oi niauoey, oi
i?e i/aiue aieueoii /enea ecia?aiee N o ian niauoea i auiaaeao P(i) N
?ac. Cia/eo, anee iu a?inaai iiiaoo 1 ?ac , iu ie/aai ia niiaeai
neacaoue, eaeie noi?iiie iia oiaaeao. Ii, anee iu a?inaai iiiaoo i/aiue
iiiai ?ac (iai?eia? 10000) oi iu iiaeai ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi i?eia?ii 5000
?ac auiaaeao “i?ae”, a 5000 ?ac- “?aoea.

Noiia aa?iyoiinoae auiaaeaiey anao niauoee anaaaea aoaeao ii?ie?iaaia e
?aaia 1. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iineieueeo SNi=N, oi eiaai: SP(i)=
S(Ni/N)=(SNi)/N=1.

*enei niauoee iiaeao auoue eiia/ii, a iiaeao auoue e aaneiia/ii.
Iai?eia?, ninaaeiea nei?inoe aoiiia a aaca ioee/athony ia aaneiia/ii
iaeoth aaee/eio. A yoii neo/aa aa?iyoiinoue ? aoaeao iai?a?uaiie
ooieoeeae. Aeey aaca, iai?eia?, yoi aoaeao ooieoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aoiiia ii nei?inoyi, ecaanoiay ec oeieueiiai eo?na eae ooieoeey
?ani?aaeaeaiey Iaenaaeea.

A caeeth/aiee yoiai ?acaeaea naeaeaai aeoeaio ia aeaoo iiiaioao.

Ia?aia. Iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao nia?aiaiiie oeceee e anaai anoanoaiciaiey
a oeaeii ia?iiai e i/aiue neiaeai. A ?aieao eo?na iaaiciiaeii aeaaea
i?inoi ia?a/eneeoue ana ?acaeaeu, eioi?ua eniieuecothony a iaoea. A yoii
?acaeaea cao?iioo eeoue ieieioi iaeioi?uo ?acaeaeia iaoaiaoeee,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iiieiaiey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo caeiiia anoanoaiciaiey:
aeaaa?u, aaiiao?ee, o?eaiiiiao?ee, iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca,
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai e eioaa?aeueiiai en/eneaiey, aiaeeoe/aneie
aaiiao?ee, aaeoi?iiai aiaeeca, oai?ee aa?iyoiinoae.

Aoi?ia. A iaeioi?uo o/aaieeao ii anoanoaiciaieth, iaienaiiuo a iniiaiii
ethaeueie, ia eiathueie ooiaeaiaioaeueiie anoanoaaiiiiao/iie iiaeaioiaee
, aeaeathony iiiuoee eceiaeeoue ana anoanoaiciaiea, iie?aynue ia iaeio
oieueei a?eoiaoeeo. Yoi aeoaiei ioeai/iue iiaeoiae. Aac aaaaeaiey
iiiyoee ia?aiaiiie aaee/eiu e ooieoeee e niioaaonoaothuaai
iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa iaaiciiaeii ia oieueei iienaoue, ii aeaaea
i?inoi iniuneeoue oio eee eiie caeii anoanoaiciaiey. Ai anao iaeanoyo
anoanoaaiiuo e aeaaea iauanoaaiiuo iaoe eiathony o. i. “aeeiaie/aneea
caeiiu”, o. a. caeiiu, a eioi?uo /oi-eeai iaiyaony. Ii aeaaea naiue
i?inoie aeeiaie/aneee ia?aiao? nei?inoue, iaaiciiaeii aaanoe, ia
eniieuecoy ycuea aunoae iaoaiaoeee – aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai en/eneaiey.
Aaaeue nei?inoue -yoi i?iecaiaeiay enneaaeoaiie aaee/eiu ii a?aiaie.

PAGE 26

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